Publications by authors named "Yazdan Hamzavi"

8 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Serological Survey of and Co-Infection in Rodents in Northwestern Iran.

Iran J Parasitol 2020 Apr-Jun;15(2):253-258

Department of Medical Parasitology and Mycology, School of Medicine, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran.

Background: Our knowledge of the epidemiology of rodents' parasitic agents in Iran is scarce, although some of these pathogens play an important role in human and veterinary medicine, such as and . The purpose of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of and in rodents of northwestern Iran between Mar and Dec 2015.

Methods: Overall, 157 serum samples from rodents (101 , 41 , and 15 ) were assayed by the indirect fluorescence antibody test (IFAT) for antibodies to and .

Results: We found a prevalence of 20.38% (32/157) for 35% (55/157) for . Co-presence of antibodies to and was found in 10 (6.36%) rodents. A significant association was found between the rodents species and seropositivity to (<0.05) but there was no association with rodents species for . The overall prevalence of the aforementioned parasites was higher in male versus female rodents.

Conclusion: The high seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis and neosporosis in rodents in the study area has implications for translocation of these infections across wider geographical regions since these rodents are mostly preyed on by cats or dogs; hence, which can transfer the parasite to other hosts.
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June 2020

Pneumonia and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Co-Infection in Western Iran.

Iran J Public Health 2019 Nov;48(11):2065-2069

Infectious Diseases Research Center, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.

Background: The () is one of the greatest health challenges facing worldwide. The virus suppresses the immune system of the patient. The purpose of this study was to describe the epidemiology of colonization, rarely found in normal people, in patients with stage 4 HIV infection in Kermanshah, Iran, from Mar 1995 to Feb 2016.

Methods: In this retrospective study, we surveyed medical records of stage 4 HIV-positive patients with admitted to . Several parameters were analyzed including demographic characteristics, body mass index (BMI), treatment regimen, diagnostic methods, presenting signs and symptoms, presence of co-pathogens (bacteria, viruses, or fungi), and nadir of CD4 T-cell count before and after treatment.

Results: During the study period, 114 HIV-positive patients were analyzed, of whom 93 were male and 21 were female, respectively. Of 114 cases, 26 (22.8%) patients had . All 26 colonized patients had CD4 cell counts below 200 cells/mm3 (range 9-186). The median CD4 count increased from 91 cells/mm pre-trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX) to an estimated 263 cells/mm after starting (TMP/SMX). BMI was normal in the majority of the patients (85%) and coughs, sputum, and chest pain (19; 73%) followed by dyspnea, weakness, and lethargy (7; 27%) were the most common presentations of fungal pneumonia.

Conclusion: HIV/AIDS-infected patients are an environmental reservoir of infection that might transmit the infection from one person to another via the airborne route. In addition, rapid identification of such individuals may reduce the morbidity and mortality rate of this disease.
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November 2019

Cutaneous leishmaniasis in Qasr-e Shirin, a border area in the west of Iran.

Vet World 2018 Dec 17;11(12):1692-1697. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Department of Medical Parasitology and Mycology, Faculty of Medicine, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.

Aim: The prevalence of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is growing in Iran, and new sources of the disease have been found in the country. The purpose of this study was to describe the epidemiology of CL in Qasr-e Shirin County, Kermanshah Province, West of Iran. Qasr-e Shirin is located near the Iran-Iraq border, and several million pilgrims pass through this area to Iraq every year.

Materials And Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out for active case detection from April 1, 2014, to March 31, 2015. All individuals with suspicious lesions were identified through house-to-house visits in the aforementioned area. A questionnaire was filled out for everyone with clinical suspicion of CL. A diagnosis was made based on parasitological examination of the lesion exudate. The annual incidence and prevalence of CL were estimated.

Results: In total, 5277 individuals were randomly screened for the presence of active lesions or scars suspected of CL. The overall prevalence of CL in the County was 4.8% (60 cases had active lesions and 194 cases had scars). All age groups were affected, but the highest incidence of CL was seen in the age group 20-29 years (1.9%). The incidence and prevalence were higher in women than men (5.5% vs. 4%). Most cases (45.6%) had a single lesion or scar and 44 (17.4%) patients had five or more lesions or scars.

Conclusion: The incidence of CL in Qasr-e Shirin County is high. There is a need for further studies on reservoirs and vectors of leishmaniasis in this area. The results of such studies help to perform more efficient and timely spraying against phlebotomine sandfly or detect and decrease the animal reservoir population.
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December 2018

Epidemiology of Fascioliasis in Kermanshah Province, Western Iran.

Iran J Public Health 2018 Jul;47(7):967-972

Dept. of Medical Parasitology and Mycology, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: We aimed to determine the prevalence of fasciolosis in the definitive hosts (human and livestock) and intermediate ( snails) hosts in Kermanshah Province, western Iran from 2014-2016.

Methods: The study on animals was descriptive and retrospective one. All daily records of animals slaughtered in the abattoirs were analyzed. For the study of human fascioliasis, 975 serum samples were collected from different parts of Kermanshah Province and analyzed using ELISA based on excretory-secretory antigens. Moreover, 4400 snails were collected from 25 habitats. The snails were identified and examined for presence of cercariae by shedding method.

Results: Fasciolosis was diagnosed in 1.7% of slaughtered animals, which was significantly greater than the other species (<0.005). There was significant difference (<0.001) between the prevalence of fasciolosis and seasonal pattern. As for human cases, five cases (0.5%) were positive for fascioliasis. Regarding the seropositivity to fasciolosis, no significant differences were found for age groups, sex, level of education and occupation. No infection was seen in snails of the family Lymnaeidae.

Conclusion: The prevalence of parasite was lower compared to other provinces. This is probably due to sequential decline in rainfall and hot climate that makes conditions difficult for the snail intermediate host snails and the larval stages of fasciolid trematodes. The habitual food of people is another important point.
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July 2018

Gene cassettes of class I integron-associated with antimicrobial resistance in isolates of with multidrug resistance.

Iran J Microbiol 2018 Feb;10(1):22-29

Department of Parasitology and Mycology, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.

Background And Objectives: Integrons play a major role in the transmission and accumulation of resistance factors in multidrug resistant bacteria. This study was aimed to evaluate the gene cassettes of class I integron and antimicrobial resistance in isolates of with multidrug resistance (MDR).

Materials And Methods: Ninety isolates of were collected from the largest hospital in Kermanshah, Iran. Antimicrobial resistance patterns were determined using disc diffusion method. The class I integron were detected by PCR. The integrase positive isolates were further analyzed for the presence of gene cassettes using 5' and 3' conserved sequences (CSs) primers and PCR products were sequenced. The data were analyzed using the chi-square test.

Results: Of 90 isolates, 46 (51.1%) were multidrug resistant. Class I integron and gene cassettes were determined in 30 isolates (65.2%). Gene cassettes were found which contained genes encoded resistance to aminoglycosides and trimethoprim and a putative gene. Gene cassettes of and were also found in isolates.

Conclusion: Our results indicate there is a high frequency of class I integron among multi-drug resistant strains of isolated from clinical settings. A high frequency of class I integron associated gene cassettes, in particular and present in MDR strains of . This data indicates an important role of integrons in the creation and transmission of MDR strains in health care centers.
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February 2018

Trend of cutaneous leishmaniasis in kermanshah province, west of iran from 1990 to 2012.

Iran J Parasitol 2015 Jan-Mar;10(1):78-86

Province Health Center, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.

Background: This study was conducted to explain the trend of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL) in Kermanshah Province, western Iran from 1991-2012.

Methods: In this analytical-descriptive study, all of the patients suspected to CL in Kermanshah Province were studied. Smears were prepared from most of them, stained with Giemsa, and examined microscopically for Leishman bodies. A few of the patients were diagnosed according to physician diagnosis and response to glucantime. Questionnaires were completed for all of them. Collected data were analyzed using SPSS-21 and Spearman and Kendall tests.

Results: From 1991 to 2012, 1684 cases of CL were recorded. In the years 2011-12 the frequency of CL in the province reached to 7.4/100,000, which showed a remarkable increase in the frequency of new cases CL in the province. In the years 2011-12 about 47% of total cases of CL in the province, was seen in Ghasr-e-Shirin district,which the frequency of CL in this district reached to 264.5/100,000. Frequency of CL in males and females was 57% and 43% respectively. The most cases of CL were seen in housewives (32.1%) and age groups of 20 to 29 years old (19.9%). In addition, the most cases of disease were seen in winter (41.8%) and fall (28.9%).

Conclusion: CL is increasing remarkably in warm climates of the province, and Ghasr-e-Shirin must be of particular interest, as the most infected district in the province.
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April 2015

The opioid antagonist naloxone inhibits Leishmania major infection in BALB/c mice.

Exp Parasitol 2012 Jan 12;130(1):73-7. Epub 2011 Oct 12.

Department of Immunology School of Medicine, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.

BALB/c mice are susceptible to develop non-healing, progressive infection with Leishmania major (L. major) due to the development of a non-protective Th2 response. Resistance to L. major infection is dependent to Th1 response. Treatment of mice with the opioid antagonist naloxone can promote the activation of Th1 responses. Here we study the effect of chronic administration of various doses of naloxone on susceptibility of BALB/c mice to L. major infection. Our results showed that naloxone has dose-dependent biphasic effect on L. major infection in BALB/c mice. While administration of 1mg/kg × 2/day tends to exacerbate the local reaction to L. major infection, treatment with 10mg/kg × 2/day of naloxone suppresses the local reaction and progress of infection. On the other hand treatment of mice with middle dose (5mg/kg whether 1 or 2 times per day) does not have significant effect on the infection. This study demonstrates that administration of high dose of naloxone could improve protection against L. major infection in BALB/c mice, presumably by modulation in Th1/Th2 balance or by affecting macrophages through binding to Toll-like receptors.
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January 2012

Epidemiological aspects of canine visceral leishmaniosis in the Islamic Republic of Iran.

Vet Parasitol 2005 May;129(3-4):243-51

School of Public Health Research, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Department of Medical Parasitology, P.O. Box 14155-6446, Tehran, Iran.

An epidemiological study to examine the sero-prevalence of zoonotic visceral leishmaniosis (ZVL) among domestic and wild canines in endemic foci of Iran was carried out during 1999-2003 to assess the distribution of the disease and the possible association between infection in dogs, wild canines and people. Anti-leishmanial antibodies were detected by the direct agglutination test (DAT). Parasitological study was performed for all captured wild canines and were detected in some of the seropositive dogs with specific clinical signs (n=107). Serum samples (n=1568) were collected from domestic dogs in villages that are known endemic foci of human visceral leishmaniosis (HVL). Wild canine sera were collected from jackals (Canis aureus, n=10), foxes (Vulpes vulpes, n=10) and wolves (Canis lupus, n=10). Of the 1568 serum sampled collected from domestic dogs, 222 (14.2%) were positive by DAT (1:320 and above). No statistically significant difference was found between male (15.2%) and female (11.8%) sero-prevalence (P=0.083). Dogs of 8 years and above showed the highest sero-prevalence (40.6%). Only 23.9% of the seropositive domestic dogs had clinical signs. Parasitology and serology tests that were performed in 30 wild canines showed 10% these animals were infected by Leishmania infantum. Ten out of 11 Leishmania spp. isolated from the dogs and wild canines were identified as L. infantum and one other as L. tropica by molecular and biochemical techniques. For the first time in Iran, L. infantum and L. tropica were isolated from viscera of both a wolf and a domestic dog.
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May 2005