Publications by authors named "Yi Lu"

2,257 Publications

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Ionic Liquids-Based Drug Delivery: a Perspective.

Pharm Res 2022 Aug 17. Epub 2022 Aug 17.

Key Laboratory of Smart Drug Delivery of MOE, School of Pharmacy, Fudan University, Shanghai, 201203, China.

Ionic liquids (ILs) recently draw attention for addressing unmet needs in biomedicines. By converting solids into liquids, ILs are emerging as novel platforms to overcome some critical drawbacks associated with the application of solid or crystalline active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs). ILs have shown promise in liquidizing or solubilizing APIs, or as green solvents, novel permeation enhancers or active ingredients, alone or synergistically with APIs. Meanwhile, challenges turn up in company with the deepening understanding of ILs as drug delivery carrier systems. This perspective aims to provide a sketchy overview on the status quo with specific attention paid to new problems arising from the utilization of ILs-based technologies in drug delivery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11095-022-03362-3DOI Listing
August 2022

Application of three-dimensional reconstruction technology combined with three-dimensional printing in the treatment of pectus excavatum.

Ann Thorac Med 2022 Jul-Sep;17(3):173-179. Epub 2022 Jul 9.

Clinical Medical College, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225000, China.

Objectives: To explore the clinical value of three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction technology combined with 3D printing in the treatment of pectus excavatum (PE).

Methods: The clinical data of 10 patients with PE in our department from June 2018 to December 2020 were analyzed retrospectively. All patients underwent thin-layer computed tomography examination before the operation, and then 3D reconstruction was performed with Mimics 20.0 software. The radian and curvature of the pectus bar were designed according to the reconstructed images. Afterward, the images were imported into the light-curing 3D printer in STL format for slice printing. Hence that the personalized operation scheme, including the size of the pectus bar and the surgical approach, can be made according to the 3D printed model. The thoracoscopic-assisted Nuss operation was completed by bilateral incisions. The operation time, intraoperative blood loss, and postoperative hospitalization were counted and analyzed. The satisfaction of the surgery was evaluated according to the Haller index and the most posterior sternal compression sternovertebral distance.

Results: The surgeries were successfully completed in 10 patients without a transfer to open procedure. The average operation time was (56 ± 8.76) min, the intraoperative blood loss was (23.5 ± 11.07) mL, and the postoperative hospitalization was (7.2 ± 0.92) d. There were no serious complications or death during the perioperative period. Compared with the data before the operation, the most posterior sternal compression sternovertebral distance was larger, and the Haller index was lower, the differences were statistically significant ( < 0.05).

Conclusions: 3D reconstruction technology combined with 3D printing, which can be used before operation, contributes to the operator performing thoracoscopic-assisted Nuss operation safely and effectively, which has productive clinical application value for the treatment of pectus excavatum.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/atm.atm_506_21DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9374120PMC
July 2022

nCD64 index as a novel inflammatory indicator for the early prediction of prognosis in infectious and non-infectious inflammatory diseases: An observational study of febrile patients.

Front Immunol 2022 28;13:905060. Epub 2022 Jul 28.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Infectious Diseases and Biosafety Emergency Response, National Medical Center for Infectious Diseases, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Background: Generally, febrile patients admitted to the Department of Infectious Diseases, Fudan University Affiliated Huashan Hospital, China may eventually be diagnosed as infectious (ID) or non-infectious inflammatory diseases (NIID). Furthermore, mortality from sepsis remains incredibly high. Thus, early diagnosis and prognosis evaluation of sepsis is necessary. Here, we investigated neutrophil (n)CD64 index profile in a cohort of febrile patients and explored its diagnostic and prognostic value in ID and NIID.

Methods: This observational cohort study enrolled 348 febrile patients from the Emergency Department and Department of Infectious Diseases. nCD64 index were detected using flow cytometry, and dynamically measured at different timepoints during follow-up. Procalcitonin (PCT), C-reactive protein (CRP), and ferritin levels were measured routinely. Finally, the diagnostic and prognostic value of nCD64 index were evaluated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis and Kaplan-Meier curve analysis.

Results: Of included 348 febrile patients, 238, 81, and 29 were categorized into ID, NIID, and lymphoma groups, respectively. In ID patients, both SOFA score and infection site had impact on nCD64 index expression. In NIID patients, adult-onset Still's disease patients had the highest nCD64 index value, however, nCD64 index couldn't distinguish between ID and NIID. Regardless of the site of infection, nCD64 index was significantly higher in bacterial and viral infections than in fungal infections, but it could not discriminate between bacterial and viral infections. In bloodstream infections, gram-negative (G-) bacterial infections showed an obvious increase in nCD64 index compared to that of gram-positive (G+) bacterial infections. nCD64 index has the potential to be a biomarker for distinguishing between DNA and RNA virus infections. The routine measurement of nCD64 index can facilitate septic shock diagnosis and predict 28-day hospital mortality in patients with sepsis. Serial monitoring of nCD64 index in patients with sepsis is helpful for evaluating prognosis and treatment efficacy. Notably, nCD64 index is more sensitive to predict disease progression and monitor glucocorticoid treatment in patients with NIID.

Conclusions: nCD64 index can be used to predict 28-day hospital mortality in patients with sepsis and to evaluate the prognosis. Serial determinations of nCD64 index can be used to predict and monitor disease progression in patients with NIID.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2022.905060DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9367970PMC
August 2022

The efficacy and safety of Zengxiao Jiandu decoction combined with definitive concurrent chemoradiotherapy for unresectable locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

Ann Transl Med 2022 Jul;10(14):800

Department of Radiation Oncology, Shanghai Pulmonary Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Background: Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) makes a synergistic and attenuative effect when combined with chemoradiotherapy. However, strong evidence-based studies are lacking. The study sought to investigate whether Zengxiao Jiandu decoction as an adjunctive therapy is superior to definitive concurrent chemoradiotherapy (DCCRT) alone in unresectable, locally advanced (LA), stage III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).

Methods: Patients with unresectable LA-NSCLC were randomly assigned to receive DCCRT either combined with Zengxiao Jiandu decoction (TCM arm) or placebo therapy (Control arm), by computer-generated random assignment lists using a central randomization system. The patients were routinely followed-up every 3 months for the first 2 years after the therapy, and every 6 months for the subsequent 3 years, or earlier if clinically indicated. The primary endpoint was grade ≥3 chemoradiotherapy-related toxicities, while secondary endpoints included the completion rate of chemoradiotherapy, the clinical objective response rate (ORR), and survival. The placebo achieved full consistency in color, aroma, taste and appearance with the Zengxiao Jiandu decoction.

Results: From February 2019 to December 2020, 163 patients were randomly allocated to TCM arm (n=82) or Control arm (n=81). Fifty-nine (72.0%) patients in TCM arm finished chemoradiotherapy per protocol and 79 (96.3%) received protocol-specified Zengxiao Jiandu decoction. Forty-two patients in Control arm finished chemoradiotherapy per protocol. The incidence of grade ≥3 chemoradiotherapy-related toxicities was higher in Control arm than TCM arm (44.4% 31.7%, P=0.094). Grade ≥3 radiation pneumonitis occurred more frequently in Control arm than TCM arm (13.6% 3.7%, P=0.024). The completion rate of the protocol-specified chemotherapy was significantly higher in TCM arm than Control arm (79.3% 64.2%, P=0.033), but the completion rates of the definitive-dose radiotherapy were similar. There were no significant differences in ORR between the 2 arms. The progression-free survival (PFS) of TCM arm was significantly better than Control arm (median PFS, 12.0 9.0 months, P=0.035). However, Zengxiao Jiandu decoction was not found to produce any significant benefit in overall survival.

Conclusions: The Zengxiao Jiandu decoction adjunctive therapy, as compared to DCCRT alone, reduced grade ≥3 radiation pneumonitis, improved the completion rate of DCCRT, and prolonged PFS for unresectable LA-NSCLC.

Trial Registration: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry ChiCTR2000031667.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/atm-22-2814DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9372672PMC
July 2022

The potential interplay between G-quadruplex and p53: their roles in regulation of ferroptosis in cancer.

Front Mol Biosci 2022 25;9:965924. Epub 2022 Jul 25.

Research Center of Basic Medicine, Jinan Central Hospital, Shandong First Medical University, Jinan, China.

Ferroptosis is a novel form of regulated cell death trigged by various biological processes, and p53 is involved in different ferroptosis regulations and functions as a crucial regulator. Both DNA and RNA can fold into G-quadruplex in GC-rich regions and increasing shreds of evidence demonstrate that G-quadruplexes have been associated with some important cellular events. Investigation of G-quadruplexes is thus vital to revealing their biological functions. Specific G-quadruplexes are investigated to discover new effective anticancer drugs. Multiple modulations have been discovered between the secondary structure G-quadruplex and p53, probably further influencing the ferroptosis in cancer. G-quadruplex binds to ferric iron-related structures directly and may affect the p53 pathways as well as ferroptosis in cancer. In addition, G-quadruplex also interacts with p53 indirectly, including iron-sulfur cluster metabolism, telomere homeostasis, lipid peroxidation, and glycolysis. In this review, we summarized the latent interplay between G-quadruplex and p53 which focused mainly on ferroptosis in cancer to provide the potential understanding and encourage future studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmolb.2022.965924DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9358135PMC
July 2022

Editorial: Insights in General Cardiovascular Medicine: 2021.

Front Cardiovasc Med 2022 26;9:957636. Epub 2022 Jul 26.

Affiliated Nantong Hospital of Shanghai University (The Sixth People's Hospital of Nantong), School of Medicine, Institute of Geriatrics (Shanghai University), Shanghai University, Nantong, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcvm.2022.957636DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9361341PMC
July 2022

Quantitative analysis of heart rate variability parameter and mental stress index.

Front Cardiovasc Med 2022 25;9:930745. Epub 2022 Jul 25.

Chongqing Key Laboratory of Photoelectronic Information Sensing and Transmitting Technology, Chongqing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Chongqing, China.

Background: Cardiovascular disease not only occurs in the elderly but also tends to become a common social health problem. Considering the fast pace of modern life, quantified heart rate variability (HRV) indicators combined with the convenience of wearable devices are of great significance for intelligent telemedicine. To quantify the changes in human mental state, this article proposes an improved differential threshold algorithm for R-wave detection and recognition of electrocardiogram (ECG) signals.

Methods: HRV is a specific quantitative indicator of autonomic nerve regulation of the heart. The recognition rate is increased by improving the starting position of R wave and the time-window function of the traditional differential threshold method. The experimental platform is a wearable sign monitoring system constructed based on body area networks (BAN) technology. Analytic hierarchy process (AHP) is used to construct the mental stress assessment model, the weight judgment matrix is constructed according to the influence degree of HRV analysis parameters on mental stress, and the consistency check is carried out to obtain the weight value of the corresponding HRV analysis parameters.

Results: Experimental results show that the recognition rate of R wave of real-time 5 min ECG data collected by this algorithm is >99%. The comprehensive index of HRV based on weight matrix can greatly reduce the deviation caused by the measurement error of each parameter. Compared with traditional characteristic wave recognition algorithms, the proposed algorithm simplifies the process, has high real-time performance, and is suitable for wearable analysis devices with low-configuration requirements.

Conclusion: Our algorithm can describe the mental stress of the body quantitatively and meet the requirements of application demonstration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcvm.2022.930745DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9357912PMC
July 2022

Causal effects of genetically determined metabolites on cancers included lung, breast, ovarian cancer, and glioma: a Mendelian randomization study.

Transl Lung Cancer Res 2022 Jul;11(7):1302-1314

Department of Thoracic Surgery and Oncology, China State Key Laboratory of Respiratory Disease & National Clinical Research Center for Respiratory Disease, the First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, China.

Background: Previous studies have shown that metabolites play important roles in phenotypic regulation, but the causal link between metabolites and tumors has not been examined adequately. Herein, we investigate the causality between metabolites and various cancers through a Mendelian randomization (MR) study.

Methods: We carried out a two-sample MR analysis based on genetic instrumental variables as proxies for 486 selected human serum metabolites to evaluate the causal effects of genetically determined metabotypes (GDMs) on cancers. Summary data from various cancer types obtained from large consortia. Inverse variance weighted (IVW), MR-Egger and weighted-median methods were implemented to infer the causal effects, moreover, we particularly explored the presentence of horizontal pleiotropy through MR-Egger regression and MR-PRESSO Global test. Metabolic pathways analysis and subgroup analyses were further explored using available data. Statistical analyses were all performed in R.

Results: In MR analysis, 202 significant causative relationship features were identified. 7-alpha-hydroxy-3-oxo-4-cholestenoate (OR =1.45; 95% CI: 1.06-1.97; P =0.018), gamma-glutamylisoleucine (OR =1.40; 95% CI: 1.16-1.69; P =0.0004), 1-oleoylglycerophosphocholine (OR =1.22; 95% CI: 1.1-1.35; P =0.0001), gamma-glutamylleucine (OR =4.74; 95% CI: 1.18-18.93; P =0.027) were the most dangerous metabolites for lung cancer, ovarian cancer, breast cancer, and glioma, respectively; while pseudouridine (OR =0.50; 95% CI: 0.30-0.83; P =0.007), 2-methylbutyroylcarnitine (OR =0.77; 95% CI: 0.68-0.86; P =2.9×10), 2-methylbutyroylcarnitine (OR =0.77; 95% CI: 0.70-0.85; P =3.4×10), glycylvaline (OR =0.13; 95% CI: 0.02-0.75; P =0.021) were associated with lower risk of lung cancer, ovarian cancer, breast cancer, and glioma, respectively. Interestingly, 2-methylbutyroylcarnitine was also associated with decreased risk of lung cancer (OR =0.59; 0.50-0.70; =1.98×10) expect ovarian cancer and breast cancer. In subgroup analysis, 2-methylbutyroylcarnitine was associated with decreased risk of estrogen receptor (ER) positive breast cancer (OR =0.72; 0.64-0.80; P =3.55×10), lung adenocarcinoma (LAC) (OR =0.60; 0.48-0.70; P =1.14×10). Metabolic pathways analysis identified 4 significant pathways.

Conclusions: Our study integrated metabolomics and genomics to explore the risk factors involved in the development of cancers. It is worth exploring whether metabolites with causality can be used as biomarkers to distinguish patients at high risk of cancer in clinical practice. More detailed studies are needed to clarify the mechanistic pathways.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/tlcr-22-34DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9359954PMC
July 2022

Phenylboronic acid conjugated multifunctional nanogels with I-labeling for targeted SPECT imaging and radiotherapy of breast adenocarcinoma.

Front Bioeng Biotechnol 2022 22;10:973141. Epub 2022 Jul 22.

School of Ophthalmology and Optometry, School of Biomedical Engineering, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, China.

We report a new I-labeling functional platform for targeted single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging and radiotherapy of breast adenocarcinoma. In this study, polyethyleneimine (PEI) based nanogels (P.NH NGs) were prepared by water/oil polymerization, modified with targeted agent phenylboronic acid (PBA), and labeled with radionuclide I. The NGs without I-labeling own a spherical structure, uniform size distribution, and good cell viability. After I-labeling, the obtained I-PBA-PHP NGs displayed much higher cellular uptake than the non-targeted NGs due to the good softness and fluidity of NGs and the PBA targeting. The results demonstrated that I-PBA-PHP NGs could specifically target breast cancer cells and efficiently aggregate into xenograft breast adenocarcinoma for tumor SPECT imaging and specific radiotherapy. The developed I-labeling NGs may be used as a promising platform for efficient radioactive theranostic nanoplatform of tumor.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fbioe.2022.973141DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9359430PMC
July 2022

A Workability Characterization of Innovative Rubber Concrete as a Grouting Material.

Materials (Basel) 2022 Aug 2;15(15). Epub 2022 Aug 2.

Liaoning VVSUN Waterproof Insulation Engineering Co., Ltd., Guangzhou 510006, China.

The aim of this study is to assess the workability of an innovative rubber concrete to fill in the gaps in a shield tunnel construction. This grouting material includes porous sand, PVA (polyvinyl alcohol) fiber, cement, and rubber. One advantage of the material is its high toughness, which is good for the postfailure stage of an earthquake event. Evaluations were carried out on the physical properties in terms of the slurry density, consistency, fluidity, bleeding rate, consolidation shrinkage rate, setting time, and unconfined compressive strength (UCS) (i.e., 3 and 28 days). The toughness index was also introduced to evaluate the performance at the postfailure stage. The results demonstrate that the toughness index will increase as the rubber content increases. It increases from 1.0 at 0% to 1.7 at 80% rubber content (28 days' curing) and from 1.2 at 0% to 2.2 at 80% rubber content (3 days' curing). The increase in fiber content and fiber length will also increase the toughness index as the fiber will enhance the tensile strength of the matrix. The results show that when the fiber content increases from 0% to 1%, the toughness index increases from 1 to 7 (28 days' curing) and from 1.1 to 10 (3 days' curing). Similarly, if the fiber content or fiber length is above the optimum level, the UCS of the material will be compromised. The optimum fiber content is 0.8%, and the optimum fiber length is 6 mm to 9 mm. This study suggests that the balance of physical properties should be considered in designing a satisfactory grouting material based on the specific purpose of the engineering practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma15155319DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9369480PMC
August 2022

Establishing construct validity of neuropsychological tests in cancer survivors.

Psychooncology 2022 Aug 11. Epub 2022 Aug 11.

Basic Biobehavioral and Psychological Sciences Branch, National Cancer Institute, 9, 609 Medical Center Drive, Rockville, MD, 20850, United States of America.

Objective: Cancer-related cognitive impairments (CRCI) are frequently reported among cancer survivors, and attention is the most frequently assessed cognitive domain in CRCI. However, there is no consensus as to whether attention is impaired. We suggest that a major reason for this lack of agreement is a lack of construct validity for neuropsychological attention tests. We propose to assess the construct validity of neuropsychological attention tests with respect to experimental paradigms from cognitive psychology.

Methods: Self-reported cancer survivors (N = 314) completed an online battery comprising six experimental attention paradigms and eight neuropsychological tests. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to evaluate the fit of five models derived from a general population sample (N = 636) in a previous study . We then subjected the best-fitting model to a measurement invariance analysis.

Results: The best-fitting model was a six intercorrelated factor structure, comprising Capacity, Search, Digit Span, Arithmetic, Sustained Attention, and Flanker Interference factors. Configural and weak invariance held, indicating that the factor loadings were invariant across groups. Strong invariance, indicating that intercepts were also invariant, held except for the Approximate Number Sense test.

Conclusions: According to our factor model, Spatial Span and Digit Symbol Coding measure attentional capacity, while the Trail Making Test (A&B) and Letter Cancellation tests measure visual search ability. However, Digit Span and Arithmetic tests do not measure attention. We hope that these results will lead to better scientific models, better patient education, and, ultimately, improved outcomes for survivors. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pon.6015DOI Listing
August 2022

Effect of lidocaine perioperative infusion on chronic postsurgical pain in patients undergoing thoracoscopic radical pneumonectomy.

BMC Anesthesiol 2022 08 9;22(1):255. Epub 2022 Aug 9.

Department of Anesthesiology and Perioperative Medicine, The Second Affiliated Hospital and Yuying Children's Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, 109 West Xueyuan Road, Wenzhou, 325027, China.

Background: Thoracoscopic radical pneumonectomy is associated with a high incidence of postoperative chronic pain. Studies on the benefits of lidocaine intravenous infusion during the perioperative period were still controversial in thoracoscopic surgery.

Methods: Sixty-four lung cancer patients scheduled for thoracoscopic radical pneumonectomy were randomly divided into two groups: normal saline group (control group) or lidocaine group. In the lidocaine group, 1.5 mg/kg lidocaine was administered during the anesthesia induction, and 2 mg·kg·h lidocaine was continuously intravenous infused until the end of the surgery. After the surgery, a mixture of 2 μg/kg sufentanil and 10 mg/kg lidocaine was continuously intravenous infused by postoperative patient-controlled intravenous analgesia pump (100 ml). In the control group, the same volume of normal saline was administered according to the calculation of lidocaine during anesthesia induction, maintenance and postoperative patient-controlled intravenous analgesia. The primary outcome was the incidence of chronic postoperative pain at 3 months after the surgery. The secondary outcomes include the incidence of chronic postoperative pain at 6 months after the surgery; the effect of lidocaine on postoperative pain within the first 24 and 48 h; total amount of sufentanil administered during entire procedure and the number of PCA triggers within 48 h after surgery.

Results: Compared with the control group, the incidence of chronic pain at 3 months after the surgery was significantly lower (13 cases, 46.4% vs. 6 cases, 20.7%, p < 0.05), but no significant difference at 6 months between two group. The cumulative dosage of sufentanil in perioperative period was significantly lower (149.64 ± 18.20 μg vs. 139.47 ± 16.75 μg) (p < 0.05), and the number of PCA triggers (8.21 ± 4.37 vs. 5.83 ± 4.12, p < 0.05) was significantly greater in the control group. The NRS pain scores at 24 h (1.68 ± 0.72 vs. 1.90 ± 0.86) and 48 h (1.21 ± 0.42 vs. 1.20 ± 0.41) after the operation were no significant difference.

Conclusion: Perioperative infusion lidocaine significantly reduced the number of PCA triggers and the incidence of chronic postoperative pain at 3 months after the thoracoscopic radical pneumonectomy.

Trial Registration: http://www.chictr.org.cn : ChiCTR1900024759, frist registration date 26/07/2019.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12871-022-01795-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9361613PMC
August 2022

Alterations in Spontaneous Neuronal Activity and Microvascular Density of the Optic Nerve Head in Active Thyroid-Associated Ophthalmopathy.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2022 22;13:895186. Epub 2022 Jul 22.

Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, China.

Purpose: To investigate changes in local spontaneous brain activity in patients with active thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO) and explore the relationship between such alterations and microvascular indices.

Methods: Thirty-six active TAO patients with active phase and 39 healthy controls (HCs) were enrolled in this study. All participants underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI), neuropsychological tests, and ophthalmological examinations. The rs-fMRI-based fractional low-frequency fluctuation amplitude (fALFF) analysis methods were used to assess spontaneous brain activity in both groups. The structure (peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer, pRNFL) and microvascular indices (the optic nerve head (ONH) whole image vessel density, ONH-wiVD, and peripapillary vessel density) were analyzed through optical coherence tomographic angiography imaging. The relationship between abnormal spontaneous brain activity and ophthalmological indices was analyzed using the Spearman's rank correlation analysis.

Results: Compared with HCs, active TAO patients had increased fALFF in the right inferior temporal gyrus (R.ITG) and left posterior cingulate gyrus (L.PCC), but decreased fALFF in the right calcarine (R.CAL). The fALFF values in L.PCC were positively correlated with peripapillary vessel density, whereas fALFF values in R.CAL were negatively related to peripapillary vessel density.

Conclusions: This study demonstrates that changes in spontaneous brain activity of active TAO are accompanied by peripapillary microvascular variations. These results provide insights into the pathophysiological mechanisms of active TAO. In addition, the combination of fALFF values and peripapillary vessel density may be served as important references for better clinical decision making.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2022.895186DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9354054PMC
August 2022

Rh-Catalyzed C-H -Heteroarylation and Esterification Cascade of Carboxylic Acid with Organoboron Reagents and 1,2-Dichloroethane in One-Pot Synthesis.

Org Lett 2022 Aug 30;24(31):5704-5709. Epub 2022 Jul 30.

Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Chemical Energy Storage and Novel Cell Technology, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Liaocheng University, Liaocheng 252000, China.

A Rh-catalyzed C(sp)-H -heteroarylation and esterification cascade of aryl carboxylic acids with -heteroaromatic boronates and 1,2-dichloroethane in a one-pot synthesis has been disclosed. The strong coordinating ability of - and -substituted pyridine boronates and pyrazoles as well as unsubstituted pyrimidine allows them to serve as the coupling partners. This protocol allows late-stage modification of the key precursor of roflumilast and compounds of pharmaceutical interest, which highlights the potential application of this synthetic method.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.orglett.2c02075DOI Listing
August 2022

Synergistic Antimicrobial Effect of Antimicrobial Peptides CATH-1, CATH-3, and PMAP-36 With Erythromycin Against Bacterial Pathogens.

Front Microbiol 2022 15;13:953720. Epub 2022 Jul 15.

Joint International Research Laboratory of Animal Health and Animal Food Safety, College of Veterinary Medicine, Southwest University, Chongqing, China.

With the increasing bacterial resistance to traditional antibiotics, there is an urgent need for the development of alternative drugs or adjuvants of antibiotics to enhance antibacterial efficiency. The combination of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and traditional antibiotics is a potential alternative to enhance antibacterial efficiency. In this study, we investigated the synergistic bactericidal effect of AMPs, including chicken (CATH-1,-2,-3, and -B1), mice (CRAMP), and porcine (PMAP-36 and PR-39) in combination with conventional antibiotics containing ampicillin, tetracycline, gentamicin, and erythromycin against , and . The results showed that the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of CATH-1,-3 and PMAP-36 was lower than 10 μM, indicating that these three AMPs had good bacterial activity against , and . Then, the synergistic antibacterial activity of AMPs and antibiotics combination was determined by the fractional bactericidal concentration index (FBCI). The results showed that the FBCI of AMPs (CATH-1,-3 and PMAP-36) and erythromycin was lower than 0.5 against bacterial pathogens, demonstrating that they had a synergistic bactericidal effect. Furthermore, the time-killing kinetics of AMPs (CATH-1,-3 and PMAP-36) in combination with erythromycin showed that they had a continuous killing effect on bacteria within 3 h. Notably, the combination showed lower hemolytic activity and cytotoxicity to mammal cells compared to erythromycin and peptide alone treatment. In addition, the antibacterial mechanism of CATH-1 and erythromycin combination against was studied. The results of the scanning electron microscope showed that CATH-1 enhanced the antibacterial activity of erythromycin by increasing the permeability of bacterial cell membrane. Moreover, the results of bacterial migration movement showed that the combination of CATH-1 and erythromycin significantly inhibits the migration of . Finally, drug resistance analysis was performed and the results showed that CATH-1 delayed the emergence of resistance to erythromycin. In conclusion, the combination of CATH-1 and erythromycin has synergistic antibacterial activity and reduces the emergence of bacterial drug resistance. Our study provides valuable information to develop AMPs as potential substitutes or adjuvants for traditional antibiotics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2022.953720DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9335283PMC
July 2022

Frontier progress of the combination of modern medicine and traditional Chinese medicine in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma.

Chin Med 2022 Jul 30;17(1):90. Epub 2022 Jul 30.

Department of Integrated Chinese and Western Medicine, Jilin Cancer Hospital, Changchun, 130000, Jilin, China.

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, accounting for 90% of primary liver cancer) was the sixth most common cancer in the world and the third leading cause of cancer death in 2020. The number of new HCC patients in China accounted for nearly half of that in the world. HCC was of occult and complex onset, with poor prognosis. Clinically, at least 15% of patients with HCC had strong side effects of interventional therapy (IT) and have poor sensitivity to chemotherapy and targeted therapy. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), as a multi-target adjuvant therapy, had been shown to play an active anti-tumor role in many previous studies. This review systematically summarized the role of TCM combined with clinically commonly used drugs for the treatment of HCC (including mitomycin C, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, 5-fluorouracil, sorafenib, etc.) in the past basic research, and summarized the efficacy of TCM combined with surgery, IT and conventional therapy (CT) in clinical research. It was found that TCM, as an adjuvant treatment, played many roles in the treatment of HCC, including enhancing the tumor inhibition, reducing toxic and side effects, improving chemosensitivity and prolonging survival time of patients. This review summarized the advantages of integrated traditional Chinese and modern medicine in the treatment of HCC and provides a theoretical basis for clinical research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13020-022-00645-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9338659PMC
July 2022

Biological and intracellular fates of drug nanocrystals through different delivery routes: Recent development enabled by bioimaging and PK modeling.

Adv Drug Deliv Rev 2022 Sep 26;188:114466. Epub 2022 Jul 26.

Key Laboratory of Smart Drug Delivery of MOE, School of Pharmacy, Fudan University, Shanghai 201203, China; Fudan Zhangjiang Institute, Shanghai 201203, China. Electronic address:

Nanocrystals have contributed to exciting improvements in the delivery of poorly water-soluble drugs. The biological and intracellular fates of nanocrystals are currently under debate. Due to the remarkable commercial success in enhancing oral bioavailability, nanocrystals have originally been regarded as a simple formulation approach to enhance dissolution. However, the latest findings from novel bioimaging tools lead to an expanded view. Intact nanocrystals may offer long-term durability in the body and offer drug delivery capabilities like those of other nano-carriers. This review renews the understanding of the biological fates of nanocrystals administered via oral, intravenous, and parenteral (e.g., dermal, ocular, and pulmonary) routes. The intracellular pathways and dissolution kinetics of nanocrystals are explored. Additionally, the future trends for in vitro and in vivo quantification of nanocrystals, as well as factors impacting the biological and intracellular fates of nanocrystals are discussed. In conclusion, nanocrystals present a promising and underexplored therapeutic opportunity with immense potential.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.addr.2022.114466DOI Listing
September 2022

The in vivo fate of polymeric micelles.

Adv Drug Deliv Rev 2022 Sep 26;188:114463. Epub 2022 Jul 26.

Key Laboratory of Smart Drug Delivery of MOE, School of Pharmacy, Fudan University, Shanghai 201203, China; Center for Medical Research and Innovation, Shanghai Pudong Hospital, Fudan University Pudong Medical Center, Shanghai 201399, China; Shanghai Skin Disease Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200443, China; Fudan Zhangjiang Institute, Shanghai 201203, China. Electronic address:

This review aims to provide a systemic analysis of the in vivo, as well as subcellular, fate of polymeric micelles (PMs), starting from the entry of PMs into the body. Few PMs are able to cross the biological barriers intact and reach the circulation. In the blood, PMs demonstrate fairly good stability mainly owing to formation of protein corona despite controversial results reported by different groups. Although the exterior hydrophilic shells render PMs "long-circulating", the biodistribution of PMs into the mononuclear phagocyte systems (MPS) is dominant as compared with non-MPS organs and tissues. Evidence emerges to support that the copolymer poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(lactic acid) (PEG-PLA) is first broken down into pieces of PEG and PLA and then remnants to be eliminated from the body finally. At the cellular level, PMs tend to be internalized via endocytosis due to their particulate nature and disassembled and degraded within the cell. Recent findings on the effect of particle size, surface characteristics and shape are also reviewed. It is envisaged that unraveling the in vivo and subcellular fate sheds light on the performing mechanisms and gears up the clinical translation of PMs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.addr.2022.114463DOI Listing
September 2022

Superior facet joint violation between open and minimally invasive techniques in lumbar fusion surgery: An updated systematic review and meta-analysis.

J Chin Med Assoc 2022 Jul 29. Epub 2022 Jul 29.

School of Medicine, National Yang Ming Chiao Tung University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC.

Background: Superior facet joint violation (FJV) is a potential risk factor for adjacent segment disease following lumbar fusion surgery. We sought to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis to compare screw-related superior FJV rates between the open and different minimally invasive (MI) techniques -- fluoroscopy-based, 3D-image navigation, and navigation with robotic assistance -- in adult lumbar fusion surgery.

Methods: We searched original articles comparing the rates of screw-related FJV between the open and different MI techniques in adult lumbar fusion surgery for lumbar degenerative diseases in PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library from inception to September 2021. We compared the numbers of top-level pedicle screws and associated superior FJVs in the main analyses and performed subgroup analysis based on different MI techniques to examine whether individual MI approaches differed in superior FJV rate. Risk ratio (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated in random-effect meta-analysis.

Results: Included in the meta-analysis were 16 articles with 2,655 patients and 4,638 top-level pedicle screws. The pooled analysis showed no significant difference in superior FJV rates between the MI and open groups (RR: 0.89, 95% CI: 0.62-1.28). The subgroup analysis demonstrated that the overall rates of superior FJV were 27.1% (411/1,518) for fluoroscopy-based, 7.1% (43/603) for 3D-image navigation, and 3.2% (7/216) for navigation with robotic assistance. Compared with the open method, the overall RR was 1.53 (95% CI: 1.19-1.96) for fluoroscopy-based, 0.41 (95% CI: 0.22-0.75) for 3D-image navigation, and 0.25 (95% CI: 0.08-0.72) for navigation with robotic assistance.

Conclusion: Among the three common MI techniques, fluoroscopy-based can be associated with a higher risk of superior FJV, while both 3D-image navigation and navigation with robotic assistance may be associated with lower risks as compared with the open method. Considering the limitations of the study, more trials are needed to prove these clinical findings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JCMA.0000000000000788DOI Listing
July 2022

Systematic Bibliometric and Visualized Analysis of Research Hotspots and Trends on Autism Spectrum Disorder Neuroimaging.

Dis Markers 2022 18;2022:3372217. Epub 2022 Jul 18.

Department of Nursing, First Affiliated Hospital of Huzhou University, Huzhou, China.

Background: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a chronic developmental disability caused by differences in the brain. The gold standard for the diagnosis of this condition is based on behavioral science, but research on the application of neurological detection to diagnose the atypical nervous system of ASD is ongoing. ASD neuroimaging research involves the examination of the brain's structure, functional connections, and neurometabolic. However, limited medical resource and the unique heterogeneity of ASD have resulted in many challenges when neuroimaging is utilized.

Objective: This bibliometric study is aimed at summarizing themes and trends in research on autism spectrum disorder neuroimaging and at proposing potential directions for future inquiry.

Methods: Citations were downloaded from the Web of Science Core Collection database on neuroimaging published from January 1, 2012, to December 31, 2021. The retrieved information was analyzed using Bibliometric.com, CiteSpace.5.8. R3, and VOS viewer.

Results: A total of 1,363 papers were published across 58 regions. The United States was the leading source of publications. The League of European Research Universities published the largest number of articles (171). Burst keywords from 2018 to 2021 include identification and network. The clusters of references that continued into 2020 included graph theory, functional connectivity, and classification, which represent key research topics.

Conclusions: Imaging data is being used to identify neuro-network models with higher accuracy for ASD discrimination. Functional near-infrared imaging is advantageous compared to other neuroimaging. In the future, research on systematic and accurate computer-aided diagnosis technology should be encouraged. Moreover, the study of neuroimaging of ASD in different psychological and behavioral states can inspire new ideas about the diagnosis and intervention training of ASD and should be explored.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2022/3372217DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9313970PMC
July 2022

Dairy Cows Experimentally Infected With Bovine Leukemia Virus Showed an Increased Milk Production in Lactation Numbers 3-4: A 4-Year Longitudinal Study.

Front Microbiol 2022 11;13:946463. Epub 2022 Jul 11.

College of Animal Science and Technology, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, China.

Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is widespread in global cattle populations, but the effects of its infection on milk quantity and quality have not been clearly elucidated in animal models. In this study, 30 healthy first-lactation cows were selected from ≈2,988 cows in a BLV-free farm with the same criteria of parity, age, lactation number, as well as milk yield, SCS, and composition (fat, protein, and lactose). Subsequently, these cows were randomly assigned to the intervention ( = 15) or control ( = 15) group, and reared in different cowsheds. Cows in the intervention group were inoculated with 1 × phosphate-buffered solution (PBS) resuspended in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from a BLV-positive cow, while the controls were inoculated with the inactivated PBMC from the same individual. From June 2016 to July 2021, milk weight (kg) was automatically recorded by milk sensors, and milk SCS and composition were originated from monthly performed dairy herd improvement (DHI) testing. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-qPCR and ELISA showed that cows in the intervention group were successfully infected with BLV, while cows in the control group were free of BLV for the entire period. At 45 days post-inoculation (DPI), the numbers of whole blood cells (WBCs) ( = 0.010), lymphocytes (LYMs) ( = 0.002), and monocytes (MNCs) ( = 0.001) and the expression levels of IFN-γ ( = 0.013), IL-10 ( = 0.031), and IL-12p70 ( = 0.008) increased significantly in the BLV infected cows compared to the non-infected. In lactation numbers 2-4, the intervention group had significantly higher overall milk yield ( < 0.001), fat ( = 0.031), and protein ( = 0.050) than the control group, while milk SCS ( = 0.038) and lactose ( = 0.036) decreased significantly. Further analysis indicated that BLV infection was associated with increased milk yield at each lactation stage in lactation numbers 3-4 ( = 0.021 or < 0.001), but not with SCS and milk composition. Together, this 4-year longitudinal study revealed that artificial inoculation of BLV increased the milk yield in cows in this BLV challenge model.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2022.946463DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9309534PMC
July 2022

Identifying and Differentiating Topological G-Quadruplex Structures with DNA-Encoded Plasmonic Gold Nanoparticles.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2022 Jul 27:e202204201. Epub 2022 Jul 27.

Department of Chemistry, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801, USA.

DNA G-quadruplexes (G4s) have been identified as critical elements in modulating genomic functions and many other biological processes. Their functions are highly dependent on the primary nucleotides and secondary folding structures. Therefore, to understand their functions, methods to identify and differentiate structures of G4 with speed and accuracy are required but limited. In this report, we have applied a synthetic G4 DNA-encoded nanoparticle approach to identify and differentiate G4 DNA molecules with different topologies and nucleotide residues. We found that the resulting plasmonic properties of the gold nanoparticles, monitored by UV/Vis spectroscopy, are quite sensitive to different G4 structures, including stacking layers, loop sequences, capping bases on G4s, and topological structures. Through these systematic investigations, we demonstrate that this G4-encoded gold nanoparticle approach can be used to profile the G4 structures and distinguish G4s from human telomeres. Such a method may have wide applications in G4 research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.202204201DOI Listing
July 2022

Novel Pharmaceutical Strategies for Enhancing Skin Penetration of Biomacromolecules.

Pharmaceuticals (Basel) 2022 Jul 16;15(7). Epub 2022 Jul 16.

Key Laboratory of Smart Drug Delivery of MOE, School of Pharmacy, Fudan University, Shanghai 201203, China.

Skin delivery of biomacromolecules holds great advantages in the systemic and local treatment of multiple diseases. However, the densely packed stratum corneum and the tight junctions between keratinocytes stand as formidable skin barriers against the penetration of most drug molecules. The large molecular weight, high hydrophilicity, and lability nature of biomacromolecules pose further challenges to their skin penetration. Recently, novel penetration enhancers, nano vesicles, and microneedles have emerged as efficient strategies to deliver biomacromolecules deep into the skin to exert their therapeutic action. This paper reviews the potential application and mechanisms of novel skin delivery strategies with emphasis on the pharmaceutical formulations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ph15070877DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9317023PMC
July 2022

Effect of different surgical positions on intraocular pressure: a cross-sectional study.

BMC Ophthalmol 2022 Jul 26;22(1):318. Epub 2022 Jul 26.

Department of Anesthesiology, China-Japan Friendship Hospital, Beijing, 100029, People's Republic of China.

Background: Intraoperative intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation is a risk factor for postoperative blindness. Surgical position is associated with intraoperative IOP elevation. In China, there are few studies on the effect of various surgical positions on intraoperative IOP. This study was conducted to explore IOP change and its related factors in four common surgical positions in China.

Methods: This was a cross-sectional observational study. A total of 325 surgical patients who had non-ocular surgery from January 2019 to December 2019 in the hospital, were enrolled in this study. During their surgeries for general anesthesia, these participants were placed in lithotomy position/lateral position/prone position/supine position according to their surgery requirement. IOP was measured by icareTA03 handheld portable tonometer at 9 different time points from admission to exiting the operation room. And general information, postural position, and surgery information were collected through a uniform questionnaire. Multivariate analysis was performed to explore the related factors of IOP change.

Results: IOP of both eyes on lithotomy position, lateral position, and supine position showed statistical differences by ANOVA test at each time point (p < 0.05). IOP of both eyes in the prone position before exit from the operating room was significantly higher than IOP 10-min after anesthesia (p < 0.01). IOP under different postural angles showed statistical differences (F value = 4.85, P < 0.05), and the larger the head-down angle, the higher the IOP. IOP on the compressed side in the lateral position was higher than that on the non-compressed side (p < 0.01). In the multivariate linear regression analysis adjusted by other factors, postural position and baseline IOP were associated with IOP difference between before and after surgery (p < 0.01).

Conclusion: IOP in the four surgical positions showed different change patterns with the surgical process and position change. Nurses should assist the surgeon to reduce the head-down angle without interfering with the surgical operation and strengthen the inspection of IOP on patients with long-time surgery, to avoid intraoperative rapid IOP changes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12886-022-02547-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9317174PMC
July 2022

Ionic Liquids: Emerging Antimicrobial Agents.

Pharm Res 2022 Jul 25. Epub 2022 Jul 25.

Key Laboratory of Smart Drug Delivery of MOE, School of Pharmacy, Fudan University, Shanghai, 201203, China.

Antimicrobial resistance has become a serious threat to global health. New antimicrobials are thus urgently needed. Ionic liquids (ILs), salts consisting of organic cations and anions with melting points less than 100°C, have been recently found to be promising in antimicrobial field as they may disrupt the bacterial wall and membrane and consequently lead to cell leakage and death. Different types of antimicrobial ILs are introduced in the review, including cationic, polymeric, and anionic ILs. Being the main type of the antimicrobial ILs, the review focuses on the structure and the antimicrobial mechanisms of cationic ILs. The quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models of the cationic ILs are also included. Increase in alkyl chain length and lipophilicity is beneficial to increase the antimicrobial effects of cationic ILs. Polymeric ILs are homopolymers of monomer ILs or copolymers of ILs and other monomers. They have great potential in the field of antibiotics as they provide stronger antimicrobial effects than the sum of the monomer ILs. Anionic ILs are composed of existing anionic antibiotics and organic cations, being capable to enhance the solubility and bioavailability of the original form. Nonetheless, the medical application of antimicrobial ILs is limited by the toxicity. The structural optimization aided by QSAR model and combination with existing antibiotics may provide a solution to this problem and expand the application range of ILs in antimicrobial field.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11095-022-03336-5DOI Listing
July 2022

Molecular structure-tuned stability and switchability of CO-responsive oil-in-water emulsions.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2022 Jul 8;627:661-670. Epub 2022 Jul 8.

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Interfacial Science and Engineering of Materials, Southern University of Science and Technology, Shenzhen 518055, China. Electronic address:

Hypothesis: Pseudo-Gemini surfactants (PGS) possessing switchable and recyclable features have drawn increasing attention on generating high-performance CO-responsive emulsions for wide range and versatile applications. However, there is a lack of fundamental understanding on how the molecular structure of PGS affects the stability and switchability of emulsions. We hypothesize that the length and type of the spacer in PGS play a decisive role in controlling interfacial and switching properties.

Experiments: Two series of PGS with different spacers were prepared through electrostatic association between amines and oleic acid. The interfacial activity and CO-responsive properties of corresponding emulsions were systematically investigated by well-designed experiments and molecular dynamics simulations.

Findings: Increasing the spacer length to allow the bent configuration leads to more tight arrangement of oleic molecules, consequently improving the interfacial activity. In addition, the introduction of amino group into the spacer dramatically promotes CO response of resulting PGS due to ehanced migration of the spacer from the interface to the aqueous phase after CO addition. These results are inspiring in designing controllable CO-responsive emulsions for a wide range of industrial applications (e.g., enhanced oil recovery and oil-contaminated soil remediation).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2022.07.005DOI Listing
July 2022

SARM1 deletion in parvalbumin neurons is associated with autism-like behaviors in mice.

Cell Death Dis 2022 Jul 22;13(7):638. Epub 2022 Jul 22.

School of Mental Health, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, 325035, Zhejiang, China.

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD), a group of neurodevelopmental disorder diseases, is characterized by social deficits, communication difficulties, and repetitive behaviors. Sterile alpha and TIR motif-containing 1 protein (SARM1) is known as an autism-associated protein and is enriched in brain tissue. Moreover, SARM1 knockdown mice exhibit autism-like behaviors. However, its specific mechanism in ASD pathogenesis remains unclear. Here we generated parvalbumin-positive interneurons (PVI)-specific conditional SARM1 knockout (SARM1-CKO) mice. SARM1-CKO male mice showed autism-like behaviors, such as mild social interaction deficits and repetitive behaviors. Moreover, we found that the expression level of parvalbumin was reduced in SARM1-CKO male mice, together with upregulated apoptosis-related proteins and more cleaved-caspase-3-positive PVIs, suggesting that knocking out SARM1 may cause a reduction in the number of PVIs due to apoptosis. Furthermore, the expression of c-fos was shown to increase in SARM1-CKO male mice, in combination with upregulation of excitatory postsynaptic proteins such as PSD-95 or neuroligin-1, indicating enhanced excitatory synaptic input in mutant mice. This notion was further supported by the partial rescue of autism-like behavior deficits by the administration of GABA receptor agonists in SARM1-CKO male mice. In conclusion, our findings suggest that SARM1 deficiency in PVIs may be involved in the pathogenesis of ASD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41419-022-05083-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9307765PMC
July 2022

Ultrasensitive Flexible κ-Phase GaO Solar-Blind Photodetector.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2022 Aug 22;14(30):34844-34854. Epub 2022 Jul 22.

Advanced Semiconductor Laboratory, Electrical and Computer Engineering Program, CEMSE Division, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), Thuwal 23955-6900, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Flexible GaO photodetectors have attracted considerable interest owing to their potential use in the development of implantable, foldable, and wearable optoelectronics. In particular, β-phase GaO has been most widely investigated due to the highest thermodynamic stability. However, high-quality β-phase GaO relies on the ultrahigh crystallization temperature (usually ≥750 °C), beyond the thermal tolerance of most flexible substrates. In this work, we epitaxially grow a high-quality metastable κ-phase GaO (002) thin film on a flexible mica (001) substrate under 680 °C and develop a flexible κ-GaO thin film photodetector with ultrahigh performance. Epitaxial κ-GaO and the mica substrate are maintained to be thermally stable up to 750 °C, suggesting their potential for harsh environment applications. The responsivity, on/off ratio, detectivity, and external quantum efficiency of the fabricated photodetector are 703 A/W, 1.66 × 10, 4.08 × 10 Jones, and 3.49 × 10 %, respectively, for 250 nm incident light and a 20 V bias voltage. These values are record-high values reported to date for flexible GaO photodetectors. Furthermore, the flexible photodetector shows robust flexibility for bending radii of 1, 2, and 3 cm. More importantly, it shows strong mechanical stability against 10,000 bending test cycles. These results reveal the significance of high-quality κ-phase GaO grown heteroepitaxially on a flexible mica substrate, especially its potential for use in future flexible solar-blind detection systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.2c06550DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9354794PMC
August 2022

Correlations of magnetic resonance imaging classifications with preoperative functions among patients with refractory lateral epicondylitis.

BMC Musculoskelet Disord 2022 Jul 20;23(1):690. Epub 2022 Jul 20.

Sports Medicine Service, Beijing Jishuitan Hospital, No. 31, Xin Jie Kou East Street, Xi Cheng District, Beijing, China.

Background: To evaluate the correlations between three magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) classifications and preoperative function in patients with refractory lateral epicondylitis (LE).

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed patients with refractory LE who underwent arthroscopic treatment. Signal changes in the origin of the extensor carpi radialis brevis (ERCB) were evaluated based on three different MRI classification systems. Spearman's rank correlation analysis was used to analyse the correlation between each MRI classification and the preoperative functional and visual analogue scale (VAS). The lateral collateral ligament complex (LCL) in all patients was evaluated using both MRI and arthroscopy. The Mann-Whitney U test was used for the comparison of preoperative VAS and all functional scores between patients with refractory LE combined with LCL lesions, and those without.

Results: There were 51 patients diagnosed with refractory LE between June 2014 to December 2020, all of whom were included in this study. The patients included 32 women and 19 men with a mean age of 49.1 ± 7.6 years (range, 39-60 years). The average duration of symptoms was 21.1 ± 21.2 months (range, 6-120 months). The intra-observer agreements for Steinborn et al.'s classification were 77.9%, 76.0%, and 76.7%, respectively. The inter-observer reliabilities of the three classifications were 0.734, 0.751, and 0.726, respectively. The average intra-observer agreement for the diagnosis of abnormal LCL signal was 89.9%, with an overall weighted kappa value of 0.904. The false-positive rate was 50%, and the false-negative rate was 48% for LCL evaluation on MRI. Spearman's rank correlation analysis did not find significant correlation between any of the three MRI classifications and preoperative VAS or any functional scores (all P > 0.05). There were no significant differences in the VAS and functional scores between patients with abnormal LCL signals on MRI and those without LCL lesions (all P > 0.05).

Conclusions: Preoperative MRI findings in patients with refractory LE cannot reflect the severity of functional deficiency. Preoperative MRI grading of the origin of the ERCB and preoperative MRI for LCL signal change cannot assist the surgical plan for the treatment of patients with refractory LE.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12891-022-05651-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9297620PMC
July 2022

Association of Serum Pepsinogens With Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma Risk: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Front Oncol 2022 30;12:928672. Epub 2022 Jun 30.

School of Public Health, Guangdong Pharmaceutical University, Guangzhou, China.

Background: Serum pepsinogens are serological biomarkers of gastric atrophy, and the latter is a risk factor for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). However, the association of serum pepsinogens with ESCC risk remains unclear. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to assess the relationship between serum pepsinogen I (PGI) and pepsinogen I: pepsinogen II ratio (PGR) and ESCC risk.

Methods: PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science were searched for articles on the effect of serum PGI and PGR on ESCC risk, published up to the end of February 2022. Meta-analysis with a random-effect model was used to calculate pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs).

Results: Five case-control studies and three prospective studies were included. In comparison with the high categories, the low categories of serum PGI (OR: 1.92, 95% CI: 1.45-2.56) and PGR (OR: 1.70, 95% CI: 1.01-2.85) were associated with an increased risk of ESCC, although a substantial heterogeneity was observed in serum PGR ( = 60.2%, = 0.028) rather than in serum PGI ( = 46.4%, = 0.070). In stratified analysis by study quality, the significant risk effect on ESCC was remained for PGI (OR: 2.05, 95% CI: 1.48-2.84) and PGR (OR: 2.07, 95% CI: 1.17-3.75) when only the studies with high quality were pooled.

Conclusions: Based on the available studies, although limited in number, this systematic review along with meta-analysis suggests that low serum PGI and low PGR may be related to an increased risk of ESCC. This present study provides evidence for using serum pepsinogen biomarkers in predicting ESCC. More delicate well-designed cohort studies with high study quality are needed, and dose-response analysis should be performed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2022.928672DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9280489PMC
June 2022
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