Publications by authors named "Yeungyeung Liu"

5 Publications

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Evaluation of the relationship among dental fear, scaling and root planing and periodontal status using periodontitis stages: A retrospective study.

J Dent Sci 2022 Jan 21;17(1):293-299. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Periodontology, Stomatological Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China.

Background/purpose: Patients with periodontal disease have higher dental fear levels, which may have negative effects on their clinical outcome during scaling and root planing (SRP). The present study used the new classification of periodontitis and validated questionnaires to assess the relationship among dental fear, SRP pain and periodontal status.

Materials And Methods: A total of 120 periodontitis patients were enrolled and staging according to the new classification of periodontitis. SRP was performed, and the visual analog scale (VAS) to assess pain was used with every patient after treatment. Questionnaires, including Corah's Dental Anxiety Scale (DAS), Dental Fear Survey (DFS), and short-form Dental Anxiety Inventory (S-DAI) were implemented from the first attendance and subsequent visits after 6 months. The patients were grouped by DAS scores. The statistical analysis was performed using T-test, chi-square, Pearson and Spearman correlative analysis.

Results: Compared to pre-SRP treatment, the dental fear level on DFS was decreased in the posttreatment period for all periodontitis stages. There were no statistically significant differences in S-DAI and DAS between pretreatment and posttreatment periods in stage I and II; meanwhile, there were statistically differences in stage III and IV. The correlation among periodontitis stages, VAS and dental fear level was significant. The proportion of high periodontitis stages was increased in high dental fear group.

Conclusion: SRP can reduce dental fear levels in all periodontitis stages, especially in stage III and IV. Correlations exist among periodontal status, dental fear and SRP pain. High dental fear is associated with poor periodontal status.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jds.2021.04.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8739248PMC
January 2022

Concentrated growth factor regulates the macrophage-mediated immune response.

Regen Biomater 2021 Oct 17;8(6):rbab049. Epub 2021 Aug 17.

Department of Prosthodontics, Stomatological Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510280, China.

Concentrated growth factor (CGF) is a promising regenerative material that serves as a scaffold and adjunct growth factor for tissue engineering. The host immune response, particularly macrophage activity, plays a critical role in injury repair and tissue regeneration. However, the biological effect of CGF on the immune response is not clear. To enrich the theoretical groundwork for clinical application, the present study examined the immunoregulatory role of CGF in macrophage functional activities . The CGF scaffold appeared as a dense fibrin network with multiple embedded leukocytes and platelets, and it was biocompatible with macrophages. Concentrated bioactive factors in the CGF extract enhanced THP-1 monocyte recruitment and promoted the maturation of suspended monocytes into adherent macrophages. CGF extract also promoted THP-1 macrophage polarization toward the M2 phenotype with upregulated CD163 expression, as detected by cell morphology and surface marker expression. A cytokine antibody array showed that CGF extract exerted a regulatory effect on macrophage functional activities by reducing secretion of the inflammatory factor interleukin-1β while inducing expression of the chemokine regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted. Mechanistically, the AKT signaling pathway was activated, and an AKT inhibitor partially suppressed the immunomodulatory effect of CGF. Our findings reveal that CGF induces a favorable immune response mediated by macrophages, which represents a promising strategy for functional tissue regeneration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/rb/rbab049DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8421811PMC
October 2021

Dental fear and its possible relationship with periodontal status in Chinese adults: a preliminary study.

BMC Oral Health 2015 Jan 28;15:18. Epub 2015 Jan 28.

Department of Periodontology, Guangdong Provincial Stomatological Hospital, Southern Medical University, S366 Jiangnan Boulevard, 510280, Guangzhou, China.

Background: The aim of the present study was to describe the characteristics of dental fear of Chinese adult patients with periodontal disease and provide information for clinical assessment.

Methods: A total of 1203 dental patients completed questionnaires that included Corach's Dental Anxiety Scales (DAS), Dental Fear Survey (DFS) and the short-form Dental Anxiety Inventory (S-DAI). Among all the patients, 366 cases were self-reported periodontal disease. The general characteristics were described, such as socio-demographics, dental attendances and oral health behaviors. The statistical analysis was performed by t-test, Mann-Whitney U test and linear regression respectively to evaluate correlations between dental fear and general characteristics according to the three scales.

Results: The prevalence of dental fear was 74% among 1203 patients, 23.4% of total with high dental fear, while 27.3% in the patients with periodontal disease. The average score of DAS and DFS for patients with periodontal disease was significantly higher than those without periodontal disease. The regression analysis indicated that gender, age, periodontal status, dental attendances and oral health behaviors were correlated with dental fear. Among 366 patients with periodontal disease, gender, dental attendances and oral health behaviors had correlation with dental fear. The analysis of DFS scale exhibited that 'drilling with handpiece' and 'injecting the anesthetic' were the most important factors to contribute to dental fear.

Conclusions: There was high prevalence of dental fear in Chinese adult patients, particularly in patients with periodontal disease, and high level of dental fear may lead to poor periodontal status.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1472-6831-15-18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4417219PMC
January 2015

Knowledge, awareness, and behaviors of endocrinologists and dentists for the relationship between diabetes and periodontitis.

Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2014 Dec 30;106(3):428-34. Epub 2014 Sep 30.

Department of Periodontology, Guangdong Provincial Stomatological Hospital, Southern Medical University, S366 Jiangnan Boulevard, Guangzhou 510280, China. Electronic address:

Aims: This study aimed to compare the opinions of dentists and endocrinologists regarding diabetes mellitus (DM) and periodontitis, and to investigate the possible effects on their practice.

Methods: Cross-sectional data were collected from 297 endocrinologists and 134 dentists practicing in southern China using two separated questionnaires. Questions were close-ended or Likert-scaled. Statistical analyses were done by descriptive statistics, bivariate and binary logistic regression analysis.

Results: Compared with endocrinologists, dentists presented more favorable attitudes for the relationship of DM and periodontitis (P<0.001). 61.2% of dentists reported they would frequently refer patients with severe periodontitis for DM evaluation, while only 26.6% of endocrinologists reported they would frequently advise patients with DM to visit a dentist. Nearly all of the respondents (94.4%) agreed that the interdisciplinary collaboration should be strengthened. The logistic regression analysis exhibited that respondents with more favorable attitudes were more likely to advise a dental visit (P=0.003) or to screen for DM (P=0.006).

Conclusions: Endocrinologists and dentists are not equally equipped with the knowledge about the relationship between DM and periodontitis, and there is a wide gap between their practice and the current evidence, especially for endocrinologists. It's urgent to take measures to develop the interdisciplinary education and collaboration among the health care providers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.diabres.2014.09.008DOI Listing
December 2014

Hyperglucose contributes to periodontitis: involvement of the NLRP3 pathway by engaging the innate immunity of oral gingival epithelium.

J Periodontol 2015 Feb 17;86(2):327-35. Epub 2014 Oct 17.

Department of Periodontology, Guangdong Provincial Stomatological Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China.

Background: The NLRP3 inflammasome is essentially a family of intracellular innate immune sensors that can respond to bacterial challenge and initiate early host immunity responses. However, the involvement and possible molecular mechanism of the NLRP3 pathway in the context of chronic periodontitis (CP) and diabetes mellitus have yet to be fully elucidated.

Methods: Gingival tissues were collected from patients with CP and/or type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and the expression of NLRP3 and interleukin (IL)-1β was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. To explore the possible molecular mechanism, human gingival epithelial cells (HGECs) were established in vitro and challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and/or high glucose. High extracellular K(+) was applied as an inhibitor of NLRP3. The NLRP3 pathway was analyzed by immunocytochemistry and quantitative polymerase chain reaction.

Results: Compared with control individuals, NLRP3 and IL-1β were significantly upregulated in oral gingival epithelium of patients with CP and/or T2DM (P <0.05). The expression of NLRP3 was significantly upregulated in HGECs when stimulated in vitro by LPS or high glucose (P = 0.00). The simultaneous stimulation of LPS and high glucose contributed to significant upregulation of NLRP3 expression versus LPS or high glucose alone (P = 0.00). Although expression of caspase 1 and IL-1β protein were increased in HGECs when stimulated by LPS, they were partially inhibited after the NLRP3 was successfully blocked.

Conclusion: For patients with T2DM and CP, hyperglycemic status may exacerbate the inflammation state of gingival tissue by activating the NLRP3 pathway, and this abnormal host inflammatory response may contribute to further tissue breakdown.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1902/jop.2014.140403DOI Listing
February 2015
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