Publications by authors named "Yi Peng"

516 Publications

Tetracaine hydrochloride induces cell cycle arrest in melanoma by downregulating hnRNPA1.

Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2021 Nov 23;434:115810. Epub 2021 Nov 23.

Department of Anesthesiology, the Affiliated Hospital of Southwest Medical University, Luzhou, Sichuan Province, China; Department of Anesthesiology, Luzhou People's Hospital, Luzhou, Sichuan Province, China. Electronic address:

Recent evidence suggests potential benefits of applying local anesthetics in cancer patients. Specifically, tetracaine has a potent antitumor effect in diverse cancers, including neuroblastoma, breast cancer, and melanoma; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we reported that tetracaine hydrochloride inhibited the growth of melanoma cells and arrested melanoma cells in the G0/G1 phase. Tetracaine hydrochloride treatment resulted in translocation of hnRNPA1 from the nucleoplasm to the nuclear envelope and reduced the protein stability of hnRNPA1 possibly by disrupting the dynamic balance of ubiquitination and neddylation. Elevated hnRNPA1 upregulated cyclin D1 to promote cell cycle in melanoma. The hnRNPA1 overexpression attenuated the effect of tetracaine hydrochloride on melanoma cell growth suppression and cell cycle arrest. Furthermore, melanoma homograft experiments demonstrated that tetracaine hydrochloride suppressed melanoma growth, while hnRNPA1 overexpression alleviated tetracaine's antitumor effect on melanoma. Taken together, our findings suggest that tetracaine hydrochloride exerts a potent antitumor effect on melanoma both in vitro and in vivo, and the effect involves cell cycle arrest induction via downregulation of hnRNPA1.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.taap.2021.115810DOI Listing
November 2021

High quality nursing based on childlike interest in children with cleft lip and palate: application assessment after operation.

BMC Oral Health 2021 11 23;21(1):602. Epub 2021 Nov 23.

Department of Plastic and Cosmetic Maxillofacial Surgery, First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, No. 277 Yanta West Road, Xi'an, 710061, Shaanxi, China.

Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess the effect of high-quality nursing based on the concept of childlike interest in children with cleft lip and palate following operation on healing time, degree of pain, psychological state, quality of life, and the occurrence of complications.

Methods: A series of 62 children with cleft lip and palate was treated in our hospital from January 2019 to March 2021. The patients were randomly divided into observation group (31 cases, given high-quality nursing based on childlike interest) and control group (31 cases, given routine nursing intervention). The healing time and hospital stay of the two groups were recorded. The degree of pain, psychological state and quality of life of the two groups before and after intervention were compared, and the occurrence of complications was closely monitored.

Results: Compared with the control group, the healing time and hospital stay of the study group were significantly shorter after the intervention (P < 0.05). Before the intervention, no significant difference was identified in pain score between the two groups (P < 0.05), after the intervention, however, the pain score of the study group was significantly lower compared with the control group (P < 0.05). Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS) and Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS) scores of the two groups were comparable before intervention (P > 0.05), while after intervention the SDS and SAS scores of the two groups were lower than those before treatment. Compared with the control group, the SDS and SAS scores of the study group were remarkably lower (P < 0.05). Before the intervention, the quality of life scores of the two groups were comparable (P > 0.05), while after the intervention, the scores of quality of life in the two groups were associated with lower outcomes. Compared with the control group, the scores of quality of life in the study group were significant lower (P < 0.05). After the intervention, there were evident fewer incidence of complications in the study group compared to the control group (P < 0.05).

Conclusions: High quality nursing based on childlike interest exerted beneficial outcomes in terms of shortening the healing time and hospital stay, reducing the degree of pain and complications, as well as improving the psychological state and quality of life of children harboring cleft lip and palate. Additionally, its high safety feature contributes to the wide application for clinical practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12903-021-01893-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8609788PMC
November 2021

Inhibitors of the Hippo Pathway Kinases STK3/MST2 and STK4/MST1 Have Utility for the Treatment of Acute Myeloid Leukemia.

J Med Chem 2021 Nov 22. Epub 2021 Nov 22.

Cell and Molecular Biology of Cancer Program, NCI-Designated Cancer Center, Sanford Burnham Prebys Medical Discovery Institute, 10901 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, California 92037, United States.

Serine/threonine-protein kinases 3 and 4 (STK3 and STK4, respectively) are key components of the Hippo signaling pathway, which regulates cell proliferation and death and provides a potential therapeutic target for acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Herein, we report the structure-based design of a series of pyrrolopyrimidine derivatives as STK3 and STK4 inhibitors. In an initial screen, the compounds exhibited low nanomolar potency against both STK3 and STK4. Crystallization of compound with STK4 revealed two-point hinge binding in the ATP-binding pocket. Further characterization and analysis demonstrated that compound (SBP-3264) specifically inhibited the Hippo signaling pathway in cultured mammalian cells and possessed favorable pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties in mice. We show that genetic knockdown and pharmacological inhibition of STK3 and STK4 suppress the proliferation of AML cells in vitro. Thus, SBP-3264 is a valuable chemical probe for understanding the roles of STK3 and STK4 in AML and is a promising candidate for further advancement as a potential therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jmedchem.1c00804DOI Listing
November 2021

Experimental Study on the Mechanical Properties and Durability of High-Content Hybrid Fiber-Polymer Concrete.

Materials (Basel) 2021 Oct 20;14(21). Epub 2021 Oct 20.

School of Civil Engineering, Chongqing Jiaotong University, Chongqing 400074, China.

Polymer-modified concrete and fiber concrete are two excellent paving materials that improve the performance of some concrete, but the performance of single application material is still limited. In this paper, polymer-modified concrete with strong deformation and fiber concrete with obvious crack resistance and reinforcement effect were compounded by using the idea of composite material design so as to obtain a high-performance pavement material. The basic mechanical properties of high-content hybrid fiber-polymer-modified concrete, such as workability, compression, flexural resistance, and environmental durability (such as sulfate resistance) were studied by using the test regulations of cement concrete in China. The main results were as follows. (1) The hybrid fiber-polymer concrete displayed reliable working performance, high stiffness, and a modulus of elasticity as high as 35.93 GPa. (2) The hybrid fiber-polymer concrete had a compressive strength of 52.82 MPa, which was 31.2% higher than that of the plain C40 concrete (40.25 MPa); the strength of bending of the hybrid concrete was 11.51 MPa, 191.4% higher than that of the plain concrete (3.95 MPa). (3) The corrosion resistance value of the hybrid fiber-polymer concrete was 81.31%, indicating its adjustability to sulfate attack environments. (4) According to cross-sectional scanning electron microscope (SEM) images, the hybrid fiber-polymer concrete was seemingly more integrated with a dense layer of cementing substance on its surface along with fewer microholes and microcracks as when compared to the ordinary concrete. The research showed that hybrid fiber-polymer concrete had superior strength and environmental erosion resistance and was a pavement material with superior mechanical properties.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma14216234DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8585076PMC
October 2021

Meta-analysis on the safety and efficacy of early oral feeding after total laryngectomy.

J BUON 2021 Sep-Oct;26(5):2019-2025

Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Chengdu Second People's Hospital, Chengdu, China.

Purpose: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of early oral feeding (≤ 3 days) and delayed oral feeding (≥ 7 days) following total laryngectomy.

Methods: Relevant literatures on early and delayed oral feeding following total laryngectomy published before January, 2019 were searched in PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, CNKI and Wanfang Database. Two reviewers were responsible for selecting literatures, extracting data and cross-check. The incidence of pharyngocutaneous fistula (PCF) was evaluated by calculating OR and 95%CI. Difference in length of stay (LOS) of patients undergoing early oral feeding or delayed oral feeding was compared using standardized mean difference (SMD) and 95%CI. Sensitivity analysis and publication bias examination were conducted.

Results: 14 eligible literatures were enrolled, including 1824 patients who underwent total laryngectomy, with 1250 cases of early oral feeding and 574 cases of delayed oral feeding. The incidence of PCF was similar in patients receiving early oral feeding or delayed oral feeding following total laryngectomy (OR=1.12, 95%CI=0.81-1.54). LOS was shorter in cases of early oral feeding than those of delayed oral feeding (SMD=-0.77, 95%CI=-1.18-0.36). Reliable conclusions were obtained without obvious publication bias.

Conclusions: Early oral feeding following total laryngectomy shortens LOS relative to delayed oral feeding. No significant difference in the incidence of PCF is observed between early oral feeding and delayed oral feeding, suggesting that early oral feeding following total laryngectomy is safe and efficacious.
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November 2021

Surgical management of Helveston syndrome (Triad exotropia).

Int Ophthalmol 2021 Nov 8. Epub 2021 Nov 8.

Department of Strabismus and Pediatric Ophthalmology, Wuhan Aige (Eyegood) Eye Hospitals, No. 403 Fazhan Avenue, Jiangan District, Wuhan, 430019, China.

Purpose: To evaluate and compare different surgical approaches for the treatment of Helveston syndrome and provide further information for preoperative planning.

Methods: From February 2008 to December 2018, data of 52 patients with Helveston syndrome were retrospectively reviewed. Different surgical approaches were selected based on the extent of A-pattern exotropia, dissociated vertical deviation (DVD), and both superior oblique muscle overaction (SOOA) with fundus photograph intorsion. Eye position, A-pattern, DVD, superior oblique muscle function, and binocular vision function were evaluated pre- and postoperatively. The average follow-up duration was 20.5 months.

Results: Nine cases underwent simultaneous horizontal deviation correction with bilateral superior rectus recession, 24 underwent simultaneous horizontal deviation correction with bilateral superior oblique muscle lengthening, and 19 underwent two stages of horizontal deviation correction with superior oblique muscle lengthening, and later bilateral superior rectus recession. A-pattern, DVD, SOOA, and fundus intorsion were all collapsed in all patients postoperatively. Forty-five patients had an orthophoric eye position with considerably aligned ocular movements postoperatively. The total success rate was 86.5%. Postoperatively, eight of the 10 patients with diplopia experienced a recovery of binocular single vision and three had a recovery of rudimentary stereopsis (Titmus 3000-400 s of arc). The compensatory head posture of patients improved significantly postoperatively.

Conclusions: The surgical planning of Helveston syndrome should be designed based on the degree of the A-pattern, SOOA, DVD, and the intorsion in fundus photographs, and the appropriate approach should be selected to improve patient satisfaction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10792-021-02027-1DOI Listing
November 2021

The effect of polyethylene thickness on revision rates of contemporary cruciate retaining knee replacements. A registry analysis.

Knee 2021 Oct 29;33:243-251. Epub 2021 Oct 29.

College of Medicine and Public Health Flinders University, Bedford Park, SA 5042, Australia; Department of Orthopaedic Surgery and Trauma Flinders Medical Centre Bedford Park, SA 5042, Australia.

Background: An attribute that may influence knee replacement survivorship is tibial polyethylene (PE) insert thickness. Previous studies have suggested thin polyethylene made from ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) leads to higher rates of revision surgery. This study aimed to determine if modern polyethylene thickness is associated with altered survivorship of primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA) procedures.

Methods: A retrospective analysis of data from Australian Orthopaedic Association National Joint Replacement Registry (AOANJRR) was done on well performing total knee arthroplasty prostheses used in Australia from 1999-2018. Six of the best performing minimally stabilized prostheses were examined and categorized into three PE thickness subgroups: A (≤10 mm), B (11-14 mm) and C (≥15 mm). There were 185,539 TKA procedures, of which 64.3% (n = 119,382) were ≤ 10 mm, 33.5% (n = 62,173) 11-14 mm, and 2.2% (n = 3984) ≥ 15 mm. Differences in revision rates were analysed for all causes, including loosening, wear, and instability.

Results: At 14 years, respective cumulative point revision (CPR) was A: 4.8, B: 4.2 and C: 6.0. The thickest polyethylene group (≥15 mm) had a higher rate of revision for any reason compared to both 11-14 mm and ≤ 10 mm groups. When non-XLPE was analysed the ≤ 10 mm group had higher rates of revision compared to the 11-14 mm group, but this difference was not seen with XLPE.

Conclusion: Higher rates of revision were seen overall in the thicker PE group (≥15 mm). This group also had higher rates of revision for loosening, instability, and infection. The use of a thicker insert may be a sign of surgical complexity, but is associated with increased revision.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.knee.2021.09.012DOI Listing
October 2021

Aurantio-obtusin induces hepatotoxicity through activation of NLRP3 inflammasome signaling.

Toxicol Lett 2021 Oct 28;354:1-13. Epub 2021 Oct 28.

NMPA Key Laboratory for Safety Evaluation of Cosmetics, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Tropical Disease Research, Department of Toxicology, School of Public Health, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, 510515, China. Electronic address:

Aurantio-obtusin (AO) is a major anthraquinone (AQ) compound derived from Cassiae semen (CS). Although pharmacological studies have shown that the CS extracts can serve as effective agents in preclinical and clinical practice, AQ-induced hepatotoxicity in humans has attracted widespread attention. To explore whether AO induces hepatotoxicity and its underlying mechanisms, we exposed larval zebrafish and mice to AO. We found that AO delayed yolk sac absorption, and increased liver area and inflammation in the larval zebrafish. This inflammation was manifested as an increase in liver neutrophils and the up-regulated mRNA expression of interleukin-6 (Il-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (Tnf-α) in the larval zebrafish. Furthermore, a pharmacokinetics study showed that AO was quickly absorbed into the blood and rapidly metabolized in the mice. Of note, AO induced hepatotoxicity in a gender-dependent manner, characterized by liver dysfunction, increased hepatocyte necrosis with inflammatory infiltration, and up-regulated mRNAs of Il-6, Tnf-α and monocyte chemotactic protein 1(Mcp1) in the female mice after 28-day oral administration. It also highlighted that AO triggered NOD-like receptor protein (NLRP) signaling in the female mice, as evidenced by the increased NLRP3, Caspase-1, pro-IL-1β, IL-1β and IL-18. Finally, we found that AO led to a significant increase in potassium calcium-activated channel, subfamily N, member 4 (KCNN4) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, along with decreased nuclear factor kappa B p65 (NF-κB p65), in the female mouse livers. In conclusion, AO induced hepatotoxicity by activating NLRP3 inflammasome signaling, at least in part, through increased KCNN4 and ROS production, and NF-κB inhibition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxlet.2021.10.011DOI Listing
October 2021

NOVA1-Mediated SORBS2 Isoform Promotes Colorectal Cancer Migration by Activating the Notch Pathway.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 8;9:673873. Epub 2021 Oct 8.

Department of General Surgery, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Gene expression and alternative splicing (AS) can promote cancer development complex mechanisms. We aimed to identify and verify the hub AS events and splicing factors associated with the progression of colorectal cancer (CRC). RNA-Seq data, clinical data, and AS events of 590 CRC samples were obtained from the TCGA and TCGASpliceSeq databases. Cox univariable and multivariable analyses, KEGG, and GO pathway analyses were performed to identify hub AS events and splicing factor/spliceosome genes, which were further validated in five CRCs. In this study, we first compared differentially expressed genes and gene AS events between normal and tumor tissues. Differentially expressed genes were different from genes with differentially expressed AS events. Prognostic analysis and co-expression network analysis of gene expression and gene AS events were conducted to screen five hub gene AS events involved in CRC progression: EPB41L2, CELF2, TMEM130, VCL, and SORBS2. Using qRT-PCR, we also verified that the gene AS events SORBS2 were downregulated in tumor tissue, and gene AS events EPB41L2, CELF2, TMEM130, and VCL were upregulated in tumor tissue. The genes whose mRNA levels were significantly related to the five hub gene AS events were significantly enriched in the GO term of cell division and Notch signaling pathway. Further coexpression of gene AS events and alternative splicing factor genes revealed NOVA1 as a crucial factor regulating the hub gene AS event expression in CRC. Through experiments, we found that NOVA1 inhibited gene AS event SORBS2, which induced the migration of CRC cells the Notch pathway. Integrated analysis of gene expression and gene AS events and further experiments revealed that NOVA1-mediated SORBS2 promoted the migration of CRC, indicating its potential as a therapeutic target.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2021.673873DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8531477PMC
October 2021

Serum RANKL levels in Chinese patients with ankylosing spondylitis: a meta-analysis.

J Orthop Surg Res 2021 Oct 18;16(1):615. Epub 2021 Oct 18.

Department of Orthopaedics, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Sanhao Street No. 36, Heping District, Shenyang, Liaoning, 110004, People's Republic of China.

Objective: We aimed to determine the association between serum receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand (sRANKL) levels and ankylosing spondylitis (AS) in Chinese patients.

Methods: The PubMed, Cochrane Library, Embase, Chinese Biomedical Database, Web of Science, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, VIP, and Wan Fang databases were searched for studies conducted before October 1, 2020, without language restrictions. STATA version 12.0 and Revman version 5.3 were used to analyze the data. The standard mean differences (SMDs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated.

Results: Twelve clinical case-control studies, including 585 patients with AS and 423 healthy controls, were included. The combined SMD for sRANKL suggested that the sRANKL level was significantly higher in Chinese patients with AS than in healthy controls (SMD: 3.27, 95% CI 2.11-4.43, P < 0.00001). Serum RANKL-related factor osteoprotegerin (OPG) levels (SMD: 0.86, 95% CI 0.09-1.64, P < 0.03) were lower in the Chinese patients with AS than in healthy controls, and the RANKL/OPG ratio (SMD = 1.05, 95% CI 0.64-1.46, P < 0.00001) in Chinese patients with AS was approximately the same as that of healthy controls. Subgroup analysis indicated that patients from North and South China had higher sRANKL levels than controls; the sRANKL levels of patients from South China were higher in the subgroup with a Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI) of > 4 than those of patients in other subgroups. In terms of duration, patients with AS for > 8 years had higher sRANKL levels than health controls. Other subgroup analyses were conducted by region, language, source of control, age, and Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI). In these subgroups, the sRANKL levels were significantly higher in the patients with AS than in healthy controls. The BASFI and BASDAI were sources of heterogeneity.

Conclusions: The sRANKL levels are higher in Chinese patients with AS, especially among those from South China. sRANKL levels may be positively correlated with the pathogenesis of AS among Chinese patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13018-021-02721-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8522048PMC
October 2021

Effect of Paroxetine Combined with Probiotics in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Complicated with Gastrointestinal Dysfunction and Liver Cancer.

J Oncol 2021 7;2021:4529915. Epub 2021 Oct 7.

Department of Endocrine, Hanzhong Central Hospital, Hanzhong 723000, Shaanxi, China.

Background: To explore the effect of paroxetine combined with probiotics in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with gastrointestinal dysfunction and liver cancer and its effect on nutritional status.

Materials And Methods: 96 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus combined with gastrointestinal dysfunction and liver cancer were selected as subjects from March 2018 to March 2021. They were randomly divided into control group and observation group, with 48 cases in each group. The control group was treated with probiotics, and the observation group was combined with paroxetine on the basis of the control group. After 4 weeks of treatment, the gastrointestinal mucosal function, nutritional status, Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD) and Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAMA) score, and the safety were compared between the two groups.

Results: The levels of D-lactic acid, PCT, and endotoxin in the observation group were (1.75 ± 0.38), (4.39 ± 0.79), and (0.20 ± 0.06), respectively, which were significantly lower than those in the control group (2.69 ± 0.46), (7.84 ± 1.32), and (0.29 ± 0.08) ( < 0.05). Moreover, the nutritional status TP, ALB, Hb, PA, and TLC levels of the observation group were higher than those of the control group ( < 0.05). The HAMA and HAMD scores in the observation group were (5.76 ± 1.06) and (8.94 ± 1.26), respectively, which were significantly lower than those in the control group (10.69 ± 2.21) and (13.42 ± 2.34) ( < 0.05). However, there was no statistical significance in the incidence of nausea and vomiting, blurred vision, chest arthralgia, palpitation, anaesthesia, dizziness, and drowsiness between the two groups ( > 0.05).

Conclusions: Paroxetine combined with probiotics could help to improve the gastrointestinal mucosal function of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus complicated with gastrointestinal dysfunction and liver cancer, improve the nutritional status of patients, and reduce anxiety and depression, and the drug was safe and worthy of promotion and application.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/4529915DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8516543PMC
October 2021

Advanced nitrogen elimination from domestic sewage through two stage partial nitrification and denitrification (PND) coupled with simultaneous anaerobic ammonia oxidation and denitrification (SAD).

Bioresour Technol 2022 Jan 12;343:125986. Epub 2021 Oct 12.

National Engineering Laboratory for Advanced Municipal Wastewater Treatment and Reuse Technology, Engineering Research Center of Beijing, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124, PR China.

The start-up, efficient, and secure operation of Anammox treating low ammonia sewage, is an important research focus. In this study, a partial nitrification-denitrification coupled with simultaneous Anammox and denitrification (PND-SAD) process was achieved in sequencing batch reactor/up-flow anaerobic sludge bed (SBR-UASB). The key measures to maintain high efficiency PND were: (i) controlling dissolved oxygen in the SBR below 0.5 mg/L, which is not only conducive to PN, but also promotes the contribution of simultaneous nitrification and denitrification to nitrogen removal; (ii) monitoring the nitrate (NO-N) of SBR effluent and discharging sludge to wash out nitrate oxidation bacteria when the NO-N exceeds 1.0 mg/L. The nitrite accumulation rate reached 97.6%. SBR effluent and domestic sewage entered the UASB. Although Candidatus Brocadia only accounted for 0.8%, its contribution to nitrogen removal reached 76.8%. In PND-SAD system, the aerobic HRT was only 3.8 h, nitrogen removal efficiency up to 97.3%.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2021.125986DOI Listing
January 2022

The Effect of Surgical Approach and Femoral Prosthesis Type on Revision Rates Following Total Hip Arthroplasty: An Analysis of the Most Commonly Utilized Cementless Stems.

J Bone Joint Surg Am 2021 Oct 14. Epub 2021 Oct 14.

Traumaplasty Melbourne, East Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

Background: Compared with other total hip arthroplasty (THA) approaches, the anterior approach has an increased rate of revision for femoral-sided complications, and certain stems may increase this risk. The present study aimed to assess the outcome of THA by surgical approach, according to the femoral stem utilized in the procedure.

Methods: Data from the Australian Orthopaedic Association National Joint Replacement Registry were analyzed for patients undergoing primary THA for osteoarthritis via the anterior or posterior approach with use of 1 of 5 of the most common cementless femoral stems from January 2015 to December 2019. The primary outcome measures were the cumulative percent revision (CPR) for all causes and for femoral stem loosening and fracture. The CPR was compared between THAs performed via the anterior and posterior approaches for all stems and for each individual femoral stem, as well as between individual femoral stems for each approach.

Results: The study included 48,716 THAs performed with use of cementless stems, of which 22,840 utilized an anterior approach and 25,876 utilized a posterior approach. There was no difference in the all-cause CPR between the anterior and the posterior approach, but the anterior approach had a higher CPR for loosening (hazard ratio [HR], 2.00; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.48 to 2.69; p < 0.001) and fracture (HR, 1.78; 95% CI, 1.34 to 2.35; p < 0.001). There was apparent variation in the CPR across the different cementless stems when an anterior approach was utilized. The Quadra-H (Medacta) had a higher all-cause CPR when compared with the Polarstem (Smith & Nephew; HR, 1.49; 95% CI, 1.16 to 1.91; p = 0.002) and Corail (DePuy Synthes; HR, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.00 to 1.70; p = 0.0478). Variation was less apparent with the posterior approach.

Conclusions: THAs performed via the anterior approach had higher rates of revision for femoral stem loosening and fracture, with greater variation in outcomes between individual stems.

Level Of Evidence: Therapeutic Level III. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2106/JBJS.21.00487DOI Listing
October 2021

Patient characteristics, treatment patterns, and mortality in elderly patients newly diagnosed with acute myeloid leukemia meeting ineligibility criteria for high intensity chemotherapy.

Leuk Lymphoma 2021 Oct 13:1-11. Epub 2021 Oct 13.

Center for Observational Research, Amgen Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, USA.

To describe patient characteristics, treatment patterns, and survival among elderly patients (≥66 years) newly diagnosed with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) meeting ≥1 ineligibility criteria for high-intensity chemotherapy (HIC; i.e. age >75 years, cardiac disease/prior anthracycline therapy, or secondary AML), we analyzed 2007-2017 100% Medicare hematologic cancer data. Patients were stratified based on whether they received HIC or low-intensity chemotherapy (LIC) or best supportive care (BSC) within 60 days after AML diagnosis. Of 4,152 patients, 43.2% received chemotherapy, 33.8% BSC, and 23.1% no therapy. Among chemotherapy-treated patients, HIC was more common than LIC (58.8 vs 41.2%), despite targeting patients meeting ≥1 ineligibility criteria for HIC. Poor overall survival was observed for patients receiving chemotherapy and BSC (median overall survival [interquartile range]: HIC, 1.9 [0.8, 6.6] months; LIC, 3.8 [1.4, 9.3] months; BSC, 1.0 [0.4, 2.5] months). Results highlight the need for additional effective and tolerable treatments for this population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10428194.2021.1973669DOI Listing
October 2021

Validation, Optimization, and Application of the Zebrafish Developmental Toxicity Assay for Pharmaceuticals Under the ICH S5(R3) Guideline.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 14;9:721130. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Center of Safety Evaluation and Research, Hangzhou Medical College, Hangzhou, China.

The zebrafish as an alternative animal model for developmental toxicity testing has been extensively investigated, but its assay protocol was not harmonized yet. This study has validated and optimized the zebrafish developmental toxicity assay previously reported by multiple inter-laboratory studies in the United States and Europe. In this study, using this classical protocol, of 31 ICH-positive compounds, 23 compounds (74.2%) were teratogenic in zebrafish, five had false-negative results, and three were neither teratogenic nor non-teratogenic according to the protocol standard; of 14 ICH-negative compounds, 12 compounds (85.7%) were non-teratogenic in zebrafish and two had false-positive results. After we added an additional TI value in the zebrafish treated with testing compounds at 2 dpf along with the original 5 dpf, proposed a new category as the uncategorized compounds for those TI values smaller than the cutoff both at 2 dpf and 5 dpf but inducing toxic phenotypes, refined the testing concentration ranges, and optimized the TI cut-off value from ≥ 10 to ≥ 3 for compounds with refined testing concentrations, this optimized zebrafish developmental assay reached 90.3% sensitivity (28/31 positive compounds were teratogenic in zebrafish) and 88.9% (40/45) overall predictability. Our results from this study strongly support the use of zebrafish as an alternative method for screening and assessing the teratogenicity of candidate drugs for regulatory acceptance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2021.721130DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8476914PMC
September 2021

Clinical observation of breast cancer surgery with preservation of anterior thoracic nerve and intercostobrachial nerve.

Minerva Med 2021 09 29. Epub 2021 Sep 29.

Department of Breast Surgery, Fujian Provincial Maternity and Children's Hospital, Fuzhou, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S0026-4806.21.07711-9DOI Listing
September 2021

Motion Control of a Gecko-like Robot Based on a Central Pattern Generator.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Sep 9;21(18). Epub 2021 Sep 9.

School of Automation, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi'an 710072, China.

To solve the problem of the motion control of gecko-like robots in complex environments, a central pattern generator (CPG) network model of motion control was designed. The CPG oscillation model was first constructed using a sinusoidal function, resulting in stable rhythm control signals for each joint of the gecko-like robot. Subsequently, the gecko-like robot successfully walked, crossed obstacles and climbed steps in the vertical plane, based on stable rhythm control signals. Both simulations and experiments validating the feasibility of the proposed CPG motion control model are presented.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s21186045DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8473384PMC
September 2021

Multi-Scale Hybrid Fusion Network for Single Image Deraining.

IEEE Trans Neural Netw Learn Syst 2021 Sep 24;PP. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Deep learning models have been able to generate rain-free images effectively, but the extension of these methods to complex rain conditions where rain streaks show various blurring degrees, shapes, and densities has remained an open problem. Among the major challenges are the capacity to encode the rain streaks and the sheer difficulty of learning multi-scale context features that preserve both global color coherence and exactness of detail. To address the first problem, we design a non-local fusion module (NFM) and an attention fusion module (AFM), and construct the multi-level pyramids' architecture to explore the local and global correlations of rain information from the rain image pyramid. More specifically, we apply the non-local operation to fully exploit the self-similarity of rain streaks and perform the fusion of multi-scale features along the image pyramid. To address the latter challenge, we additionally design a residual learning branch that is capable of adaptively bridging the gaps (e.g., texture and color information) between the predicted rain-free image and the clean background via a hybrid embedding representation. Extensive results have demonstrated that our proposed method is able to generate much better rain-free images on several benchmark datasets than the state-of-the-art algorithms. Moreover, we conduct the joint evaluation experiments with respect to deraining performance and the detection/segmentation accuracy to further verify the effectiveness of our deraining method for downstream vision tasks/applications. The source code is available at https://github.com/kuihua/MSHFN.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TNNLS.2021.3112235DOI Listing
September 2021

Mid-term outcomes of pyrolytic carbon humeral resurfacing hemiarthroplasty compared with metal humeral resurfacing and metal stemmed hemiarthroplasty for osteoarthritis in young patients: analysis from the Australian Orthopaedic Association National Joint Replacement Registry.

J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2021 Sep 20. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Gold Coast University Hospital, Southport, QLD, Australia.

Background: The optimal surgical management of glenohumeral osteoarthritis in young patients remains an unsolved problem. Humeral resurfacing hemiarthroplasty and stemmed hemiarthroplasty using metallic heads are 2 surgical options that avoid the complications of loosening or wear of the glenoid component seen in total shoulder arthroplasty. Despite the potential benefits, improvement in survivorship has not been demonstrated from joint registry studies or other studies at mid-term follow-up. This is predominantly because of glenoid erosion and pain that occur when the metal resurfaced head articulates with the native glenoid. The use of pyrolytic carbon (pyrocarbon) as a resurfacing material has been proposed as an alternative bearing surface thought to reduce glenoid erosion owing to a marked reduction in wear rates in vitro. This study aimed to compare the survivorship of shoulder hemi-resurfacing using pyrocarbon with shoulder hemi-resurfacing and stemmed hemiarthroplasty using metallic heads.

Methods: Data from the Australian Orthopaedic Association National Joint Replacement Registry (AOANJRR) were analyzed for all patients aged <55 years who had undergone a primary shoulder replacement for osteoarthritis from April 16, 2004, to December 31, 2019. The outcomes of shoulder procedures using pyrocarbon hemi-resurfacing were compared with procedures using metal hemi-resurfacing and metal stemmed hemiarthroplasty. The reasons for revision in each arthroplasty class were analyzed. The analyses were undertaken using Kaplan-Meier estimates of survivorship and hazard ratios (HRs) from Cox proportional hazards models.

Results: We analyzed 393 primary shoulder procedures, of which 163 were pyrocarbon hemi-resurfacing procedures, 163 were metal hemi-resurfacing procedures, and 67 were metal stemmed hemiarthroplasties.The cumulative percentage of revision at 6 years was 8.9% for pyrocarbon hemi-resurfacing, 17.1% for metal hemi-resurfacing, and 17.5% for metal stemmed hemiarthroplasty. Pyrocarbon hemi-resurfacing prostheses had a statistically lower revision rate than other hemi-resurfacing prostheses (HR, 0.41; 95% confidence interval, 0.18-0.93; P = .032). Pain, prosthesis fracture, and infection were the key reasons for revision. No pyrocarbon hemi-resurfacing cases were revised for glenoid erosion. In male patients, pyrocarbon humeral resurfacing had a lower cumulative percentage of revision compared with metal stemmed hemiarthroplasty (HR, 0.32; 95% confidence interval, 0.11-0.93; P = .037).

Conclusion: Pyrocarbon humeral resurfacing arthroplasty had statistically lower revision rates at mid-term follow-up in patients aged <55 years compared with other hemi-resurfacing procedures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jse.2021.08.017DOI Listing
September 2021

An Integrated Cluster Detection, Optimization, and Interpretation Approach for Financial Data.

IEEE Trans Cybern 2021 Sep 22;PP. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

In many financial applications, such as fraud detection, reject inference, and credit evaluation, detecting clusters automatically is critical because it helps to understand the subpatterns of the data that can be used to infer user's behaviors and identify potential risks. Due to the complexity of human behaviors and changing social environments, the distributions of financial data are usually complex and it is challenging to find clusters and give reasonable interpretations. The goal of this study is to develop an integrated approach to detect clusters in financial data, and optimize the scope of the clusters such that the clusters can be easily interpreted. Specifically, we first proposed a new cluster quality evaluation criterion, which is free from large-scale computation and can guide base clustering algorithms such as k-Means to detect hyperellipsoidal clusters adaptively. Then, we designed a new solver for a revised support vector data description model, which efficiently refines the centroids and scopes of the detected clusters to make the clusters tighter such that the data in the clusters share greater similarities, and thus, the clusters can be easily interpreted with eigenvectors. Using ten financial datasets, the experiments showed that the proposed algorithm can efficiently find reasonable number of clusters. The proposed approach is suitable for large-scale financial datasets whose features are meaningful, and also applicable to financial mining tasks, such as data distribution interpretation and anomaly detection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TCYB.2021.3109066DOI Listing
September 2021

Intraocular Pressure, Age, and Central Corneal Thickness in a Healthy Chinese Children Population: The Handan Offspring Myopia Study.

Ophthalmic Epidemiol 2021 Sep 19:1-8. Epub 2021 Sep 19.

Department ofGlaucoma, The Eye Hospital, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang, China.

Purpose: To assess the distribution and factors related to intraocular pressure (IOP) in a Chinese children population in Northern China.

Methods: 1,238 offspring aged 6 to 18 years, residing in six villages, were recruited for this current study, the Handan Offspring Myopia Study. Participants underwent an interviewer-administered questionnaire and a complete ocular examination, including standardized measurement of IOP with Perkins applanation tonometry.

Results: 1,648 eyes of 828 children were included in the analysis. The mean IOP was 13.9 ± 1.6 mmHg. The mean IOP for the study population increased from 13.0 ± 1.5 mmHg for those 6 to 7 years of age to 14.2 ± 1.4 mmHg for those 15 years of age or older ( < .001). The mean central corneal thickness (CCT) was 548.7 ± 32.1 μm, and had no difference among different age groups and gender. In univariate regression analysis, age (0.12 mmHg per 1 year old), height (0.09 mmHg per 5 cm), weight (0.02 mmHg per kg), body mass index (0.07 mmHg per 1 m/kg2), systolic blood pressure (0.06 mmHg per 5 mmHg), CCT (0.06 mmHg per 5 μm), and SE (-0.11 mmHg per 1 D) were correlated with IOP. In multivariate regression analysis, higher IOP was only associated with older ages ( = .002) and thicker CCT ( = .001).

Conclusion: The mean IOP in healthy rural Chinese children aged 6-18 years is about 14 mmHg, which is lower than in adults in the same locality. The mean IOP is slightly increasing with age during childhood, which is opposite to the result among adults. Age and CCT are the major independent factors associated with IOP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09286586.2021.1966806DOI Listing
September 2021

Changes in Treatment of Patients with Incident ESKD during the Novel Coronavirus Disease 2019 Pandemic.

J Am Soc Nephrol 2021 11 17;32(11):2948-2957. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Chronic Disease Research Group, Hennepin Healthcare Research Institute, Minneapolis, Minnesota.

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic caused major disruptions to care for patients with advanced CKD.

Methods: We investigated the incidence of documented ESKD, ESKD treatment modalities, changes in eGFR at dialysis initiation, and use of incident central venous catheters (CVCs) by epidemiologic week during the first half of 2020 compared with 2017-2019 historical trends, using Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services data. We used Poisson and logistic regression for analyses of incidence and binary outcomes, respectively.

Results: Incidence of documented ESKD dropped dramatically in 2020 compared with the expected incidence, particularly during epidemiologic weeks 15-18 (April, incidence rate ratio [IRR], 0.75; 95% CI, 0.73 to 0.78). The decrease was most pronounced for individuals aged ≥75 years (IRR, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.66 to 0.73). Pre-emptive kidney transplantation decreased markedly during weeks 15-18 (IRR, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.46 to 0.67). Mean eGFR at dialysis initiation decreased by 0.33 ml/min per 1.73 m in weeks 19-22; non-Hispanic Black patients exhibited the largest decrease, at 0.61 ml/min per 1.73 m. The odds of initiating dialysis with eGFR <10 ml/min per 1.73 m were highest during weeks 19-22 (May, OR, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.05 to 1.17), corresponding to an absolute increase of 2.9%. The odds of initiating peritoneal dialysis (versus hemodialysis) were 24% higher (OR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.14 to 1.34) in weeks 11-14, an absolute increase of 2.3%. Initiation with a CVC increased by 3.3% (OR, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.20 to 1.41).

Conclusions: During the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, the number of patients starting treatment for ESKD fell to a level not observed since 2011. Changes in documented ESKD incidence and other aspects of ESKD-related care may reflect differential access to care early in the pandemic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1681/ASN.2021040579DOI Listing
November 2021

Stainless Steel Femoral Heads Reduce Rate of Revision When Compared to Ion-Implanted Chromium-Cobalt Heads With a Single Cemented Femoral Design: An Analysis of 40,468 Total Hip Replacements From the Australian Orthopedic Association National Joint Replacement Registry.

J Arthroplasty 2021 Dec 1;36(12):3945-3949. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

Department of Orthopaedics, St. Vincent's Hospital (Melbourne), Fitzroy, Victoria, Australia; Department of Surgery, Epworth Healthcare, University of Melbourne, Richmond, Victoria, Australia.

Background: In order to reduce the incidence of total hip joint replacement revision for wear, multiple advanced materials and alloys targeting hip replacement tribology have been introduced. Ion implantation of chromium-cobalt heads is thought to reduce wear due to increased surface hardness and lower friction. These advances in technology result in additional manufacturing costs. However, it is unclear whether these attributes result in a decreased rate of revision for wear and when used with modern highly crosslinked polyethylene (XLPE). The aim of this study is to compare the survivorship of stainless steel and ion-implanted chromium-cobalt femoral heads in order to determine whether ion implantation has a lower risk of revision.

Methods: Data from the Australian Orthopedic Association National Joint Replacement Registry included all stainless steel and low-friction ion-treated (LFIT) femoral heads used in conjunction with a primary Exeter/Trident hip replacement combination and XLPE liners performed for osteoarthritis. Kaplan-Meier estimates of survivorship were used to describe the time to first revision. Hazard ratios (HRs) from Cox proportional hazard models, with adjustment for age and gender, were used to compare revision rates between the 2 groups.

Results: There were 40,468 total hip replacements that met the inclusion criteria. Stainless steel heads had a lower revision rate compared to LFIT chromium-cobalt heads (HR 0.87, 95% confidence interval 0.76-1.00, P = .048). The difference in the rate of revision was even greater when 32-mm heads were used (HR 0.72, 95% confidence interval 0.58-0.89, P = .002). There was no difference in revision for loosening between head alloys or when stratified by age.

Conclusion: Given the increased costs associated with LFIT implants and the lower rate of revision for stainless steel heads, we recommend the use of a stainless steel heads when using an Exeter/Trident hybrid hip with an XLPE liner.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arth.2021.08.024DOI Listing
December 2021

Controllably Doping Nitrogen into 1T/2H MoS Heterostructure Nanosheets for Enhanced Supercapacitive and Electrocatalytic Performance by Low-Power N Plasma.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Sep 10;13(37):44427-44439. Epub 2021 Sep 10.

The State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000, China.

Molybdenum disulfide (MoS) is a promising candidate for use as a supercapacitor electrode material and non-noble-metal electrocatalyst owing to its relatively high theoretical specific capacitance, Pt-like electronic feature, and graphene-like structure. However, insufficient electrochemically active sites along with poor conductivity significantly hinder its practical application. Heteroatom doping and phase engineering have been regarded as effective ways to overcome the inherent limitations of MoS and enhance its ion storage and electrocatalytic performance. In this study, a plasma-assisted nitrogen-doped 1T/2H MoS heterostructure has been proposed for the first time, resulting in excellent supercapacitor performance and hydrogen evolution reaction activity. XPS, Raman, and TEM analysis results indicate that N atoms have been successfully doped into MoS nanosheets via room-temperature low-power N plasma, and the 1T/2H hybrid phase is maintained. As expected, the 1T/2H MoS heterostructure after a 10 min plasma treatment displayed a much boosted supercapacitive performance with a high specific capacitance of 410 F g at 1 A g and an excellent hydrogen evolution property with a low overpotential of 131 mV vs RHE at 10 mA cm for hydrogen evolution reaction. The excellent performance is superior to most of the recently reported outstanding MoS-based electrode and electrocatalytic materials. Moreover, the as-assembled flexible symmetric supercapacitor shows a high specific capacitance of 84.8 F g and superior mechanical robustness with 84.5% capacity retention after 2000 bending cycles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c12973DOI Listing
September 2021

Toughness Behavior of SBR Acrylate Copolymer-Modified Pervious Concrete with Single-Sized Aggregates.

Materials (Basel) 2021 Sep 6;14(17). Epub 2021 Sep 6.

Key Laboratory of Highway Engineering of Sichuan Province, Chengdu 610031, China.

Pervious concrete is an eco-efficient concrete but has problems regarding its mechanical performance and permeability balance. This research investigated the feasibility of using a combination of styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) and acrylate polymer to improve the toughness of pervious concrete while keeping its permeability. Single-sized aggregate and no sand were considered in the concrete mixture. Acrylate polymers with different solid content, PH, density, and viscosity were emulsion copolymerized with an SBR polymer. Eleven scenarios with different mix proportions and 220 specimens for compressive strength, flexural strength, flexural stiffness, impact resistance, and fracture toughness tests were selected to evaluate the effects of the copolymer on the toughness of copolymer-modified pervious concrete (CMPC). The studies showed that (1) the influence trend of the copolymers generally varied according to different mechanical indexes; (2) XG-6001 acrylate polymer mainly and comprehensively enhanced the toughness of the CMPC; (3) it was difficult to increase the enhancing property of the XG-6001 acrylate polymer with the growth of its mix proportion; (4) the zero-sand pervious concrete with 90% SBR and 10% XG-6001 acrylate emulsion copolymerization proved to have relatively high toughness. The proposed CMPC holds promising application value in sustainability traffic road construction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma14175089DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8433643PMC
September 2021

Visible-light mediated stereospecific C(sp)-H difluoroalkylation of ()-aldoximes.

Org Biomol Chem 2021 Sep 22;19(36):7867-7874. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Department of Chemistry, Shanghai University, Shanghai, China.

A visible light mediated stereospecific C(sp)-H difluoroalkylation of ()-aldoximes to ()-difluoroalkylated ketoximes has been described. In this reaction, (hetero)-aromatic and aliphatic difluoroalkylated ketoximes could be obtained with the retention of the configuration of the starting aldoximes. A preliminary mechanism study showed that a difluoromethyl radical an SET pathway was involved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1ob01401cDOI Listing
September 2021

Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1α Is a Regulator of Autophagy in Osteoarthritic Chondrocytes.

Cartilage 2021 Aug 28:19476035211035434. Epub 2021 Aug 28.

Department of Orthopedics, Zhongshan Hospital, Shanghai, China.

Objective: To investigate the relationship between hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and the autophagic response in osteoarthritic chondrocytes (OA), under inflammatory insult as represented by OA model.

Methods: Human chondrocyte cell line C28/I2 was cultured in both normoxic and hypoxic conditions and treated with interleukin-1β (IL1β) to emulate OA inflammatory insult . Cellular HIF-1α expression was silenced using siRNA transfection and cellular autophagic (P62/LC3II) response and OA chondrocyte damage (COL2A1/MMP13) related proteins were examined using western blotting. Cellular mitophagic (BNIP3/PINK1/Parkin) and apoptotic (Caspase/Cleaved Caspase 3) were also evaluated to assess mitophagy-mediated cell death due to HIF-1α silencing.

Results: Chondrocyte basal autophagy levels were higher in a HIF-1α elevated environment and was more resistant to IL1β-induced inflammatory insult. Increase in autophagic proteins showed better chondrocyte repair, which resulted a lower level of reactive oxygen species production, and lesser damage to chondrocyte integrity. Silencing HIF-1α activates cellular PINK1/Parkin and BNIP3 mitophagic proteins, which leads to the activation of Caspase/Cleaved Caspase 3 apoptotic cascade.

Conclusion: Our results show that chondrocyte autophagy is dependent on HIF-1α expression, showing the importance of HIF-1α in hypoxic chondrocyte function in OA. Dysregulation of HIF-1α expression results in the activation of mitophagy-mediated apoptosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/19476035211035434DOI Listing
August 2021

Distributed Time-Varying Convex Optimization With Dynamic Quantization.

IEEE Trans Cybern 2021 Aug 26;PP. Epub 2021 Aug 26.

In this work, we design a distributed algorithm for time-varying convex optimization over networks with quantized communications. Each agent has its local time-varying objective function, while the agents need to cooperatively track the optimal solution trajectories of global time-varying functions. The distributed algorithm is motivated by the alternating direction method of multipliers, but the agents can only share quantization information through an undirected graph. To reduce the tracking error due to information loss in quantization, we apply the dynamic quantization scheme with a decaying scaling function. The tracking error is explicitly characterized with respect to the limit of the decaying scaling function in quantization. Furthermore, we are able to show that the algorithm could asymptotically track the optimal solution when time-varying functions converge, even with quantization information loss. Finally, the theoretical results are validated via numerical simulation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TCYB.2021.3099905DOI Listing
August 2021

Progression rate to primary angle closure following laser peripheral iridotomy in primary angle-closure suspects: a randomised study.

Int J Ophthalmol 2021 18;14(8):1179-1184. Epub 2021 Aug 18.

Queensland Eye Institute, Brisbane 4343, Australia.

Aim: To report the progression rate (PR) to primary angle closure (PAC) following laser peripheral iridotomy (LPI) in PAC suspects (PACS).

Methods: Prospective, randomized controlled interventional clinical trial conducted at the Handan Eye Hospital, China. Totally 134 bilateral PACS, defined as non-visibility of the posterior trabecular meshwork for ≥180 degrees on gonioscopy were randomly assigned to undergo LPI in one eye. Gonioscopy and Goldmann applanation tonometry were performed prior to, on day 7 and 12mo post LPI.

Results: Eighty of 134 patients (59.7%) could be followed up at one year. The mean intraocular pressure (IOP) in treated eyes was 15.9±2.6 mm Hg at baseline, 15.4±3.0 mm Hg on day 7; 16.5±2.9 mm Hg at one month, and 15.5±2.9 mm Hg at 12mo; the IOP in untreated eyes was similar (=0.834). One or more quadrants of the angle opened in 93.7% of the LPI treated eyes, but 67.0% (53/79) remained closed in two or more quadrants. The PR to PAC in untreated eyes was 3.75% and one developed acute angle-closure glaucoma (AACG); the PR to PAC in treated eyes was 2.5% and none had developed peripheral anterior synechia (PAS) or AACG.

Conclusion: LPI can open some of the occludable angle in the majority of eyes with PACS, but 67% continue to have non-visibility of the trabecular meshwork for over 180 degrees.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18240/ijo.2021.08.07DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8342280PMC
August 2021

Insight into the mechanism of nitritation establishment through external fermented sludge addition.

Bioresour Technol 2021 Dec 13;341:125763. Epub 2021 Aug 13.

SDIC Xinkai Water Environment Investment Co., Ltd, Beijing 101100, PR China.

In this study, a novel strategy for nitritation establishment through external fermented sludge addition is proposed. The nitrifying activities under various fermentation times were assessed; batch tests results revealed that the decay rate of nitrite oxidizing bacteria (0.53 ± 0.08 d) was much higher than that of ammonia oxidizing bacteria (0.15 ± 0.04 d), during alkaline fermentation with high endogenous free ammonia concentrations (0.57-138.79 mg·L). The long-term effects of fermented sludge addition were constantly monitored in an anaerobic/oxic/anoxic sequencing batch reactor. During 60 days of operation, the nitrite accumulation rate reached above 90% and could be maintained stably. Total inorganic nitrogen removal achieved 94.7%, with an average external sludge reduction rate of 61.3%, after incorporation of the sludge addition. Illumina MiSeq sequencing demonstrated that nitrite oxidizing bacteria were successfully eliminated and the relative abundance of ammonia oxidizing bacteria remained at 0.39%, resulting in nitrite accumulation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2021.125763DOI Listing
December 2021
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