Publications by authors named "Yasushi Onishi"

123 Publications

Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for myelodysplastic syndrome in adolescent and young adult patients.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2021 May 15. Epub 2021 May 15.

Department of Hematology, Kanazawa University Hospital, Kanazawa, Japan.

Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is the only curable treatment option for adolescent and young adult (AYA) patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). The study aim was to evaluate epidemiological data and identify prognostic factors for AYA patients with MDS undergoing allogeneic HSCT. Here, 645 patients were selected from patients enrolled in a multicenter prospective registry for HSCT from 2000 to 2015. The primary endpoint was 3-year overall survival (OS). Survival rates were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Prognostic factors were identified using the multivariable Cox proportional hazards model. The 3-year OS was 71.2% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 67.4-74.6%). In multivariable analysis, active disease status (adjusted hazard ratio: 1.54, 95% CI: 1.09-2.18, p = 0.016), poor cytogenetic risk (1.62, 1.12-2.36, p = 0.011), poor performance status (2.01, 1.13-3.56, p = 0.016), human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched unrelated donors (2.23, 1.39-3.59, p < 0.001), HLA-mismatched unrelated donors (2.16, 1.09-4.28, p = 0.027), and cord blood transplantation (2.44, 1.43-4.17, p = 0.001) were significantly associated with poor 3-year OS. In conclusion, in AYA patients with MDS the 3-year OS following allogeneic HSCT was 71.2%. Active disease status, poor cytogenetic risk, poor performance status, and donor sources other than related donors were associated with poor 3-year OS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-021-01324-8DOI Listing
May 2021

Pretransplantation Red Blood Cell and Platelet Transfusion Burden in De Novo Myelodysplastic Syndrome Undergoing Allogeneic Transplantation.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Japanese Data Center for Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation, Nagoya, Japan; Department of Healthcare Administration, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya, Japan.

Most patients of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) require red blood cell (RBC) or platelet transfusion during their disease courses, which could cause an increased risk of iron overload and alloimmunization. However, it remains less clear whether pretransplantation RBC or platelet transfusion burden affects transplant outcomes in patients with MDS. The objective was to examine the significance of pretransplantation RBC and platelet transfusion burden on transplant outcomes after allogeneic HCT for adults with de novo MDS. We retrospectively evaluated the effect of pretransplantation RBC or platelet transfusion burden on transplant outcomes in a cohort of 1007 adult patients with de novo MDS treated by upfront allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) between 2006 and 2018. Both higher pretransplantation RBC and platelet transfusion burdens were significantly associated with higher overall mortality and relapse-related mortality, but not non-relapse mortality in the multivariate analysis. Higher pretransplantation RBC transfusion burden was also significantly associated with lower neutrophil, platelet, and reticulocyte recovery in the multivariate analysis. In summary, our study clearly demonstrated that a higher pretransplantation RBC and platelet transfusion burden was independently associated with higher overall mortality, relapse-related mortality, and lower hematopoietic recovery after allogeneic HCT for de novo MDS. Early allogeneic HCT should be considered for patients with de novo MDS who require RBC and platelet transfusion repeatedly.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtct.2021.05.003DOI Listing
May 2021

Cryopreservation of Unrelated Hematopoietic Stem Cells from a Blood and Marrow Donor Bank During the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Nationwide Survey by the Japan Marrow Donor Program.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Japan Marrow Donor Program, Aichi Medical University School of Medicine, Nagakute, Japan.

During the COVID-19 pandemic, donor hematopoietic stem cell grafts are frequently cryopreserved to ensure the availability of graft before starting a conditioning regimen. However, the safety of cryopreservation has been controversial in unrelated hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), especially for bone marrow (BM) grafts. In addition, in unrelated HSCT, the effect of the time from harvest to cryopreservation of donor grafts required for the transportation of donor graft has not been fully clarified. In this study, we retrospectively analyzed the first 112 patients with available data who underwent cryopreserved unrelated blood and marrow transplantation through the Japan Marrow Donor Program during the COVID-19 pandemic. There were 112 patients, including 83 who received BM grafts and 29 who received peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) grafts. The median time from stem cell harvest to cryopreservation was 9.9 hours (range, 2.6 to 44.0 hours), and the median time from cryopreservation to infusion was 231.2 hours. The incidence of neutrophil engraftment at day 28 after HSCT was 91.1%, and among 109 patients (excluding 3 patients with early death), all but 1 patient achieved neutrophil engraftment within 60 days after HSCT. The time to neutrophil engraftment and time to platelet engraftment were shorter in PBSC transplantation compared with BM transplantation (BMT), but the differences were not statistically significant (P = .064 and .18). Multivariate analysis among BM recipients revealed that a higher number of frozen nucleated cells and the absence of HLA mismatch were associated with faster neutrophil engraftment. The time to neutrophil engraftment after unrelated cryopreserved BMT was not different from that after unrelated BMT without cryopreservation. Our findings suggest that unrelated donor BM and PBSC grafts can be safely cryopreserved even after transit from the harvest center to the transplantation center. In the current COVID-19 pandemic, cryopreservation can be considered as an option while balancing the risks and benefits of the procedure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtct.2021.04.022DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8098035PMC
May 2021

Prognostic factors in salvage transplantation for graft failure following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2021 Apr 29. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Division of Hematology, Jichi Medical University Saitama Medical Center, Saitama, Japan.

Although graft failure (GF) is a fatal complication after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT), no mortality risk assessments after salvage SCT have been reported. We developed a comprehensive prognostic scoring system consisting of patient and comorbidity factors with 470 patients as a training cohort out of 940; these patients underwent salvage SCT for GF. The multivariate analysis demonstrated that older age, poorer performance status, a continuation of antimicrobial treatment, and severe organ dysfunction were independently associated with worse overall survival (OS) and non-relapse mortality (NRM). Based on each factor's hazard ratio, weighted scores of 1-3 were assigned to these factors. Using the summed scores (0-8), a prognostic scoring system successfully stratified outcomes after salvage SCT in the cohort. For patients in the low (0-2, n = 122), intermediate (3-4, n = 209), and high score (5-8, n = 110) groups, the 1-year OS was 62.8%, 40.8%, and 14.2%, respectively (P < 0.001), whereas the 1-year NRM was 24.1%, 43.9%, and 72.7%, respectively (P < 0.001). The prognostic value of the scoring system was confirmed in the validation cohort (n = 470). Our scoring system is useful for predicting survival after salvage SCT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-021-01310-0DOI Listing
April 2021

Salvage Cord Blood Transplantation for Sustained Remission of Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia That Relapsed Early after Myeloablative Transplantation.

Intern Med 2021 Apr 5. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Department of Hematology, Tohoku University Hospital, Japan.

Acute megakaryoblastic leukemia (AMKL) is a rare subtype of acute myeloid leukemia accompanied by an aggressive clinical course and dismal prognosis. We herein report a case of AMKL preceded by mediastinal germ cell tumor that relapsed early after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation with myeloablative conditioning but was successfully treated using salvage cord blood transplantation (CBT) with reduced-intensity conditioning. Although several serious complications developed, sustained remission with a favorable general condition was ultimately achieved. Although an optimal therapeutic strategy remains to be established, the graft-versus-leukemia effect of CBT may be promising, even for the treatment of refractory AMKL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2169/internalmedicine.6796-20DOI Listing
April 2021

High-throughput liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry method using in-source collision-induced dissociation for simultaneous quantification of imatinib, dasatinib, bosutinib, nilotinib, and ibrutinib in human plasma.

Biomed Chromatogr 2021 Mar 27:e5124. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tohoku University, Sendai, Miyagi, Japan.

Recent studies have shown that therapeutic drug monitoring of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) could improve treatment efficacy and safety. A simple analytical method using high-performance LC/electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry has been developed and validated for simultaneous quantification of BCR-ABL and Bruton's TKIs used for chronic leukemia (imatinib, dasatinib, bosutinib, nilotinib, and ibrutinib) in human plasma. Although these structures and physical properties are similar, owing to their different linear ranges, simultaneously determining the plasma levels of these five TKIs by applying optimal MS parameters remains difficult. A quantitative range exceeding 60,000-fold was required, and the linear dynamic ranges of imatinib, bosutinib, and nilotinib were limited because of the presence of a saturated detection signal. In this study, we applied the in-source collision-induced dissociation technique to control the ion amounts in mass spectrometry. This new method allowed rapid determination within 5 min with simple pretreatment. The method was validated according to the US Food and Drug Administration guidelines. Moreover, all samples of patients with chronic leukemia were successfully measured and their values were within the linear range of measurement. Therefore, our high-throughput analytical system is useful to measure the plasma concentrations of imatinib, dasatinib, bosutinib, nilotinib, and ibrutinib in clinical practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bmc.5124DOI Listing
March 2021

Hepatitis B Virus Reactivation with Discontinuation of Nucleoside Analogue in Patients Who Received Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation.

Case Rep Gastroenterol 2021 Jan-Apr;15(1):178-187. Epub 2021 Feb 12.

Division of Gastroenterology, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai, Japan.

Reactivation of hepatitis B virus (HBV) is known to occur frequently after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). The reactivation can be prevented by nucleos(t)ide analogue (NA), but it is unclear how long NA should be continued. Here, we report 3 cases of HBV reactivation with discontinuation of NA following the discontinuation of immunosuppressive therapies after HSCT. Three male patients aged 34, 59, and 54 years received allogeneic HSCT (allo-HSCT) for chronic myeloid leukemia, mixed phenotype acute leukemia, and myelodysplastic syndrome, respectively. Before HSCT, 2 patients were positive for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and 1 patient was negative for HBsAg and positive for antibodies to hepatitis B core antigen. NA (lamivudine or entecavir) was started at the same time as HSCT and stopped after the discontinuation of immunosuppressive therapies. In all patients, the serum HBV DNA levels were increased after the discontinuation of NAs. Two of the three patients developed severe hepatitis with high levels of HBV DNA (7.5 and 7.4 log IU/mL, respectively). A patient without hepatitis was re-administered NA soon after the HBV DNA started to increase (3.3 log IU/mL). Interestingly, the 2 patients who developed hepatitis cleared HBsAg promptly after the recovery from hepatitis and they could stop NAs without the reversion of HBsAg. It was speculated that transplanted immune cells, which were naïve for HBV, react strongly with HBV antigens that were increased after the NA discontinuation. The discontinuation of NA after allo-HSCT is not recommended generally because strong hepatitis might be induced even after several years.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000512397DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7923699PMC
February 2021

BK Virus-Associated Urothelial Carcinoma in a Patient with Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation for Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: A Case Report.

Case Rep Oncol 2021 Jan-Apr;14(1):8-12. Epub 2021 Jan 11.

Department of Urology, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai, Japan.

Bladder tamponade due to hemorrhagic cystitis caused by BK virus in immunocompetent patients is familiar to urologists. BK virus is an important cause of nephropathy and graft loss in kidney transplant recipients. Although urothelial carcinoma of the bladder in kidney transplant recipients with persistent BK viruria is known, BK virus-associated urothelial carcinoma (BKVUC) in peripheral blood stem cell transplantation recipients is not as well known. A 54-year-old man with acute lymphoblastic leukemia was treated in the Department of Hematology of our hospital. After recurrence 25 months later, he received chemotherapy for half a year and underwent peripheral blood stem cell transplantation. He achieved temporarily complete remission, but he developed hematuria with BK virus-positive result 1 month after peripheral blood stem cell transplantation. One month later, he developed bladder tamponade-diagnosed hemorrhagic cystitis due to BK virus in our Urological Department. We performed transurethral coagulation to manage hemorrhage and removed a bleeding lesion in the bladder wall. Pathological examination of the removed bladder wall revealed pT1 stage BKVUC. We found that bladder tamponade could have led to reactivation of BK virus in this immunocompetent patient. This could be the first report of BKVUC of the bladder found in a peripheral blood stem cell transplantation recipient with close urological follow-up for 24 months. Adequate removal of bleeding lesions from the bladder mucosa with appropriate timing during hemorrhagic cystitis due to BKVUC could be essential to achieve good outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000511053DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7879257PMC
January 2021

Second direct-acting antiviral therapy for hepatitis C virus infection after umbilical cord blood transplantation: A case report.

J Infect Chemother 2021 Feb 12. Epub 2021 Feb 12.

Department of Hematology and Rheumatology, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai, Japan.

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection has an adverse impact on outcomes after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). It is recommended that HSCT candidates infected with HCV receive the treatment prior to transplantation. Although the recent approval of direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) has led to great advances in the treatment of HCV infection, little information is available on the efficacy and safety of DAA therapy in patients receiving allogeneic HSCT. Herein, we report the clinical course of an umbilical cord blood (UCB) recipient treated with DAAs for HCV infection. The patient achieved HCV RNA negativity with glecaprevir and pibrentasvir after consolidation therapy for acute myeloid leukemia (AML), and underwent transplantation before confirming sustained virological response (SVR) at 12 weeks. The HCV viral load became detectable on day +28 after transplantation and second HCV treatment with sofosbuvir, velpatasvir, and ribavirin was required. It is important to confirm SVR prior to transplantation, but it is often difficult. If early transplantation is required, close monitoring of HCV RNA after transplantation is needed. Further investigation is required to clarify the optimal management of HCV infection for allogeneic HSCT recipients in the DAA era.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jiac.2021.02.002DOI Listing
February 2021

Measurable residual disease affects allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation in Ph+ ALL during both CR1 and CR2.

Blood Adv 2021 01;5(2):584-592

Division of Hematology, Jichi Medical University Saitama Medical Center, Saitama, Japan.

Although measurable residual disease (MRD) at the time of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) has been reported to be an important prognostic factor for Philadelphia chromosome (Ph)-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) during first complete remission (CR1), the prognostic impact of MRD is unclear during second CR (CR2). To clarify the impact of MRD for both CR1 and CR2, we analyzed data from a registry database including 1625 adult patients with Ph+ ALL who underwent first allo-HCT during either CR1 or CR2 between 2002 and 2017. Adjusted overall and leukemia-free survival rates at 4 years were 71% and 64%, respectively, for patients undergoing allo-HCT during CR1 with MRD-, 55% and 43% during CR1 with MRD+, 51% and 49% during CR2 with MRD-, and 38% and 29% during CR2 with MRD+. Although survival rates were significantly better among patients with CR1 MRD- than among patients with CR2 MRD-, no significant difference was observed in survival rate between patients with CR1 MRD+ and CR2 MRD-. Relapse rates after 4 years were 16% in patients with CR1 MRD-, 29% in CR1 MRD+, 21% in patients with CR2 MRD-, and 46% in patients with CR2 MRD+. No significant difference was identified in relapse rate between patients with CR1 MRD- and CR2 MRD-. CR2 MRD- was not a significant risk factor for relapse in multivariate analysis (hazard ratio, 1.26; 95% confidence interval, 0.69-2.29; P = .45 vs CR1 MRD-). MRD at time of allo-HCT was an important risk factor in patients with Ph+ ALL during both CR1 and CR2.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2020003536DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7839376PMC
January 2021

A multicenter phase II study of intrabone single-unit cord blood transplantation without antithymocyte globulin.

Ann Hematol 2021 Mar 11;100(3):743-752. Epub 2021 Jan 11.

Department of Hematology and Oncology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, 65 Tsurumai, Showa, Nagoya, Aichi, 466-8550, Japan.

To overcome the delayed or failed engraftment after unrelated cord blood transplantation (CBT), we conducted a multicenter phase II study of intrabone single-unit CBT without antithymocyte globulin (ATG) for adult patients with hematological malignancies (UMIN-CTR, UMIN000020997). Sixty-four patients received an intrabone injection of unwashed (n = 61) or washed (n = 3) cord blood after local anesthesia. All injection-related adverse events were mild and resolved spontaneously. Sixty-two patients were evaluable for the efficacy of intrabone CBT of serological HLA-A, -B, and -DR ≥ 4/6 matched cord blood with a median number of 2.57 × 10/kg cryopreserved total nucleated cells. The probability of survival with neutrophil engraftment on day 28 was 77.4% (95% confidence interval, 67.0-85.8%), which exceeded the threshold value. The cumulative incidences of neutrophils ≥ 0.5 × 10/L on day 60 was 80.6% (68.2-88.6%), with a median time to recovery of 21 days after transplantation. The cumulative incidences of platelets ≥ 20 × 10/L and platelets ≥ 50 × 10/L on day 100 were 75.8% (62.6-84.9%) and 72.6% (59.4-82.1%), respectively, with median time to platelets ≥ 20 × 10/L and platelets ≥ 50 × 10/L of 38 and 45 days after transplantation, respectively. The cumulative incidences of grade II-IV and III-IV acute graft-versus-host disease were 29.0% and 6.5%, respectively. All responded to steroid therapy, and secondary treatments were not required. The present study suggests the efficacy of intrabone single-unit CBT without ATG in terms of early engraftment and controllable acute graft-versus-host disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00277-020-04365-zDOI Listing
March 2021

Randomised controlled trial of conditioning regimen for cord blood transplantation for adult myeloid malignancies comparing high-dose cytarabine/cyclophosphamide/total body irradiation with versus without G-CSF priming: G-CONCORD study protocol.

BMJ Open 2020 12 4;10(12):e040467. Epub 2020 Dec 4.

Department of Hematology/Oncology, The Institute of Medical Science The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.

Introduction: A better long-term quality of life after umbilical cord blood transplantation (CBT) is observed compared with transplants from other alternative donors, whereas graft failure and relapses after CBT are still major issues. To minimise graft failure and relapse after CBT, intensification of conditioning by the addition of high-dose cytosine arabinoside (CA) and concomitant continuous use of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) are reported to convey a significantly better survival after CBT in some retrospective studies. To confirm the effect of G-CSF plus CA combination, in addition to the standard conditioning regimen, cyclophosphamide (CY)/total body irradiation (TBI), we design a randomised controlled study comparing CA/CY/TBI with versus without G-CSF priming (G-CSF combined conditioned cord blood transplantation [G-CONCORD] study).

Methods And Analysis: This is a multicentre, open-label, randomised phase III study that aimed to compare G-CSF+CA/CY/TBI as a conditioning regimen for CBT with CA/CY/TBI. Patients with acute myeloid leukaemia or myelodysplastic syndrome, aged 16-55 years, are eligible. The target sample size is 160 and the registration period is 4 years. The primary endpoint is the 2-year disease-free survival rate after CBT. The secondary endpoints are overall survival, relapse, non-relapse mortality, acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease, engraftment rate, time to neutrophil recovery, short-term adverse events, incidence of infections and causes of death.This study employs a single one-to-one web-based randomisation between the with-G-CSF versus without-G-CSF groups after patient registration. Combination of high-dose CA and CY/TBI in both groups is used for conditioning.

Ethics And Dissemination: The study protocol was approved by the central review board, Nagoya University Certified Review Board, after the enforcement of the Clinical Trials Act in Japan. The manuscripts presenting data from this study will be submitted for publication in quality peer-reviewed medical journals. Study findings will be disseminated via presentations at national/international conferences and peer-reviewed journals.

Trial Registration Numbers: UMIN000029947 and jRCTs041180059.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2020-040467DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7722372PMC
December 2020

Negative Impact of Cytomegalovirus Reactivation on Survival in Adult Patients with Aplastic Anemia after an Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: A Report from Transplantation-Related Complication and Adult Aplastic Anemia Working Groups of the Japan Society for Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 Jan 9;27(1):82.e1-82.e8. Epub 2020 Oct 9.

Division of Hematology, Jichi Medical University Saitama Medical Center, Saitama, Japan.

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is a major infectious complication following an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). Recent large-scale retrospective studies reported that CMV reactivation is an independent risk factor for poor post-transplant outcomes, although the development of CMV end-organ disease is suppressed by the CMV antiviral preemptive therapy, which has been mainly analyzed for hematopoietic malignancies, such as acute leukemia. However, it remains unclear whether CMV reactivation also has a negative effect on post-transplant outcomes in aplastic anemia (AA). Therefore, we evaluated the clinical relevance of CMV reactivation in patients with AA using the registry database of the Japan Society for Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation. Adult patients with AA who underwent their first allo-HSCT between 2005 and 2017 and who survived with neutrophil engraftment until 100 days post-transplantation were analyzed (n = 672). Patients were monitored using pp65 antigenemia since the time of engraftment, and CMV reactivation in the analysis of this study was defined as the beginning of CMV preemptive or definitive therapy within 100 days post-transplantation. CMV reactivation occurred in 372 (55%) patients, including 19 with CMV end-organ disease. In time-dependent multivariate analysis, patients aged ≥40 years (hazard ratio [HR], 1.89; P = .003) who underwent transplantation from HLA-matched related peripheral blood stem cells (HR, 2.85; P = .008), HLA-matched unrelated bone marrow (BM) (HR, 2.01; P = .036), and other stem cell sources (HR, 2.32; P = .007) compared to HLA-matched related BM, CMV reactivation (HR 1.65; P = .042), grade II to IV acute graft-versus-host disease (HR 1.73; P = .013), and secondary graft failure (HR 7.09; P < .001) had independent risk factors that significantly decreased overall survival, indicating that CMV reactivation, one of the early events at post-transplantation, had a significant negative impact on the long-term prognosis at post-transplantation. This effect was more pronounced in patients aged ≥40 years who received a graft from other than HLA-matched related BM. Comparing the causes of death with and without CMV reactivation, no significant difference in the frequency of each cause of death was observed between the 2 groups (P = .453). Improvement of post-transplant CMV management that effectively suppresses CMV reactivation in the early stage at post-transplantation will be required to improve post-transplant outcomes, especially in high-risk patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2020.10.001DOI Listing
January 2021

Cyclosporine/methotrexate versus tacrolimus/methotrexate with or without anti-thymocyte globulin as GVHD prophylaxis in adult patients with aplastic anemia.

Ann Hematol 2021 Jan 9;100(1):217-228. Epub 2020 Oct 9.

Japanese Data Center for Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation, Nagoya, Japan.

The impact of calcineurin inhibitor types and anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG) in conditioning on overall survival (OS) and GVHD-free, relapse-free survival (GRFS) has not yet been analyzed in detail for aplastic anemia. We herein examined 517 adult patients with aplastic anemia who underwent BMT from HLA-matched sibling donors (MSD, n = 255) and unrelated donors (UD, n = 262) and were treated with cyclosporine A (CSA) + methotrexate (MTX) (n = 258) and tacrolimus (TAC) + MTX (n = 259). In total, 330 patients received ATG in conditioning. CSA + MTX versus TAC + MTX did not have a significant impact on acute and chronic GVHD, OS, or GRFS in each donor type. The use of ATG in conditioning reduced the risk of grade II-IV acute GVHD in the MSD and UD cohorts (HR 0.42, P = 0.014, and HR 0.3, P < 0.001, respectively); however, a differential impact on GRFS was identified, namely, better GRFS in MSD recipients (HR 0.56, P = 0.016), but not in UD recipients (HR 1.1, P = 0.657). In conclusion, CSA + MTX and TAC + MTX were similar as GVHD prophylaxis regardless of the donor type, and ATG in conditioning increased GRFS in MSD transplants, but not in UD transplants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00277-020-04290-1DOI Listing
January 2021

Primary adrenal extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma: A case report and literature review.

Leuk Res Rep 2020 28;14:100223. Epub 2020 Sep 28.

Department of Hematology, Tohoku University Hospital, Sendai, Japan.

A 37-year-old man was admitted to our department following the detection of bulky tumors in his bilateral adrenal glands. A biopsy resulted in the diagnosis of extranodal NK/T cell lymphoma, nasal type (ENKL). After debulking by chemotherapy, allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloHCT) was performed. Relapses in the liver and adrenal glands were identified 2 months post alloHCT, for which temporary administration of l-asparaginase resulted in complete metabolic response. However, multiple relapses in the central nervous system and lethal lymphomatous meningitis successively developed. Primary adrenal ENKL could tend to present as bulky lesion and follow an aggressive clinical course.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lrr.2020.100223DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7527573PMC
September 2020

Pembrolizumab plus lenalidomide and dexamethasone in treatment-naive multiple myeloma (KEYNOTE-185): subgroup analysis in Japanese patients.

Int J Hematol 2020 Nov 19;112(5):640-649. Epub 2020 Sep 19.

Japanese Red Cross Medical Center, Tokyo, Japan.

The global, randomized, open-label KEYNOTE-185 study closed early after an interim analysis showed an unfavorable benefit-risk profile with pembrolizumab plus lenalidomide and low-dose dexamethasone (Rd) versus Rd alone in treatment-naive, transplant-ineligible multiple myeloma. This subgroup analysis reported outcomes in the Japanese population. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to pembrolizumab plus Rd or Rd alone, stratified by age and International Staging System. The primary end point was progression-free survival (PFS). Fifty-two Japanese patients were randomly assigned to pembrolizumab plus Rd (n = 27) or Rd (n = 25). The median follow-up was 7.2 months (range, 0.4-13.8). The median PFS was not reached (NR); 6-month PFS was 91.2% versus 86.2% with pembrolizumab plus Rd versus Rd [hazard ratio (HR), 0.31; 95% CI, 0.06-1.63]. The median overall survival (OS) was NR; 6-month OS was 96.2% versus 95.7% with pembrolizumab plus Rd versus Rd (HR, 0.33; 95% CI, 0.03-3.72). With pembrolizumab plus Rd versus Rd, grade 3-5 adverse events occurred in 70.4% versus 69.6% of patients; serious adverse events occurred in 40.7% versus 52.5%. Although in the Japanese subgroup of KEYNOTE-185 adding pembrolizumab to Rd did not show an unfavorable risk-benefit, the analysis is limited by short follow-up and small sample size, affecting generalizability of the results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12185-020-02953-3DOI Listing
November 2020

Outcome of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in adult patients with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria.

Int J Hematol 2021 Jan 5;113(1):122-127. Epub 2020 Sep 5.

Division of Hematology, Department of Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.

The safety and efficacy of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) for paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) remain unclear. Therefore, we retrospectively analyzed the outcomes of 42 adult patients with PNH who underwent allogeneic HSCT using the registry database of the Japan Society for Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation. The median patient age was 32.5 years. The number of packed red cell (PRC) transfusions was < 20 times in 19 patients and ≥ 20 times in 16; 7 patients had missing data. Stem cell sources were bone marrow (N = 15) or peripheral blood (N = 13) from a related donor or bone marrow (N = 11) and cord blood (N = 3) from an unrelated donor. The cumulative incidence of neutrophil engraftment at day 40 was 81%. Six patients died before engraftment, and the 6-year overall survival (OS) was 74%. The OS of patients with < 20 pretransplant PRC transfusions was significantly higher than that of patients with ≥ 20 pretransplant PRC transfusions (95% vs. 63%; P < 0.05). Moreover, the OS of patients aged < 30 years was significantly higher than that of patients aged ≥ 30 years (90% vs. 59%; P < 0.05). Allogeneic HSCT for PNH could provide favorable survival; however, pretransplant transfusion burden and patient age should be considered when deciding the timing of allogeneic HSCT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12185-020-02982-yDOI Listing
January 2021

Low-dose lenalidomide and dexamethasone therapy after melphalan-prednisolone induction in elderly patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma.

Ann Hematol 2020 Oct 31;99(10):2351-2356. Epub 2020 Aug 31.

Department of Hematology and Rheumatology, Tohoku University Hospital, 1-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi, 980-857, Japan.

Lenalidomide (Len) and dexamethasone (dex) therapy is a standard therapy in patients with multiple myeloma. Elderly or unfit patients may reduce Len or dex doses to prevent toxicities that lead to treatment discontinuation. However, there have been few studies evaluating the efficacy and safety of lower doses of Len and dex. We conducted a phase II study of 1.5-year low-dose Len and dex therapy following melphalan and prednisolone (MP), the number of which cycles was determined by a response within 9 cycles. The Len dose was 10 mg daily and the dex dose was 20 mg weekly, which were continued for 1.5 years. Twenty-one patients were enrolled. The median number of cycles of MP was 3 (range, 2-9). The overall response rate was 81% and a very good partial response or better was achieved in 33.3% of patients. The median follow-up time for survivors was 70.5 months (range, 42-83 months), the median progression-free survival (PFS) was 27 months (95% CI, 21-33 months), and the median overall survival was not reached. Grade 3 or 4 adverse events were observed in 28.6% of patients. In conclusion, the low-dose Len and dex therapy safely achieved comparable efficacies to the standard-dose regimen in elderly patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma. UMIN000007889.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00277-020-04240-xDOI Listing
October 2020

Comparison of immunosuppressant regimens in salvage cord blood transplantation for graft failure after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2021 02 20;56(2):400-410. Epub 2020 Aug 20.

Division of Hematology, Jichi Medical University Saitama Medical Center, Saitama, Japan.

Graft failure (GF) is a life-threatening complication after allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Although salvage cord blood transplantation (CBT) is a curative therapy for GF, the optimal immunosuppression after salvage CBT remains unknown. Using nationwide registration data, we compared the transplant outcomes of patients who developed GF and underwent salvage CBT using immunosuppressants, including calcineurin (CNI) alone (n = 177); CNI plus methotrexate (CNI+MTX, n = 150); and CNI plus mycophenolate mofetil (CNI+MMF, n = 161). The CNI+MMF group, in comparison with the CNI+MTX and CNI alone groups, demonstrated better neutrophil recovery at 30 days (62.7 vs. 42.7 vs. 53.1%, P < 0.001); better overall survival (OS) at 12 months (48.4 vs. 33.5 vs. 28.3%, P < 0.001); and lower non-relapse mortality (NRM) at 12 months (35.2 vs. 53.9 vs. 56.5%, P < 0.001). On multivariate analysis, CNI+MMF had the best neutrophil recovery (hazard ratio (HR), 1.71; P < 0.001) and OS (HR, 0.64; P = 0.002) and the lowest NRM (HR, 0.53; P < 0.001). Hemorrhage was relatively less frequent in the CNI+MMF group. CNI+MMF can be a promising immunosuppressant regimen after salvage CBT for GF, with better engraftment and survival outcomes, compared with CNI alone and CNI+MTX.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-020-00999-9DOI Listing
February 2021

Associations of cerebral oxygenation with hemoglobin levels evaluated by near-infrared spectroscopy in hemodialysis patients.

PLoS One 2020 10;15(8):e0236720. Epub 2020 Aug 10.

Division of Nephrology, First Department of Integrated Medicine, Saitama Medical Center, Jichi Medical University, Saitama, Japan.

Hemoglobin (Hb) is associated with cerebral oxygenation status owing to its important role of carrying oxygen to systemic tissues. However, data concerning the associations between Hb levels and cerebral regional oxygen saturation (rSO2) of hemodialysis (HD) patients is limited. We aimed to identify these associations to consider a target Hb level for renal anemia management. This study included 375 HD patients. Cerebral rSO2 before HD was monitored using the INVOS 5100c oxygen saturation monitor. Multivariable linear regression analysis showed that cerebral rSO2 was independently associated with natural logarithm (Ln)-HD duration (standardized coefficient: -0.36), mean blood pressure (standardized coefficient: 0.13), pH (standardized coefficient: -0.10), serum albumin (standardized coefficient: 0.14), presence of diabetes mellitus (standardized coefficient: -0.20), and Hb level (standardized coefficient: 0.29). Furthermore, a generalized linear model with restricted cubic spline function was used to investigate the non-linear association between cerebral rSO2 and Hb levels. In the multivariable analysis for the adjustment with Ln-HD duration, mean blood pressure, pH, serum albumin, and presence of diabetes mellitus, a linear relationship was demonstrated between the two variables (p for linearity = 0.79). Hb levels revealed the positive and significant association with cerebral rSO2 in this study. Moreover, the relationship between cerebral rSO2 and Hb level was proven to be linear. Therefore, the target Hb level in renal anemia management would be considered to be the upper limits for the appropriate management of renal anemia by previous guidelines and position statement from the viewpoint of maintaining cerebral oxygenation in HD patients.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0236720PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7416957PMC
October 2020

Sustained remission of giant pancreatic plasmacytoma with daratumumab.

Ann Hematol 2020 Jun 18. Epub 2020 Jun 18.

Department of Hematology, Tohoku University Hospital, 1-1 Seiryo-cho, Sendai, 980-8574, Japan.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00277-020-04145-9DOI Listing
June 2020

Prospective evaluation of alternative donor from unrelated donor and cord blood in adult acute leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2020 07 16;55(7):1399-1409. Epub 2020 Mar 16.

Department of Hematology, Japanese Red Cross Nagoya First Hospital, Nagoya, Japan.

A prospectively registered observational study was conducted to assess the significance of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation from highly HLA-matched unrelated donors (UD) and cord blood (CB) on outcomes in adult acute leukemia (AL) and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). Between 2007 and 2015, 231 transplant-eligible patients were registered for a phase 2 study of alternative donor transplantation. After registration, a sufficient time period was given to find appropriate UD. Patients received CB transplantation (CBT) if an appropriate UD was unavailable. In total, 119 patients received CBT (106 AL and 13 MDS) and 91 patients received UD transplantation (UDT) (86 AL and 5 MDS). The median age was 39 years in both groups. The primary objective was overall survival (OS); secondary objectives included cumulative incidences of non-relapse mortality (NRM) and relapse, and disease-free survival. Diagnosis, disease status at transplantation, refined disease risk index, and hematopoietic cell transplant-specific comorbidity index did not differ between UDT and CBT. In multivariate analyses, graft source was not a significant risk factor for all objectives. In adjusted analyses, UDT and CBT showed similar OS, NRM, and relapse in this prospective study. CB can be a comparable alternative stem cell source to UD by achieving a timely transplant.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-020-0859-8DOI Listing
July 2020

Ultra-high sensitivity HBsAg assay can diagnose HBV reactivation following rituximab-based therapy in patients with lymphoma.

J Hepatol 2020 08 17;73(2):285-293. Epub 2020 Mar 17.

Department of Hematology, Kusatsu General Hospital, Kusatsu, Japan.

Background & Aims: HBV reactivation is a risk in patients receiving anti-CD20 antibodies for the treatment of lymphoma. The purpose of this post hoc analysis was to evaluate the efficacy of an ultra-high sensitivity HBsAg assay to guide preemptive antiviral treatment in patients with lymphoma and resolved HBV infections using prospectively stored samples from an HBV DNA monitoring study.

Methods: HBV reactivation (defined as HBV DNA levels of ≥11 IU/ml) was confirmed in 22 of 252 patients. A conventional HBsAg assay (ARCHITECT, cut-off value: 0.05 IU/ml) and an ultra-high sensitivity HBsAg assay employing a semi-automated immune complex transfer chemiluminescence enzyme technique (ICT-CLEIA, cut-off value: 0.0005 IU/ml) were performed at baseline, at confirmed HBV reactivation and monitored after HBV reactivation.

Results: Baseline HBsAg was detected using ICT-CLEIA in 4 patients; in all of whom precore mutants with high replication capacity were reactivated. Of the 6 patients with HBV DNA detected below the level of quantification at baseline, 5 showed HBV reactivation and 3 of the 5 had precore mutations. Sensitivity for detection by ARCHITECT and ICT-CLEIA HBsAg assays at HBV reactivation or the next sampling after HBV reactivation was 18.2% (4 of 22) and 77.3% (17 of 22), respectively. Of the 5 patients undetectable by ICT-CLEIA, HBV reactivation resolved spontaneously in 2 patients. All 6 patients reactivated with precore mutations including preS deletion could be diagnosed by ICT-CLEIA HBsAg assay at an early stage of HBV reactivation. Multivariate analysis showed that an anti-HBs titer of less than 10 mIU/ml, HBV DNA detected but below the level of quantification, and HBsAg detected by ICT-CLEIA at baseline were independent risk factors for HBV reactivation (adjusted hazard ratios, 15.4, 31.2 and 8.7, respectively; p <0.05).

Conclusions: A novel ICT-CLEIA HBsAg assay is an alternative method to diagnose HBV reactivation.

Clinical Trial Number: UMIN000001299.

Lay Summary: Hepatitis B virus can be reactivated in lymphoma patients receiving anti-CD20 antibodies such as rituximab. Currently, reactivation requires the monitoring of HBV DNA, but monitoring of the surface antigen (HBsAg) could provide a relatively inexpensive, quick and easy alternative. We assessed the performance of an ultra-high sensitivity HBsAg assay and showed that it could be effective for the diagnosis and monitoring of HBV reactivation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhep.2020.03.009DOI Listing
August 2020

A prospective trial of vaccine to prevent hepatitis B virus reactivation after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2020 07 18;55(7):1388-1398. Epub 2020 Feb 18.

Genome Medical Science Project, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Ichikawa, Japan.

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation reportedly occurs frequently after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in resolved HBV-infected patients. Here, 50 patients with resolved HBV infections and scheduled to undergo HSCT were enrolled; all subjects were vaccinated with three doses of hepatitis B vaccine 12 months after HSCT and the incidence of HBV reactivation was monitored. The patients' characteristics were: median age, 61 (34-72) years; male/female, 27/19; allogeneic/autologous, 40/6; bone marrow/peripheral blood stem cells/cord blood, 26/16/4. Of the 46 patients who underwent HSCT, 19 were excluded and did not make it to vaccination due to relapse of underlying disease, HBV reactivation within 12 months of HSCT, or transfer of patients. The remaining 27 were vaccinated 12 months after HSCT and monitored for 2 years. Six showed HBV reactivation, with a 2-year cumulative reactivation incidence of 22.2%; the same incidence was 27.3% only in allogeneic HSCT patients. Factors associated with HBV reactivation included the discontinuation of immunosuppressants (P = 0.0379) and baseline titers of antibody against hepatitis B surface antigen (P = 0.004). HBV reactivation with vaccination following HSCT could occur despite maintenance of serum anti-HBs at more than protective levels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-020-0833-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7329632PMC
July 2020

Comparison of the outcomes after haploidentical and cord blood salvage transplantations for graft failure following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2020 09 12;55(9):1784-1795. Epub 2020 Feb 12.

Department of Hematology, Oita University Hospital, Yufu, Japan.

Graft failure (GF) is a life-threatening complication after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT). Although salvage SCTs can be performed with haploidentical donor (HID) or cord blood (CB), no study has compared the performances of these two sources. Using nationwide registration data, we compared the transplant outcomes of patients who developed GF and underwent salvage transplantation from HID (n = 129) and CB (n = 570) from 2007 to 2016. The HID group demonstrated better neutrophil recovery (79.7 vs. 52.5% at 30 days, P < 0.001). With a median follow-up of 3 years, both groups demonstrated similar overall survival (OS) and nonrelapse mortality (NRM; 1-year OS, 33.1 vs. 34.6% and 1-year NRM, 45.1 vs. 49.8% for the HID and CB groups). After adjustments for other covariates, OS did not differ in both groups. However, HID was associated with a lower NRM (hazard ratio, 0.71; P = 0.038) than CB. The incidence of acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD)-related deaths was significantly higher in the HID group, although infection-related deaths were observed more frequently in the CB group. HID may be a promising salvage SCT option after GF due to its faster engraftment and low NRM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-020-0821-9DOI Listing
September 2020

Successful Treatment of Life-threatening Bleeding Caused by Acquired Factor X Deficiency Associated with Respiratory Infection.

Intern Med 2020 May 5;59(10):1303-1308. Epub 2020 Feb 5.

Department of Hematology and Rheumatology, Tohoku University Hospital, Japan.

Acquired factor X deficiency (AFXD) is a very rare coagulation disorder. A 40-year-old man with no comorbidities suffering from a fever, malaise, and severe hemorrhagic symptoms, including massive hematuria, was emergently admitted. His platelet count was normal, but his prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time were markedly prolonged, which was thought to be due to autoantibody against a coagulation factor in the common pathway. Despite severe massive hematuria resulting in transient renal failure, he was successfully treated with urgent immunosuppressive therapy. Computed tomography revealed bronchopneumonia, which improved with antibiotic administration. AFXD without evidence of amyloidosis was subsequently diagnosed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2169/internalmedicine.4142-19DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7303456PMC
May 2020

Current Status and Needs of Long-Term Follow-Up Clinics for Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation Survivors: Results of a Nationwide Survey in Japan.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2020 05 18;26(5):949-955. Epub 2020 Jan 18.

Department of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation, National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo, Japan.

With increasing focus on the importance of long-term survivorship care after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT), more institutions have been establishing long-term follow-up (LTFU) clinics. Currently, however, with varying volumes of HCT procedures and resources, there is no standardized operation of these clinics in HCT centers. We conducted a nationwide questionnaire survey to characterize the current operation of LTFU clinics in Japan. We targeted 271 HCT centers (189 adult and 82 pediatric) that registered allo-HCT cases to the national transplant registry database. The response rate was 69%, and 117 of the 188 participating centers (62%) had an established LTFU clinic. The most frequent reason cited for not operating an LTFU clinic was a "lack of human resources," especially nurses. Most centers with an LTFU clinic targeted allo-HCT recipients, although autologous HCT survivors were followed up at 18% of adult centers and 48% of pediatric centers. Ninety-two percent of centers did not terminate LTFU at a specific time point, and 56% recommended that patients visit the LTFU clinic beyond 5 years after HCT. Fifteen of 20 pediatric centers indicated that they did not routinely refer survivors who underwent HCT at a young age to an adult HCT center for their adulthood LTFU. We found that staffing and standard practices varied widely among centers, and that most centers continued to see long-term HCT survivors at their own outpatient clinics. The development of common LTFU tools may help standardize LTFU practices and facilitate efficient transitions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2020.01.008DOI Listing
May 2020