Publications by authors named "Yi Cui"

767 Publications

Revisiting the Grain and Valence Effect of Oxide-Derived Copper on Electrocatalytic CO Reduction Using Single Crystal Cu(111) Foils.

J Phys Chem Lett 2021 Apr 19:3941-3950. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Soochow Institute for Energy and Materials Innovations, College of Energy, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006, P. R. China.

Oxide-derived Cu (OD-Cu) has been viewed as a highly active form for catalyzing the multielectron transfer of electrochemical CO reduction, but the underlying catalytic mechanism is still controversial. In the current study, the crystalline and valency factors that influence the COR activities of OD-Cu are revisited by employing single crystal Cu(111) foils that exclude convolutions from initial morphological and crystallographic heterogeneity. We observe that the overall COR performance, especially the CH selectivity, correlates well with the initial oxidation level of the Cu(111) foil, of which the surface oxide layer is reduced into small fragments comprising rich grain boundaries and diversely orientated facets. Nonetheless, we find that the polycrystallinity and grain boundaries of OD-Cu, in this circumstance, are not the major causes of the observed activity enhancement. Instead, a transition state between the initial oxide and the finally reduced copper phases, as well as its longevity, dictates the catalytic property of OD-Cu in electrochemical CO reduction. Consequently, this work furnishes further evidence and in-depth understanding to help clarify the catalytic mechanism of OD-Cu in COR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jpclett.1c00588DOI Listing
April 2021

Autophagy-Related Long Non-coding RNA Signature as Indicators for the Prognosis of Uveal Melanoma.

Front Genet 2021 1;12:625583. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Ophthalmology, Fujian Provincial Hospital, Shengli Clinical Medical College, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, China.

This study aimed to develop an autophagy-associated long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) signature to predict the prognostic outcomes of uveal melanoma (UM). The data of UM from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) were enrolled to obtain differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between metastasizing and non-metastasizing UM patients. A total of 13 differentially expressed autophagy genes were identified and validated in Gene Expression Omnibus, and 11 autophagy-related lncRNAs were found to be associated with overall survival. Through performing least absolute shrinkage and selection operator regression analyses, a six-autophagy-related lncRNA signature was built, and its efficacy was confirmed by receiver-operating characteristic, Kaplan-Meier analysis, and univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses. A comprehensive nomogram was established and its clinical net benefit was validated by decision curve analysis. GSEA revealed that several biological processes and signaling pathways including Toll-like receptor signaling pathway, natural killer cell-mediated cytotoxicity, and B- and T-cell receptor signaling pathway were enriched in the high-risk group. CIBERSORT results showed that the signature was related to the immune response especially HLA expression. This signature could be deployed to assist clinicians to identify high-risk UM patients and help scientists to explore the molecular mechanism of autophagy-related lncRNAs in UM pathogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2021.625583DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8047156PMC
April 2021

Nanotwinning and tensile behavior in cold-welded high-entropy-alloy nanowires.

Nanotechnology 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi, 4648603, JAPAN.

Since the fabrication technique for high-entropy alloy (HEA) nanowires/nanopillars is still at its infancy, neither experimental nor modeling efforts on their cold-welding performance have been reported. Based on insights accumulated in our previous experiments and simulations regarding cold-welded metallic nanowires, in this study, the cold-welding performance of HEA nanowires is probed by atomistic simulations. Among different materials, our simulations reveal that multiple twinned structures are formed in CoCrMnFeNi samples, but not in CoCrCuFeNi or Ni samples. The larger fracture strain in certain HEAs is due to the improved ductility around fracturing area as well as multiple twinning. Unlike in Ni samples, the fracture strains in HEA samples, regardless of being cuboid or cylindrical, are improved by shrinking the sample size. Among different orientations, the [010]-direction monocrystalline nanowires fail at a strain over 0.6, which almost doubles that of the [111] direction. The fracture strains in polycrystalline HEA samples are, on average, larger than those in polycrystalline Ni samples. Furthermore, fracture strains in randomly generated polycrystalline HEA samples are more predictable than those in polycrystalline Ni samples with identical grain configuration. Like previously reported, dislocation emission is still a prerequisite to fracture in all cold-welded samples.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-6528/abf7ebDOI Listing
April 2021

Efficacy of Acupuncture for Herpes Zoster: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Complement Med Res 2021 Apr 6:1-10. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

College of Life Sciences, Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang, China.

Introduction: This study aimed to assess the efficacy of acupuncture in patients with herpes zoster (HZ) based on current randomized clinical trials (RCTs).

Methods: Five databases were screened for RCTs published until August 2019. Studies that assessed the efficacy of acupuncture when used as an independent intervention for HZ were included. The outcomes of interest were pain intensity, as assessed using the visual analog scale (VAS), incrustation time, decrustation time, and incidence of post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN).

Results: In total, 21 RCTs were included in this research. Compared with antiviral therapy, acupuncture was associated with a reduction in VAS score by 16.13, incrustation time by 1.86 days, decrustation time by 2.19 days, and incidence of PHN by 83%. According to a meta-regression analysis, the main sources of heterogeneity were sample size and duration of treatment. There was no publication bias except on decrustation time. A sensitivity analysis showed that the outcomes were relatively stable and reliable.

Conclusion: Acupuncture may be effective for patients with HZ. Nevertheless, this finding should be validated by conducting high-quality trials with a larger sample size.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000515138DOI Listing
April 2021

Air-Filtering Masks for Respiratory Protection from PM and Pandemic Pathogens.

One Earth 2020 Nov;3(5):574-589

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA.

Air-filtering masks, also known as respirators, protect wearers from inhaling fine particulate matter (PM) in polluted air, as well as airborne pathogens during a pandemic, such as the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. Fibrous medium, used as the filtration layer, is the most essential component of an air-filtering mask. This article presents an overview of the development of fibrous media for air filtration. We first synthesize the literature on several key factors that affect the filtration performance of fibrous media. We then concentrate on two major techniques for fabricating fibrous media, namely, meltblown and electrospinning. In addition, we underscore the importance of electret filters by reviewing various methods for imparting electrostatic charge on fibrous media. Finally, this article concludes with a perspective on the emerging research opportunities amid the COVID-19 crisis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.oneear.2020.10.014DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7962856PMC
November 2020

Association of homocysteine with ankylosing spondylitis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Adv Rheumatol 2021 Mar 10;61(1):17. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, 53715, USA.

Background: Hyperhomocysteinemia is associated with autoimmune diseases such as ankylosing spondylitis (AS), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Current findings regarding plasma/serum homocysteine (HCY) levels in AS patients are inconsistent. This study aims to systematically evaluate the association between circulating HCY levels and AS.

Methods: Online electronic databases (PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, ScienceDirect, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and Wanfang data) were used to retrieve all relevant articles published up to May 7, 2020. The pooled standardized mean difference (SMD) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated using the random-effect model, Stata16 software.

Results: Nine articles containing 778 AS patients and 522 controls were included in this meta-analysis. No significant differences in HCY levels were found between AS and control groups (pooled SMD = 0.46, 95% CI = - 0.30 to 1.23, P = 0.23). However, subgroup analysis suggested that HCY levels were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the AS group treated with methotrexate (MTX) compared with the control group. In contrast, HCY levels were significantly (P < 0.05) lower in the AS group receiving anti-TNF-α treatment compared with the control group. No significant differences were detected between HCY levels and disease activity scores (Bath AS disease activity index, BASDAI), and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T genotype.

Conclusion: This meta-analysis indicates that HCY levels are similar between AS and controls, and do not correlate with disease activity. However, different medical treatments cause fluctuations of circulating HCY levels in AS patients. Further and larger-scale studies are needed to confirm these findings.

Trial Registration: This study was registered at international prospective register of systematic reviews (PROSPERO), registration number: CRD42020184426 .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s42358-021-00175-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7944467PMC
March 2021

Preventing forgery attacks in computational ghost imaging or disabling ghost imaging in a "spatiotemporal" scattering medium with weighted multiplicative signals.

Appl Opt 2021 Feb;60(5):1092-1098

The ghost imaging (GI) approach is an intriguing and promising image acquisition technique that can transmit high-quality image information in a scattering environment. In this paper, we focus on two concerns recently emerged in the GI modality: one is the vulnerability to forgery attacks in GI-based optical encryption [Opt. Lett.45, 3917 (2020)OPLEDP0146-959210.1364/OL.392424], and the other is the potential threat of GI to personal privacy regarding non-invasive imaging [Opt. Express28, 17232 (2020)OPEXFF1094-408710.1364/OE.391788]. The core idea is to recommend introducing weighted multiplicative signals [Opt. Express27, 36505 (2019)OPEXFF1094-408710.1364/OE.27.036505] into the computational GI system, whether on the transmitting end or the receiving end. At the transmitting end, the random multiplicative signal can be used as an additional key that can reduce the possibility of forgery attacks, thereby increasing image transmission security. On the receiving end, the introduction of a random multiplicative signal to a spatial scattering medium makes it a "spatiotemporal" scattering medium, whose transmittance changes with time. Further, the spatiotemporal scattering medium can disable direct imaging and GI at the same time with low cost, thereby having great potential in privacy protection in daily lives.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.415608DOI Listing
February 2021

3D Artificial Solid-Electrolyte Interphase for Lithium Metal Anodes Enabled by Insulator-Metal-Insulator Layered Heterostructures.

Adv Mater 2021 Apr 25;33(13):e2006247. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing, 100191, China.

Despite considerable efforts to prevent lithium (Li) dendrite growth, stable cycling of Li metal anodes with various structures remains extremely difficult due to the direct contact of the liquid electrolyte with Li. Rational design of solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) for 3D electrodes is a promising but still challenging strategy for preventing Li dendrite growth and avoiding lithium-electrolyte side reactions in Li-metal batteries. Here, a 3D architecture is constructed with g-C N /graphene/g-C N insulator-metal-insulator sandwiched nanosheets to guide uniform Li plating/stripping in the van der Waals gap between the graphene and the g-C N , and the function of which can be regarded as a 3D artificial SEI. Li deposition on the surface of g-C N is suppressed due to its insulating nature. However, its uniform lithiophilic sites and nanopore channels enable homogeneous lithium plating between the graphene and the g-C N , prohibiting the direct contact of the electrolyte with the Li metal. The use of the g-C N -layer-modified 3D anode enables long-term Li deposition with a high Coulombic efficiency and stable cycling of full cells under high cathode loading, limited Li excess, and lean electrolyte conditions. The concept of a 3D artificial SEI will shed light on developing safe and stable Li-metal anodes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adma.202006247DOI Listing
April 2021

Tuning electrical and interfacial thermal properties of bilayer MoS2 via electrochemical intercalation.

Nanotechnology 2021 Feb 18. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, 420 Via Palou Mall, Allen Building 335X, Stanford, California, 94305, UNITED STATES.

Layered two-dimensional (2D) materials such as MoS2 have attracted much attention for nano- and opto-electronics. Recently, intercalation (e.g. of ions, atoms, or molecules) has emerged as an effective technique to reversibly modulate material properties of such layered 2D films. Here we probe both electrical and thermal properties of Li-intercalated bilayer MoS2 nanosheets by combined electrical measurements and Raman spectroscopy. We demonstrate reversible modulation of carrier density over more than two orders of magnitude (from 0.8×1012 cm 2 to 1.5×1014 cm-2), and we simultaneously obtain the thermal boundary conduct-ance (TBC) between the bilayer and its supporting SiO2 substrate for an intercalated system for the first time. This thermal coupling can be reversibly modulated by nearly a factor of eight, from 14 ± 4.0 MWm-2K-1 before intercalation to 1.8 ± 0.9 MWm 2K-1 when the MoS2 is fully lithiated. These results reveal electrochemical intercalation as a reversible tool to modulate and control both electrical and thermal properties of 2D layers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-6528/abe78aDOI Listing
February 2021

Electrolyte-Resistant Dual Materials for the Synergistic Safety Enhancement of Lithium-Ion Batteries.

Nano Lett 2021 Mar 18;21(5):2074-2080. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, United States.

Safety issues associated with lithium-ion batteries are of major concern, especially with the ever-growing demand for higher-energy-density storage devices. Although flame retardants (FRs) added to electrolytes can reduce fire hazards, large amounts of FRs are required and they severely deteriorate battery performance. Here, we report a feasible method to balance flame retardancy and electrochemical performance by coating an electrolyte-insoluble FR on commercial battery separators. By integrating dual materials a two-pronged mechanism, the quantity of FR required could be limited to an ultrathin coating layer (4 μm) that rarely influences electrochemical performance. The developed composite separator has a four-times better flame retardancy than conventional polyolefin separators in full pouch cells. Additionally, this separator can be fabricated easily on a large scale for industrial applications. High-energy-density batteries (2 Ah) were assembled to demonstrate the scaling of the composite separator and to confirm its enhanced safety through nail penetration tests.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.nanolett.0c04568DOI Listing
March 2021

A Replacement Reaction Enabled Interdigitated Metal/Solid Electrolyte Architecture for Battery Cycling at 20 mA cm and 20 mAh cm.

J Am Chem Soc 2021 Mar 17;143(8):3143-3152. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074, China.

Metal anodes represent as a prime choice for the coming generation rechargeable batteries with high energy density. However, daunting challenges including electrode volume variation and inevitable side reactions preclude them from becoming a viable technology. Here, a facile replacement reaction was employed to fabricate a three-dimensional (3D) interdigitated metal/solid electrolyte composite electrode, which not only provides a stable host structure for buffering the volume change within the composite but also prevents side reactions by avoiding the direct contact between active metal and liquid electrolyte. As a proof-of-concept demonstration, a 3D interdigitated zinc (Zn) metal/solid electrolyte architecture was fabricated via a galvanic replacement reaction between Zn metal foil and indium (In) chloride solution followed by electrochemical activation, featuring the interdigitation between metallic Zn and amorphous indium hydroxide sulfate (IHS) with high Zn conductivity (56.9 ± 1.8 mS cm), large Zn transference number (0.55), and high electronic resistivity [(2.08 ± 0.01) × 10 Ω cm]. The as-designed Zn/IHS electrode sustained stable electrochemical Zn plating/stripping over 700 cycles with a record-low overpotential of 8 mV at 1 mA cm and 0.5 mAh cm. More impressively, it displayed cycle-stable performance with low overpotential of 10 mV under ultrahigh current density and areal capacity (20 mA cm, 20 mAh cm), which outperformed all the reported Zn metal electrodes in mild aqueous electrolyte. The fabrication of interdigitated metal/solid electrolyte was generalized to other metal pairs, including Zn/Sn and Zn/Co, which provide inspiration for next-generation Zn metal batteries with high energy density and reversibility.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jacs.0c11753DOI Listing
March 2021

Counting mRNA Copies in Intact Bacterial Cells by Fluctuation Localization Imaging-Based Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (fliFISH).

Methods Mol Biol 2021 ;2246:237-247

Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA, USA.

A method for measuring mRNA copies in intact bacterial cells by fluctuation localization imaging-based fluorescence in situ hybridization (fliFISH) is presented. Unlike conventional single-molecule FISH, where the presence of a transcript is determined by fluorescence intensity, fliFISH relies on On-Off duty cycles of photo-switching dyes to set a predetermined threshold for distinguishing true signals from background noise. The method provides a quantitative approach for detecting and counting true mRNA copies and rejecting false signals with high accuracy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-0716-1115-9_15DOI Listing
March 2021

Expansion sequencing: Spatially precise in situ transcriptomics in intact biological systems.

Science 2021 01;371(6528)

Department of Media Arts and Sciences, MIT, Cambridge, MA, USA.

Methods for highly multiplexed RNA imaging are limited in spatial resolution and thus in their ability to localize transcripts to nanoscale and subcellular compartments. We adapt expansion microscopy, which physically expands biological specimens, for long-read untargeted and targeted in situ RNA sequencing. We applied untargeted expansion sequencing (ExSeq) to the mouse brain, which yielded the readout of thousands of genes, including splice variants. Targeted ExSeq yielded nanoscale-resolution maps of RNAs throughout dendrites and spines in the neurons of the mouse hippocampus, revealing patterns across multiple cell types, layer-specific cell types across the mouse visual cortex, and the organization and position-dependent states of tumor and immune cells in a human metastatic breast cancer biopsy. Thus, ExSeq enables highly multiplexed mapping of RNAs from nanoscale to system scale.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.aax2656DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7900882PMC
January 2021

Correlating Li-Ion Solvation Structures and Electrode Potential Temperature Coefficients.

J Am Chem Soc 2021 Feb 28;143(5):2264-2271. Epub 2021 Jan 28.

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, United States.

Temperature coefficients (TCs) for either electrochemical cell voltages or potentials of individual electrodes have been widely utilized to study the thermal safety and cathode/anode phase changes of lithium (Li)-ion batteries. However, the fundamental significance of single electrode potential TCs is little known. In this work, we discover that the Li-ion desolvation process during Li deposition/intercalation is accompanied by considerable entropy change, which significantly contributes to the measured Li/Li electrode potential TCs. To explore this phenomenon, we compare the Li/Li electrode potential TCs in a series of electrolyte formulations, where the interaction between Li-ion and solvent molecules occurs at varying strength as a function of both solvent and anion species as well as salt concentrations. As a result, we establish correlations between electrode potential TCs and Li-ion solvation structures and further verify them by molecular dynamics simulations. We show that measurements of Li/Li electrode potential TCs provide valuable knowledge regarding the Li-ion solvation environments and could serve as a screening tool when designing future electrolytes for Li-ion/Li metal batteries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jacs.0c10587DOI Listing
February 2021

An Anode-Free Zn-MnO Battery.

Nano Lett 2021 Feb 20;21(3):1446-1453. Epub 2021 Jan 20.

Materials Science and Engineering, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), Thuwal 23955-6900, Saudi Arabia.

Aqueous Zn-based batteries are attractive because of the low cost and high theoretical capacity of the Zn metal anode. However, the Zn-based batteries developed so far utilize an excess amount of Zn (i.e., thick Zn metal anode), which decreases the energy density of the whole battery. Herein, we demonstrate an anode-free design (i.e., zero-excess Zn), which is enabled by employing a nanocarbon nucleation layer. Electrochemical studies show that this design allows for uniform Zn electrodeposition with high efficiency and stability over a range of current densities and plating capacities. Using this anode-free configuration, we showcase a Zn-MnO battery prototype, showing 68.2% capacity retention after 80 cycles. Our anode-free design opens a new direction for implementing aqueous Zn-based batteries in energy storage systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.nanolett.0c04519DOI Listing
February 2021

In-Situ Characterization of Dynamic Morphological and Phase Changes of Selenium-doped Germanium Using a Single Particle Cell and Synchrotron Transmission X-ray Microscopy.

ChemSusChem 2021 Mar 2;14(5):1370-1376. Epub 2021 Feb 2.

Department of Mechanical and Energy Engineering, Indiana University Purdue, University Indianapolis, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA.

The dynamic information of lithium-ion battery active materials obtained from coin cell-based in-situ characterizations might not represent the properties of the active material itself because many other factors in the cell could have impacts on the cell performance. To address this problem, a single particle cell was developed to perform the in-situ characterization without the interference of inactive materials in the battery electrode as well as the X-ray-induced damage. In this study, the dynamic morphological and phase changes of selenium-doped germanium (Ge Se ) at the single particle level were investigated via synchrotron-based in-situ transmission X-ray microscopy. The results demonstrate the good reversibility of Ge Se at high cycling rate that helps understand its good cycling performance and rate capability. This in-situ and operando technique based on a single particle battery cell provides an approach to understanding the dynamic electrochemical processes of battery materials during charging and discharging at the particle level.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cssc.202002776DOI Listing
March 2021

Hierarchy Control of MFI Zeolite Membrane towards Superior Butane Isomer Separation Performance.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2021 Mar 1;60(14):7659-7663. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, School of Chemical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Linggong Road NO. 2, Ganjingzi District, Dalian, 116024, China.

Microstructural optimization (such as thickness and preferred orientation) is a major concern for performance enhancement of zeolite membranes. In this study, we demonstrated that the introduction of hierarchy easily enabled concurrent thickness reduction and orientation control of zeolite membranes. Specifically, hierarchical MFI zeolite membranes comprising higher degree of (h0h) preferentially oriented ultrathin (ca. 390 nm) selective top layers and porous intermediate layers on porous α-Al O substrates were fabricated. The use of hollow-structured MFI nanoseeds and the employment of single-mode microwave heating during membrane processing were found indispensable for the preparation of MFI zeolite membranes with superior butane isomer separation performance, thereby surpassing the current n-/i-butane selectivity versus n-butane permeance trade-off limits of MFI zeolite membranes prepared via solution-based synthetic protocols.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.202017087DOI Listing
March 2021

The Two-Way Switch Role of ACE2 in the Treatment of Novel Coronavirus Pneumonia and Underlying Comorbidities.

Molecules 2020 Dec 31;26(1). Epub 2020 Dec 31.

School of Pharmacy and State Key Laboratory for the Quality Research of Chinese Medicine, Macau University of Science and Technology, Macau 999078, China.

December 2019 saw the emergence of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), which has spread across the globe. The high infectivity and ongoing mortality of SARS-CoV-2 emphasize the demand of drug discovery. Angiotensin-converting enzyme II (ACE2) is the functional receptor for SARS-CoV-2 entry into host cells. ACE2 exists as a membrane-bound protein on major viral target pulmonary epithelial cells, and its peptidase domain (PD) interacts SARS-CoV-2 spike protein with higher affinity. Therefore, targeting ACE2 is an important pharmacological intervention for a SARS-CoV-2 infection. In this review, we described the two-way switch role of ACE2 in the treatment of novel coronavirus pneumonia and underlying comorbidities, and discussed the potential effect of the ACE inhibitor and angiotensin receptor blocker on a hypertension patient with the SARS-CoV-2 infection. In addition, we analyzed the S-protein-binding site on ACE2 and suggested that blocking hot spot-31 and hot spot-353 on ACE2 could be a therapeutic strategy for preventing the spread of SARS-CoV-2. Besides, the recombinant ACE2 protein could be another potential treatment option for SARS-CoV-2 induced acute severe lung failure. This review could provide beneficial information for the development of anti-SARS-CoV-2 agents via targeting ACE2 and the clinical usage of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) drugs for novel coronavirus pneumonia treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules26010142DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7794970PMC
December 2020

Formation of retromer transport carriers is disrupted by the Parkinson disease-linked Vps35 D620N variant.

Traffic 2021 Apr 22;22(4):123-136. Epub 2021 Jan 22.

School of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.

Retromer core complex is an endosomal scaffold that plays a critical role in orchestrating protein trafficking within the endosomal system. Here we characterized the effect of the Parkinson's disease-linked Vps35 D620N in the endo-lysosomal system using Vps35 D620N rescue cell models. Vps35 D620N fully rescues the lysosomal and autophagy defects caused by retromer knock-out. Analogous to Vps35 knock out cells, the endosome-to-trans-Golgi network transport of cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor (CI-M6PR) is impaired in Vps35 D620N rescue cells because of a reduced capacity to form endosome transport carriers. Cells expressing the Vps35 D620N variant have altered endosomal morphology, resulting in smaller, rounder structures with less tubule-like branches. At the molecular level retromer incorporating Vps35 D620N variant has a decreased binding to retromer associated proteins wiskott-aldrich syndrome protein and SCAR homologue (WASH) and SNX3 which are known to associate with retromer to form the endosome transport carriers. Hence, the partial defects on retrograde protein trafficking carriers in the presence of Vps35 D620N represents an altered cellular state able to cause Parkinson's disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tra.12779DOI Listing
April 2021

Bioinspired membrane provides periosteum-mimetic microenvironment for accelerating vascularized bone regeneration.

Biomaterials 2021 Jan 1;268:120561. Epub 2020 Dec 1.

Advanced Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering Center, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, 430074, China; Department of Biomedical Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, 430074, China. Electronic address:

Periosteum plays a pivotal role in vascularization, ossification and remodeling during the healing process of bone injury. However, there are few studies focused on the construction of artificial implants with periosteum-mimetic effect. To emulate the primary role of natural periosteum or endosteal tissues in bone regeneration, here we provide a functional biomimetic membrane with micropatterns of site-specific biomineralization. The micropattern is generated by using printed hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (HANPs), combined with selective growth of biomineralized apatite and in situ coprecipitation with growth factors. The biomimetic membrane can sustainably provide a periosteum-mimetic microenvironment, such as long-term topographical guidance for cell recruitment and induced cell differentiation, by releasing calcium phosphate and growth factors. We demonstrated that rat mesenchymal stem cells (rMSCs) on such biomimetic membrane exhibited highly aligned organization, leading to enhanced angiogenesis and osteogenesis. In the rat calvarial defect model, our biomimetic membranes with biomineralized micropatterns could significantly enhance vascularized ossification and accelerate new bone formation. The current work suggests that the functionally biomimetic membranes with specific biomineralized micropatterns can be a promising alternative to periosteal autografts, with great potential for bench-to-bedside translation in orthopedics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biomaterials.2020.120561DOI Listing
January 2021

A Cation-Tethered Flowable Polymeric Interface for Enabling Stable Deposition of Metallic Lithium.

J Am Chem Soc 2020 Dec 14;142(51):21393-21403. Epub 2020 Dec 14.

Stanford Institute for Materials and Energy Sciences, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025, United States.

A fundamental challenge, shared across many energy storage devices, is the complexity of electrochemistry at the electrode-electrolyte interfaces that impacts the Coulombic efficiency, operational rate capability, and lifetime. Specifically, in energy-dense lithium metal batteries, the charging/discharging process results in structural heterogeneities of the metal anode, leading to battery failure by short-circuit and capacity fade. In this work, we take advantage of organic cations with lower reduction potential than lithium to build an electrically responsive polymer interface that not only adapts to morphological perturbations during electrodeposition and stripping but also modulates the lithium ion migration pathways to eliminate surface roughening. We find that this concept can enable prolonging the long-term cycling of a high-voltage lithium metal battery by at least twofold compared to bare lithium metal.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jacs.0c09649DOI Listing
December 2020

CAF-1 and Rtt101p function within the replication-coupled chromatin assembly network to promote H4 K16ac, preventing ectopic silencing.

PLoS Genet 2020 12 7;16(12):e1009226. Epub 2020 Dec 7.

Department of Biochemistry, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana, United States of America.

Replication-coupled chromatin assembly is achieved by a network of alternate pathways containing different chromatin assembly factors and histone-modifying enzymes that coordinate deposition of nucleosomes at the replication fork. Here we describe the organization of a CAF-1-dependent pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae that regulates acetylation of histone H4 K16. We demonstrate factors that function in this CAF-1-dependent pathway are important for preventing establishment of silenced states at inappropriate genomic sites using a crippled HMR locus as a model, while factors specific to other assembly pathways do not. This CAF-1-dependent pathway required the cullin Rtt101p, but was functionally distinct from an alternate pathway involving Rtt101p-dependent ubiquitination of histone H3 and the chromatin assembly factor Rtt106p. A major implication from this work is that cells have the inherent ability to create different chromatin modification patterns during DNA replication via differential processing and deposition of histones by distinct chromatin assembly pathways within the network.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1009226DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7746308PMC
December 2020

Three-Dimensional Analysis of Particle Distribution on Filter Layers inside N95 Respirators by Deep Learning.

Nano Lett 2021 01 7;21(1):651-657. Epub 2020 Dec 7.

Stanford Institute for Materials and Energy Sciences, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025, United States.

The global COVID-19 pandemic has changed many aspects of daily lives. Wearing personal protective equipment, especially respirators (face masks), has become common for both the public and medical professionals, proving to be effective in preventing spread of the virus. Nevertheless, a detailed understanding of respirator filtration-layer internal structures and their physical configurations is lacking. Here, we report three-dimensional (3D) internal analysis of N95 filtration layers via X-ray tomography. Using deep learning methods, we uncover how the distribution and diameters of fibers within these layers directly affect contaminant particle filtration. The average porosity of the filter layers is found to be 89.1%. Contaminants are more efficiently captured by denser fiber regions, with fibers <1.8 μm in diameter being particularly effective, presumably because of the stronger electric field gradient on smaller diameter fibers. This study provides critical information for further development of N95-type respirators that combine high efficiency with good breathability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.nanolett.0c04230DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7737533PMC
January 2021

Calcium-siRNA Nanocomplexes Optimized by Bovine Serum Albumin Coating Can Achieve Convenient and Efficient siRNA Delivery for Periodontitis Therapy.

Int J Nanomedicine 2020 20;15:9241-9253. Epub 2020 Nov 20.

State Key Laboratory of Military Stomatology, Department of Periodontology, School of Stomatology, Air Force Medical University, Xi'an, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: Reducing toxicity, immunogenicity, and costs of small interfering RNAs (siRNA) carrier materials are key goals for RNA interference (RNAi) technology transition from bench to bed. Recently, calcium ions (Ca) have garnered attention as a novel, alternative material for delivering siRNA to cells. However, the tolerance for Ca concentration varies in different cell types, which has limited its applications in vivo. Bovine serum albumin (BSA) can bind to Ca through chelation. Moreover, BSA is a favorable coating material for nanoparticles owing to its excellent biocompatibility. Therefore, we hypothesized that coating Ca-siRNA with BSA helps buffer Ca toxicity in vivo.

Methods: BSA-Ca-siRNA nanoparticles were prepared, and the size, shape, encapsulation, and release efficiency were characterized using atomic force microscopy, scanning electronic microcopy, and gel electrophoresis. Binding nanoparticles were evaluated using attenuated total reflection-Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. The cellular uptake, intracellular release, cytotoxicity, and gene knockdown of nanoparticles were evaluated in periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) using laser-scanning confocal microscope, flow cytometry, and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction.

Results: BSA and Ca-siRNA could form a stable nano-scale complex (~140 nm in diameter). The nanocomplexes could maintain siRNA release for more than 1 week in neutral phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and could induce accelerated degradation in acidic PBS (pH 5.0). The nanoparticles were taken up by the cells, primarily through macropinocytosis, and were then released intracellularly through the acidification of endosomes/lysosomes. Importantly, the BSA-Ca carrier had high transfection efficiency and biocompatibility both in vitro and in vivo. To demonstrate the therapeutic potential of our BSA coating-optimized Ca-siRNA technology, we showed that BSA-Ca-siWWP1 complexes strongly enhanced the osteogenic differentiation of inflammatory PDLSCs.

Conclusion: BSA-Ca could potentially be used for siRNA delivery, which is not only highly efficient and cost-effective but also biocompatible to host tissues owing to the BSA coating.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S278103DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7686548PMC
December 2020

Single-Cell Spatial Analysis of Tumor and Immune Microenvironment on Whole-Slide Image Reveals Hepatocellular Carcinoma Subtypes.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Nov 28;12(12). Epub 2020 Nov 28.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, CA 94304, USA.

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a heterogeneous disease with diverse characteristics and outcomes. Here, we aim to develop a histological classification for HCC by integrating computational imaging features of the tumor and its microenvironment. We first trained a multitask deep-learning neural network for automated single-cell segmentation and classification on hematoxylin- and eosin-stained tissue sections. After confirming the accuracy in a testing set, we applied the model to whole-slide images of 304 tumors in the Cancer Genome Atlas. Given the single-cell map, we calculated 246 quantitative image features to characterize individual nuclei as well as spatial relations between tumor cells and infiltrating lymphocytes. Unsupervised consensus clustering revealed three reproducible histological subtypes, which exhibit distinct nuclear features as well as spatial distribution and relation between tumor cells and lymphocytes. These histological subtypes were associated with somatic genomic alterations (i.e., aneuploidy) and specific molecular pathways, including cell cycle progression and oxidative phosphorylation. Importantly, these histological subtypes complement established molecular classification and demonstrate independent prognostic value beyond conventional clinicopathologic factors. Our study represents a step forward in quantifying the spatial distribution and complex interaction between tumor and immune microenvironment. The clinical relevance of the imaging subtypes for predicting prognosis and therapy response warrants further validation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12123562DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7761227PMC
November 2020

[Comparison of acellular dermal allograft and tragus cartilage perichondrium in type Ⅰ tympanoplasty under otoendoscopy].

Lin Chung Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi 2020 Dec;34(12):1108-1111

Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery,Chenzhou No.1 People's Hospital,Chenzhou,423000,China.

To compare the therapeutic effect of otoendoscopic tympanoplasty with acellular dermal allograft(AlloDerm) and tragus cartilage perichondrium. 121 patients who underwent type Ⅰ tympanoplasty under otoscope were retrospectively analyzed. According to the grafts used, they were divided into two groups: AlloDerm group (56 cases) and tragus cartilage perichondrium group (65 cases). The operative time, postoperative tympanic membrane healing rate, and hearing recovery were compared between two groups. The follow-up time was twelve months. The operative time in the AlloDerm group were lower than those in the tragus cartilage perichondrium group(<0.05). The successful closure rates between the acellular dermal allograft group and tragus cartilage perichondrium group at 1-month follow-up were 92.86% and 92.31% respectively, while the closure rates between two groups at 6-month follow-up were drop to 91.07% and 90.77% respectively, the closure rates between two groups at 12-month follow-up were also 91.07% and 90.77% respectively,the was no statistically difference between two groups(>0.05). The difference in pre-and post-operative air bone gap(ABG) values between two groups was no statistically significant(>0.05). Both the AlloDerm and the tragus cartilage perichondrium tympanoplasty can achieve satisfactory healing rate of the tympanic membrane and audiologic improvement. However, AlloDerm has a short operation time, no need to obtain materials and less trauma, and is worth of promotion and application.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.13201/j.issn.2096-7993.2020.12.012DOI Listing
December 2020

Designing a Nanoscale Three-phase Electrochemical Pathway to Promote Pt-catalyzed Formaldehyde Oxidation.

Nano Lett 2020 12 17;20(12):8719-8724. Epub 2020 Nov 17.

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, United States.

Gas-phase heterogeneous catalysis is a process spatially constrained on the two-dimensional surface of a solid catalyst. Here, we introduce a new toolkit to open up the third dimension. We discovered that the activity of a solid catalyst can be dramatically promoted by covering its surface with a nanoscale-thin layer of liquid electrolyte while maintaining efficient delivery of gas reactants, a strategy we call three-phase catalysis. Introducing the liquid electrolyte converts the original surface catalytic reaction into an electrochemical pathway with mass transfer facilitated by free ions in a three-dimensional space. We chose the oxidation of formaldehyde as a model reaction and observed a 25000-times enhancement in the turnover frequency of Pt in three-phase catalysis as compared to conventional heterogeneous catalysis. We envision three-phase catalysis as a new dimension for catalyst design and anticipate its applications in more chemical reactions from pollution control to the petrochemical industry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.nanolett.0c03560DOI Listing
December 2020

Diethylhexyl phthalate induces teratogenic effects through oxidative stress response in a chick embryo model.

Toxicol Res (Camb) 2020 Sep 4;9(5):622-631. Epub 2020 Sep 4.

Reproductive and Genetic Center of National Research Institute for Family Planning, Da Hui Si Road, Beijing 100081, China.

Diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) is known as a persistent environmental pollutant. However, the possible effects of DEHP on human neural tube defects (NTDs) remain elusive. We set out to investigate the exposure of DEHP in human and explore the association of DEHP and NTDs. The level of DEHP in maternal urine was measured and analyzed by GC-MS. To further validate the results in human NTDs, chick embryos were used as animal models. Viability, reactive oxygen species (ROS) level, oxidative stress indicators and apoptosis were detected in DEHP-treated chick embryos. Our research revealed that the detection ratio of positive DEHP and its metabolites in maternal urine were observed dramatically higher in NTDs population than that in normal controls ( 0.01,  0.05, respectively). Moreover, DEHP treatment (10 M) led to developmental toxicity in chick embryos via accelerating oxidative stress response and cell apoptosis, and changing the level of oxidative stress-related indicators. Moreover, high dose choline (100 μg/μl) could partially restrain the toxicity effects induced by DEHP. Our data collectively imply that the incidence of NTDs may closely associate with DEHP exposure, which disturbs the development of neural tubes by enhancing oxidative stress.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/toxres/tfaa058DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7640930PMC
September 2020

Underpotential lithium plating on graphite anodes caused by temperature heterogeneity.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2020 Nov 9;117(47):29453-29461. Epub 2020 Nov 9.

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305;

Rechargeability and operational safety of commercial lithium (Li)-ion batteries demand further improvement. Plating of metallic Li on graphite anodes is a critical reason for Li-ion battery capacity decay and short circuit. It is generally believed that Li plating is caused by the slow kinetics of graphite intercalation, but in this paper, we demonstrate that thermodynamics also serves a crucial role. We show that a nonuniform temperature distribution within the battery can make local plating of Li above 0 V vs. Li/Li (room temperature) thermodynamically favorable. This phenomenon is caused by temperature-dependent shifts of the equilibrium potential of Li/Li Supported by simulation results, we confirm the likelihood of this failure mechanism during commercial Li-ion battery operation, including both slow and fast charging conditions. This work furthers the understanding of nonuniform Li plating and will inspire future studies to prolong the cycling lifetime of Li-ion batteries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2009221117DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7703581PMC
November 2020

Understanding the Mechanism of High Capacitance in Nickel Hexaaminobenzene-Based Conductive Metal-Organic Frameworks in Aqueous Electrolytes.

ACS Nano 2020 Nov 9;14(11):15919-15925. Epub 2020 Nov 9.

Department of Chemical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, United States.

Recently, intrinsically conductive metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have demonstrated promising performance in fast-charging energy storage applications and may outperform some current electrode materials (, porous carbons) for supercapacitors in terms of both gravimetric and volumetric capacitance. In this report, we examine the mechanism of high capacitance in a nickel hexaaminobenzene-based MOF (NiHAB). Using a combination of Raman and X-ray absorption spectroscopies, as well as detailed electrochemical studies in a series of aqueous electrolytes, we demonstrate that the charge storage mechanism is, in fact, a pH-dependent surface pseudocapacitance, and unlike typical inorganic systems, where transition metals change oxidation state during charge/discharge cycles, NiHAB redox activity is ligand-centered.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsnano.0c07292DOI Listing
November 2020