Publications by authors named "Yi Jiang"

1,223 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Structural basis for inhibition of the SARS-CoV-2 RNA polymerase by suramin.

Nat Struct Mol Biol 2021 Mar 5. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

The CAS Key Laboratory of Receptor Research, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, China.

The COVID-19 pandemic caused by nonstop infections of SARS-CoV-2 has continued to ravage many countries worldwide. Here we report that suramin, a 100-year-old drug, is a potent inhibitor of the SARS-CoV-2 RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) and acts by blocking the binding of RNA to the enzyme. In biochemical assays, suramin and its derivatives are at least 20-fold more potent than remdesivir, the currently approved nucleotide drug for treatment of COVID-19. The 2.6 Å cryo-electron microscopy structure of the viral RdRp bound to suramin reveals two binding sites. One site directly blocks the binding of the RNA template strand and the other site clashes with the RNA primer strand near the RdRp catalytic site, thus inhibiting RdRp activity. Suramin blocks viral replication in Vero E6 cells, although the reasons underlying this effect are likely various. Our results provide a structural mechanism for a nonnucleotide inhibitor of the SARS-CoV-2 RdRp.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41594-021-00570-0DOI Listing
March 2021

Overexpression of SmZIP plays important roles in Cd accumulation and translocation, subcellular distribution, and chemical forms in transgenic tobacco under Cd stress.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 Mar 2;214:112097. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Tianjin Key Laboratory of Animal and Plant Resistance, College of Life Sciences, Tianjin Normal University, China. Electronic address:

Plant ZIP genes represent an important transporter family and may be involved in cadmium (Cd) accumulation and Cd resistance. In order to explore the function of SmZIP isolated from Salix matsudana, the roles of SmZIP in Cd tolerance, uptake, translocation, and distribution were determined in the present investigation. The transgenic SmZIP tobacco was found to respond to external Cd stress differently from WT tobacco by exhibiting a higher growth rate and more vigorous phenotype. The overexpression of SmZIP in tobacco resulted in the reduction of Cd stress-induced phytotoxic effects. Compared to WT tobacco, the Cd content of the root, stem, and leaf in the transgenic tobacco increased, and the zinc, iron, copper, and manganese contents also increased. The assimilation factor, translocation factor and bioconcentration factor of Cd were improved. The scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis results of the root maturation zone exposed to Cd for 24 h showed that Cd was transferred through the root epidermis, cortex, and vascular cylinder and migrated to the aboveground parts via the vascular cylinder, resulting in the transgenic tobacco accumulating more Cd than the WT plants. Based on the transverse section of the leaf main vein and leaf blade, Cd was transported through the vascular tissues to the leaves and accumulated more greatly in the leaf epidermis, but less in the leaf mesophyll cells, following the overexpression of SmZIP to reduce the photosynthetic toxicity. The overexpression of SmZIP resulted in the redistribution of Cd at the subcellular level, a decrease in the percentage of Cd in the cell wall, and an increase of the Cd in the soluble fraction in both the roots and leaves. It also changed the percentage composition of different Cd chemical forms by elevating the proportion of Cd extracted using 2% HAc and 0.6 mol/L HCl, but lowering that of the Cd extracted using 1 mol/L NaCl in both the leaves and roots under 10 and 100 μmol/L Cd stress for 28 d. The results implied that SmZIP played important roles in advancing Cd uptake, accumulation, and translocation, as well as in enhancing Cd resistance by altering the Cd subcellular distribution and chemical forms in the transgenic tobacco. The study will be useful for future phytoremediation applications to clean up Cd-contaminated soil.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2021.112097DOI Listing
March 2021

Glaciibacter flavus sp. nov., isolated from a lichen sample.

Arch Microbiol 2021 Mar 5. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Yunnan Institute of Microbiology, Key Laboratory for Conservation and Utilization of Bio-Resource, School of Life Sciences, Yunnan University, Kunming, People's Republic of China.

A novel Actinobacterium strain YIM 131861, was isolated from lichen collected from the South Bank Forest of the Baltic Sea, Germany. It was Gram-stain-positive, strictly aerobic, catalase positive and oxidase negative, yellow pigmented. Cells were motile with a polar flagellum, irregular rod shaped and did not display spore formation. The strain grew at 15 - 30 °C (optimum 25 °C), at pH 6.0 - 10.0 (optimum pH 7.0) and in the presence of 0 - 1.5% (w/v) NaCl (optimum 1%). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain YIM 131861 belonged to the genus Glaciibacter, and exhibited a high sequence similarity (96.4%) with Glaciibacter superstes NBRC 104264. The genomic DNA G + C content of strain YIM 131861 was 68.2 mol%. The average nucleotide identity (ANI) and digital DNA-DNA hybridization (dDDH) values between strain YIM 131861 and Glaciibacter superstes NBRC 104264 were 73.2 and 19.9% based on the draft genome sequence. The cell-wall peptidoglycan type was B2γ and contained the 2, 4-diaminobutyric acid as the diagnostic amino acid. Whole cell sugars were galactose, rhamnose, ribose and glucose. It contained MK-12 and MK-13 as the predominant menaquinones. The major cellular fatty acids (> 10%) were identified as anteiso-C, iso-C and anteiso-C. The polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol and two unknown glycolipids. Based on the results of phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic analyses, strain YIM 131861 should belong to the genus Glaciibacter and represents a novel species of the genus Glaciibacter, for which the name Glaciibacter flavus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is YIM 131861 (= CGMCC 1.16588 = NBRC 113572).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00203-021-02247-0DOI Listing
March 2021

Confirming and expanding the phenotypes of variants: Coloboma, inferior chorioretinal hypoplasia, and high myopia.

Mol Vis 2021 20;27:50-60. Epub 2021 Jan 20.

State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.

Purpose: Two frameshift and two indel variants in have been reported to cause coloboma in two families with incomplete penetrance and in two isolated cases in previous studies, respectively. This study aims to confirm this association and expand related specific phenotypes based on the genotype-phenotype analysis of variants.

Methods: Variants in were collected from our in-house exome sequencing data of 5,845 probands with different eye conditions. Multistep bioinformatics analysis was used to classify the variants. Potential pathogenic variants and phenotypic variations were further evaluated based on family segregation and genotype-phenotype analysis.

Results: In total, 63 rare variants were detected in Multistep bioinformatics and genotype-phenotype analyses suggested that eight rare heterozygous variants in nine families should be considered potential pathogenic variants: three novel frameshift variants (c.350_356delCGCCGCT/p.Ser117*, c.1403_1406dupACCT/p.Tyr470Profs*130, and c.1428delG/p.Ser477Alafs*130) and five novel missense variants (c.388C>A/p.Arg130Ser, c.794G>T/p.Arg265Leu, c.1162G>A/p.Gly388Ser, c.1232A>G/p.Tyr411Cys, and c.1510A>T/p.Met504Leu). Among the nine families, carriers of these variants showed overlapping phenotypes, including typical uveal coloboma (12 eyes of seven patients from four families), inferior chorioretinal hypoplasia (ICH) or optic disc hypoplasia (ODH; 12 eyes of eight patients from six families), and high myopia (10 eyes of five patients from five families) within individual families or among different families.

Conclusions: The data presented in this study confirmed that variants in not only frameshift variants but also missense variants, are a common cause of uveal coloboma. In addition, ICH, ODH, and high myopia may be variant phenotypes that are frequently associated with variants.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7883931PMC
January 2021

Morphometric Analysis of Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells From C57BL/6J Mice During Aging.

Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2021 Feb;62(2):32

Department of Ophthalmology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia, United States.

Purpose: To quantitatively evaluate the changes in orientation and morphometric features of mouse retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells in different regions of the eye during aging.

Methods: We segmented individual RPE cells from whole RPE flatmount images of C57BL/6J mice (postnatal days 30 to 720) using a machine-learning method and evaluated changes in morphometric features, including our newly developed metric combining alignment and shape of RPE cells during aging.

Results: Mainly, the anterior part of the RPE sheet grows during aging, while the posterior part remains constant. Changes in size and shape of the peripheral RPE cells are prominent with aging as cells become larger, elongated, and concave. Conversely, the central RPE cells maintain relatively constant size and numbers with aging. Cell count in the central area and the overall cell count (approximately 50,000) were relatively constant over different age groups. RPE cells also present a specific orientation concordance that matches the shape of the specific region of the eyeball. Those cells near the optic disc or equator have a circumferential orientation to cover the round shape of the eyeball, whereas those cells in the periphery have a radial orientation and corresponding radial elongation, the extent of which increases with aging and matches with axial elongation of the eyeball.

Conclusions: These results suggest that the fluid RPE morphology reflects various growth rates of underlying eyeball, and RPE cells could be classified into four regional classes (near the optic disc, central, equatorial, and peripheral) according to their morphometric features.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1167/iovs.62.2.32DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7910641PMC
February 2021

Structural insights into the human D1 and D2 dopamine receptor signaling complexes.

Cell 2021 Feb 10;184(4):931-942.e18. Epub 2021 Feb 10.

The CAS Key Laboratory of Receptor Research, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201203, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China; School of Life Science and Technology, ShanghaiTech University, Shanghai 201210, China. Electronic address:

The D1- and D2-dopamine receptors (D1R and D2R), which signal through G and G, respectively, represent the principal stimulatory and inhibitory dopamine receptors in the central nervous system. D1R and D2R also represent the main therapeutic targets for Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, and many other neuropsychiatric disorders, and insight into their signaling is essential for understanding both therapeutic and side effects of dopaminergic drugs. Here, we report four cryoelectron microscopy (cryo-EM) structures of D1R-G and D2R-G signaling complexes with selective and non-selective dopamine agonists, including two currently used anti-Parkinson's disease drugs, apomorphine and bromocriptine. These structures, together with mutagenesis studies, reveal the conserved binding mode of dopamine agonists, the unique pocket topology underlying ligand selectivity, the conformational changes in receptor activation, and potential structural determinants for G protein-coupling selectivity. These results provide both a molecular understanding of dopamine signaling and multiple structural templates for drug design targeting the dopaminergic system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2021.01.027DOI Listing
February 2021

Research progress and the biotechnological applications of multienzyme complex.

Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2021 Mar 10;105(5):1759-1777. Epub 2021 Feb 10.

School of Bioengineering, Qilu University of Technology (Shandong Academy of Sciences), Jinan, 250353, Shandong, People's Republic of China.

The multienzyme complex system has become a research focus in synthetic biology due to its highly efficient overall catalytic ability and has been applied to various fields. Multienzyme complexes are formed by cascading complexes, which are multiple functionally related enzymes that continuously and efficiently catalyze the production of substrates. Compared with current mainstream microbial cell catalytic systems, in vitro multienzyme molecular machines have many advantages, such as fewer side reactions, a high product yield, a fast reaction speed, easy product separation, a tolerable toxic environment, and robust system operability, showing increasing competitiveness in the field of biomanufacturing. In this review, the research progress of multienzyme complexes in nature and multienzyme cascades in vivo or in vitro will be introduced, and the discovered enzyme cascades concerning scaffolding proteins will also be discussed. This review is expected to provide a more theoretical basis for the modification of multienzyme complexes and broaden their application in the field of synthetic biology. KEY POINTS: • The cascade reactions of some natural multienzyme complexes are reviewed. • The main approaches of constructing artificial multienzyme complexes are summarized. • The structure and application of cellulosomes are discussed and prospected.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00253-021-11121-4DOI Listing
March 2021

Structural Design and Physical Mechanism of Axial and Radial Sandwich Resonators with Piezoelectric Ceramics: A Review.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Feb 5;21(4). Epub 2021 Feb 5.

School of Engineering, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL, UK.

Piezoelectric ceramics are inexpensive functional materials which are widely used in sonar detection, home appliances, meteorological detection, telemetry and environmental protection and other applications. Sensors fabricated from these materials are compact and have fast response characteristics. Their underlying functional methodology is based on the direct piezoelectric effect whereby very small mechanical vibration signals are converted into electrical signals. Piezoelectric resonators are based on the reverse piezoelectric effect and they are widely used for the control of precision instruments and precision machinery, microelectronic components, bioengineering devices and other in applications requiring components to provide precision control of the relevant functional mechanism. In this paper, the structural evolution and design mechanism of sandwich resonators based on piezoelectric materials are reviewed, and the advantages and disadvantages of different structures are compared and analyzed. The goal is to provide a comprehensive reference for the selection, application and promotion of piezoelectric resonators and for future structural innovation and mechanism research relevant to sandwich resonators.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s21041112DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7914847PMC
February 2021

Analysis of COVID-19 epidemic and clinical risk factors of patients under epidemiological Markov model.

Results Phys 2021 Mar 4;22:103881. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, The First Hospital of Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan 030001, China.

Objective: It aimed to analyze the epidemic situation of new coronary pneumonia (COVID-19) based on the epidemiological Markov model, and to study the clinical risk factors of the patients based on the patient's cardinal data and clinical symptoms.

Methods: A total of 500 patients with COVID-19 diagnosed by nucleic acid testing in the X hospital from January 2020 to May 2020 were collected. According to the severity of the disease, they were classified into general group (200 cases) and acute critical group (300 cases). Markov model to predict the number of COVID-19 infections was constructed. Patient's general information, clinical characteristics, and prevention methods were analyzed.

Results: According to Markov model statistics, the developmental expected stay time of patients infected with COVID-19 was 14 days. 2. The two groups of patients had statistically considerable differences in complications such as gender, age, hypertension, coronary heart disease, shortness of breath, myocardial damage, and thrombocytopenia ( < 0.05). 3. Logistic multivariate regression analysis showed that the clinical risk factors for patients with COVID-19 mainly included the patient's gender, age, whether they were associated with hypertension, coronary heart disease, shortness of breath, myocardial damage, and thrombocytopenia.

Conclusion: Markov model can be utilized to judge the time course of the COVID-19 in various development states. In addition, the COVID-19 spread rapidly and is extremely harmful. Clinically, through active prevention, the treatment effect can be improved, the patient's respiratory function, and the quality of life can also be improved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rinp.2021.103881DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7857990PMC
March 2021

Structures of the human dopamine D3 receptor-G complexes.

Mol Cell 2021 Jan 27. Epub 2021 Jan 27.

The CAS Key Laboratory of Receptor Research, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201203, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China; School of Life Science and Technology, ShanghaiTech University, 201210 Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

The dopamine system, including five dopamine receptors (D1R-D5R), plays essential roles in the central nervous system (CNS), and ligands that activate dopamine receptors have been used to treat many neuropsychiatric disorders. Here, we report two cryo-EM structures of human D3R in complex with an inhibitory G protein and bound to the D3R-selective agonists PD128907 and pramipexole, the latter of which is used to treat patients with Parkinson's disease. The structures reveal agonist binding modes distinct from the antagonist-bound D3R structure and conformational signatures for ligand-induced receptor activation. Mutagenesis and homology modeling illuminate determinants of ligand specificity across dopamine receptors and the mechanisms for G protein coupling. Collectively our work reveals the basis of agonist binding and ligand-induced receptor activation and provides structural templates for designing specific ligands to treat CNS diseases targeting the dopaminergic system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molcel.2021.01.003DOI Listing
January 2021

Low serum parathyroid hormone is a risk factor for peritonitis episodes in incident peritoneal dialysis patients: a retrospective study.

BMC Nephrol 2021 Jan 29;22(1):44. Epub 2021 Jan 29.

Renal Division, Department of Medicine, Guizhou Provincial People's Hospital, Guiyang, China.

Background: Serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels have been reported to be associated with infectious mortality in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. Peritonitis is the most common and fatal infectious complication, resulting in technique failure, hospital admission and mortality. Whether PTH is associated with peritonitis episodes remains unclear.

Methods: We examined the association of PTH levels and peritonitis incidence in a 7-year cohort of 270 incident PD patients who were maintained on dialysis between January 2012 and December 2018 using Cox proportional hazard regression analyses. Patients were categorized into three groups by serum PTH levels as follows: low-PTH group, PTH < 150 pg/mL; middle-PTH group, PTH 150-300 pg/mL; high-PTH group, PTH > 300 pg/mL.

Results: During a median follow-up of 29.5 (interquartile range 16-49) months, the incidence rate of peritonitis was 0.10 episodes per patient-year. Gram-positive organisms were the most common causative microorganisms (36.2%), and higher percentage of Gram-negative organisms was noted in patients with low PTH levels. Low PTH levels were associated with older age, higher eGFR, higher hemoglobin, calcium levels and lower phosphate, alkaline phosphatase levels. After multivariate adjustment, lower PTH levels were identified as an independent risk factor for peritonitis episodes [hazard ratio 1.643, 95% confidence interval 1.014-2.663, P = 0.044].

Conclusions: Low PTH levels are independently associated with peritonitis in incident PD patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12882-021-02241-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7847059PMC
January 2021

Fabrication of whey protein isolate-sodium alginate nanocomplex for curcumin solubilization and stabilization in a model fat-free beverage.

Food Chem 2021 Jun 19;348:129102. Epub 2021 Jan 19.

School of Public Health, Health Science Center, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen, Guangdong 518060, China. Electronic address:

The present study aimed to fabricate whey protein isolate (WPI)-sodium alginate (ALG) nanocomplexes for curcumin (CUR) stabilization in a model fat-free beverage. Mass ratio of 5:1 at pH 5.0 in the absence of NaCl was optimized for WPI-ALG nanocomplex fabrication. Mean particle size and zeta-potential of CUR-WPI-ALG nanocomplex was 209.9 nm and -39.1 mV at pH 5.0, respectively. Highest loading amount (LA) of CUR in CUR-WPI-ALG nanocomplex were 15.26 μg/mg. No obvious precipitates were observed for CUR-WPI-ALG nanocomplex under simulated food processing and storage conditions including high sucrose, high NaCl, and thermal treatment at 90 °C for 2 h. Fluorescence results confirmed that the spontaneous interaction between CUR and WPI-ALG nanocomplex was primarily motivated by hydrophobic interaction and hydrogen bonding. Compared with CUR (free), chemical stability (UV light, and heat), and DPPH scavenging capacities of CUR in CUR-WPI-ALG nanocomplex were strikingly improved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2021.129102DOI Listing
June 2021

Efficacy, Safety, and Correlative Biomarkers of Toripalimab in Previously Treated Recurrent or Metastatic Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma: A Phase II Clinical Trial (POLARIS-02).

J Clin Oncol 2021 Mar 25;39(7):704-712. Epub 2021 Jan 25.

Department of Medical Oncology of Sun Yat-Sen University Cancer Center, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Center of Cancer Medicine, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.

Purpose: As yet, no checkpoint inhibitor has been approved to treat nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). This study was aimed to evaluate the antitumor activity, safety, and biomarkers of toripalimab, a new programmed death-1 (PD-1) inhibitor for recurrent or metastatic NPC (RM-NPC) refractory to standard chemotherapy.

Patients And Methods: In this single-arm, multicenter phase II study, patients with RM-NPC received 3 mg/kg toripalimab once every 2 weeks via intravenous infusion until confirmed disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. The primary end point was objective response rate (ORR). The secondary end points included safety, duration of response (DOR), progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS).

Results: Among all 190 patients, the ORR was 20.5% with median DOR 12.8 months, median PFS 1.9 months, and median OS 17.4 months. Among 92 patients who failed at least two lines of systemic chemotherapy, the ORR was 23.9%. The ORRs were 27.1% and 19.4% in PD-L1+ and PD-L1- patients, respectively ( = .31). Patients with ≥ 50% decrease of plasma Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA copy number on day 28 had significantly better ORR than those with < 50% decrease, 48.3% versus 5.7% ( = .0001). Tumor mutational burden had a median value of 0.95 muts/mega-base in the cohort and had no predictive value for response. Whole-exome sequencing results from 174 patients revealed that the patients with genomic amplification in region or genomic alterations had poor responses to toripalimab.

Conclusion: The POLARIS-02 study demonstrated a manageable safety profile and durable clinical response of toripalimab in patients with chemorefractory metastatic NPC. An early decrease in plasma EBV DNA copy number correlated with favorable response.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.20.02712DOI Listing
March 2021

Frequency-upconverted Stimulated Emission by Up to Six-photon Excitation from Highly Extended Spiro-fused Ladder-type Oligo(p-phenylene)s.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2021 Jan 21. Epub 2021 Jan 21.

Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Institute of Advanced Materials (IAM), 9 Wenyuan Road, 210023, Nanjing, CHINA.

The frequency-upconverted fluorescence and stimulated emission induced by multi-photon absorption (MPA) have attracted much interest. As compared with low-order MPA process, the construction of high-order MPA process is highly desirable and rather attractive, yet remains a formidable challenge due to its inherent low transition probability. Herein, we report the observation of the first experimental frequency-upconverted fluorescence and stimulated emission by simultaneous six-photon excitation in organic molecular system. The well designed organic conjugated system based on cross-shaped spiro-fused ladder-type oligo(p-phenylene)s (SpL-z, z=1-3) manifests quite high MPA cross-sections and brilliant luminescence emission simultaneously. The six-photon absorption cross-section of SpL-3 with an extended π-conjugation was evaluated as 8.67 × 10-169 cm12 s5 photon-5. Exceptionally efficient 2- to 6-photon excited stimulated emission have been achieved under near-infrared laser excitation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.202100542DOI Listing
January 2021

Effects of Femtosecond Laser-Assisted Cataract Surgery on Macular and Choroidal Thickness in Diabetic Patients.

Ophthalmol Ther 2021 Mar 19;10(1):137-150. Epub 2021 Jan 19.

Department of Ophthalmology, Tongji Hospital Affiliated to Tongji University, Shanghai, 200065, China.

Introduction: This study aimed to compare the short-term changes in retinal and choroid thickness in diabetic patients after femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery (FLACS) and phacoemulsification (PE) surgery.

Methods: A total of 47 eyes in the PE group and 44 eyes in the FLACS group were included. All patients underwent measurement of central macular thickness (CMT) and subfoveal choroidal thickness (SFCT) before and after surgery using optical coherence tomography (OCT).

Results: The effective phaco time (EPT) in the FLACS group was significantly reduced. The BCVA differed significantly between the two groups at 1 week and 1 month after surgery. The CMT in both groups increased at 1 week after the operation. It did not return to the preoperative level until month 12 in the PE group. In the FLACS group, the CMT began to decrease at month 3 and recovered to the preoperative level at month 12. The SFCT of the two groups increased at week 1; it began to decrease at month 6 in the PE group but did not recover to the preoperative level until month 12. The SFCT in the FLACS group recovered to preoperative levels at month 6. In the PE group, baseline CMT values predicted CMT change at week 1 and months 1, 3 and 12 after surgery. In the FLACS group, baseline CMT predicted CMT changes at week 1, month 1 and month 3. In the FLACS group, EPT predicted SFCT change at month 3.

Conclusion: FLACS is safe and effective in patients with no fundus change or mild diabetic retinopathy. It has advantages in effectively reducing EPT, achieving good vision earlier and promoting faster recovery of the retinal and choroidal thickness. Preoperative CMT is a significant predictor of CMT changes in the early period after FLACS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40123-020-00326-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7887143PMC
March 2021

The relevance to social interaction modulates bistable biological-motion perception.

Cognition 2021 Jan 12;209:104584. Epub 2021 Jan 12.

CAS Key Laboratory of Behavioral Science, Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China; Department of Psychology, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China; State Key Laboratory of Brain and Cognitive Science, Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China. Electronic address:

Social interaction, the process through which individuals act and react toward each other, is arguably the building block of society. As the very first step for successful social interaction, we need to derive the orientation and immediate social relevance of other people: a person facing toward us is much more likely to initiate communications than a person who is back to us. Reversely, however, it remains elusive whether the relevance to social interaction modulates how we perceive the other's orientation. Here, we adopted the bistable point-light walker (PLW) which is ambiguous in its in-depth orientation. Participants were asked to report the orientation (facing the viewer or facing away from the viewer) of the PLWs. Three factors that are task-irrelevant but critically pertinent to social interaction, the distance, the speed, and the size of the PLW, were systematically manipulated. The nearer a person is, the more likely it initiates interactions with us. The larger a person is, the larger influence it may exert. The faster a person is, the shorter time is left for us to respond. Results revealed that participants tended to perceive the PLW as facing them more frequently than facing away when the PLW was nearer, faster, or larger. These same factors produced different patterns of effects on a non-biological rotating cylinder. These findings demonstrate that the relevance to social interaction modulates the visual perception of biological motion and highlight that bistable biological motion perception not only reflects competitions of low-level features but is also strongly linked to high-level social cognition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2021.104584DOI Listing
January 2021

PTEN Expression in Human Granulosa Cells Is Associated with Ovarian Responses and Clinical Outcomes in IVF.

Reprod Sci 2021 Jan 13. Epub 2021 Jan 13.

The School of Basic Medical Sciences, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, People's Republic of China.

The ovarian reserve determines the success of in vitro fertilization (IVF) and embryo transfer treatment. It predicts the ovarian response in controlled ovarian hyperstimulation cycles. Apoptosis in granulosa cells surrounding oocytes is important for ovarian function and has been closely associated with follicular atresia. PTEN (encoding phosphatase and tensin homolog) is a well-known tumor suppressor gene that functions as a mediator of apoptosis and is crucial for mammal reproduction. In the present study, we analyzed the expression level of PTEN in human granulosa cells and aimed to investigate its association with the ovarian response and clinical outcomes in IVF. Apoptosis in granulosa cells were analyzed using Annexin V-Allophycocyanin staining after PTEN short hairpin RNA lentivirus transfection. Real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR analysis showed that the PTEN transcript level was significantly higher in poor responders and significantly lower in high responders, compared with that in normal responders. However, PTEN expression in the pregnancy group decreased slightly, but not significantly, compared with that in the non-pregnancy group. The apoptosis rate of granulosa cells declined significantly after 24-h transfection of the PTEN-shRNA lentivirus. These results suggest a fundamental role of PTEN in the regulation of follicular development, and that it might be involved in the pathogenesis of follicular dysplasia and ovarian dysfunction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s43032-020-00429-7DOI Listing
January 2021

G protein-coupled receptors: structure- and function-based drug discovery.

Signal Transduct Target Ther 2021 Jan 8;6(1). Epub 2021 Jan 8.

The National Center for Drug Screening, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 201203, Shanghai, China.

As one of the most successful therapeutic target families, G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) have experienced a transformation from random ligand screening to knowledge-driven drug design. We are eye-witnessing tremendous progresses made recently in the understanding of their structure-function relationships that facilitated drug development at an unprecedented pace. This article intends to provide a comprehensive overview of this important field to a broader readership that shares some common interests in drug discovery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41392-020-00435-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7790836PMC
January 2021

Structures of the glucocorticoid-bound adhesion receptor GPR97-G complex.

Nature 2021 01 6;589(7843):620-626. Epub 2021 Jan 6.

Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Peking University, Key Laboratory of Molecular Cardiovascular Science, Ministry of Education, Beijing, China.

Adhesion G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are a major family of GPCRs, but limited knowledge of their ligand regulation or structure is available. Here we report that glucocorticoid stress hormones activate adhesion G-protein-coupled receptor G3 (ADGRG3; also known as GPR97), a prototypical adhesion GPCR. The cryo-electron microscopy structures of GPR97-G complexes bound to the anti-inflammatory drug beclomethasone or the steroid hormone cortisol revealed that glucocorticoids bind to a pocket within the transmembrane domain. The steroidal core of glucocorticoids is packed against the 'toggle switch' residue W, which senses the binding of a ligand and induces activation of the receptor. Active GPR97 uses a quaternary core and HLY motif to fasten the seven-transmembrane bundle and to mediate G protein coupling. The cytoplasmic side of GPR97 has an open cavity, where all three intracellular loops interact with the G protein, contributing to the high basal activity of GRP97. Palmitoylation at the cytosolic tail of the G protein was found to be essential for efficient engagement with GPR97 but is not observed in other solved GPCR complex structures. Our work provides a structural basis for ligand binding to the seven-transmembrane domain of an adhesion GPCR and subsequent G protein coupling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-03083-wDOI Listing
January 2021

Complications of Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography in Patients With Previous Bariatric Surgery: A National Inpatient Sample Analysis, 2007-2013.

J Clin Gastroenterol 2021 Jan 5;Publish Ahead of Print. Epub 2021 Jan 5.

Department of Medicine Department of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Rutgers New Jersey Medical School, Newark, NJ Section of Digestive Diseases, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT.

Background: Bariatric surgery (BS) has been proven to be effective in the treatment of obesity and weight-related diseases, but the anatomic changes after BS make endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) technically challenging. This study aims to assess the safety and clinical outcomes of ERCP in patients with previous BS.

Materials And Methods: The National Inpatient Sample from 2007 to 2013 was queried for hospitalizations of adults over 18 years of age with procedure diagnoses of ERCP. Those with prior BS were selected as cases and those without BS as controls. Case-control matching at a ratio of 1 case to 2 controls was performed based on sex, age, race, comorbidities, and obesity. The primary outcomes were inpatient mortality and ERCP-related complications. Multivariate regression analysis was used to identify independent risk factors associated to the primary outcomes.

Results: A total of 1,068,862 weighted hospitalizations with ERCP procedure codes were identified. Of these, 6689 with BS were selected as cases, and 13,246 were matched as controls. The reason for hospital admission was most often biliary stone disease (60.7% vs. 55.5%), followed by malignancy (3.5% vs. 12.1%) and cholangitis (7.7% vs. 4.5%) with and without BS, P<0.05. The BS group had lower rates of post-ERCP pancreatitis (0.1% vs. 1.3%), cholecystitis (0.1% vs. 0.3%), bleeding (1.0% vs. 1.4%), and inpatient mortality (0.2% vs. 0.5%), but had higher rates of cholangitis (5.0% vs. 3.7%) and systemic infections (6.2% vs. 4.8%), all P<0.05.

Conclusions: BS group had lower post-ERCP pancreatitis, cholecystitis and bleeding while had more cholangitis, and systemic infection compared with those without BS. Also, BS was independently associated with reduced inpatient mortality after adjusted for age, race, and comorbidity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MCG.0000000000001483DOI Listing
January 2021

Laparoscopic-Assisted Longitudinal Incision and Transverse Anastomosis: A Novel Surgical Approach for Treatment of Esophageal Stenosis Caused by Tracheobronchial Remnants.

J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A 2021 Jan 5. Epub 2021 Jan 5.

Department of Pediatric Surgery, Xinhua Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

To review the treatment of lower congenital esophageal stenosis caused by tracheobronchial remnants (TBR) and to introduce a novel technical approach through laparoscopic surgery. Patients with TBR who underwent surgery in our single-center from January 2016 to December 2019 were enrolled. Resection of cartilage with stenotic esophageal segment and end-to-end anastomosis was the traditional surgery. Since 2018, longitudinal incision with partial resection of cartilage loop in the anterior esophageal wall and the transverse suture was conducted endoscopically. We reviewed the treatment, followed-up with these patients, and discussed the new procedure's preponderance. Thirteen patients underwent surgery and were followed-up for 0.5-45 months ( = 13) after surgery. Twelve patients showed good physical development with a regular diet. One patient, who was 2 weeks after the surgery, was fed by a soft diet and regularly followed-up at our clinic. In 13 cases, five patients underwent traditional laparotomy with pyloroplasty. Two patients who went through anastomotic leakage were cured by drainage and conservative treatments. Anastomotic stricture that occurred in two cases was improved by one-time of dilation. The administration time of parenteral nutrition (PN) was 9.0 ± 1.4 days. The length of hospitalization was 36.6 ± 5.2 days. Eight cases underwent the new surgical approach through laparoscopy or thoracoscopy. Pyloroplasty was avoided since the vagal close to the posterior wall of the esophagus was protected. Gastric motility disorder did not occur as expected. No leakage occurred postoperatively. The anastomotic stricture was found in six cases and improved after one to five times of dilations. The length of hospitalization dropped to 18.6 ± 6.9 days significantly ( < .001). Longitudinal incision and transverse anastomosis of the anterior wall of the esophagus with partial resection of cartilage without pyloroplasty through endoscopy is a novel practical surgical approach to treat patients with TBR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/lap.2020.0644DOI Listing
January 2021

Broadband X-ray ptychography using multi-wavelength algorithm.

J Synchrotron Radiat 2021 Jan 1;28(Pt 1):309-317. Epub 2021 Jan 1.

Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, IL 60439, USA.

Ptychography is a rapidly developing scanning microscopy which is able to view the internal structures of samples at a high resolution beyond the illumination size. The achieved spatial resolution is theoretically dose-limited. A broadband source can provide much higher flux compared with a monochromatic source; however, it conflicts with the necessary coherence requirements of this coherent diffraction imaging technique. In this paper, a multi-wavelength reconstruction algorithm has been developed to deal with the broad bandwidth in ptychography. Compared with the latest development of mixed-state reconstruction approach, this multi-wavelength approach is more accurate in the physical model, and also considers the spot size variation as a function of energy due to the chromatic focusing optics. Therefore, this method has been proved in both simulation and experiment to significantly improve the reconstruction when the source bandwidth, illumination size and scan step size increase. It is worth mentioning that the accurate and detailed information of the energy spectrum for the incident beam is not required in advance for the proposed method. Further, we combine multi-wavelength and mixed-state approaches to jointly solve temporal and spatial partial coherence in ptychography so that it can handle various disadvantageous experimental effects. The significant relaxation in coherence requirements by our approaches allows the use of high-flux broadband X-ray sources for high-efficient and high-resolution ptychographic imaging.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1107/S1600577520014708DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7842233PMC
January 2021

IGF2BP1 overexpression stabilizes PEG10 mRNA in an m6A-dependent manner and promotes endometrial cancer progression.

Theranostics 2021 1;11(3):1100-1114. Epub 2021 Jan 1.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Peking Union Medical College, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, No. 1 Shuaifuyuan, Dongcheng District, Beijing 100010, China.

N6-methyladenosine (mA) mRNA methylation is the most abundant chemical posttranscriptional modification in mRNA and is involved in the regulation of a number of biological processes. Insulin-like growth factor 2 mRNA-binding protein 1 (IGF2BP1) has recently been reported as having the capacity to recognize mA sites in mRNA and plays a role in regulating mRNA metabolization. However, it is unclear which genes IGF2BP1 targets to identify mA sites and what are their respective functions in endometrial cancer (EC). Quantitative PCR, western blot and immunohistochemistry were used to measure IGF2BP1 expression in EC cell lines and tissues. Xenograft experiments were performed to examine the role of IGF2BP1 in EC cell growth. RNA-binding protein immunoprecipitation sequencing, methylated RNA-binding protein immunoprecipitation sequencing and RNA-sequencing were also conducted to identify potential IGF2BP1 targets involved in EC regulation. Co-immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry were used to identify IGF2BP1-interacting proteins. IGF2BP1 expression increased in EC, and high expression of this protein correlated with poor prognosis. IGF2BP1 overexpression/knockdown can promote (and inhibit) cell proliferation and regulate the tumor cell cycle and cancer progression, both and . Mechanistically, IGF2BP1 can recognize mA sites in the 3' untranslated region (3'UTR) of Paternally Expressed Gene 10 (PEG10) mRNA and recruits polyadenylate-binding protein 1 (PABPC1) to enhance PEG10 mRNA stability, which consequently promotes PEG10 protein expression. Additionally, it would appear that a large number of PEG10 proteins bind p16 and p18 gene promoter sequences, thereby repressing expression and accelerating the cell cycle. This investigation found that IGF2BP1 has a crucial role in the mA-dependent regulatory mechanism for endometrial cancer. This study provides new insights into our understanding of disease progression and provides another potential route for understanding biological functions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/thno.49345DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7738899PMC
January 2021

The V617I Substitution in Avian Coronavirus IBV Spike Protein Plays a Crucial Role in Adaptation to Primary Chicken Kidney Cells.

Front Microbiol 2020 18;11:604335. Epub 2020 Dec 18.

Poultry Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Yangzhou, China.

The naturally isolated avian coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) generally cannot replicate in chicken kidney (CK) cells. To explore the molecular mechanism of IBV adapting to CK cells, a series of recombinant viruses were constructed by chimerizing the S genes of CK cell-adapted strain H120 and non-adapted strain IBYZ. The results showed that the S2 subunit determines the difference in cell tropism of the two strains. After comparing the amino acid sequences of S protein of CK cell-adapted strain YZ120, with its parental strain IBYZ, three amino acid substitutions, A138V, L581F, and V617I, were identified. Using YZ120 as the backbone, one or more of the above-mentioned substitutions were eliminated to verify the correlation between these sites and CK cell tropism. The results showed that the CK cell tropism of the YZ120 strain depends on the V617I substitution, the change of L581F promoted the adaptation in CK cells, and the change at 138 position was not directly related to the CK cell tropism. Further validation experiments also showed that V617I had a decisive role in the adaptation of IBV to CK cells, but other areas of the virus genome also affected the replication efficiency of the virus in CK cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2020.604335DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7775488PMC
December 2020

Paracoccus lichenicola sp. nov., Isolated from Lichen.

Curr Microbiol 2021 Feb 3;78(2):816-821. Epub 2021 Jan 3.

Yunnan Institute of Microbiology, Key Laboratory for Conservation and Utilization of Bio-Resource, School of Life Sciences, Yunnan University, Kunming, People's Republic of China.

Strain YIM 132242, isolated from lichen collected from Pu'er, Yunnan Province, China, was short-rod-shaped, Gram-reaction-negative, aerobic, catalase- and oxidase-positive. Growth of the strain was occurred at 10-39 °C (optimum, 28-35 °C), at pH 4.0-10.0 (optimum, pH 7.0-8.0) and at salinities of 0-8% (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 0-2%). Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain YIM 132242 belonged to the genus Paracoccus and had the highest levels of sequence similarity to Paracoccus aerius KCTC 42845 (97.0% similarity), Paracoccus sediminis CMB17 (96.8% similarity), and Paracoccus fontiphilus MVW-1 (96.4% similarity). The major fatty acid was identified as C ω7c (77.6%). The predominant respiratory quinone was ubiquinone-10 (Q-10). Polar lipid analysis indicated the presence of phosphatidylglycerol (PG), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylcholine (PC), diphosphatidylglycerol (DPG), an unidentified lipid (L), and three unidentified phospholipids (PL1-PL3). Based on the draft genome sequence, the DNA G + C content of the strain was 67.1 mol%, and the values of average nucleotide identity (ANI) and digital DNA-DNA hybridization (dDDH) of strain YIM 132242 with Paracoccus aerius KCTC 42845 were 85.4% and 29.1%, respectively. On the basis of the data from this polyphasic characterization, strain YIM 132242 represents a novel species of the genus Paracoccus, for which the name Paracoccus lichenicola sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is YIM 132242 (= KCTC 72463 = CGMCC1.17191).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00284-020-02321-8DOI Listing
February 2021

[Regulation Control of a Tribasic Amendment on the Chemical Fractions of Cd and As in Paddy Soil and Their Accumulation in Rice].

Huan Jing Ke Xue 2021 Jan;42(1):378-385

College of Environment Science and Engineering, Central South University of Forestry and Technology, Changsha 410004, China.

A pot experiment was conducted to identify the effect of a tribasic amendment (limestone+diatomite+ferric sulfate, LDF) on chemical fractions of Cd and As in paddy soils and their accumulation in brown rice. LDF was set to seven levels (0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, 8.0, and 16.0 g·kg) based on the quality ratio, and two genotypes of rice were planted (Huanghuazhan and T-you 272). The results show that:① The application of LDF increased the rhizosphere soil pH of two varieties of rice, Huanghuazhan and T-you 272, by 0.01-0.42 and 0.11-0.54, respectively, and decreased the concentrations of EX-Cd by 11.1%-61.1% and 26.5%-52.9%, respectively, and the concentrations of EX-As by 8.2%-60.0% and 5.6%-49.9%, respectively. ② Application of LDF promoted the transformation of soil Cd and As from soluble to insoluble forms. Although the trends of the rhizosphere soils of the two rice varieties were not consistent, the application of LDF could decrease the proportion of EX-Cd and increase the proportion of Fe/Mn-Cd, Org-Cd, and O-Cd, which was accompanied by the reduction of the proportion of EX-As and an increase in the proportion of Ca-As. ③ The concentrations of Cd, As, and Fe in the iron plaque decreased by applying LDF, while the concentration of Mn increased, and the maximum increase of Mn could reach 124.2%. ④ Application of LDF decreased the concentrations of Cd in brown rice of the two varieties of rice by 64.6% and 65.9%, respectively, and decreased that of As by 37.0% and 42.5%, respectively. The effect on the concentrations of inorganic As was not significant. When the application amount of LDF was 2-16 g·kg, the concentrations of Cd and inorganic As in T-you 272 brown rice were both under 0.2 mg·kg, and when the application amount was 16 g·kg, the concentrations of Cd and inorganic As in Huanghuazhan brown rice were both under 0.2 mg·kg. In actual agricultural production, the application amount of LDF can be adjusted according to the soil pollution levels and the rice varieties.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.13227/j.hjkx.202006126DOI Listing
January 2021

Current Status and Challenges of Community-Based Elderly Care Centers in Chongqing, China: A Cross-Sectional Study.

Risk Manag Healthc Policy 2020 14;13:2975-2983. Epub 2020 Dec 14.

School of Public Health and Management, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: China is facing various societal pressures owing to its rapidly aging population. In order to provide evidence-based suggestions to promote elderly care, this study investigated the community-based elderly care centres (CBECCs) in Chongqing of China, focusing on the site selections, physical environment, facilities, and operation.

Methods: All CBECCs in a district of Chongqing were analysed via a single-stage cluster sampling survey design. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse the data.

Results: A total of 69 CBECCs (60 government-run and 9 collective-run centres) were identified and analysed. Most site selections were reasonable. CBECCs that were located inside of apartment complexes with entrance guards, not located on main roads, and near a market were more popular. Only 4 (13.3%) CBECCs that were not located on the ground floor were equipped with elevators. A small number of CBECCs were near a noise pollution (10.1%) or far from a medical institution (11.6%). Nearly half (42.7%) of CBECCs only had an indoor area of <200 m2. Nearly all CBECCs had sufficient ventilation, natural lighting, and sufficient floor-to-floor height. 51.5% and 88.4% of the CBECCs fully met the criteria of 'four rooms and one canteen' and 'eight functional zones', but no significant difference was found in terms of the number of people served per month between the CBECCs that met the criteria and those that did not. A quarter of the CBECCs were operated by part-time staff. Only half provided home services (54.5%). The median of average number of people they served every month was 100 (interquartile range = 10-300).

Conclusion: Certain problems existed in the current CBECCs. Better elderly care especially calls for adequate elevator establishment, sufficient indoor and outdoor space, appropriate facilities and service, qualified managers and caregivers. A feasible and evidence-based plan to optimize the physical environment and facilities, functional layout and service provision is crucial to improve the CBECC service.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/RMHP.S283145DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7754266PMC
December 2020

Protective Effect of Retrograde Reperfusion Against Hepatic Autophagy Impairment in Rat Liver Transplantation.

Transplant Proc 2021 Jan-Feb;53(1):443-449. Epub 2020 Dec 25.

Department of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery, 900th Hospital of PLA, Fuzhou, China. Electronic address:

The retrograde reperfusion (RTR) technique was introduced in orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) to improve initial postoperative liver function, but the related mechanisms remain unexplained. We investigated the influences of different reperfusion sequences, including initial portal reperfusion (IPR) and RTR, on hepatic ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury and autophagic activity in a simplified rat orthotopic liver transplantation (ROLT) model.

Methods: First, we established an ROLT model of male Sprague-Dawley rats to simulate either the IPR or RTR technique. The operative times and survival rates until postoperative day (POD) 7 were recorded. Liver enzyme levels, histologic damage, and in situ apoptosis were assessed. Second, we evaluated differences in the autophagic flux of liver grafts at 1, 2, and 6 hours after reperfusion between the IPR and RTR techniques. All experimental procedures involving animals were approved by the Institutional Animal Ethics Committee of the 900th Hospital of PLA.

Results: In the first experiment, all animals survived to POD 7. In contrast to the IPR sequence, the RTR technique decreased the extent of graft I/R injury. In the second experiment, reperfusion markedly impaired the autophagic flux of ischemic liver grafts, but the RTR technique could alleviate and postpone the reduction in autophagy after I/R.

Conclusions: A feasible modified ROLT model with the cuff method was described and could flexibly simulate 2 reperfusion techniques: IPR and RTR. The use of the RTR sequence exhibited a protective effect against I/R injury and impairment of autophagy in liver grafts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.transproceed.2020.10.010DOI Listing
December 2020

Idiopathic Terminal Ileal Ulceration Mimicking Crohn's in the Setting of Antiretroviral Therapy Initiation.

ACG Case Rep J 2020 Dec 16;7(12):e00489. Epub 2020 Dec 16.

Department of Medicine, Rutgers New Jersey Medical School, Newark, NJ.

Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has precipitously decreased the morbidity associated with human immunodeficiency virus but can unmask and exacerbate opportunistic infections and autoimmune diseases. Various diseases have been reported in association with ART initiation, but there is scant literature describing inflammatory colitis in the setting of ART initiation. We present a 39-year-old man with chronic untreated human immunodeficiency virus and central nervous system toxoplasmosis who developed persistent diarrhea after initiation of ART. A comprehensive infectious workup was negative. Computed tomography demonstrated terminal ileum enteritis, which was confirmed by colonoscopy. Biopsy of the terminal ileum revealed fibrinous exudate and granulation tissue.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14309/crj.0000000000000489DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7748168PMC
December 2020

Risk factors associated with 28-day all-cause mortality in older severe COVID-19 patients in Wuhan, China: a retrospective observational study.

Sci Rep 2020 12 22;10(1):22369. Epub 2020 Dec 22.

Department of Emergency, First Affiliated Hospital of Dalian Medical University, 222 Zhongshan Road, Xigang District, Dalian, 116011, Liaoning, China.

We aimed to analyse clinical characteristics and identify risk factors predicting all-cause mortality in older patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). A total of 281 older patients with severe COVID-19 were categorized into two age groups (60-79 years and ≥ 80 years). Epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory data, and outcome were obtained. Patients aged ≥ 80 years had higher mortality (63.6%) than those aged 60-79 years (33.5%). Anorexia and comorbidities including hypertension, diabetes and COPD, higher levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), osmotic pressure, C-reactive protein, D-dimer, high-sensitivity troponin I and procalcitonin, and higher SOFA scores were more common in patients aged > 80 years than those aged 60-79 years and also more common and higher in non-survivors than survivors. LDH, osmotic pressure, C-reactive protein, D-dimer, high-sensitivity troponin I, and procalcitonin were positively correlated with age and sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA), whereas CD8+ and lymphocyte counts were negatively correlated with age and SOFA. Anorexia, comorbidities including hypertension, diabetes, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), LDH, osmotic pressure, and SOFA were significantly associated with 28-day all-cause mortality. LDH, osmotic pressure and SOFA were valuable for predicting 28-day all-cause mortality, whereas the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of LDH was the largest, with sensitivity of 86.0% and specificity of 80.8%. Therefore, patients with severe COVID-19 aged ≥ 80 years had worse condition and higher mortality than did those aged 60-79 years, and anorexia and comorbidities including hypertension, diabetes, COPD, elevated plasma osmotic pressure, LDH, and high SOFA were independent risk factors associated with 28-day all-cause mortality in older patients with severe COVID-19. LDH may have the highest predictive value for 28-day all-cause mortality in all examined factors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-79508-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7755901PMC
December 2020