Publications by authors named "Ye Shen"

292 Publications

Body Composition Changes in Children during Treatment for Moderate Acute Malnutrition: Findings from a 4-Arm Cluster-Randomized Trial in Sierra Leone.

J Nutr 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Friedman School of Nutrition Science and Policy, Tufts University, Medford, MA, USA.

Background: Measures that better describe "healthy" and sustainable recovery during nutritional treatment of children with moderate acute malnutrition (MAM) are needed.

Objectives: We compared changes to body composition among children receiving 1 of 4 specialized nutritious food (SNFs) during treatment of MAM and by recovery and relapse outcomes.

Methods: The study was nested within a prospective, cluster-randomized, community-based, cost-effectiveness trial assessing 4 SNFs to treat children aged 6-59 mo with MAM [midupper arm circumference (MUAC) ≥11.5 cm and <12.5 cm without bipedal edema] in Sierra Leone. Biweekly SNF rations (1 of 3 fortified-blended foods or a lipid-based nutrient supplement) were given until children recovered (MUAC ≥12.5 cm), or up to 7 rations (∼12 wk). Deuterium dilution was used to estimate fat-free mass (FFM) and fat mass (FM) at enrollment and after 4 wk of treatment to ensure similar treatment exposure among the participants. Another MUAC measurement was performed among recovered children 4 wk after program exit to determine whether recovery was sustained. ANOVA, paired t tests, and linear regression models were used to determine significant differences in changes from baseline to 4 wk.

Results: Among 312 analyzed participants, mean baseline weight comprised ∼80% FFM; mean weight gained after 4 wk comprised ∼82% FFM. Changes in FM and FFM among 4 SNFs were similar. Children who recovered gained more weight (241%), FFM (179%), and weight-for-height z score (0.44 compared with 0) compared with those who did not recover; sustainers gained 150% more weight. FM gains were positive among recovered children and sustainers, as well as negative among those who did not recover or sustain recovery, but not significantly different.

Conclusions: Four SNFs had similar effects on body composition in children after 4 wk of treatment for MAM, showing a healthy pattern of weight gain, the majority being FFM. Differential responses to treatment underscore a need for further research to provide targets for healthy, sustainable recovery. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03146897.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jn/nxab080DOI Listing
April 2021

High-speed excitation-spectral microscopy uncovers in-situ rearrangement of light-harvesting apparatus in Chlamydomonas during state transitions at submicron precision.

Plant Cell Physiol 2021 Apr 2. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Sciences, Tohoku University, 980-8578, Sendai, Japan.

Photosynthetic organisms adjust to fluctuating natural light under physiological ambient conditions through flexible light harvesting ability of light harvesting complex II (LHCII). A process called state transition is an efficient regulation mechanism to balance the excitations between photosystem II (PSII) and photosystem I (PSI) by shuttling mobile LHCII between them. However, in situ observation of the migration of LHCII in vivo remains limited. In this study, we investigated the in vivo reversible changes in the intracellular distribution of the chlorophyll fluorescence during the light-induced state transitions in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. The newly developed noninvasive excitation spectral microscope provided powerful spectral information about excitation-energy transfer between chlorophyll a (Chl-a) and chlorophyll b (Chl-b). The excitation spectra were detected through the fluorescence emission in the 700-750-nm spectral range, where PSII makes the main contribution, though PSI still makes a non-negligible contribution at room temperature. The technique is sensitive to the Chl-b spectral component specifically bound to LHCII. Using a PSI-specific 685 nm component also provided visualization of the local relative concentration of PSI within a chloroplast at room temperature. The decrease in the relative intensity of the Chl-b band in state 2 was more conspicuous in the PSII-rich region than the PSI-rich region, reflecting the dissociation of LHCII from PSII. We observed intracellular redistributions of the Chl-b-related light-harvesting abilities within a chloroplast during the state transitions. This observation implies the association of the state transitions with the morphological changes in the thylakoid membrane.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/pcp/pcab047DOI Listing
April 2021

Distance dilution of antibiotic resistance genes of sediments in an estuary system in relation to coastal cities.

Environ Pollut 2021 Mar 22;281:116980. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Urban Water Supply and Drainage System Safety and Energy Saving Engineering Technology Center, Fujian University of Technology, Fuzhou, 350118, China.

Coastal tourist and industrial cities are most likely to have differential effects on the distance dilution of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in an estuary system. This study used high-throughput fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction to identify sediment ARGs in two typical estuaries of coastal tourist and industrial cities (Xiamen and Taizhou) in China. The distance dilution of ARGs and its relationship with key environmental factors were analysed. The results indicated that along the river inlet towards the sea, the distance dilution effect on ARG abundance in estuary sediments of Taizhou was approximately double that in Xiamen, and the macrolide, lincosamide, and streptogramin B (MLSB) and vancomycin genes were replaced by the fluoroquinolone, quinolone, florfenicol, chloramphenicol, and amphenicol (FCA) and β-lactam genes in Taizhou, whereas β-lactam genes succeeded the MLSB and sul genes in Xiamen. The abundance and number of ARGs and mobile genetic elements (MGEs) were positively correlated with the particle size and total organic carbon (TOC) contents of sediments, whereas they were negatively associated with the oxidation and reduction potential (E) and pH of sediments, as well as the seawater salinity. The sediment particle size (SPZ) was the dominant physicochemical factor affecting the abundance of ARGs (r = 0.826, p < 0.05) and MGEs (r = 0.850, p < 0.01). These findings suggest that although the distance dilution effect on the ARG abundance of estuary sediments of the industrial city is greater than that of the tourist city, the larger SPZ, higher TOC content, and lower salinity, pH, and E in estuary regions adjacent to the industrial city can more significantly facilitate the proliferation and propagation of ARGs in the sediments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2021.116980DOI Listing
March 2021

Longitudinal Assessment of Immune Responses to Repeated Annual Influenza Vaccination in a Human Cohort of Adults and Teenagers.

Front Immunol 2021 3;12:642791. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Department of Infectious Diseases, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, United States.

The overall performance of a multiple component vaccine assessed by the vaccine-elicited immune responses across various strains in a repeated vaccination setting has not been well-studied, and the comparison between adults and teenagers is yet to be made. A human cohort study was conducted at the University of Georgia, with 140 subjects (86 adults and 54 teenagers) repeatedly vaccinated in the 2017/2018 and 2018/2019 influenza seasons. Host information was prospectively collected, and serum samples were collected before and after vaccination in each season. The association between host factors and repeated measures of hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) composite scores was assessed by generalized linear models with generalized estimating equations. The mean HAI composite scores for the entire sample ( = 4.26, = 139, < 0.001) and the teenager group ( = 6.44, = 53, < 0.001) declined in the second season, while the changes in the adults were not statistically significant ( = -1.14, = 85, = 0.26). A mixture pattern of changes in both directions was observed in the adults when stratified by prior vaccination. In addition, the regression analysis suggested an interactive effect of age and BMI on the HAI composite scores in the overall population (beta = 0.005; 95% CI, 0.0008-0.01) and the adults (beta = 0.005; 95% CI, 0.0005-0.01). Our study found distinct vaccine-elicited immune responses between adults and teenagers when both were repeatedly vaccinated in consecutive years. An interactive effect of age and BMI on the HAI composite scores were identified in the overall population and the adults.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2021.642791DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7965973PMC
March 2021

Modeling and comparison of count data containing zero values: a case study of Setipinna taty in the south inshore of Zhejiang, China.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Mar 20. Epub 2021 Mar 20.

College of Marine Sciences of Shanghai Ocean University, Shanghai, 201306, China.

To effectively use the fishery count data containing zero values, Setipinna taty in the coastal waters of south inshore of Zhejiang in China from 2017 to 2019 was used in this study. Environmental factors, such as water temperature, water depth, and salinity, were selected to establish models and compare based on the generalized additive model (GAM) of the Tweedie distribution (Tweedie-GAM) and two-stage GAM, Ad hoc method, and generalized additive mixed model (GAMM). The results showed that each station accounted for a higher proportion of zero values and the two-stage GAM model had a higher deviation interpretation rate, and GAM I and GAM II had 19.6% and 60.4% deviation interpretation rates. The cross-validation results showed that the performance evaluation of the two-stage GAM model was the best and showed the highest R value, the lowest average absolute error, and the relatively small root mean square error. This study found that the abundance of S. taty in the south inshore of Zhejiang was highest at around 21°C and 18°C in spring and autumn, and the abundance reached the highest at a water depth of about 20 m. In spatial distribution, the high value of the abundance of S. taty was mostly distributed in the coastal waters in the south of 28°N. In future research, models should be fitted and compared for different sampling zero-value ratios, and more environmental factors should be included to accurately find an optimal model and provide references for the conservation of fishery resources.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-13440-5DOI Listing
March 2021

Glycemic Trajectories After Tuberculosis Diagnosis and Treatment Outcomes of New Tuberculosis Patients: A Prospective Study in Eastern China.

Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2021 Mar 11. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Stanford University School of Medicine, 10624, Division of Infectious Diseases and Geographic Medicine, Stanford, California, United States.

Rationale Newly diagnosed tuberculosis patients often have inconsistent glycemic measurements during and after treatment. Distinct glycemic trajectories after tuberculosis diagnosis are not well characterized and whether patients with stress hyperglycemia have poor treatment outcomes is not known. Objectives To identify distinct glycemic trajectories from tuberculosis diagnosis to post-treatment and to assess the relationship between glycemic trajectories and tuberculosis treatment outcomes. Methods Newly diagnosed, drug-susceptible tuberculosis patients with at least three fasting plasma glucose (FPG) tests at tuberculosis diagnosis and during the 3rd and 6th month of treatment were identified and included from Jiangsu Province, China. Patients were also given an additional FPG test at two and four months post-treatment. Measurements and Main Results Several distinct glycemic trajectories from tuberculosis diagnosis to post-treatment were found including consistently normal glycemic testing (43%), transient hyperglycemia (24%), erratic glycemic instability (12%), diabetes (16%), and consistently hyperglycemic but without diabetes (6%). Compared to participants with a consistently normal glycemic trajectory, patients were more likely to fail treatment if they had transient hyperglycemia (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR], 4.20; 95% CI, 1.57-11.25, P=0.004) or erratic glycemic instability (AOR, 5.98; 95% CI, 2.00-17.87; P=0.001). Patients living with diabetes also had higher risk of treatment failure (AOR, 6.56; 95% Confidence Interval [CI], 2.22-19.35, P=0.001), and this was modified by glycemic control and metformin use. Conclusions Among tuberculosis patients without diabetes, glycemic changes were common and may represent an important marker for patient response to tuberculosis treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1164/rccm.202007-2634OCDOI Listing
March 2021

Effects of Amyloid Light-Chain Amyloidosis on Clinical Characteristics and Prognosis in Multiple Myeloma: A Single-Center Retrospective Study.

Cancer Manag Res 2021 11;13:1343-1356. Epub 2021 Feb 11.

Department of Hematology, Peking University First Hospital, Beijing, People's Republic of China.

Background: Amyloid light-chain amyloidosis (AL amyloidosis) is commonly associated with multiple myeloma. However, the clinical characteristics and prognosis of symptomatic and smoldering multiple myeloma with AL amyloidosis are not particularly clear.

Methods: Patients with symptomatic and smoldering multiple myeloma in the Peking University First Hospital registry from 2010 to 2018 were studied. The clinical and laboratory information was collected from first presentation to death or until the last available clinical follow-up. The patients' survival and outcomes were analyzed, and the relationship between the clinical parameters and survival was also assessed.

Results: Compared with symptomatic multiple myeloma patients without AL amyloidosis, patients with AL amyloidosis had higher incidence of BNP≧700pg/mL (<0.001), ALP>187.5IU/L (=0.032) and ALB<25g/L (<0.001). Similarly, compared with smoldering multiple myeloma patients without AL amyloidosis, patients with AL amyloidosis had higher incidence of BNP≧700pg/mL (=0.030) and Alb<25g/L (=0.024). The existence of AL amyloidosis, especially those with the heart involvement, was related to shorter long-term survival of symptomatic and smoldering multiple myeloma according to univariate analyses. Renal involvement and gastrointestinal tract involvement had an impact on the prognosis of smoldering multiple myeloma but not on the symptomatic multiple myeloma. Cox regression model for overall survival detected BNP≧700pg/mL in symptomatic multiple myeloma having independent poorer prognostic significance (HR=2.455, =0.004). Interestingly, BNP at diagnosis was significantly correlated with cardiac amyloidosis (r=0.496, <0.001). Cox regression model for overall survival detected the presence of AL amyloidosis in smoldering multiple myeloma having independent poorer prognostic significance (HR=8.741, =0.002).

Conclusion: AL amyloidosis is an independent poor prognostic factor for not only symptomatic multiple myeloma but also smoldering multiple myeloma. It is mainly because of involvement of important organs, especially the heart. AL amyloidosis probably has a greater impact on the prognosis of smoldering multiple myeloma than on the symptomatic multiple myeloma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/CMAR.S287922DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7884938PMC
February 2021

The effects of colour and temporal frequency of flickering light on variability of the accommodation response in emmetropes and myopes.

BMC Ophthalmol 2021 Feb 17;21(1):88. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

Department of Ophthalmology, the First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, People's Republic of China.

Background: Myopia is hypothesized to be influenced by environmental light conditions. For example, it has been shown that colour and temporal frequency of flickering light affect emmetropisation in animals. Considering the omnipresence of flickering light in our daily life, we decided to analyze the effect of colour flickers on variability of the accommodation response (VAR) in emmetropes and myopes.

Methods: We measured the dynamic accommodative responses of 19 emmetropic and 22 myopic adults using a Grand Seiko WAM-5500 open-field autorefractor. The subjects focused for more than 20 s on a black Snellen E target against three different backgrounds made up of three colour flicker combinations (red/green, red/blue and blue/green) and under five frequency conditions (0.20 Hz, 0.50 Hz, 1.00 Hz, 1.67 Hz, and 5.00 Hz).

Results: Flicker frequency and colour both had a significant effect on VAR. Lower frequencies were associated with larger variability. Colour had an effect only at low frequencies, and red/blue colour flicker resulted in the largest variability. The variability in myopes were larger than those in emmetropes.

Conclusions: These findings support the hypothesis that further studies on the colour and temporal frequency of flickering light can lead to a better understanding of the development and progression of myopia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12886-021-01856-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7890996PMC
February 2021

Influence of Severe Gastrointestinal Complications in Primary Gastrointestinal Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma.

Cancer Manag Res 2021 4;13:1041-1052. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

Department of Hematology, Peking University First Hospital, Beijing, 100034, People's Republic of China.

Background: This study assessed the clinical characteristics of gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB), obstruction (GIO), and perforation (GIP) in patients with primary gastrointestinal diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (PGI-DLBCL) and the influence on long-term survival.

Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed of 148 patients with PGI-DLBCL admitted to Peking University First Hospital from August 1994 to May 2018. The clinical characteristics of GIB, GIO, and GIP before and after chemotherapy were recorded. The associated overall survival and progression-free survival were analyzed.

Results: Among 148 patients, 56.8% had gastrointestinal complications (GICs), including GIB, GIO, GIP, and multiple complications, and 22.6% of them occurred after chemotherapy, mostly during the first 4 cycles. The most common clinical manifestations of patients with GICs were abdominal pain or discomfort (79.8%), hematemesis or melena (22.6%), and abnormal bowel habits (17.9%). Patients with Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) score ≥2, tumor mass ≥10 cm, or intestinal involvement had significantly higher risk of severe GICs as initial manifestations. Among 130 patients who received chemotherapy, B symptoms, tumor mass ≥10 cm, and Lugano stage (IIE, IV) strongly correlated with GICs after chemotherapy ( < 0.05). Rituximab did not increase the risk of GICs. GICs which occurred before or after chemotherapy reduced the objective response rate at the end of chemotherapy. The prognosis of patients was significantly worsened by GIP, GIB, or multiple complications after chemotherapy ( < 0.05). GIB at presentation or GIO before or after chemotherapy had no prognostic value (both > 0.05).

Conclusion: GICs adversely affect the quality of life, prolong the length of hospitalization, and shorten the long-term survival of patients with PGI-DLBCL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/CMAR.S295671DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7869708PMC
February 2021

The complete chloroplast genome sequence of : genome structure and genomic resources.

Mitochondrial DNA B Resour 2021 Jan 27;6(1):245-246. Epub 2021 Jan 27.

School of Life Sciences, Ludong University, Yantai, China.

is used as traditional Chinese medicine. In this study, we report its complete chloroplast genome by Illumina pair-end sequencing. The total chloroplast (cp) genome size was 158,094 bp in length, containing a pair of inverted repeats of 26,132 bp, separated by large single-copy and small single-copy regions of 86,508 bp and 19,322 bp, respectively. The chloroplast genome of encodes 113 different genes, including 79 protein-coding genes, 30 transfer RNAs, and 4 ribosomal RNAs. A total of 84 perfect chloroplast microsatellites were analyzed in the . The majority of the SSRs in this chloroplast genome are mononucleotides (66.67%). The reconstructed phylogeny revealed that was sister to the remaining Lardizabalaceae.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23802359.2020.1863870DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7850361PMC
January 2021

Expansion within the CYP71D subfamily drives the heterocyclization of tanshinones synthesis in Salvia miltiorrhiza.

Nat Commun 2021 01 29;12(1):685. Epub 2021 Jan 29.

State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Dao-di Herbs, National Resource Center for Chinese Materia Medica, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing, China.

Tanshinones are the bioactive nor-diterpenoid constituents of the Chinese medicinal herb Danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza). These groups of chemicals have the characteristic furan D-ring, which differentiates them from the phenolic abietane-type diterpenoids frequently found in the Lamiaceae family. However, how the 14,16-epoxy is formed has not been elucidated. Here, we report an improved genome assembly of Danshen using a highly homozygous genotype. We identify a cytochrome P450 (CYP71D) tandem gene array through gene expansion analysis. We show that CYP71D373 and CYP71D375 catalyze hydroxylation at carbon-16 (C16) and 14,16-ether (hetero)cyclization to form the D-ring, whereas CYP71D411 catalyzes upstream hydroxylation at C20. In addition, we discover a large biosynthetic gene cluster associated with tanshinone production. Collinearity analysis indicates a more specific origin of tanshinones in Salvia genus. It illustrates the evolutionary origin of abietane-type diterpenoids and those with a furan D-ring in Lamiaceae.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-20959-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7846762PMC
January 2021

Community Outbreak Investigation of SARS-CoV-2 Transmission Among Bus Riders in Eastern China-More Detailed Studies Are Needed-Reply.

JAMA Intern Med 2021 05;181(5):720-721

Zhejiang Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Hangzhou, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamainternmed.2020.8570DOI Listing
May 2021

Polysaccharide Improves LPS-Induced Senescence of RAW264.7 Cells by Regulating the NF-B Signaling Pathway.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2020 15;2020:7060812. Epub 2020 Dec 15.

College of Pharmacy, Jilin Medical University, Jilin, China.

Macrophages are important inflammatory cells that play a vital role in inflamm-aging. polysaccharide (BCP), an effective component of the herb, exerts multiple beneficial pharmacological effects, such as improving immunity and antioxidant activity. However, the effects of BCP on macrophage-aging and inflamm-aging are yet to be established. In this study, we examined the effects of BCP on proliferation, inflammatory cytokines, -galactosidase (SA--gal), senescence-associated heterochromatin foci (SAHF), reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial membrane potential, p53, p16, and p65/NF-B signaling proteins in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. BCP significantly inhibited production of interleukin-1 (IL-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-), reduced the expression of SA--gal and formation of SAHF, as well as ROS level, and stabilized the mitochondrial membrane potential in RAW264.7 cells stimulated with LPS. Furthermore, BCP inhibited the expression of aging-related genes, p53 and p16, suppressed phosphorylation of p65 protein, and enhanced the expression of I-B protein through the NF-B signaling pathway in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. Accordingly, we conclude that BCP effectively suppresses inflamm-aging by reducing inflammatory cytokine levels and oxidative stress production following activation of the NF-B signaling pathway in RAW264.7 cells stimulated with LPS. Our collective findings support the utility of BCP as a novel pharmaceutical agent with potential anti-inflamm-aging effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/7060812DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7787758PMC
December 2020

Estimation of case-fatality rate in COVID-19 patients with hypertension and diabetes mellitus in the New York state: a preliminary report.

Epidemiol Infect 2021 01 8;149:e14. Epub 2021 Jan 8.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, The University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA.

Pre-existing health conditions may exacerbate the severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We aimed to estimate the case-fatality rate (CFR) and rate ratios (RR) for patients with hypertension (HBP) and diabetes mellitus (DM) in the New York state. We obtained the age-specific number of COVID-19 confirmed cases and deaths from public reports provided by the New York State Department of Health, and age-specific prevalence of HBP and DM from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System 2017. We calculated CFR and RR for COVID-19 patients with HBP and DM based on the reported number of deaths with the comorbidity divided by the expected number of COVID-19 cases with the comorbidity. We performed subgroup analysis by age and calculated the CFR and RR for ages of 18-44, 45-64 and 65+ years, respectively. We found that the older population had a higher CFR, but the elevated RRs associated with comorbidities are more pronounced among the younger population. Our findings suggest that besides the elderly, the young population with comorbidity should also be considered as a vulnerable group.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0950268821000066DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7844175PMC
January 2021

Associations Between Relative Viral Load at Diagnosis and Influenza A Symptoms and Recovery.

Open Forum Infect Dis 2020 Nov 16;7(11):ofaa494. Epub 2020 Oct 16.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics and Health Informatics Institute and Center for the Ecology of Infectious Diseases, The University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, USA.

Background: Rapid point-of-care polymerase chain reaction (PCR) diagnostic tests generally provide a qualitative result of positive or negative only. Additional information about the relative viral load could be calculated. Such quantitative information might be useful for making treatment decisions.

Methods: We enrolled students at a university health center who presented with cough and 1 additional flu-like symptom from December 2016 to February 2017. Data were collected before, during, and 5 days after the clinic visit. All those enrolled in the study received a point-of-care PCR test (cobas Liat). For those patients that tested positive for influenza A, we investigated correlations between the relative viral load and measures of disease severity and recovery.

Results: One hundred thirty-five students tested positive for influenza A. We found a positive correlation between viral load and body temperature. Time since symptom onset seemed to have a negative correlation but was not statistically significant. We did not find any correlations between viral load and overall symptom severity or outcomes related to recovery.

Conclusions: Although we found a correlation between relative viral load and body temperature, for our study population of young, overall healthy adults, we did not find that relative viral load provided additional information that could help in determining treatment and disease outcomes. It could be that viral load does provide useful additional information for other groups of patients, such as young children or older adults. Further studies on those populations are warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ofid/ofaa494DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7751133PMC
November 2020

Effectiveness of neuraminidase inhibitors to prevent mortality in patients with laboratory-confirmed avian influenza A H7N9.

Int J Infect Dis 2021 Feb 14;103:573-578. Epub 2021 Jan 14.

University of Georgia, College of Public Health, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Athens, GA, USA. Electronic address:

Objectives: Avian influenza virus A(H7N9) remains a threat to humans and has great potential to cause a pandemic in the foreseeable future. Antiviral treatment with neuraminidase inhibitors has been recommended to treat patients with H7N9 infection as early as possible, although evidence-based research on their effectiveness for H7N9 infection is lacking.

Methods: Data from all laboratory-confirmed cases of H7N9 infection in Zhejiang Province between 2013 and 2017 were retrieved, and time-dependent survival models were used to evaluate the effectiveness of treatment with neuraminidase inhibitors to reduce the risk of mortality.

Results: The final optimal model found no significant association (odds ratio 1.29, 95% confidence interval 0.78-2.15) between time to treatment with neuraminidase inhibitors and survival after controlling for age and white blood cell count. Sensitivity analyses with multiple imputation for missing data concurred with the primary analysis.

Conclusions: No association was found between treatment with neuraminidase inhibitors and survival in patients with H7N9 infection using various adjusted models and sensitivity analyses of missing data imputations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2020.12.028DOI Listing
February 2021

Comparison of anterior chamber angle changes following phakic intraocular lens with and without a central hole implantation for moderate to high myopic eyes.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2020 Dec;99(49):e23434

Department of Ophthalmology, First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China.

The aim of this study was to compare the anterior chamber angle changes after implantation of phakic intraocular lens with and without a central hole for moderate to high myopic eyes in Chinese people.This study enrolled 106 eyes of 54 people with intraocular lens V4 implantation and 105 eyes of 53 people with intraocular lens V4c implantation. Postoperative vault, intraocular pressure, and anterior chamber angle changes were assessed using noncontract tonometer and ultrasound biomicroscope, respectively, at 1, 3, 6, and 12months after the surgery.There were no significant differences (all P > .05) between the 2 groups in the depth of the central vault, intraocular pressure, or the width of anterior chamber angle at any time point post-surgery. The anterior chamber angle width in degree had a baseline of 54.40 ± 10.51 in V4c group, and decreased to 27.80 ± 5.62, 26.95 ± 5.56, 27.32 ± 5.66, 27.04 ± 5.47 at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months post-surgery, respectively. Mean preoperative value of 50.62 ± 11.77 decreased to 27.28 ± 6.53, 26.82 ± 6.03, 26.61 ± 5.80, 26.83 ± 5.76 at 1, 3, 6, 12 months, respectively, in V4 group. It had sufficient evidence (P < .001) that anterior chamber angle will narrow done after surgery, but there were no statistically significant differences within groups at any time point after surgery.The anterior chamber angle changes of the V4c group was essentially equivalent to that of conventional V4 group, although implantation of both models will lead to the decrease in anterior chamber angle width.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000023434DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7717800PMC
December 2020

The use of laboratory-identified event surveillance to classify adverse outcomes due to infection in Canadian long-term care facilities.

Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2020 Nov 23:1-8. Epub 2020 Nov 23.

Infection Prevention and Control, Alberta Health Services, Alberta, Canada.

Objective: Adverse outcomes following Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) are not often reported for long-term care facility (LTCF) residents. We focused on the adverse outcomes due to CDI identified in Alberta LTCFs.

Methods: All positive Clostridioides difficile stool specimens identified by laboratory-identified (LabID) event surveillance in Alberta from 2011 to 2018, along with Alberta Continuing Care Information System, were used to define CDI in Alberta LTCFs. CDI cases were classified as long-term care onset, hospital onset, and community onset. Laboratory records were linked to provincial databases to analyze acute-care admissions and mortality within 30-day post CDI. Age, sex, case classification, episode, and operator type, were investigated using logistic regression.

Results: Overall, 902 CDI cases were identified in 762 LTCF residents. Of all CDI events, 860 (95.3%) were long-term care onset, 38 (4.2%) were hospital onset, and 4 (0.4%) were community onset. The CDI rate was 2.0 of 100,000 resident days. In total, 157 residents (20.6%) had 30-day all-cause mortality, 126 CDI cases (14.0%) had 30-day all-cause acute-care admissions. The 30-day all-cause mortality rate was significantly higher in residents aged >80 versus ≤80 years (24.9 vs 12.3 per 100 residents; P < .05). Residents aged >80 years, with hospital-onset CDI, and those staying in private or voluntary LTCFs were more likely to have 30-day all-cause acute-care admissions.

Conclusions: The prevalence of CDI adverse outcomes is in LTCFs was found to be high using LabID event surveillance. Annual review of CDI adverse outcomes using LabID event can minimize the burden of surveillance and standardize the process across all Alberta LTCFs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/ice.2020.1269DOI Listing
November 2020

Probing the electrode-solution interfaces in rechargeable batteries by sum-frequency generation spectroscopy.

J Chem Phys 2020 Nov;153(17):170902

Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578, Japan.

An in-depth understanding of the electrode-electrolyte interaction and electrochemical reactions at the electrode-solution interfaces in rechargeable batteries is essential to develop novel electrolytes and electrode materials with high performance. In this perspective, we highlight the advantages of the interface-specific sum-frequency generation (SFG) spectroscopy on the studies of the electrode-solution interface for the Li-ion and Li-O batteries. The SFG studies in probing solvent adsorption structures and solid-electrolyte interphase formation for the Li-ion battery are briefly reviewed. Recent progress on the SFG study of the oxygen reaction mechanisms and stability of the electrolyte in the Li-O battery is also discussed. Finally, we present the current perspective and future directions in the SFG studies on the electrode-electrolyte interfaces toward providing deeper insight into the mechanisms of discharging/charging and parasitic reactions in novel rechargeable battery systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/5.0026283DOI Listing
November 2020

Quality tracing evaluation strategies of compatible materials in Aconitum proprietary Chinese medicines.

J Pharm Biomed Anal 2021 Jan 5;192:113654. Epub 2020 Oct 5.

State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Dao-di Herbs, National Resource Center for Chinese Materia Medica, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing, 100700, PR China. Electronic address:

The proprietary Chinese medicine (PCM) has become a significant supplement of modern medicine. Nevertheless, the absence of quality control standard of compatible materials in PCM has led to serious adulteration, which has an extremely bad effect on safety of drug use and clinical efficacy. Here, a quality tracing evaluation strategy of compatible materials in 32 Aconitum proprietary Chinese medicines (APCMs) was established, including data normalization, model development, model verification, and unknown prescription cracking. The model was delimited based on the weighted content of total 9 key alkaloids in 24 APCMs, which were 5.65-57.10 μg/g for extract medicines and 42.62-380.61 μg/g for powder medicines. Three newly published commercial APCMs, including Wangbi Tablet, Wangbi Granule, and Fengshigutong Capsule, were used to verify its reliability and the results proved to be positive. Moreover, a novel prescription cracking approach was proposed to decode the content of each material in five unknown prescriptions including Yaoxitong Capsule, Tongrendahuoluo Pill, Xinbao Pill, Dahuoluo Capsule, and Mugua Pill. Ultimately, the single or two compatible Aconitum materials in APCMs was successfully decoded and the processed level of the materials were effectively judged. This study for the first time established a practical strategy for supervision and cracking of compatible materials in PCMs and is of great significance to improve the quality control of PCMs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpba.2020.113654DOI Listing
January 2021

Assessment of Changes in Rural and Urban Primary Care Workforce in the United States From 2009 to 2017.

JAMA Netw Open 2020 10 1;3(10):e2022914. Epub 2020 Oct 1.

Department of Public Health Policy and Management, School of Global Public Health, New York University, New York.

Importance: Access to primary care clinicians, including primary care physicians and nonphysician clinicians (nurse practitioners and physician assistants) is necessary to improving population health. However, rural-urban trends in primary care access in the US are not well studied.

Objective: To assess the rural-urban trends in the primary care workforce from 2009 to 2017 across all counties in the US.

Design, Setting, And Participants: In this cross-sectional study of US counties, county rural-urban status was defined according to the national rural-urban classification scheme for counties used by the National Center for Health Statistics at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Trends in the county-level distribution of primary care clinicians from 2009 to 2017 were examined. Data were analyzed from November 12, 2019, to February 10, 2020.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Density of primary care clinicians measured as the number of primary care physicians, nurse practitioners, and physician assistants per 3500 population in each county. The average annual percentage change (APC) of the means of the density of primary care clinicians over time was calculated, and generalized estimating equations were used to adjust for county-level sociodemographic variables obtained from the American Community Survey.

Results: The study included data from 3143 US counties (1167 [37%] urban and 1976 [63%] rural). The number of primary care clinicians per 3500 people increased significantly in rural counties (2009 median density: 2.04; interquartile range [IQR], 1.43-2.76; and 2017 median density: 2.29; IQR, 1.57-3.23; P < .001) and urban counties (2009 median density: 2.26; IQR. 1.52-3.23; and 2017 median density: 2.66; IQR, 1.72-4.02; P < .001). The APC of the mean density of primary care physicians in rural counties was 1.70% (95% CI, 0.84%-2.57%), nurse practitioners was 8.37% (95% CI, 7.11%-9.63%), and physician assistants was 5.14% (95% CI, 3.91%-6.37%); the APC of the mean density of primary care physicians in urban counties was 2.40% (95% CI, 1.19%-3.61%), nurse practitioners was 8.64% (95% CI, 7.72%-9.55%), and physician assistants was 6.42% (95% CI, 5.34%-7.50%). Results from the generalized estimating equations model showed that the density of primary care clinicians in urban counties increased faster than in rural counties (β = 0.04; 95% CI, 0.03 to 0.05; P < .001).

Conclusions And Relevance: Although the density of primary care clinicians increased in both rural and urban counties during the 2009-2017 period, the increase was more pronounced in urban than in rural counties. Closing rural-urban gaps in access to primary care clinicians may require increasingly intensive efforts targeting rural areas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.22914DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7593812PMC
October 2020

Galectin-3 knock down inhibits cardiac ischemia-reperfusion injury through interacting with bcl-2 and modulating cell apoptosis.

Arch Biochem Biophys 2020 11 24;694:108602. Epub 2020 Sep 24.

Department of Intensive Care Unit, Hangzhou Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine (Dingqiao District), Guangxing Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang Chinese Medical University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China.

Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is a fetal cardiovascular disease with high morbidity and mortality worldwide. In the present study, we elucidated the role of galectin-3 in preventing myocardial ischemic reperfusion injury. We found that galactin-3 was significantly up-regulated in the myocardium and cardiomyocyte subjected to ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) and hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) treatment, respectively. Galectin-3 knockdown significantly decreased the ischemic size of the left ventricular and the apoptosis of cardiomyocytes. Moreover, galectin-3 knockdown reversed the decrease of mitochondrial membrane potential and inhibited the inflammation response in myocardium and cultured cardiomyocyte induced by I/R and H/R, respectively. Further, this study revealed that galectin-3 interacted with bcl-2, instead of bax, in the cardiomyocyte, and regulated the phosphorylation of AKT, p70s6k, JNK, IκB and p65. Our findings demonstrated that galectin-3 could prevent myocardial I/R injury through interacting with bcl-2.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.abb.2020.108602DOI Listing
November 2020

Investigation of dry eye symptoms of medical staffs working in hospital during 2019 novel coronavirus outbreak.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2020 Aug;99(35):e21699

Department of Ophthalmology, The First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China.

The aim of this study was to survey the prevalence of dry eye symptoms (DES) among doctors and nurses in the period of 2019, novel coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak.To evaluate the DES of doctors and nurses worked at front-line hospitals with protective glasses for a mean time of 4 to 6 hours, a questionnaire developed by the researchers with the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) was used. These data were evaluated using descriptive statistics and correlation test with SPSS 22.0.The study included 13 doctors and 40 nurses, among which 16 were male and 37 were female, and the mean age of the participants was 32.43 ± 5.15 years old. According to the OSDI scores, 64.15, 24.52, 7.54, and 3.77% of the participants experienced occasional, mild, moderate, and severe DES, respectively. The factors significantly correlated with OSDI scores were age and duration of wearing protective glasses, while the duration of wearing protective glasses may be a protective factor of dry eye symptoms.Our study showed that most of the doctors and nurses worked at the front-line of combating COVID-19 did not experience DES, while the symptoms of those who experienced DES might be improved by wearing protective glasses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000021699DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7458217PMC
August 2020

Community Outbreak Investigation of SARS-CoV-2 Transmission Among Bus Riders in Eastern China.

JAMA Intern Med 2020 12;180(12):1665-1671

Ningbo Municipal Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Ningbo, China.

Importance: Evidence of whether severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), can be transmitted as an aerosol (ie, airborne) has substantial public health implications.

Objective: To investigate potential transmission routes of SARS-CoV-2 infection with epidemiologic evidence from a COVID-19 outbreak.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This cohort study examined a community COVID-19 outbreak in Zhejiang province. On January 19, 2020, 128 individuals took 2 buses (60 [46.9%] from bus 1 and 68 [53.1%] from bus 2) on a 100-minute round trip to attend a 150-minute worship event. The source patient was a passenger on bus 2. We compared risks of SARS-CoV-2 infection among at-risk individuals taking bus 1 (n = 60) and bus 2 (n = 67 [source patient excluded]) and among all other individuals (n = 172) attending the worship event. We also divided seats on the exposed bus into high-risk and low-risk zones according to the distance from the source patient and compared COVID-19 risks in each zone. In both buses, central air conditioners were in indoor recirculation mode.

Main Outcomes And Measures: SARS-CoV-2 infection was confirmed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction or by viral genome sequencing results. Attack rates for SARS-CoV-2 infection were calculated for different groups, and the spatial distribution of individuals who developed infection on bus 2 was obtained.

Results: Of the 128 participants, 15 (11.7%) were men, 113 (88.3%) were women, and the mean age was 58.6 years. On bus 2, 24 of the 68 individuals (35.3% [including the index patient]) received a diagnosis of COVID-19 after the event. Meanwhile, none of the 60 individuals in bus 1 were infected. Among the other 172 individuals at the worship event, 7 (4.1%) subsequently received a COVID-19 diagnosis. Individuals in bus 2 had a 34.3% (95% CI, 24.1%-46.3%) higher risk of getting COVID-19 compared with those in bus 1 and were 11.4 (95% CI, 5.1-25.4) times more likely to have COVID-19 compared with all other individuals attending the worship event. Within bus 2, individuals in high-risk zones had moderately, but nonsignificantly, higher risk for COVID-19 compared with those in the low-risk zones. The absence of a significantly increased risk in the part of the bus closer to the index case suggested that airborne spread of the virus may at least partially explain the markedly high attack rate observed.

Conclusions And Relevance: In this cohort study and case investigation of a community outbreak of COVID-19 in Zhejiang province, individuals who rode a bus to a worship event with a patient with COVID-19 had a higher risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection than individuals who rode another bus to the same event. Airborne spread of SARS-CoV-2 seems likely to have contributed to the high attack rate in the exposed bus. Future efforts at prevention and control must consider the potential for airborne spread of the virus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamainternmed.2020.5225DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7489377PMC
December 2020

Collateral Impact of the Covid-19 Pandemic on Tuberculosis Control in Jiangsu Province, China.

Clin Infect Dis 2020 Aug 28. Epub 2020 Aug 28.

Stanford University, School of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases and Geographic Medicine, Stanford, California, United States.

The Covid-19 pandemic may impede global tuberculosis elimination goals. In Jiangsu Province, China, tuberculosis notifications dropped 52% in 2020 compared to 2015-2019. Treatment completion and screening for drug resistance decreased continuously in 2020. Urgent attention must be paid to tuberculosis control efforts during and after the Covid-19 pandemic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa1289DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7499510PMC
August 2020

Will Sirtuins Be Promising Therapeutic Targets for TBI and Associated Neurodegenerative Diseases?

Front Neurosci 2020 31;14:791. Epub 2020 Jul 31.

Department of Neurosurgery, The Second Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.

Traumatic brain injury (TBI), a leading cause of morbidity worldwide, induces mechanical, persistent structural, and metabolic abnormalities in neurons and other brain-resident cells. The key pathological features of TBI include neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, excitotoxicity, and mitochondrial dysfunction. These pathological processes persist for a period of time after TBIs. Sirtuins are evolutionarily conserved nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD+)-dependent deacetylases and mono-ADP-ribosyl transferases. The mammalian sirtuin family has seven members, referred to as Sirtuin (SIRT) 1-7. Accumulating evidence suggests that SIRT1 and SIRT3 play a neuroprotective role in TBI. Although the evidence is scant, considering the involvement of SIRT2, 4-7 in other brain injury models, they may also intervene in similar pathophysiology in TBI. Neurodegenerative diseases are generally accepted sequelae of TBI. It was found that TBI and neurodegenerative diseases have many similarities and overlaps in pathological features. Besides, sirtuins play some unique roles in some neurodegenerative diseases. Therefore, we propose that sirtuins might be a promising therapeutic target for both TBI and associated neurodegenerative diseases. In this paper, we review the neuroprotective effects of sirtuins on TBI as well as related neurodegeneration and discuss the therapeutic potential of sirtuin modulators.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2020.00791DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7411228PMC
July 2020

Chronic retinal injury induced by white LED light with different correlated color temperatures as determined by microarray analyses of genome-wide expression patterns in mice.

J Photochem Photobiol B 2020 Sep 23;210:111977. Epub 2020 Jul 23.

Department of Ophthalmology, First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China. Electronic address:

Widely used white light-emitting diodes (LEDs) currently deliver higher levels of blue light than conventional domestic light sources. The high intensity of the blue component is the main source of concern regarding possible health risks of LED to chronic light toxicity to the retina. Therefore, we analyzed retinal injury and genome-wide changes in gene expression induced by white LED light with different correlated color temperatures (CCTs) in a mouse model. Balb/c mice (10 weeks old) were exposed to LED light with CCTs of 2954, 5624, and 7378 K, at different illuminance levels (250, 500, 1000, and 3000 lx) and for different exposure times (7, 14, and 28 days). Hematoxylin and eosin staining revealed that exposure to 7378 K light at 250 lx for 28 days resulted in a significant reduction of outer nuclear layer (ONL) nuclei, whereas 2954 K light at <3000 lx led to only a mild reduction in the number of ONL nuclei. In addition, 5624 and 7378 K light at 3000 lx resulted in a significant increase in TUNEL-positive apoptotic nuclei, which was not found at an illuminance of 1000 lx. Genome-wide expression analyses showed that, compared to a control group, there were 121 upregulated differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and 458 downregulated DEGs found in the 7378 K group, and 59 upregulated and only 4 downregulated DEGs in the 2954 K group. Gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment analyses showed that the DEGs were involved in 341 GO terms and 16 related pathways for the 7378 K group and in 12 GO terms and 7 related pathways for the 2954 K group. Signal pathways related to ubiquitin potentially played an important role in light-induced retinal degeneration. Furthermore, retinal immunohistochemistry (IHC) indicated downregulation of ubiquitin and autophagy function caused by 7378 K light. Taken together, these results indicate that retinal injury in the mice induced by white LED light occurred in a CCT-dependent manner, and that light with a higher CCT was more likely to reduce ONL nuclei; however, the apoptosis pathway may not be the only mechanism involved. Based on genome-wide expression analyses and retinal IHC, the ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis signal pathway may have participated in the induction retinal degeneration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jphotobiol.2020.111977DOI Listing
September 2020

Effects of ABCB1, UGT1A1, and UGT1A9 Genetic Polymorphisms on the Pharmacokinetics of Sitafloxacin Granules in Healthy Subjects.

Clin Pharmacol Drug Dev 2021 Jan 20;10(1):57-67. Epub 2020 Jul 20.

Research Division of Clinical Pharmacology, First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China.

Sitafloxacin, a new fluoroquinolone, has strong antibacterial activity. We evaluated the effects of sitafloxacin granules in single-dose and multidose cohorts and the effects of ABCB1, UGT1A1, and UGT1A9 genetic polymorphisms on the pharmacokinetics (PK) of sitafloxacin in healthy subjects. The single-dose study included 3 fasted cohorts receiving 50, 100, and 200 mg of sitafloxacin granules and 1 cohort receiving 50 mg of sitafloxacin granules with a high-fat meal. The multidose study included 1 cohort receiving 100 mg of sitafloxacin granules once daily for 5 days. PK parameters were calculated using noncompartmental parameters based on concentration-time data. The genotypes for ABCB1, UGT1A1, and UGT1A9 single-nucleotide polymorphisms were determined using Sanger sequencing. Subsequently, the association between sitafloxacin PK parameters and target single-nucleotide polymorphisms was analyzed. Sitafloxacin granules were well tolerated up to 200 and 100 mg in the single-dose and multidose studies, respectively. Sitafloxacin AUC and C increased linearly within the detection range, and a steady state was reached within 3 days after the administration of multiple oral doses. Our findings showed that C was lower in the ABCB1 (rs1045642) mutation group, whereas t was longer in the UGT1A1 (rs2741049) and UGT1A9 (rs3832043) mutation groups. In conclusion, sitafloxacin granules were safe at single doses and multiple doses up to 200 and 100 mg/day, respectively, with a linear plasma PK profile. However, ABCB1 (rs1045642), UGT1A1 (rs2741049), and UGT1A9 (rs3832043) genetic polymorphisms are likely to influence the C or t and thereby merit further clinical evaluation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cpdd.848DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7818398PMC
January 2021

Relapsing viral keratoconjunctivitis in COVID-19: a case report.

Virol J 2020 07 8;17(1):97. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Department of Ophthalmology, Zhejiang University School of Medicine First Affiliated Hospital, Hangzhou, 310003, Zhejiang, China.

Background: Since the outbreak of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in December 2019, many studies have reported the presence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in the conjunctival sac of patients infected with this virus, with several patients displaying symptoms of viral conjunctivitis. However, to our best knowledge, there is no in-depth report on the course of patients with COVID-19 complicated by relapsing viral conjunctivitis or keratoconjunctivitis.

Case Presentation: A 53-year-old man confirmed with COVID-19 developed symptoms of viral conjunctivitis in the left eye approximately 10 days after the onset of COVID-19. The results of a nucleic acid test were positive for SARS-CoV-2 in the conjunctival sac of the left eye. The symptoms were relieved 6 days after treatment. However, the patient was subsequently diagnosed with viral keratoconjunctivitis in both eyes 5 days after the symptoms in the left eye were satisfactorily relieved. The disease progressed rapidly, with spot staining observed at the periphery of the corneal epithelium. Although SARS-CoV-2 could not be detected in conjunctival secretions, the levels of inflammatory factors, such as interleukin-6, were increased in both eyes. Both eyes were treated with glucocorticoids, and symptoms were controlled within 5 days. There was no recurrence.

Conclusions: In this case report, the pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, treatment, and outcome of a case with COVID-19 complicated by relapsing viral keratoconjunctivitis is described, and the involvement of topical cytokine surge in the pathogenesis of COVID-19 as it relates to viral keratoconjunctivitis is reported.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12985-020-01370-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7341713PMC
July 2020

Recent developments in regenerative ophthalmology.

Sci China Life Sci 2020 Oct 2;63(10):1450-1490. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

State Key Laboratory of Molecular Developmental Biology, Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100101, China.

Regenerative medicine (RM) is one of the most promising disciplines for advancements in modern medicine, and regenerative ophthalmology (RO) is one of the most active fields of regenerative medicine. This review aims to provide an overview of regenerative ophthalmology, including the range of tools and materials being used, and to describe its application in ophthalmologic subspecialties, with the exception of surgical implantation of artificial tissues or organs (e.g., contact lens, artificial cornea, intraocular lens, artificial retina, and bionic eyes) due to space limitations. In addition, current challenges and limitations of regenerative ophthalmology are discussed and future directions are highlighted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11427-019-1684-xDOI Listing
October 2020