Publications by authors named "Yazan Akkam"

5 Publications

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Pea Protein Nanoemulsion Effectively Stabilizes Vitamin D in Food Products: A Potential Supplementation during the COVID-19 Pandemic.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2021 Mar 31;11(4). Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Community Health Sciences, College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh 11433, Saudi Arabia.

Vitamin D deficiency is a global issue which has been exacerbated by the COVID-19 pandemic-related lockdowns. Fortification of food staples with vitamin D provides a solution to alleviate this problem. This research explored the use of pea protein nanoemulsion (PPN) to improve the stability of vitamin D in various food products. PPN was created using a pH-shifting and ultrasonication combined method. The physicochemical properties were studied, including particle size, foaming ability, water holding capacity, antioxidant activity, and total phenolic contents. The fortification of several food formulations (non-fat cow milk, canned orange juice, orange juice powder, banana milk, and infant formula) with vitamin D-PPN was investigated and compared to raw untreated pea protein (UPP) regarding their color, viscosity, moisture content, chemical composition, vitamin D stability, antioxidant activity, and morphology. Finally, a sensory evaluation (quantitative descriptive analysis, and consumer testing) was conducted. The results show that PPN with a size of 21.8 nm protected the vitamin D in all tested products. PPN may serve as a potential carrier and stabilizer of vitamin D in food products with minimum effects on the taste and color. Hence, PPN may serve as a green and safe method for food fortification during the COVID-19 pandemic.
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March 2021

Effect of Air Pollution on Glutathione S-Transferase Activity and Total Antioxidant Capacity: Cross Sectional Study in Kuwait.

J Health Pollut 2020 Sep 25;10(27):200906. Epub 2020 Aug 25.

Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Yarmouk University, Irbid, Jordan.

Background: Air pollution poses a significant threat to human health worldwide. Investigating potential health impacts is essential to the development of regulations and legislation to minimize health risks.

Objectives: The aim of the present study was to investigate the potentially hazardous effect of air pollution on the Ali Sabah Al Salem residential area in Kuwait by comparing the pollution level to a control area (Al-Qirawan) by assessing two biomarkers: erythrocyte glutathione S-transferases (e-GST) and total blood antioxidant, and then correlating the activity to pollution-related oxidative stress.

Methods: The average concentrations of several airborne gases were measured at Ali Sabah Al Salem and Al-Qirawan, including ozone, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, nitrogen oxides, particulate matter less than 10 μm (PM), sulfur dioxide, ammonia, carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, methane, and non-methane hydrocarbon. A total of fifty-eight participants were sampled from two different areas and divided into two groups. The study group was composed of 40 residents exposed to polluted ambient air in the Ali Sabah Al Salem residential area. A reference group composed of 18 residents in the Al-Qairawan area living far from major pollution sources was also tested.

Results: All measured gases were higher in concentration at Ali Sabah Al Salem compared to the Al-Qirawan area. Furthermore, PM and sulfur dioxide were higher than World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines. The e-GST activity was lower among participants of the Ali Sabah Al Salem residential area compared to participants living in the Al-Qairawan area. The total antioxidant capacity in whole blood of Ali Sabah Al Salem residents was significantly (p<0.0001) higher than in control subjects.

Conclusions: Residents in Ali Sabah Al Salem are exposed to a high level of air pollution that has a serious impact on glutathione S-transferases levels. Subsequently, regulations on pollution sources are needed to lower current health risks. Furthermore, the present study provides evidence that finger-prick blood sampling is a quick, non-invasive method suitable for screening e-GST activity and total antioxidants which may be applied for surveillance purposes.

Participant Consent: Obtained.

Ethics Approval: The study was approved by the Scientific Research Committee of the Public Authority for Applied Education and Training, Kuwait.

Competing Interests: The authors declare no competing financial interests.
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September 2020

Correlation of Blood Oxidative Stress Parameters to Indoor Radiofrequency Radiation: A Cross Sectional Study in Jordan.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 06 29;17(13). Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Yarmouk University, Shafiq Irshidat st Irbid 21163, Jordan.

: Electromagnetic pollution is a general health concern worldwide, as cell phone towers are ubiquitous and are located adjacent to or on the roof of schools, and hospitals. However, the health risks are still inconclusive. This cross-sectional study evaluated the potential effect of electromagnetic radiation generated from various resources including cell phone towers on blood glutathione S transferase activity (e-GST) and total antioxidant activity of the Jordanian population. : The power density of three districts in the city of Irbid, Jordan was mapped to generate "outside the houses" and "inside the houses" maps. The effect of categorical variables (gender, using a cell phone, presence of Wi-Fi modem, previous exposure to medical imaging) and continuous variables (distance from the base station, the elevation of the house, the duration of stay in the house, power density outside houses, power density inside houses) on e-GST and total antioxidant activity were investigated. : The EMR generated outside the houses-including cell phone towers-did not reach inside the houses at the same power and had no significant influence on e-GST activity. The EMR inside the house, which primarily came from internal resources, has a significant effect on e-GST activity. The duration of stay inside the house, the use of cell phones, and the presence of a Wi-Fi modem had a proportional effect on e-GST activity. The total antioxidant activity was statistically equal between the tested and control groups. : Several factors such as building materials restricted the penetration of EMR reaching inside the houses. EMR generated inside rather than outside the houses had a proportional effect on e-GST. The differences in e-GST were compensated successfully by other antioxidant mechanisms. Further research is needed to identify other possible sources of antioxidants, and to evaluate long-term effects and genetic polymorphism.
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June 2020

Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles Using Leaf Extract of Ziziphus zizyphus and their Antimicrobial Activity.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2018 Mar 19;8(3). Epub 2018 Mar 19.

John Innes Centre, Norwich Research Park, Norwich NR4 7UH, UK.

(1) Background: There is a growing need for the development of new methods for the synthesis of nanoparticles. The interest in such particles has raised concerns about the environmental safety of their production methods; (2) Objectives: The current methods of nanoparticle production are often expensive and employ chemicals that are potentially harmful to the environment, which calls for the development of "greener" protocols. Herein we describe the synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) using plant extracts, which offers an alternative, efficient, inexpensive, and environmentally friendly method to produce well-defined geometries of nanoparticles; (3) Methods: The phytochemicals present in the aqueous leaf extract acted as an effective reducing agent. The generated AuNPs were characterized by Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Scanning electron microscope (SEM), and Atomic Force microscopy (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-visible spectroscopy, energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), and thermogravimetric analyses (TGA); (4) Results and Conclusions: The prepared nanoparticles were found to be biocompatible and exhibited no antimicrobial or antifungal effect, deeming the particles safe for various applications in nanomedicine. TGA analysis revealed that biomolecules, which were present in the plant extract, capped the nanoparticles and acted as stabilizing agents.
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March 2018

Mutational analysis of Drosophila basigin function in the visual system.

Gene 2010 Jan 25;449(1-2):50-8. Epub 2009 Sep 25.

Department of Biological Sciences, 601 SCEN, Fulbright College of Arts and Sciences, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72701, USA.

Drosophila basigin is a cell-surface glycoprotein of the Ig superfamily and a member of a protein family that includes mammalian EMMPRIN/CD147/basigin, neuroplastin, and embigin. Our previous work on Drosophila basigin has shown that it is required for normal photoreceptor cell structure and normal neuron-glia interaction in the fly visual system. Specifically, the photoreceptor neurons of mosaic animals that are mutant in the eye for basigin show altered cell structure with nuclei, mitochondria and rER misplaced and variable axon diameter compared to wild-type. In addition, glia cells in the optic lamina that contact photoreceptor axons are misplaced and show altered structure. All these defects are rescued by expression of either transgenic fly basigin or transgenic mouse basigin in the photoreceptors demonstrating that mouse basigin can functionally replace fly basigin. To determine what regions of the basigin protein are required for each of these functions, we have created mutant basigin transgenes coding for proteins that are altered in conserved residues, introduced these into the fly genome, and tested them for their ability to rescue both photoreceptor cell structure defects and neuron-glia interaction defects of basigin. The results suggest that the highly conserved transmembrane domain and the extracellular domains are crucial for basigin function in the visual system while the short intracellular tail may not play a role in these functions.
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January 2010