Publications by authors named "Yayi Guan"

15 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Prevalence of Echinococcus Species in Wild Foxes and Stray Dogs in Qinghai Province, China.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2021 Nov 15. Epub 2021 Nov 15.

National Institute of Parasitic Diseases, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention (Chinese Center for Tropical Diseases Research), NHC Key Laboratory of Parasite and Vector Biology, WHO Collaborating Center for Tropical Diseases, National Center for International Research on Tropical Diseases, Shanghai, China.

Echinococcosis is a zoonotic parasitic disease that is highly endemic to the Qinghai province of China. Limited data are available on the prevalence of the causal pathogen, Echinococcus spp., in definitive hosts in this region. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of Echinococcus spp. in wild foxes and stray dogs in Qinghai province. Five hundred and twenty-eight feces from wild foxes and 277 from stray dogs were collected from 11 counties in the Golog, Yushu, and Haixi prefectures and screened for Echinococcus spp. using copro-DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In total, 5.5% of wild foxes and 15.2% of stray dogs tested positive for Echinococcus spp. The prevalence rates of Echinococcus spp. in wild foxes in Golog, Yushu, and Haixi were 7.3%, 5.2%, and 1.9%, respectively. In stray dogs, these rates were 13.3%, 17.3%, and 0%, respectively. Sequencing analysis determined that Echinococcus multilocularis was the most prevalent species, occurring in 4.0% and 12.6% of wild foxes and stray dogs, respectively. Echinococcus shiquicus was observed in 1.5% of wild foxes and 0.7% of stray dogs. Echinococcus granulosus was observed only in wild dogs, with a prevalence rate of 1.8%. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the prevalence of E. shiquicus in dogs in Qinghai province. The current results improve our understanding of the transmission and dissemination of human echinococcosis and suggest that exposure to the eggs of E. multilocularis harbored by wild foxes and stray dogs may pose a great risk of alveolar echinococcosis to humans in Qinghai province.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.21-0622DOI Listing
November 2021

The pathology, phylogeny, and epidemiology of Echinococcus ortleppi (G5 genotype): a new case report of echinococcosis in China.

Infect Dis Poverty 2021 Nov 6;10(1):130. Epub 2021 Nov 6.

National Institute of Parasitic Diseases, Chinese Center for Diseases Control and Prevention (Chinese Center for Tropical Diseases Research); NHC Key Laboratory of Parasite and Vector Biology; WHO Collaborating Centre for Tropical Diseases; National Center for International Research on Tropical Diseases, Shanghai, China.

Background: Cystic echinococcosis (CE), caused by the larval stage of the complex Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato (s.l.), is a zoonotic parasitic disease with a high social burden in China. E. ortleppi is a species (formerly genotype 5 of E. granulosus s.l.) with unique epidemic areas (tropical areas), transmission patterns (mainly cattle origin), and pathological characteristics (large and small hook lengths) compared to other species that cause CE. A 19-year-old female patient in an area with no history of echinococcosis in Guizhou Province, China, was diagnosed with E. ortleppi infection in 2019. This study is to understand the source of this human E. ortleppi infection.

Methods: We performed computer tomography (CT) scans, surgical operation, morphological sectioning, molecular diagnosis, phylogenetic analyses, and epidemiological investigation in Anshun City, Guizhou Province, China in 2019.

Results: The patient presented with intermittent distension and pain in the upper abdomen without other abnormal symptoms. Routine blood examination results were normal. However, abdominal CT revealed a fertile cyst with a diameter of approximately 8 cm, uniform density, and a clear boundary, but without an evident cyst wall in the right lobe of the liver. The cyst was fertile, and phylogenetic analyses revealed that the isolates represented a new E. ortleppi genus haplotype. A result of 10‒14 years incubation period with indigenous infection was considered available for the case through the epidemiological survey.

Conclusions: CE due to E. ortleppi infection can be confused with other diseases causing liver cysts, resulting in misdiagnosis. A transmission chain of E. ortleppi may exist or existed in the past in the previously considered non-endemic areas of echinococcosis in southwestern China.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40249-021-00907-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8572459PMC
November 2021

Challenges of Sustaining Malaria Community Case Management in 81 Township Hospitals along the China-Myanmar Border Region - Yunnan Province, China, 2020.

China CDC Wkly 2021 Apr;3(17):355-359

National Institute of Parasitic Diseases, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention (Chinese Center for Tropical Diseases Research); NHC Key Laboratory of Parasite and Vector Biology; WHO Collaborating Centre for Tropical Diseases; National Center for International Research on Tropical Diseases, Shanghai, China.

The health workforce at township hospitals in the China-Myanmar border region has played a key role in sustaining Community case management of malaria (CCMm), while few studies have investigated their performance and challenges.



Sustaining CCMm in the region was subject to the following major challenges: insufficient training on malaria diagnosis and testing, lacking necessary and timely treatment for patients, and risks of instability among the malaria workforce.



These challenges called for the national and provincial authorities to provide regular trainings and intensive supervision to strengthen malaria diagnosis and treatment capacity in the region and to set up incentive mechanisms and individual career development paths to sustain the workforce.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.46234/ccdcw2021.097DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8392891PMC
April 2021

Development and Impacts of the Sierra Leone-China Laboratory for Parasitic Diseases Testing and Surveillance.

China CDC Wkly 2021 Apr;3(15):327-330

National Institute of Parasitic Diseases, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention; Chinese Center for Tropical Diseases Research; WHO Collaborating Centre for Tropical Diseases; National Center for International Research on Tropical Diseases, Ministry of Science and Technology; Key Laboratory of Parasite and Vector Biology, National Health Commission of China, Shanghai, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.46234/ccdcw2021.088DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8393174PMC
April 2021

Research capacity of global health institutions in China: a gap analysis focusing on their collaboration with other low-income and middle-income countries.

BMJ Glob Health 2021 07;6(7)

Department of Global Health, School of Public Health, Peking University, Beijing, China.

Introduction: This paper presented qualitative and quantitative data collected on the research capacity of global health institutions in China and aimed to provide a landscaping review of the development of global health as a new discipline in the largest emerging economy of the world.

Methods: Mixed methods were used and they included a bibliometric analysis, a standardised survey and indepth interviews with top officials of 11 selected global health research and educational institutions in mainland China.

Results: The bibliometric analysis revealed that each institution had its own focus areas, some with a balanced focus among chronic illness, infectious disease and health systems, while others only focused on one of these areas. Interviews of key staff from each institution showed common themes: recognition that the current research capacity in global health is relatively weak, optimism towards the future, as well as an emphasis on mutual beneficial networking with other countries. Specific obstacles raised and the solutions applied by each institution were listed and discussed.

Conclusion: Global health institutions in China are going through a transition from learning and following established protocols to taking a more leading role in setting up China's own footprint in this area. Gaps still remain, both in comparison with international institutions, as well as between the leading Chinese institutions and those that have just started. More investment needs to be made, from both public and private domains, to improve the overall capacity as well as the mutual learning and communication within the academic community in China.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjgh-2021-005607DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8286742PMC
July 2021

Deployment of workforce in global health: what should be the priorities for China?

Glob Health Res Policy 2021 07 6;6(1):22. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

National Institute of Parasitic Diseases, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention (Chinese Center for Tropical Diseases Research), No. 207 Ruijin Er Road, Huangpu District, Shanghai, 200025, China.

Background: China has increasingly emerged as an important player in global health. However, compared to developed countries, China still lacks a sufficient health workforce for global health engagement with the necessary competencies required. The world has recognized that to solve global health issues, the role of China needs to be strengthened. The priorities for the deployment of the Chinese workforce in global health remain unclear. This study aims to identify the priorities of the deployment of Chinese global health workforce by exploring the core competencies for Chinese global health workforce, factors influencing the deployment and the approach of deployment.

Methods: Quantitative descriptive statistical analysis was applied to analyze the quantitative data. A total of 148 key respondents from 10 provinces in China conducting global health projects over the last 3 years were selected as the study subjects. A structured questionnaire was developed to collect the data on four aspects, including general information, core competencies, factors influencing deployment, and mode of deployment. The questionnaire was distributed to the respondents through an online survey. All original data were exported to Microsoft Excel 2010 to calculate the frequencies and percentages of each option. A descriptive analysis was carried out of the priorities of deployment of the Chinese global health workforce.

Results: More than half of the respondents (51.4%, 76/148) regarded "communication" as the most important competency of the Chinese global health workforce, while a large proportion of participants from Chinese embassies (50.0%, 6/12) and international organizations (75.0%, 12/16) believed that "professional skills" were paramount. In addition, 58.1% (86/148) of the participants agreed that incentive factors (salary, professional position, etc.) were the main factors that influenced deployment, whereas 75% (12/16) of participants from international organizations emphasized "security" as the most important determinant. In addition, 60.8% (90/148) of the participants thought that the deployment of staff should be based on the needs of the global health project implementation.

Conclusions: This study highlights the deployment priorities of the Chinese global health workforce, including strengthening communication and professional skills, focusing on personal security and incentives, and catering to the project implementation. This study also highlights the importance of Chinese agencies in developing global health mindsets through global health practices and proactive integration within the global community.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s41256-021-00208-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8258270PMC
July 2021

First report of Echinococcus canadensis (G6/G7) by sequence analysis from the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan.

Acta Trop 2020 Sep 29;209:105559. Epub 2020 May 29.

Department of Veterinary Integrative Biosciences, College of Veterinary Medicine & Biomedical Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas, United States of America.

Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a zoonotic parasitic disease that can result in human and animal health problems globally. Although the disease is known to be endemic in Asia and the Middle East, there are few epidemiological studies on CE in Pakistan. The purpose of the present study was to identify the Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato species and genotypes contributing to human CE cases in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK) province of Pakistan. A total of fifty-six formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) CE cyst samples of human origin were collected from the Pathology Department, Rehman Medical Institute (RMI), KPK for the years 2012-2017. Cyst samples came from the liver (26/56; 46.4%), lungs (3/56; 5.3%), spleen (3/56; 5.3%), pelvis (1/56; 1.8%), breast (1/56; 1.8%), and thigh (1/56; 1.8%). The organ location for 21 of the cysts was not recorded. World Health Organization-Informal Working Group on Echinococcosis (WHO-IWGE) ultrasound-based cyst staging was available for 17 of the 26 (65.4%) hepatic cysts. Five of these cysts (29.4%) were CE3 (transitional), nine (52.9%) were CE4 (inactive), and three (17.6%) were CE5 (inactive). Most of the cysts were obtained from CE patients that were ethnically Afghan Pashtuns (44/56; 78.6%), while 12.5% (7/56) were from patients that were Pakistani Pashtuns. The majority (41/56; 73.2%) of patients reported having close interactions with dogs. Using 12SrRNA primers, 33 cyst samples were identified as being caused by E. granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.). Mitochondrially encoded cytochrome C oxidase 1 (mt-CO1) was evaluated for the remaining 23 samples. PCR product was obtained from six of these 23 samples. Of these six samples, one was identified as Echinococcus canadensis (G6/7). Haplotype analysis showed high haplotype and low nucleotide diversity for the mt-CO1 gene. There were 26 polymorphic sites for the mt-CO1 sequence, of which 65.3% (17/26) were parsimony informative. The E. canadensis mt-CO1 haplotype network consisted of 11 haplotypes, with a main central haplotype. In conclusion, it appears that E. granulosus s.s. and E. canadensis (G6/7) are circulating in the northwestern region of Pakistan. Further molecular epidemiological studies are needed to explore the local genetic diversity of the parasite.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actatropica.2020.105559DOI Listing
September 2020

Approaching Malaria Elimination in China.

China CDC Wkly 2020 Apr;2(17):293-297

National Institute of Parasitic Diseases, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention; Chinese Center for Tropical Diseases Research; WHO Collaborating Centre for Tropical Diseases; National Center for International Research on Tropical Diseases, Ministry of Science and Technology; Key Laboratory of Parasite and Vector Biology, National Health Commission of China, Shanghai, China.

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8422167PMC
April 2020

The Role of the WHO Collaborating Centre for Tropical Diseases in China.

China CDC Wkly 2020 Jan;2(3):44-47

National Institute of Parasitic Diseases, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention; Chinese Center for Tropical Diseases Research; National Center for International Research on Tropical Diseases, Ministry of Science and Technology; WHO Collaborating Centre for Tropical Diseases, Shanghai, China.

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8428422PMC
January 2020

Analysis of Factors Influencing Cystic Echinococcosis in Northwest Non-Qinghai Tibetan Plateau Regions of China.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2020 03;102(3):567-573

Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, China.

Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is an important health problem in northwest non-Qinghai Tibetan Plateau regions of China. Understanding CE risk factors may help in formulating effective prevention and control measures. In the current study, negative binomial regression was used to analyze CE-related factors using prevalence data from 147 counties (cities, districts, and banners) in northwest non-Qinghai Tibetan Plateau regions of China gathered from a national survey conducted in 2012, county economic data, and livestock production data for 2012. The negative binomial regression models indicated infection rate in livestock (odds ratio [OR]: 1.0471, 95% CI: 1.0128-1.0825, = 0.0067), the mean number of dogs per family (OR: 3.0589, 95% CI: 1.5116-6.1900, = 0.0019), the mean number of sheep per family (OR: 1.0431, 95% CI: 1.0027-1.0852, = 0.0365), and the source of drinking water (OR: 0.9808, 95% CI: 0.9627-0.9992, = 0.0413) were correlated with human CE prevalence, whereas altitude, surface temperature, economy, and mean number of cattle per family had a negative association. We found that the positive rate of dog stool coproantigen of was associated with human CE prevalence using the univariate analysis but not after controlling for covariates including the number of dogs per family. This might be partially due to the deworming campaigns that were carried out in most of the researched areas. Therefore, the positive rate of dog stool coproantigen of could not reflect the dog infection rate under natural conditions. These findings indicate that dogs and livestock play the most important role in CE transmission. Further studies should be carried out at the township or village level.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.18-0703DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7056441PMC
March 2020

Knowledge, attitude & practices (KAPs) regarding rabies endemicity among the community members, Pakistan.

Acta Trop 2019 Dec 3;200:105156. Epub 2019 Sep 3.

Department of Biosciences, COMSATS University Islamabad (CUI), Park Road, Chakh Shahzad, Islamabad, Pakistan. Electronic address:

Introduction: Rabies is one of the most neglected tropical diseases in numerous regions of the world. Annually, 60,000 deaths have been reported, mostly in Asia and Africa. Dogs are responsible for approximately 99% of human deaths due to rabies. Consequently, incidences of canine bites are increased yet rabies continues to remain a neglected disease in Pakistan. The objective of the study was to investigate the Knowledge, Attitude and Practices (KAP) for rabies, among the participants from urban and rural population of Rawalpindi and Islamabad, Pakistan.

Methods: Data was collected by conducting household based cross-sectional survey over a period of 5 months (from January 2018 to May 2018). Quantitative data was collected in the form of questionnaires to investigate awareness and knowledge of rabies among the participants. The questionnaire compromised of socio-demographic features and degree of KAP with respect to rabies management and control.

Results: A total sample size of 434 participants responded in the study. Among them, 89.4% were found to have heard about rabies, 38.7% have no knowledge of signs and symptoms, 93.3% knew that infected dogs are the major cause of spreading rabies and 77.6% considered that the vaccination of animals is important for prevention of rabies. However, only 39.8% actively seek medical treatment at a hospital if bitten by a dog. From the 434 participants 61 reported dog bites, of which 68.8% (42/61) were male and 49.1% (30/61) belonged to age group of 6-25 years.

Conclusion: This study concludes that respondents have relatively limited knowledge, inconsistent attitude and poor practices towards rabies prevention and control. There is a high need of imparting knowledge to the population from multidisciplinary programs for effective management and prevention of rabies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actatropica.2019.105156DOI Listing
December 2019

Knowledge, attitudes and practices related to cystic echinococcosis endemicity in Pakistan.

Infect Dis Poverty 2018 Jan 22;7(1). Epub 2018 Jan 22.

Center for Global Health, National Institute of Parasitic Diseases, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Key Laboratory of Parasite and Vector Biology, Ministry of Health, WHO Collaborating Center of Tropical Diseases, National Center for International Researches on Tropical Diseases, Ministry of Science and Technology, 207 Ruijin Er Road, Shanghai, 200025, China.

Background: Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a human and animal health problem in many endemic areas worldwide. It is considered a neglected zoonotic disease caused by the larval form (hydatid cyst) of Echinococcus spp. tapeworm. There are limited studies on echinococcosis in Pakistan.

Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted to find out recent knowledge, attitudes and practices on the occurrence of cystic echinococcosis in butchers and dog owners in both urban and rural areas of Rawalpindi/Islamabad regions, Pakistan. The quantitative data was collected in the form of questionnaires to investigate the knowledge and awareness of CE among community members and their routine practices that  were behind the factors involved in hydatid cyst infection. The practices and infrastructure of abattoirs/butcher shops and their role in transmission of cystic echinococcosis were also evaluated in the present study.

Results: The participants involved in the study were dog owners and people who kept animals. A total of 400 people were interviewed and 289 questionnaires were received. The results showed that only 4.1% of people have heard about the disease, and 58.1% were closely associated with dogs. Sixty-three percent of dogs in study area were consuming uncooked organs (e.g. liver, lung, etc.) of slaughtered animals, while 100% of dogs at butcher shops were consuming uncooked organs. Home slaughtering was common in 20.06%. Among butchers, 32.3% had heard about zoonoses and 7.61% knew about CE. The statistical analysis showed that there was highly significant difference (P < 0.05) among most of the practices that were associated with the prevalence of CE.

Conclusions: It  was concluded from the present study that, the knowledge and awareness of CE among people of Rawalpindi/Islamabad were low. Because of dogs and poor knowledge of CE among community members and butchers, the transmission of echinococcosis is facilitated. Therefore, there is urgent need to strengthen awareness and health education among people, as well as proper practices related to the CE not only in the study area, but also in other areas of Pakistan.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40249-017-0383-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5776779PMC
January 2018

Epidemiology of Echinococcosis Among Schoolchildren in Golog Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Qinghai, China.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2017 03 6;96(3):674-679. Epub 2017 Apr 6.

National Institute of Parasitic Diseases, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Key Laboratory of Parasite and Vector Biology, Ministry of Health, WHO Collaborating Center of Malaria, Schistosomiasis and Filariasis, Shanghai, China.

Echinococcosis is a serious zoonotic parasitic disease that is highly endemic in Qinghai Province. The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence of echinococcosis among schoolchildren in Golog Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture to improve early diagnosis and treatment of patients and to provide information for echinococcosis prevention and control. A total of 11,260 schoolchildren from five counties (Maqin, Gander, Dari, Jiuzhi, and Banma) in Golog Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Qinghai Province, were screened for echinococcosis. Screening involved ultrasound imaging combined with serologic examination as an auxiliary diagnostic test. The prevalence of echinococcosis in the schoolchildren was 2.1% (235/11,260), with a rate of 0.8% for cystic echinococcosis (CE; 89/11,260) and 1.3% for alveolar echinococcosis (AE; 146/11,260). Additionally, one child had a mixed infection. The prevalence ranged between 1.1% and 4.1% among the five investigated counties, and was highest in Dari County (4.1%). The prevalence of echinococcosis was higher in girls than in boys and gradually increased with age. In addition, children with CE mainly had type 1 (CE1) and type 3 (CE3) lesions, and children with AE mainly had small-diameter calcified lesions, suggesting that they were in the early asymptomatic stage of echinococcosis. In conclusion, children of Golog Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture appear to exhibit the highest recorded prevalence of CE and AE globally. Ultrasound is useful for screening populations in regions where both CE and AE are endemic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.16-0479DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5361544PMC
March 2017

China-Africa Health Development Initiatives: Benefits and Implications for Shaping Innovative and Evidence-informed National Health Policies and Programs in Sub-saharan African Countries.

Int J MCH AIDS 2016 ;5(2):119-133

National Institute for Parasitic Disease, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Shanghai 20025, PR China; National Center for International Research on Tropical Diseases, Ministry of Science & Technology, Shanghai 20025, PR China; WHO Collaborating Center for Tropical Disease Research, Shanghai 20025, PR China.

Background And Introduction: This review paper examines the growing implications of China's engagement in shaping innovative national initiatives against infectious diseases and poverty control and elimination in African countries. It seeks to understand the factors and enhancers that can promote mutual and innovative health development initiatives, and those that are necessary in generating reliable and quality data for evidence-based contextual policy, priorities and programs.

Methods: We examined the China-Africa health cooperation in supporting global health agenda on infectious diseases such as malaria, schistosomiasis, Ebola, TB, HIV/AIDS, neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) prevention, control and elimination spanning a period of 10 years. We reviewed referenced publications, global support data, and extensive sources related to and other emerging epidemics and infectious diseases of poverty, programs and interventions, health systems development issues, challenges, opportunities and investments. Published literature in PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, Books and web-based peer-reviewed journal articles, government annual reports were assessed from the first Forum on China-Africa Cooperation (FOCAC) in November 2006 to December 2015 Third Ministerial conferences.

Results: Our findings highlight current shared public health challenges and emphasize the need to nurture, develop and establish effective, functional and sustainable health systems capacity to detect and respond to all public health threats and epidemic burdens, evidence-based programs and quality care outcomes. China's significant health diplomacy emphasizes the importance of health financing in establishing health development commitment and investment in improving the gains and opportunities, importantly efficiency and value health priorities and planning.

Conclusions And Global Health Implications: Strengthening China-Africa health development agenda towards collective commitment and investment in quality care delivery, effective programs coverage and efficiency, preparedness and emergency response is needed in transforming African health information systems, and local health governance structures and management in emerging epidemics. Furthermore, innovative evidence of operational joint solutions and strategies are critical in advancing healthcare delivery, and further enhancing Universal Health Care, and Sustainable Development Goals to attain global health improvements and economic prosperity.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5187644PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.21106/ijma.100DOI Listing
January 2016

No PfATPase6 S769N mutation found in Plasmodium falciparum isolates from China.

Malar J 2008 Jul 8;7:122. Epub 2008 Jul 8.

National Institute of Parasitic Diseases, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 207 Rui Jin Er Road, Shanghai, 200025, PR China.

Background: Artemisinin and its derivatives have been used for falciparum malaria treatment in China since late 1970s. Monotherapy and uncontrolled use of artemisinin drugs were common practices for a long period of time. In vitro tests showed that the susceptibility of Plasmodium falciparum to artemisinins was declining in China. A concern was raised about the resistance to artemisinins of falciparum malaria in the country. It has been reported that in vitro artemisinin resistance was associated with the S769N mutation in the PfATPase6 gene. The main purpose of this study was to investigate whether that mutation has occurred in field isolates from China.

Methods: Plasmodium falciparum field isolates were collected in 2006-2007 from Hainan and Yunnan provinces, China. A nested PCR-sequencing assay was developed to analyse the genotype of the PfATPase6 S769N polymorphism in the P. falciparum field isolates.

Results: The genotyping results of six samples could not be obtained due to failure of PCR amplification, but no S769N mutation was detected in any of the 95 samples successfully analysed.

Conclusion: The results indicate that the S769N mutation in the PfATPase6 gene is not present in China, suggesting that artemisinin resistance has not yet developed, but the situation needs to be watched very attentively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1475-2875-7-122DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2467427PMC
July 2008
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