Publications by authors named "Yeon Soo Yeom"

37 Publications

Fetal dose from proton pencil beam scanning craniospinal irradiation during pregnancy: a Monte Carlo study.

Phys Med Biol 2022 Jan 13. Epub 2022 Jan 13.

Radiation Epidemiology Branch, National Cancer Institute, 9609 Medical Center Dr, Bethesda, Maryland, 20850 , UNITED STATES.

Objective: We conducted a Monte Carlo study to comprehensively investigate the fetal dose resulting from proton pencil beam scanning (PBS) craniospinal irradiation (CSI) during pregnancy.

Approach: The gestational-age dependent pregnant phantom series developed at the University of Florida (UF) were converted into DICOM-RT format (CT images and structures) and imported into a treatment planning system (TPS) (Eclipse v15.6) commissioned to a IBA PBS nozzle. A proton PBS CSI plan (prescribed dose: 36 Gy) was created on the phantoms. The TOPAS MC code was used to simulate the proton PBS CSI on the phantoms, for which MC beam properties at the nozzle exit (spot size, spot divergence, mean energy, and energy spread) were matched to IBA PBS nozzle beam measurement data. We calculated mean absorbed doses for 28 organs and tissues and whole body of the fetus at eight gestational ages (8, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, and 38 weeks). For contextual purposes, the fetal organ/tissue doses from the treatment planning CT scan of the mother's head and torso were estimated using the National Cancer Institute dosimetry system for CT (NCICT, Version 3) considering a low-dose CT protocol (CTDIvol: 8.97 mGy).

Main Results: The majority of the fetal organ/tissue doses from the proton PBS CSI treatment fell within a range of 3 to 6 mGy. The fetal organ/tissue doses for the 38-week phantom showed the largest variation with the doses ranging from 2.9 mGy (adrenals) to 8.2 mGy (eye lenses) while the smallest variation ranging from 3.2 mGy (oesophagus) to 4.4 mGy (brain) was observed for the doses for the 20-week phantom. The fetal whole-body dose ranged from 3.7 mGy (25 weeks) to 5.8 mGy (8 weeks). Most of the fetal doses from the planning CT scan fell within a range of 7 to 13 mGy, approximately 2-to-9 times lower than the fetal dose equivalents of the proton PBS CSI treatment (assuming a quality factor of 7).

Significance: The fetal organ/tissue doses observed in the present work will be useful for one of the first clinically informative predictions on the magnitude of fetal dose during proton PBS CSI during pregnancy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-6560/ac4b38DOI Listing
January 2022

Application of an automatic segmentation method for evaluating cardiac structure doses received by breast radiotherapy patients.

Phys Imaging Radiat Oncol 2021 Jul 23;19:138-144. Epub 2021 Aug 23.

Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Rockville, MD 20850, United States.

Background And Purpose: Quantifying radiation dose to cardiac substructures is important for research on the etiology and prevention of complications following radiotherapy; however, segmentation of substructures is challenging. In this study we demonstrate the application of our atlas-based automatic segmentation method to breast cancer radiotherapy plans for generating radiation doses in support of late effects research.

Material And Methods: We applied our segmentation method to contour heart substructures on the computed tomography (CT) images of 70 breast cancer patients who received external photon radiotherapy. Two cardiologists provided manual segmentation of the whole heart (WH), left/right atria, left/right ventricles, and left anterior descending artery (LAD). The automatically contours were compared with manual delineations to evaluate similarity in terms of geometry and dose.

Results: The mean Dice similarity coefficient between manual and automatic segmentations was 0.96 for the WH, 0.65 to 0.82 for the atria and ventricles, and 0.06 for the LAD. The mean average surface distance was 1.2 mm for the WH, 3.4 to 4.1 mm for the atria and ventricles, and 6.4 mm for the LAD. We found the dose to the cardiac substructures based on our automatic segmentation agrees with manual segmentation within expected observer variability. For left breast patients, the mean absolute difference in mean dose was 0.1 Gy for the WH, 0.2 to 0.7 Gy for the atria and ventricles, and 1.8 Gy for the LAD. For right breast patients, these values were 0.0 Gy, 0.1 to 0.4 Gy, and 0.4 Gy, respectively.

Conclusion: Our automatic segmentation method will facilitate the development of radiotherapy prescriptive criteria for mitigating cardiovascular complications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phro.2021.08.005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8397890PMC
July 2021

Development of paediatric mesh-type reference computational phantom series of International Commission on Radiological Protection.

J Radiol Prot 2021 Aug 19;41(3). Epub 2021 Aug 19.

Department of Nuclear Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Very recently, Task Group 103 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) completed the development of the paediatric mesh-type reference computational phantoms (MRCPs) comprising ten phantoms (newborn, one year-old, five year-old, ten year-old, and fifteen year-old males and females). The paediatric MRCPs address the limitations of ICRP's paediatric reference computational phantoms, which are in voxel format, stemming from the nature of the voxel geometry and the limited voxel resolutions. The paediatric MRCPs were constructed by converting the voxel-type reference phantoms to a high-quality mesh format with substantial enhancements in the detailed anatomy of the small and complex organs and tissues (e.g. bones, lymphatic nodes, and extra-thoracic region). Besides, the paediatric MRCPs were developed in consideration of the intra-organ blood contents and by modelling the micron-thick target and source regions of the skin, lens, urinary bladder, alimentary tract organs, and respiratory tract organs prescribed by the ICRP. For external idealised exposures, the paediatric MRCPs provide very similar effective dose coefficients (DCs) to those from the ICRP-143 phantoms but significantly different values for weakly penetrating radiations (e.g. the difference of ∼20 000 times for 10 keV electron beams). This paper introduces the developed paediatric MRCPs with a brief explanation of the construction process. Then, it discusses their computational performance in Geant4, PHITS, and MCNP6 in terms of memory usage and computation speed and their impact on dose calculations by comparing their calculated values of DCs for external exposures with those of the voxel-type reference phantoms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-6498/ac0801DOI Listing
August 2021

Development of detailed pediatric eye models for lens dose calculations.

J Radiol Prot 2021 06 1;41(2). Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Department of Nuclear Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) recently reduced the dose limit for the eye lens for occupational exposure from 150 mSv yrto 20 mSv yr, as averaged over defined periods of five years, with no annual dose in a single year exceeding 50 mSv, emphasizing the importance of the accurate estimation of lens dose. In the present study, for more accurate lens dosimetry, detailed eye models were developed for children and adolescents (newborns and 1, 5, 10, and 15 year olds), which were then incorporated into the pediatric mesh-type reference computational phantoms (MRCPs) and used to calculate lens dose coefficients (DCs) for photon and electron exposures. Finally, the calculated values were compared with those calculated with the adult MRCPs in order to determine the age dependence of the lens DCs. For photon exposures, the lens DCs of the pediatric MRCPs showed some sizable differences from those of the adult MRCPs at very low energies (10 and 15 keV), but the differences were all less than 35%, except for the posterior-anterior irradiation geometry, for which the lens dose is not of primary concern. For electron exposures, much larger differences were found. For the anterior-posterior (AP) and isotropic irradiation geometries, the largest differences between the lens DCs of the pediatric and adult phantoms were found in the energy range of 0.6-1 MeV, where the newborn lens DCs were larger by up to a factor of ∼5 than the adult. The lens DCs of the present study, which were calculated for the radiosensitive region of the lens, also were compared with those for the entire lens in the AP irradiation geometry. Our results showed that the DCs of the entire lens were similar to those of the radiosensitive region for 0.02-2 MeV photons and >2 MeV electrons, but that for the other energy ranges, significant differences were noticeable, i.e. 10%-40% for photons and up to a factor of ∼5 for electrons.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-6498/abfa32DOI Listing
June 2021

Dose conversion coefficients for neutron external exposures with five postures: walking, sitting, bending, kneeling, and squatting.

Radiat Environ Biophys 2021 05 11;60(2):317-328. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Rockville, MD, 20850, USA.

In a previous study, posture-dependent dose coefficients (DCs) for photon external exposures were calculated using the adult male and female mesh-type reference computational phantoms (MRCPs) of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) that had been transformed into five non-standing postures (i.e. walking, sitting, bending, kneeling, and squatting). As an extension, the present study was conducted to establish another DC dataset for external exposures to neutrons by performing Monte Carlo radiation transport simulations with the adult male and female MRCPs in the five non-standing postures. The resulting dataset included the DCs for absorbed doses (i.e., organ/tissue-averaged absorbed doses) delivered to 29 individual organs/tissues, and for effective doses for neutron energies ranging from 10 to 10 MeV in six irradiation geometries: antero-posterior (AP), posteroanterior (PA), left-lateral (LLAT), right-lateral (RLAT), rotational (ROT), and isotropic (ISO) geometries. The comparison of DCs for the non-standing MRCPs with those of the standing MRCPs showed significant differences. In the lateral irradiation geometries, for example, the standing MRCPs overestimate the breast DCs of the squatting MRCPs by up to a factor of 4 due to the different arm positions but underestimate the gonad DCs by up to about 17 times due to the different leg positions. The impact of different postures on effective doses was generally less than that on organ doses but still significant; for example, the standing MRCPs overestimate the effective doses of the bending MRCPs only by 20% in the AP geometry at neutron energies less than 50 MeV, but underestimate those of the kneeling MRCPs by up to 40% in the lateral geometries at energies less than 0.1 MeV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00411-021-00900-2DOI Listing
May 2021

Detailed tooth models for ICRP mesh-type reference computational phantoms.

J Radiol Prot 2021 Sep 30;41(4). Epub 2021 Sep 30.

Department of Anatomy, Yonsei University Wonju College of Medicine, Wonju, South Korea.

For use in electron paramagnetic resonance dosimetry with tooth enamel, in the present study, very detailed mesh-type tooth models composed of 198 individual tooth models (i.e. newborn: 20; 1 year: 28; 5 years: 48; 10 years: 38; 15 years: 32; and adult: 32) were developed for each sex. The developed tooth models were then implanted in the International Commission on Radiological Protection pediatric and adult mesh-type reference computational phantoms and used to calculate tooth enamel doses, by Monte Carlo simulations with Geant4, for external photon exposures in several idealized irradiation geometries. The calculated dose values were then compared to investigate the dependency of the enamel dose on the age and sex of the phantom and the sites of the teeth. The results of the present study generally show that, if the photon energy is low (i.e. <0.1 MeV), the enamel dose is significantly affected by the age and sex of the phantom and also the sites of the teeth used for dose calculation; the differences are frequently greater than a few times or even orders of magnitude. However, with a few exceptions, the enamel dose was hardly affected by these parameters for energies between 0.1 and 3 MeV. For energies >3 MeV, moderate differences were observed (i.e., up to a factor of two), due to the existence of dose build-up in the head of the phantom for high-energy photons. The calculated dose values were also compared with those of the previous studies where voxel and mathematical models were used to calculate the enamel doses. The results again show significant differences at low energies, e.g., up to ∼3500 times at 0.015 MeV, which are mainly due to the differences in the level of tooth-modeling detailedness.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-6498/abeaf9DOI Listing
September 2021

Development of skeletal systems for ICRP pediatric mesh-type reference computational phantoms.

J Radiol Prot 2021 Jan 5. Epub 2021 Jan 5.

Biomedical Engineering, University of Florida, PO Box 116131, 1275 Center Drive, Gainesville, Florida, 32611-6131, UNITED STATES.

In 2016, the ICRP launched Task Group 103 (TG 103) for the explicit purpose of developing a new generation of adult and pediatric reference computational phantoms, named "mesh-type reference computational phantoms (MRCPs)," that can overcome the limitations of voxel-type reference computational phantoms (VRCPs) of ICRP Publications 110 and 143 due to their finite voxel resolutions and the nature of voxel geometry. After completing the development of the adult MRCPs, TG 103 has started the development of pediatric MRCPs comprising 10 phantoms (male and female versions of the reference newborn, 1-year-old, 5-year-old, 10-year-old, and 15-year-old). As part of the TG 103 project, within the present study, the skeletal systems, one of the most important and complex organ systems of the body, were developed for each phantom age and sex. The developed skeletal systems, while closely preserving the original bone topology of the pediatric VRCPs, present substantial improvements in the anatomy of complex and/or small bones. In order to investigate the dosimetric impact of the developed skeletons, the average absorbed doses and the specific absorbed fractions (SAFs) for radiosensitive skeletal tissues (i.e. active marrow and bone endosteum) were computed for some selected external and internal exposure cases, which were then compared with those calculated with the skeletons of pediatric VRCPs. The comparison result showed that the dose values of the pediatric MRCPs were generally similar to those of the pediatric VRCPs for highly penetrating radiations (e.g. photons >200 keV); however, for weakly penetrating radiations (e.g. photons ≤200 keV and electrons), significant differences up to a factor of 140 were observed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-6498/abd88dDOI Listing
January 2021

Body-size-dependent Iodine-131values.

J Radiol Prot 2020 Nov 11;40(4). Epub 2020 Nov 11.

Department of Nuclear Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

In a recent epidemiologic risk assessment on late health effects of patients treated with radioactive iodine (RAI), organ/tissue doses of the patients were estimated based on iodine-131values derived from the reference computational phantoms of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). However, the use of thevalues based on the reference phantoms may lead to significant biases in the estimated doses of patients whose body sizes (height and weight) are significantly different from the reference body sizes. To fill this critical gap, we established a comprehensive dataset of body-size-dependent iodine-131values (r← thyroid) for 30 radiosensitive target organs/tissues by performing Monte Carlo dose calculations coupled with a total of 212 adult male and female computational phantoms in different heights and weights. We observed that thevalues tend to decrease with increasing body height; for example, thevalue (gonads ← thyroid) of the 160 cm male phantom is about 3 times higher than that of the 190 cm male phantom at the 70 kg weight. We also observed that thevalues tend to decrease with increasing body weight for some organs/tissues; for example, thevalue (skin ← thyroid) of the 45 kg female phantom is about two times higher than that of the 130 kg female phantom at the 160 cm height. For other organs/tissues, which are relatively far from the thyroid, in contrast, thevalues tend to increase with increasing body weight; for example, thevalue (bladder ← thyroid) of the 45 kg female phantom is about 2 times lower than that of the 130 kg female phantom. Overall, the majority of the body-size-dependentvalues deviated to within 25% from those of the reference phantoms. We believe that the use of body-size-dependentvalues in dose reconstructions should help quantify the dosimetric uncertainty in epidemiologic investigations of RAI-treated patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-6498/abc053DOI Listing
November 2020

POLY2TET: a computer program for conversion of computational human phantoms from polygonal mesh to tetrahedral mesh.

J Radiol Prot 2020 Sep 23;40(4):962-979. Epub 2020 Sep 23.

Department of Nuclear Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

As a geometrical format for computational human phantoms, tetrahedral mesh (TM) is known to have significant advantages over polygonal mesh (PM), including higher compatibility with Monte Carlo radiation transport codes, higher computation speed, and the capability of modeling heterogeneous density variation in an organ of the phantom. In the present study, a computer program named POLY2TET was developed to convert the format of computational human phantoms from PM to TM and generate a sample source code or input file, as applicable, for the converted phantom to be used in some general-purpose Monte Carlo radiation transport codes (i.e. Geant4, PHITS, and MCNP6). The developed program was then tested using four existing high-fidelity PM phantoms. The computation speed, memory requirement, and initialisation time of the generated TM phantoms were also measured and compared with those of the original PM phantoms in Geant4. From the results of our test, it was concluded that the developed program successfully converts PM phantoms into the TM format. The organ doses calculated using the generated TM phantom for the three Monte Carlo codes all produced essentially identical dose values to those for the original PM phantoms in Geant4. The comparison of computation speed showed that compared to the original PM phantoms in Geant4, the TM phantoms in the three Monte Carlo codes were much faster in transporting the particles considered in the present study, i.e. by up to ∼2600 times for electron beams simulated in PHITS. The comparison of the memory requirement showed that the TM phantoms required more memory than the original PM phantoms, but, except for MCNP6, the memory required for the TM phantoms was still less than 12 GB, which typically is available in personal computers these days. For MCNP6, the required memory was much higher, i.e. 60-70 GB.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-6498/abb360DOI Listing
September 2020

A dose voxel kernel method for rapid reconstruction of out-of-field neutron dose of patients in pencil beam scanning (PBS) proton therapy.

Phys Med Biol 2020 08 27;65(17):175015. Epub 2020 Aug 27.

Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Rockville, MD 20850, United States of America.

Monte Carlo (MC) radiation transport methods are used for dose calculation as 'gold standard.' However, the method is computationally time-consuming and thus impractical for normal tissue dose reconstructions for the large number of proton therapy patients required for epidemiologic investigations of late health effects. In the present study, we developed a new dose calculation method for the rapid reconstruction of out-of-field neutron dose to patients undergoing pencil beam scanning (PBS) proton therapy. The new dose calculation method is based on neutron dose voxel kernels (DVKs) generated by MC simulations of a proton pencil beam irradiating a water phantom (60 × 60 × 300 cm), which was conducted using a MC proton therapy simulation code, TOPAS. The DVKs were generated for 19 beam energies (from 70 to 250 MeV with the 10 MeV interval) and three range shifter thicknesses (1, 3, and 5 cm). An in-house program was written in C++ to superimpose the DVKs onto a patient CT images according to proton beam characteristics (energy, position, and direction) available in treatment plans. The DVK dose calculation method was tested by calculating organ/tissue-specific neutron doses of 1- and 5-year-old whole-body computational phantoms where intracranial and craniospinal irradiations were simulated. The DVK-based doses generally showed reasonable agreement with those calculated by direct MC simulations with a detailed PBS model that were previously published, with differences mostly less than 30% and 10% for the intracranial and craniospinal irradiations, respectively. The computation time of the DVK method for one patient ranged from 1 to 30 min on a single CPU core of a personal computer, demonstrating significant improvement over the direct MC dose calculation requiring several days on high-performance computing servers. Our DVK-based dose calculation method will be useful when dosimetry is needed for the large number of patients such as for epidemiologic or clinical research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-6560/abaa5fDOI Listing
August 2020

Body-size-dependent phantom library constructed from ICRP mesh-type reference computational phantoms.

Phys Med Biol 2020 06 19;65(12):125014. Epub 2020 Jun 19.

Department of Nuclear Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Recently, ICRP Task Group 103 developed new mesh-type reference computational phantoms (MRCPs) for the adult male and female by converting the current voxel-type reference computational phantoms (VRCPs) of ICRP Publication 110 into a high-quality/fidelity mesh format. Utilizing the great deformability/flexibility of the MRCPs compared with the VRCPs, in the present study, we established a body-size-dependent phantom library by modifying the MRCPs. The established library includes 108 adult male and 104 adult female phantoms in different standing heights and body weights, covering most body sizes representative of Caucasian and Asian populations. Ten secondary anthropometric parameters with respect to standing height and body weight were derived from various anthropometric databases and applied in the construction of the phantom library. An in-house program for automatic phantom adjustment was developed and applied for practical construction of such a large number of phantoms in the library with minimized human intervention. Organ/tissue doses calculated with three male phantoms in different standing heights (165, 175, and 190 cm) with a fixed body weight of 80 kg for external exposures to broad parallel photon beams from 0.01 to 10 MeV were compared, observing there are significant dose differences particularly for the photon energies <0.1 MeV in which the organ/tissue doses tended to increase with increasing standing height. In addition, the organ/tissue doses of three female phantoms in different body weights (45, 65, and 140 kg) with a fixed standing height of 165 cm were compared, showing a significant decreasing tendency with increasing body weight for the photon energies <10 MeV. For the higher energies, the opposite trend, interestingly, was observed; that is, the organ/tissue doses tended to increase with increasing body weight. The results, despite the limited number of exposure cases, suggest that the use of the body-size-dependent phantom library can improve the accuracy of individual dose estimates for many retrospective dosimetry studies by taking the body size of individuals into account.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-6560/ab8ddcDOI Listing
June 2020

INVESTIGATION OF THE INFLUENCE OF THYROID LOCATION ON IODINE-131 S VALUES.

Radiat Prot Dosimetry 2020 Jul;189(2):163-171

Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Rockville MD 20850, USA.

The use of iodine-131 S values based on reference computational phantoms with fixed thyroid model may lead to significant dosimetric errors in patients who may have different thyroid location from the reference phantoms. In the present study, we investigated individual thyroid location variation by examining the computed tomography image sets of 40 adult male and female patients. Subsequently, the thyroid location of the adult male and female mesh-type reference phantoms of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) was adjusted to match each the highest, mean and the lowest locations of the thyroid observed in this dataset. The thyroid-adjusted phantoms were implemented into the Geant4 Monte Carlo code to calculate thyroid location-dependent iodine-131 S values (rT ← thyroid) for a total of 30 target regions. The maximum variation among the observed thyroid locations was 39 mm and 36 mm for male and female patients, respectively. The mean thyroid locations of both male and female patients showed a good agreement with the ICRP reference phantoms. The thyroid location-dependent Iodine-131 S values were significantly different from the reference phantoms for most target regions by up to a factor of 3. The use of thyroid location-dependent S values in dose reconstructions should help quantify the dosimetric uncertainty in epidemiologic investigations of patients receiving iodine-131 therapy for hyperthyroidism and thyroid cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/rpd/ncaa027DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7357322PMC
July 2020

Automatic segmentation of cardiac structures for breast cancer radiotherapy.

Phys Imaging Radiat Oncol 2019 Oct 5;12:44-48. Epub 2019 Dec 5.

Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Rockville, MD 20850, USA.

Background And Purpose: We developed an automatic method to segment cardiac substructures given a radiotherapy planning CT images to support epidemiological studies or clinical trials looking at cardiac disease endpoints after radiotherapy.

Material And Methods: We used a most-similar atlas selection algorithm and 3D deformation combined with 30 detailed cardiac atlases. We cross-validated our method within the atlas library by evaluating geometric comparison metrics and by comparing cardiac doses for simulated breast radiotherapy between manual and automatic contours. We analyzed the impact of the number of cardiac atlas in the library and the use of manual guide points on the performance of our method.

Results: The Dice Similarity Coefficients from the cross-validation reached up to 97% (whole heart) and 80% (chambers). The Average Surface Distance for the coronary arteries was less than 10.3 mm on average, with the best agreement (7.3 mm) in the left anterior descending artery (LAD). The dose comparison for simulated breast radiotherapy showed differences less than 0.06 Gy for the whole heart and atria, and 0.3 Gy for the ventricles. For the coronary arteries, the dose differences were 2.3 Gy (LAD) and 0.3 Gy (other arteries). The sensitivity analysis showed no notable improvement beyond ten atlases and the manual guide points does not significantly improve performance.

Conclusion: We developed an automated method to contour cardiac substructures for radiotherapy CTs. When combined with accurate dose calculation techniques, our method should be useful for cardiac dose reconstruction of a large number of patients in epidemiological studies or clinical trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phro.2019.11.007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7807574PMC
October 2019

Dose coefficients of percentile-specific computational phantoms for photon external exposures.

Radiat Environ Biophys 2020 03 2;59(1):151-160. Epub 2019 Nov 2.

Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Rockville, MD, 20850, USA.

The use of dose coefficients (DCs) based on the reference phantoms recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) with a fixed body size may produce errors to the estimated organ/tissue doses to be used, for example, for epidemiologic studies depending on the body size of cohort members. A set of percentile-specific computational phantoms that represent 10th, 50th, and 90th percentile standing heights and body masses in adult male and female Caucasian populations were recently developed by modifying the mesh-type ICRP reference computational phantoms (MRCPs). In the present study, these percentile-specific phantoms were used to calculate a comprehensive dataset of body-size-dependent DCs for photon external exposures by performing Monte Carlo dose calculations with the Geant4 code. The dataset includes the DCs of absorbed doses for 29 individual organs/tissues from 0.01 to 10 MeV photon energy, in the antero-posterior, postero-anterior, right lateral, left lateral, rotational, and isotropic geometries. The body-size-dependent DCs were compared with the DCs of the MRCPs in the reference body size, showing that the DCs of the MRCPs are generally similar to those of the 50th percentile standing height and body mass phantoms over the entire photon energy region except for low energies (≤ 0.03 MeV); the differences are mostly less than 10%. In contrast, there are significant differences in the DCs between the MRCPs and the 10th and 90th percentile standing height and body mass phantoms (i.e., H10M10 and H90M90). At energies of less than about 10 MeV, the MRCPs tended to under- and over-estimate the organ/tissue doses of the H10M10 and H90M90 phantoms, respectively. This tendency was revised at higher energies. The DCs of the percentile-specific phantoms were also compared with the previously published values of another phantom sets with similar body sizes, showing significant differences particularly at energies below about 0.1 MeV, which is mainly due to the different locations and depths of organs/tissues between the different phantom libraries. The DCs established in the present study should be useful to improve the dosimetric accuracy in the reconstructions of organ/tissue doses for individuals in risk assessment for epidemiologic investigations taking body sizes into account.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00411-019-00818-wDOI Listing
March 2020

New calculation method for 3D dose distribution in tetrahedral-mesh phantoms in Geant4.

Phys Med 2019 Oct 1;66:97-103. Epub 2019 Oct 1.

Department of Nuclear Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 04763, South Korea. Electronic address:

The tetrahedral-mesh (TM) geometry, which is a very promising geometry for computational human phantoms, has a limitation in 3D dose distribution calculation for medical applications. Even though Geant4 provides the read-out geometry for calculating 3D dose distribution in the TM geometry, this method significantly slows down the computation speed. In the present study, we developed a new method, called Moving Voxel-based Dose-Distribution Calculator (MVDDC), to rapidly calculate a 3D dose distribution in a TM geometry. To evaluate the performance of the MVDDC method, a simple TM cubic phantom and a human phantom were implemented in Geant4. Subsequently, the phantoms were irradiated with proton spot beams under various conditions, and the obtained results were compared with those of the read-out geometry method. The results show that there is no significant difference between the dose distributions calculated using the new method and the read-out geometry method. With respect to the computational performance, the speeds of simulations using the MVDDC were approximately 1.4-2.7 times faster than those of the simulations using the read-out geometry method.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejmp.2019.09.239DOI Listing
October 2019

A Monte Carlo model for organ dose reconstruction of patients in pencil beam scanning (PBS) proton therapy for epidemiologic studies of late effects.

J Radiol Prot 2020 Mar 11;40(1):225-242. Epub 2019 Sep 11.

Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Rockville, MD 20850, United States of America.

Significant efforts such as the Pediatric Proton/Photon Consortium Registry (PPCR) involving multiple proton therapy centers have been made to conduct collaborative studies evaluating outcomes following proton therapy. As a groundwork dosimetry effort for the late effect investigation, we developed a Monte Carlo (MC) model of proton pencil beam scanning (PBS) to estimate organ/tissue doses of pediatric patients at the Maryland Proton Treatment Center (MPTC), one of the proton centers involved in the PPCR. The MC beam modeling was performed using the TOPAS (TOol for PArticle Simulation) MC code and commissioned to match measurement data within 1% for range, and 0.3 mm for spot sizes. The established MC model was then tested by calculating organ/tissue doses for sample intracranial and craniospinal irradiations on whole-body pediatric computational human phantoms. The simulated dose distributions were compared with the treatment planning system dose distributions, showing the 3 mm/3% gamma index passing rates of 94%-99%, validating our simulations with the MC model. The calculated organ/tissue doses per prescribed doses for the craniospinal irradiations (1 mGy Gy to 1 Gy Gy) were generally much higher than those for the intracranial irradiations (2.1 μGy Gy to 0.1 Gy Gy), which is due to the larger field coverage of the craniospinal irradiations. The largest difference was observed at the adrenal dose, i.e. ∼3000 times. In addition, the calculated organ/tissue doses were compared with those calculated with a simplified MC model, showing that the beam properties (i.e. spot size, spot divergence, mean energy, and energy spread) do not significantly influence dose calculations despite the limited irradiation cases. This implies that the use of the MC model commissioned to the MPTC measurement data might be dosimetrically acceptable for patient dose reconstructions at other proton centers particularly when their measurement data are unavailable. The developed MC model will be used to reconstruct organ/tissue doses for MPTC pediatric patients collected in the PPCR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-6498/ab437dDOI Listing
March 2020

Computation Speeds and Memory Requirements of Mesh-Type ICRP Reference Computational Phantoms in Geant4, MCNP6, and PHITS.

Health Phys 2019 05;116(5):664-676

Department of Nuclear Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul, Korea.

Recently, Task Group 103 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection completed the development of new adult male and female mesh-type reference computational phantoms, which are planned for use in future International Commission on Radiological Protection dose coefficient calculations. In the present study, the performance of major Monte Carlo particle transport codes, i.e., Geant4, MCNP6, and PHITS, were investigated for the mesh-type reference computational phantoms by performing transport simulations of photons, electrons, neutrons, and helium ions for some external and internal exposures, and simultaneously measuring the memory usage, initialization time, and computation speed of the adult male mesh-type reference computational phantom in the codes. The measured results were then compared with the values measured with the current adult male voxel-type reference computational phantom in International Commission on Radiological Protection Publication 110 as well as five voxel phantoms produced from the adult male mesh-type reference computational phantom with different voxel resolutions, i.e., 0.1 × 0.1 × 0.1 mm, 0.6 × 0.6 × 0.6 mm, 1 × 1 × 1 mm, 2 × 2 × 2 mm, and 4 × 4 × 4 mm. From the results, it was found that in all of the codes, the memory usage of the mesh-type reference computational phantom is greater than that of the voxel-type reference computational phantom and the lowest resolution voxelized phantom, but it is sufficiently lower than the maximum memory, 64 GB, that can be installed in a personal computer. The required initialization time of the mesh-type reference computational phantom and of the voxel-type reference computational phantom and voxelized phantoms in resolutions lower than 0.6 × 0.6 × 0.6 mm was less than a few minutes in all of the codes. As for the computation speed among the codes, MCNP6 showed the worst performance for the mesh-type reference computational phantom, which was slower than that for the voxel-type reference computational phantom by up to ~50 times and slower than that for all of the voxelized phantoms by up to ~40 times. By contrast, PHITS showed the best performance for the mesh-type reference computational phantom, which was faster than that for the voxel-type reference computational phantom by up to ~3 times and faster than that for all of the voxelized phantoms by up to ~20 times. This high performance of PHITS is indeed encouraging considering that it is used nowadays by the International Commission on Radiological Protection for most dose coefficient calculations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HP.0000000000000999DOI Listing
May 2019

Mesh-type reference Korean phantoms (MRKPs) for adult male and female for use in radiation protection dosimetry.

Phys Med Biol 2019 04 12;64(8):085020. Epub 2019 Apr 12.

Department of Nuclear Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

In the present study, to overcome the dosimetric limitations of the previous voxel-type reference Korean computational phantoms due to their limited voxel resolutions (i.e. on the order of millimeters) and the nature of voxel geometry, a pair of new reference Korean phantoms, called mesh-type reference Korean phantoms (MRKPs), were developed for the adult male and female in a high-quality/fidelity mesh format. The developed phantoms include all target and source regions required for effective dose calculation, even micrometer-scale target and source regions of the respiratory and alimentary tract organs, skin, urinary bladder, and eye lens. The developed phantoms, which are in either the polygon-mesh (PM) format or the tetrahedral-mesh (TM) format as necessary, can be directly used in several general-purpose Monte Carlo codes (e.g. Geant4, MCNP6, and PHITS) without voxelization. In order to understand the dosimetric impact of the new phantoms, the dose coefficients (=fluence-to-effective dose conversion coefficients) were calculated for photons and electrons with energies ranging from 10 keV to 10 GeV for the anterior-posterior (AP) irradiation geometry and compared with those of the previous voxel-type reference Korean phantoms. The results demonstrate that the effective dose coefficients of the MRKPs were generally similar to those of the previous voxel-type reference phantoms for photons; however, for electrons, significant differences were observed at energies lower than 1 MeV that were mainly due to the explicit definition of the 50 µm-thick radiosensitive target layer in the skin of the new mesh phantoms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-6560/ab0b59DOI Listing
April 2019

Posture-dependent dose coefficients of mesh-type ICRP reference computational phantoms for photon external exposures.

Phys Med Biol 2019 04 4;64(7):075018. Epub 2019 Apr 4.

Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Rockville, MD 20850, United States of America.

Recently, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) developed new mesh-type reference computational phantoms (MRCPs) that provide high deformability compared with the current voxel-type reference computational phantoms of ICRP Publication 110. Taking advantage of this deformability, in the present study, the MRCPs were deformed to five non-standing postures (i.e. walking, sitting, bending, kneeling, and squatting) by developing and using a systematic posture-change method based on the as-rigid-as-possible (ARAP) shape-deformation algorithm and motion-capture technology. The non-standing MRCPs were then implemented in the Geant4 Monte Carlo code to calculate a comprehensive dataset of dose coefficients (DCs) for photon external exposures. These include the dose coefficients for 29 individual organs/tissues and the dose coefficients for effective doses from 0.01 MeV to 10 GeV in the antero-posterior (AP), postero-anterior (PA), left-lateral (LLAT), right-lateral (RLAT), rotational (ROT), and isotropic (ISO) geometries. To investigate the dosimetric impact of posture, the DCs of the non-standing MRCPs were compared with those of the original MRCPs (in the standing posture). The results showed that organ/tissue doses are significantly influenced by posture, with arm position mostly influencing dose to organs/tissues in the torso region and leg position influencing dose in the pelvic region. For most cases, the gonads showed notably large differences, ranging from a few tens of percentage points to several orders of magnitude, depending on posture and irradiation geometry. The effective doses showed much smaller differences than the organ/tissue doses, but they were nonetheless significant: for example, the kneeling MRCPs in the AP geometry showed lower values at energies  <10 MeV by up to 30% and greater values at higher energies by up to 40%. The presented results indicate that not only different irradiation geometries, but also different postures might be necessary in DC calculations for reliable dose estimates for radiological protection purposes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-6560/ab0917DOI Listing
April 2019

Advances in Computational Human Phantoms and Their Applications in Biomedical Engineering - A Topical Review.

IEEE Trans Radiat Plasma Med Sci 2019 Jan;3(1):1-23

Johns Hopkins University, School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA

Over the past decades, significant improvements have been made in the field of computational human phantoms (CHPs) and their applications in biomedical engineering. Their sophistication has dramatically increased. The very first CHPs were composed of simple geometric volumes, e.g., cylinders and spheres, while current CHPs have a high resolution, cover a substantial range of the patient population, have high anatomical accuracy, are poseable, morphable, and are augmented with various details to perform functionalized computations. Advances in imaging techniques and semi-automated segmentation tools allow fast and personalized development of CHPs. These advances open the door to quickly develop personalized CHPs, inherently including the disease of the patient. Because many of these CHPs are increasingly providing data for regulatory submissions of various medical devices, the validity, anatomical accuracy, and availability to cover the entire patient population is of utmost importance. The article is organized into two main sections: the first section reviews the different modeling techniques used to create CHPs, whereas the second section discusses various applications of CHPs in biomedical engineering. Each topic gives an overview, a brief history, recent developments, and an outlook into the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TRPMS.2018.2883437DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6362464PMC
January 2019

Percentile-specific computational phantoms constructed from ICRP mesh-type reference computational phantoms (MRCPs).

Phys Med Biol 2019 02 5;64(4):045005. Epub 2019 Feb 5.

Department of Nuclear Engineering, Hanyang University, 222 Wangsimni-ro, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 04763, Republic of Korea.

Recently, the Task Group 103 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has developed new mesh-type reference computational phantoms (MRCPs) for adult male and female. When compared to the current voxel-type reference computational phantoms in ICRP Publication 110, the MRCPs have several advantages, including deformability which makes it possible to create phantoms in different body sizes or postures. In the present study, the MRCPs were deformed to produce a set of percentile-specific phantoms representing the 10th, 50th and 90th percentiles of standing height and body weight in Caucasian population. For this, anthropometric parameters for the percentile-specific phantoms were first derived from the anthropometric software and survey data. Then, the MRCPs were modified to match the derived anthropometric parameters. For this, first, the MRCPs were scaled in the axial direction to match the head height, torso length, and leg length. Then, the head, torso, and legs were scaled in the transversal directions to match the lean body mass for the percentile-specific phantoms. Finally, the scaled phantoms were manually adjusted to match the body weight and the remaining anthropometric parameters (upper arm, waist, buttock, thigh, and calf circumferences and sagittal abdominal diameter). The constructed percentile-specific phantoms and the MRCPs were implemented into the Geant4 Monte Carlo code to calculate organ doses for a cesium-137 contaminated floor. The results showed that organ doses of the 50th percentile (both standing height and body weight) phantoms are very close to those of the MRCPs. There were noticeable differences in organ doses, however, for the 10th and 90th percentile phantoms when compared with those of the MRCPs. The results of the present study confirm the general intuition that a small person receives higher doses than a large person when exposed to a static radiation field, and organs closer to the source receive higher doses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-6560/aafcdbDOI Listing
February 2019

Multi-threading performance of Geant4, MCNP6, and PHITS Monte Carlo codes for tetrahedral-mesh geometry.

Phys Med Biol 2018 05 4;63(9):09NT02. Epub 2018 May 4.

INFN Sezione di Genova, Via Dodecaneso 33, Genova 16146, Italy. Department of Nuclear Engineering, Hanyang University, 222 Wangsimni-ro, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 04763, Republic of Korea.

In this study, the multi-threading performance of the Geant4, MCNP6, and PHITS codes was evaluated as a function of the number of threads (N) and the complexity of the tetrahedral-mesh phantom. For this, three tetrahedral-mesh phantoms of varying complexity (simple, moderately complex, and highly complex) were prepared and implemented in the three different Monte Carlo codes, in photon and neutron transport simulations. Subsequently, for each case, the initialization time, calculation time, and memory usage were measured as a function of the number of threads used in the simulation. It was found that for all codes, the initialization time significantly increased with the complexity of the phantom, but not with the number of threads. Geant4 exhibited much longer initialization time than the other codes, especially for the complex phantom (MRCP). The improvement of computation speed due to the use of a multi-threaded code was calculated as the speed-up factor, the ratio of the computation speed on a multi-threaded code to the computation speed on a single-threaded code. Geant4 showed the best multi-threading performance among the codes considered in this study, with the speed-up factor almost linearly increasing with the number of threads, reaching ~30 when N  =  40. PHITS and MCNP6 showed a much smaller increase of the speed-up factor with the number of threads. For PHITS, the speed-up factors were low when N  =  40. For MCNP6, the increase of the speed-up factors was better, but they were still less than ~10 when N  =  40. As for memory usage, Geant4 was found to use more memory than the other codes. In addition, compared to that of the other codes, the memory usage of Geant4 more rapidly increased with the number of threads, reaching as high as ~74 GB when N  =  40 for the complex phantom (MRCP). It is notable that compared to that of the other codes, the memory usage of PHITS was much lower, regardless of both the complexity of the phantom and the number of threads, hardly increasing with the number of threads for the MRCP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-6560/aabd20DOI Listing
May 2018

Development of an effective dose coefficient database using a computational human phantom and Monte Carlo simulations to evaluate exposure dose for the usage of NORM-added consumer products.

Appl Radiat Isot 2017 Nov 9;129:42-48. Epub 2017 Aug 9.

Department of Radiation Convergence Engineering and Research Institute of Health Science, Yonsei University, Wonju, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

After the Fukushima accident in Japan, the Korean Government implemented the "Act on Protective Action Guidelines Against Radiation in the Natural Environment" to regulate unnecessary radiation exposure to the public. However, despite the law which came into effect in July 2012, an appropriate method to evaluate the equivalent and effective doses from naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) in consumer products is not available. The aim of the present study is to develop and validate an effective dose coefficient database enabling the simple and correct evaluation of the effective dose due to the usage of NORM-added consumer products. To construct the database, we used a skin source method with a computational human phantom and Monte Carlo (MC) simulation. For the validation, the effective dose was compared between the database using interpolation method and the original MC method. Our result showed a similar equivalent dose across the 26 organs and a corresponding average dose between the database and the MC calculations of < 5% difference. The differences in the effective doses were even less, and the result generally show that equivalent and effective doses can be quickly calculated with the database with sufficient accuracy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apradiso.2017.07.064DOI Listing
November 2017

Feasibility of reducing differences in estimated doses in nuclear medicine between a patient-specific and a reference phantom.

Phys Med 2017 Jul 16;39:100-112. Epub 2017 Jun 16.

Ludwig Maximilians Universität München (LMU Munich), Experimental Physics - Medical Physics, Am Coulombwall 1, 85748 Garching, Germany.

The feasibility of reducing the differences between patient-specific internal doses and doses estimated using reference phantoms was evaluated. Relatively simple adjustments to a polygon-surface ICRP adult male reference phantom were applied to fit selected individual dimensions using the software Rhinoceros®4.0. We tested this approach on two patient-specific phantoms: the biggest and the smallest phantoms from the Helmholtz Zentrum München library. These phantoms have unrelated anatomy and large differences in body-mass-index. Three models approximating each patient's anatomy were considered: the voxel and the polygon-surface ICRP adult male reference phantoms and the adjusted polygon-surface reference phantom. The Specific Absorbed Fractions (SAFs) for internal photon and electron sources were calculated with the Monte Carlo code EGSnrc. Employing the time-integrated activity coefficients of a radiopharmaceutical (S)-4-(3-F-fluoropropyl)-l-glutamic acid and the calculated SAFs, organ absorbed-dose coefficients were computed following the formalism promulgated by the Committee on Medical Internal Radiation Dose. We compared the absorbed-dose coefficients between each patient-specific phantom and other models considered with emphasis on the cross-fire component. The corresponding differences for most organs were notably lower for the adjusted reference models compared to the case when reference models were employed. Overall, the proposed approach provided reliable dose estimates for both tested patient-specific models despite the pronounced differences in their anatomy. To capture the full range of inter-individual anatomic variability more patient-specific phantoms are required. The results of this test study suggest a feasibility of estimating patient-specific doses within a relative uncertainty of 25% or less using adjusted reference models, when only simple phantom scaling is applied.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejmp.2017.06.003DOI Listing
July 2017

Implementation of tetrahedral-mesh geometry in Monte Carlo radiation transport code PHITS.

Phys Med Biol 2017 Jun 4;62(12):4798-4810. Epub 2017 Apr 4.

Nuclear Science and Engineering Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-4 Shirakata, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki 319-1195, Japan. J. Crayton Pruitt Family Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, United States of America.

A new function to treat tetrahedral-mesh geometry was implemented in the particle and heavy ion transport code systems. To accelerate the computational speed in the transport process, an original algorithm was introduced to initially prepare decomposition maps for the container box of the tetrahedral-mesh geometry. The computational performance was tested by conducting radiation transport simulations of 100 MeV protons and 1 MeV photons in a water phantom represented by tetrahedral mesh. The simulation was repeated with varying number of meshes and the required computational times were then compared with those of the conventional voxel representation. Our results show that the computational costs for each boundary crossing of the region mesh are essentially equivalent for both representations. This study suggests that the tetrahedral-mesh representation offers not only a flexible description of the transport geometry but also improvement of computational efficiency for the radiation transport. Due to the adaptability of tetrahedrons in both size and shape, dosimetrically equivalent objects can be represented by tetrahedrons with a much fewer number of meshes as compared its voxelized representation. Our study additionally included dosimetric calculations using a computational human phantom. A significant acceleration of the computational speed, about 4 times, was confirmed by the adoption of a tetrahedral mesh over the traditional voxel mesh geometry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-6560/aa6b45DOI Listing
June 2017

Inclusion of thin target and source regions in alimentary and respiratory tract systems of mesh-type ICRP adult reference phantoms.

Phys Med Biol 2017 03 23;62(6):2132-2152. Epub 2017 Jan 23.

Department of Nuclear Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul, Korea.

It is not feasible to define very small or complex organs and tissues in the current voxel-type adult reference computational phantoms of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), which limit dose coefficients for weakly penetrating radiations. To address the problem, the ICRP is converting the voxel-type reference phantoms into mesh-type phantoms. In the present study, as a part of the conversion project, the micrometer-thick target and source regions in the alimentary and respiratory tract systems as described in ICRP Publications 100 and 66 were included in the mesh-type ICRP reference adult male and female phantoms. In addition, realistic lung airway models were simulated to represent the bronchial (BB) and bronchiolar (bb) regions. The electron specific absorbed fraction (SAF) values for the alimentary and respiratory tract systems were then calculated and compared with the values calculated with the stylized models of ICRP Publications 100 and 66. The comparisons show generally good agreement for the oral cavity, oesophagus, and BB, whereas for the stomach, small intestine, large intestine, extrathoracic region, and bb, there are some differences (e.g. up to ~9 times in the large intestine). The difference is mainly due to anatomical difference in these organs between the realistic mesh-type phantoms and the simplified stylized models. The new alimentary and respiratory tract models in the mesh-type ICRP reference phantoms preserve the topology and dimensions of the voxel-type ICRP phantoms and provide more reliable SAF values than the simplified models adopted in previous ICRP Publications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-6560/aa5b72DOI Listing
March 2017

Development of skeletal system for mesh-type ICRP reference adult phantoms.

Phys Med Biol 2016 10 20;61(19):7054-7073. Epub 2016 Sep 20.

Department of Nuclear Engineering, Hanyang University, 222 Wangsimni-ro, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 04763, Korea.

The reference adult computational phantoms of the international commission on radiological protection (ICRP) described in Publication 110 are voxel-type computational phantoms based on whole-body computed tomography (CT) images of adult male and female patients. The voxel resolutions of these phantoms are in the order of a few millimeters and smaller tissues such as the eye lens, the skin, and the walls of some organs cannot be properly defined in the phantoms, resulting in limitations in dose coefficient calculations for weakly penetrating radiations. In order to address the limitations of the ICRP-110 phantoms, an ICRP Task Group has been recently formulated and the voxel phantoms are now being converted to a high-quality mesh format. As a part of the conversion project, in the present study, the skeleton models, one of the most important and complex organs of the body, were constructed. The constructed skeleton models were then tested by calculating red bone marrow (RBM) and endosteum dose coefficients (DCs) for broad parallel beams of photons and electrons and comparing the calculated values with those of the original ICRP-110 phantoms. The results show that for the photon exposures, there is a generally good agreement in the DCs between the mesh-type phantoms and the original voxel-type ICRP-110 phantoms; that is, the dose discrepancies were less than 7% in all cases except for the 0.03 MeV cases, for which the maximum difference was 14%. On the other hand, for the electron exposures (⩽4 MeV), the DCs of the mesh-type phantoms deviate from those of the ICRP-110 phantoms by up to ~1600 times at 0.03 MeV, which is indeed due to the improvement of the skeletal anatomy of the developed skeleton mesh models.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0031-9155/61/19/7054DOI Listing
October 2016

An effective dose assessment technique with NORM added consumer products using skin-point source on computational human phantom.

Appl Radiat Isot 2016 Dec 21;118:56-61. Epub 2016 Aug 21.

Department of Radiation Convergence Engineering, Yonsei University, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

The aim of this study is to develop the assessment technique of the effective dose by calculating the organ equivalent dose with a Monte Carlo (MC) simulation and a computational human phantom for the naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) added consumer products. In this study, we suggests the method determining the MC source term based on the skin-point source enabling the convenient and conservative modeling of the various type of the products. To validate the skin-point source method, the organ equivalent doses were compared with that by the product modeling source of the realistic shape for the pillow, waist supporter, sleeping mattress etc. Our results show that according to the source location, the organ equivalent doses were observed as the similar tendency for both source determining methods, however, it was observed that the annual effective dose with the skin-point source was conservative than that with the modeling source with the maximum 3.3 times higher dose. With the assumption of the gamma energy of 1MeV and product activity of 1Bqg, the annual effective doses of the pillow, waist supporter and sleeping mattress with skin-point source was 3.09E-16SvBqyear, 1.45E-15SvBqyear, and 2,82E-16SvBqyear, respectively, while the product modeling source showed 9.22E-17SvBqyear, 9.29E-16SvBqyear, and 8.83E-17SvBqyear, respectively. In conclusion, it was demonstrated in this study that the skin-point source method could be employed to efficiently evaluate the annual effective dose due to the usage of the NORM added consumer products.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apradiso.2016.08.014DOI Listing
December 2016

New small-intestine modeling method for surface-based computational human phantoms.

J Radiol Prot 2016 Jun 23;36(2):230-45. Epub 2016 Mar 23.

Department of Nuclear Engineering, Hanyang University, 222 Wangsimni-ro, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 133-791, Korea.

When converting voxel phantoms to a surface format, the small intestine (SI), which is usually not accurately represented in a voxel phantom due to its complex and irregular shape on one hand and the limited voxel resolutions on the other, cannot be directly converted to a high-quality surface model. Currently, stylized pipe models are used instead, but they are strongly influenced by developer's subjectivity, resulting in unacceptable geometric and dosimetric inconsistencies. In this paper, we propose a new method for the construction of SI models based on the Monte Carlo approach. In the present study, the proposed method was tested by constructing the SI model for the polygon-mesh version of the ICRP reference male phantom currently under development. We believe that the new SI model is anatomically more realistic than the stylized SI models. Furthermore, our simulation results show that the new SI model, for both external and internal photon exposures, leads to dose values that are more similar to those of the original ICRP male voxel phantom than does the previously constructed stylized SI model.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0952-4746/36/2/230DOI Listing
June 2016
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