Publications by authors named "Yasmine Nivoix"

17 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Prescribing practices of lopinavir/ritonavir, hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin during the COVID-19 epidemic crisis and pharmaceutical interventions in a French teaching hospital.

Eur J Hosp Pharm 2020 Nov 25. Epub 2020 Nov 25.

Service de Pharmacie, Hopitaux universitaires de Strasbourg, Strasbourg, Alsace, France

Objective: The aims of this study were to describe prescribing practices of lopinavir/ritonavir, hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin during the COVID-19 epidemic crisis (primary endpoint), then to characterise pharmaceutical interventions (PIs) targeted to these medications and evaluate the impact of these PIs on prescribers' practices (secondary end-points).

Methods: This retrospective observational study was carried out at the University Hospital of Strasbourg (France) from March to April 2020. The analysed population excluded patients from intensive care units but included all other adult patients with COVID-19 who received at least one dose of lopinavir/ritonavir combination, hydroxychloroquine or azithromycin, while inpatients. Analyses were performed by using data extracted from electronic medical records.

Result: During the study period, 278 patients were included. A rapid decrease in lopinavir/ritonavir prescriptions was observed. This was accompanied by an increase in hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin prescriptions until the end of March, followed by a decrease leading to the disappearance of these two medications in April. The pharmaceutical analysis of the prescriptions resulted in 59 PIs of which 21 were associated with lopinavir/ritonavir, 32 with hydroxychloroquine and 6 with azithromycin. Regarding the medication-related problems, the most frequent ones were incorrect treatment durations (n=32 (54.2%)), drug interactions with potential torsadogenic reactions (n=14 (23.7%)) and incorrect dosing (n=6 (10.2%)). From the 59 PIs, 48 (81.4%) were accepted and physicians adjusted the medication regimens in a timely manner.

Conclusion: This study demonstrated the value-even more meaningful in a crisis situation-of a strong synergy between physicians and pharmacists for patient-safety focused practices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/ejhpharm-2020-002449DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7689541PMC
November 2020

Antifungal Stewardship in Hematology: Reflection of a Multidisciplinary Group of Experts.

Clin Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk 2021 Jan 18;21(1):35-45. Epub 2020 Aug 18.

Department of Oncology and Hematology, Strasbourg University Hospitals and Strasbourg University, Strasbourg, France.

We have presented a practical guide developed by a working group of experts in infectious diseases and hematology to summarize the different recommendations issued by the different international groups on antifungal agents used for hematology patients. In addition, a working group of experts in the domains of nephrology, hepatology, and drug interactions have reported their different recommendations when administering antifungal agents, including dose adjustments, monitoring, and management of their side effects. This guide will enable prescribers to have a document available that will allow for better and optimal use of antifungal agents for hematology patients with consideration of the toxicity and interactions adjusted to each indication.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clml.2020.08.010DOI Listing
January 2021

Antifungal Therapy: New and Evolving Therapies.

Semin Respir Crit Care Med 2020 02 30;41(1):158-174. Epub 2020 Jan 30.

Department of Oncology and Hematology, Strasbourg University Hospital, Strasbourg, France.

Invasive fungal diseases primarily occur in immunocompromised patients. Immunosuppression has become more prevalent due to novel treatments, and this has led to a rise in the incidence of invasive fungal diseases. The antifungal armamentarium has long been insufficient and has taken quite some time to become diverse. Antifungal spectrum, tolerability, and toxicity are critical issues. Amphotericin B and its lipid formulations still have the widest spectrum, but, in spite of the better tolerance of the lipid formulations, toxicity remains a drawback, mostly with regard to renal function. Azoles constitute a heterogeneous antifungal class, in which newer molecules have an improved spectrum of activity. The main concern for the clinician when using azoles relates to the management of their many potential drug-drug interactions in an often fragile patient population. Echinocandins are better tolerated but possess a narrower antifungal spectrum and lack an oral route of administration. Still, their fungicidal activity makes them a weapon of first choice against species. For certain uncommon fungal infections, antifungals such as flucytosine and terbinafine can also be useful. This article will give an overview of the mechanisms of action of currently used antifungals, as well as their spectrum of activity, clinically relevant pharmacological features, drug-drug interactions, and frequent side effects, all of which should drive the clinician's choice of agent when managing invasive fungal infections.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0039-3400291DOI Listing
February 2020

Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis.

Semin Respir Crit Care Med 2020 02 30;41(1):80-98. Epub 2020 Jan 30.

Department of Oncology and Hematology, University Hospital of Strasbourg, Strasbourg, France.

Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) remains difficult to diagnose and to treat. Most common risk factors are prolonged neutropenia, hematopoietic stem cell or solid organ transplantation, inherited or acquired immunodeficiency, administration of steroids or other immunosuppressive agents including monoclonal antibodies and new small molecules used for cancer therapy. Critically ill patients are also at high risk of IPA. Clinical signs are unspecific. Early computed tomography (CT)-scan identifies the two main aspects, angioinvasive and airway invasive aspergillosis. Although CT-scan findings are not fully specific they usually allow early initiation of therapy before mycological confirmation of the diagnosis. Role of F-fludeoxyglucose positron emission tomography with computed tomography (F-FDG PET/CT) is discussed. Confirmation is based on microscopy and culture of respiratory samples, histopathology in case of biopsy, and importantly by detection of galactomannan using an immunoassay in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Deoxyribonucleic acid detection by polymerase chain reaction is now standardized and increases the diagnosis yield. Two point of care tests detecting an glycoprotein using a lateral flow assay are also available. Mycological results allow classification into proven (irrespective of underlying condition), probable or possible (for cancer and severely immunosuppressed patients) or putative (for critically ill patients) IPA. New antifungal agents have been developed over the last 2 decades: new azoles (voriconazole, posaconazole, isavuconazole), lipid formulations of amphotericin B (liposomal amphotericin B, amphotericin B lipid complex), echinocandins (caspofungin, micafungin, anidulafungin). Results of main trials assessing these agents in monotherapy or in combination are presented as well as the recommendations for their use according to international guidelines. New agents are under development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0039-3401990DOI Listing
February 2020

Adherence to recommendations for the use of antifungal agents in a tertiary care hospital.

J Antimicrob Chemother 2012 Oct 9;67(10):2506-13. Epub 2012 Jul 9.

Pharmacy, Hôpitaux Universitaires de Strasbourg, Strasbourg, France.

Objectives: The aim of our study was to assess the adherence to labelling and international guidelines for antifungal prescribing.

Methods: A retrospective study was performed in intensive care units in addition to the oncology and haematology department, which covered 70% of antifungal consumption at Hautepierre Hospital, Strasbourg, France. On reviewing medical charts, the antifungal prescription was examined in relation to the recommendations of indication, dosage, risk of drug-drug interactions and, where appropriate, antifungal susceptibility testing. Treatments were considered appropriate, inappropriate or debatable.

Results: Between January and April 2007, 199 treatments were given for 179 different episodes in 133 adult patients. Treatments were prescribed for pre-emptive or targeted therapy (n = 90, with 60 for candidiasis, 26 for aspergillosis and 4 for other mould diseases), empirical therapy (n = 17) and primary (n = 81) or secondary (n = 11) prophylaxis. Fluconazole accounted for 67% of prescriptions, followed by voriconazole (19%), caspofungin (10%), posaconazole (2%), conventional or liposomal amphotericin B (2%), itraconazole (<1%) and terbinafine (<1%). Indication and dosage were found to be appropriate in 65% and 62% of cases, inappropriate in 22% and 21%, and debatable in 13% and 17%, respectively. The overall (by combining all assessment criteria) rate of inappropriate use was 40%. The overall survival rate at 12 weeks was highest in patients receiving appropriate therapy (81% versus 72% and 68% in the debatable and inappropriate therapy groups, respectively), with between-group differences not being significant (P = 0.49).

Conclusions: Our evaluation revealed a high proportion of inappropriate or debatable use of antifungal agents, while highlighting significant issues, such as inadequate dosage or indications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jac/dks256DOI Listing
October 2012

Bevacizumab nasal spray: Noninvasive treatment of epistaxis in patients with Rendu-Osler disease.

Laryngoscope 2012 May 23;122(5):953-5. Epub 2012 Mar 23.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Hôpitaux universitaires de Strasbourg, Hôpital de Hautepierre, Strasbourg, Alsace, France.

Objectives/hypothesis: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of bevacizumab administered at a concentration of 50 mg as an intranasal spray in the treatment of epistaxis in patients suffering from Rendu-Osler disease.

Study Design: Prospective.

Methods: A preliminary, prospective, review board-approved study was conducted on six patients with Rendu-Osler disease who received 10 treatment courses of 50 mg bevacizumab. Monthly follow-up was based on the epistaxis severity score (ESS), with adverse effects being reported.

Results: Ten treatment courses were administered to six patients, with a mean follow-up period of 2.8 months. A statistically significant decrease in mean ESS was observed at 1 month (P < .001) and 2 months (P < .005), whereas a nonsignificant decrease was found at 3 months (P = .07). A nonsignificant decline in mean ESS was detected at 1 month in patients with ESS ≥7 at baseline. No adverse effects were reported.

Conclusions: The intranasal spray application of 50 mg bevacizumab was found to be an effective symptomatic treatment over a period of 2 months for patients with a pretreatment ESS of <7, with no adverse effects being noted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/lary.23230DOI Listing
May 2012

Breakthrough invasive mould infections in patients treated with caspofungin.

J Infect 2012 Apr 29;64(4):424-9. Epub 2011 Dec 29.

Pôle d'Oncologie et d'Hématologie, Hôpital de Hautepierre, Hôpitaux Universitaires de Strasbourg, 1 Avenue Molière, Strasbourg, France.

Objectives: To describe and estimate the rate of breakthrough invasive mould diseases (IMD) in patients receiving caspofungin.

Methods: Retrospective, non-interventional study conducted in three University Hospitals.

Results: Nineteen breakthrough infections have been identified including 13 aspergillosis, 2 mucormycosis, a fusariosis, a Hormographiella aspergillata infection and 2 possible IMD. Cases were equally distributed between the centres. Fourteen patients had a haematologic malignancy, four were transplant recipients (allogeneic haematopoietic stem cells in three, liver in one) and one had hepatic cirrhosis. Caspofungin has been prescribed as prophylaxis (n = 3), empirical therapy (n = 9) or directed therapy for candidemia (n = 5) or aspergillosis (n = 2). Aspergillus galactomannan was positive in serum or in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in 10 of the 13 aspergillosis. Median duration of caspofungin treatment before breakthrough IMD was 15 days. Nine patients died within twelve weeks. Rate of breakthrough IMD in onco-haematology patients has been estimated to 7.3% for all mould infections and to 4.2% when restricted to documented aspergillosis.

Conclusions: Our data call for Aspergillus galactomannan monitoring and close clinical and radiological examination in case of persistence or recurrence of infection signs in high-risk patients receiving caspofungin.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jinf.2011.12.015DOI Listing
April 2012

Ventricular bigeminy associated with voriconazole, methadone and esomeprazole.

Int J Clin Pharm 2011 Dec 23;33(6):905-8. Epub 2011 Nov 23.

Pharmacy, Hôpital Hautepierre, Hôpitaux Universitaires de Strasbourg, Avenue Molière, 67000, Strasbourg, France.

Case: We report a case of ventricular bigeminy with concomitant administration of methadone, voriconazole and esomeprazole in a Caucasian woman aged 26 with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. Plasma concentrations of voriconazole and methadone were high, 12.4 mg/l (therapeutic range: 1-4 mg/l) and 1.6 mg/l (therapeutic range: 0.2-0.4 mg/l), respectively. In the absence of esomeprazole, no more episode of cardiac arrhythmia occurred and 7 days after, methadone plasma concentration fell at 0.57 ml/l while voriconazole concentration was at 5.5 mg/l. We speculate that a pharmacokinetic interaction between methadone and voriconazole was amplified by the addition of esomeprazole. This led to the large increase of the plasma concentration of methadone and was potentially responsible for its cardiac toxicity.

Conclusion: Physicians should be aware of the potential interaction between voriconazole, esomeprazole and methadone leading to arrhythmia. The inhibitory potential of voriconazole is possibly increased by esomeprazole.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11096-011-9581-3DOI Listing
December 2011

Drug-drug interactions of triazole antifungal agents in multimorbid patients and implications for patient care.

Curr Drug Metab 2009 May;10(4):395-409

Pôle Pharmacie-Pharmacologie, Hôpitaux Universitaires de Strasbourg, Strasbourg, France.

Drug interactions occur frequently with triazole antifungal agents because of their properties as inhibitors of 1 or more phase 1 (cytochrome P450) biotransformation enzymes and, possibly, as inhibitors or substrates of a phase 2 biotransformation enzyme or transporter protein. Multimorbid patients, including those with hematologic malignancies or other cancers, hematopoietic stem cell or organ transplant recipients, patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus, and those in the intensive care unit, are at increased risk for drug interactions because they typically require several concomitant medications. They may also be extremely vulnerable to the clinical signs and symptoms of drug interactions. This review describes clinically significant drug interactions most frequently seen in multimorbid patients who receive systemic therapy with triazole antifungals for the prophylaxis or treatment of invasive fungal infections; including interactions with corticosteroids, immunosuppressants, anti-infective drugs, benzodiazepines, opioid analgesics, statins, anticoagulants, anticonvulsants, and drugs affecting gastric pH. The review also describes recommendations concerning contraindications and dose-modification strategies. The azoles differ markedly in their pharmacokinetic and antifungal properties, safety and tolerability, and drug-interaction profiles. Many drug interactions can be prevented if clinicians are thoroughly familiar with the pharmacokinetic profiles of different azoles, follow contraindications and dose-modification recommendations, and switch azoles when possible to achieve the best combination of clinical efficacy and safety. Therapeutic drug monitoring can help optimize treatment and prevent underdosing or overdosing of drugs. Education of patients and their families about signs and symptoms of possible drug interactions is also beneficial.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/138920009788499012DOI Listing
May 2009

The enzymatic basis of drug-drug interactions with systemic triazole antifungals.

Clin Pharmacokinet 2008 ;47(12):779-92

Pôle Pharmacie-Pharmacologie, Hôpitaux Universitaires de Strasbourg, Strasbourg, France.

Drug-drug interactions are a recurring problem in immunocompromised patients treated with triazole antifungals. While the introduction of new antifungals has expanded opportunities for lowering drug toxicity, virtually all antifungal regimens carry the risk of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interaction. This review presents the published data on molecular determinants (enzymes, transporters, orphan nuclear receptors) of systemic triazole pharmacokinetics in humans, including itraconazole, fluconazole, voriconazole and posaconazole. Systemic triazoles are inhibitors of cytochrome P450 (CYP) isozymes, such as CYP3A4, CYP2C9 and CYP2C19, to varying degrees. In addition, some are substrates and/or inhibitors of drug transporters such as multidrug resistance-1 gene product, P-glycoprotein, or breast cancer resistance protein. The interactions of triazole antifungals can be divided into the following categories: modifications of antifungal pharmacokinetics by other drugs, modifications of other drug pharmacokinetics by antifungals, and two-way interactions. These features are the basis of most interactions that occur during triazole therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2165/0003088-200847120-00003DOI Listing
March 2009

Factors associated with overall and attributable mortality in invasive aspergillosis.

Clin Infect Dis 2008 Nov;47(9):1176-84

Pharmacie, Hôpitaux Universitaires de Strasbourg, Strasbourg, France.

Background: Invasive aspergillosis is associated with high death rates. Factors associated with increased mortality have not yet been identified in a large population of patients with various underlying conditions.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 385 cases of suspected or documented aspergillosis that occurred during a 9-year period. We identified 289 episodes that fulfilled the criteria for possible, probable, or proven invasive aspergillosis according to the international definition criteria and that was treated with an anti-Aspergillus active antifungal drug. Clinical and microbiological variables were analyzed for their effects on overall and attributable mortality. Significant variables in univariate analysis were introduced into a multivariate Cox model.

Results: Twelve-week overall and disease-specific survival rates were 52.2% (95% confidence interval, 46.5%-57.9%) and 59.8% (95% confidence interval, 54.0%-65.4%), respectively. Receipt of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell or solid-organ transplant, progression of underlying malignancy, prior respiratory disease, receipt of corticosteroid therapy, renal impairment, low monocyte counts, disseminated aspergillosis, diffuse pulmonary lesions, pleural effusion, and proven or probable (as opposed to possible) aspergillosis are predictors of increased overall mortality. Similar factors are also predictors of increased attributable mortality, with the following exceptions: pleural effusion and low monocyte counts have no impact, whereas neutropenia is associated with a higher attributable mortality.

Conclusions: Identification of predictors of death helps in the identification of patients who could benefit from more-aggressive therapeutic strategies. Initiation of therapy at the stage of possible infection improves outcome, and this finding calls for the development of efficient preemptive strategies to fill the gap between empirical and directed therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/592255DOI Listing
November 2008

[Lipid formulations of amphotericin B in the management of invasive fungal infections].

Therapie 2006 May-Jun;61(3):235-42

Département d'Hématologie et d'Oncologie, Hôpital de Hautepierre, Strasbourg, France.

Three lipid formulations of amphotericin B have been developed: amphotericin B colloidal dispersion, amphotericin B lipid complex, and liposomal amphotericin B. These three compounds differ by their lipid composition and therefore by their physical characteristics, their pharmacokinetics, and their safety and efficacy profile. There is a consensus to accept reduced toxicity of these formulations, especially reduced, but not absence of, renal toxicity as compared to amphotericin B deoxycholate. Few well-designed studies have been conducted and none of them demonstrated convincingly superiority in term of efficacy of any of the lipid preparations over amphotericin B deoxycholate. Recently a double blind randomized study compared a standard dose of 3 mg/kg/d of liposomal amphotericin B and a loading dose (10 mg/kg/d for 14 days and then the standard dose) in primary therapy of invasive filamentous fungal infections, mainly aspergillosis. Response rate at end of randomized therapy as well as survival at 12 weeks was numerically superior in the standard dose arm but this difference was not statistically significant. Lack of benefit of high dose liposomal amphotericin B in aspergillosis cannot yet be extrapolated to other filamentous fungal infections. Nephrotoxicity was substantially higher in the loading dose arm and this contraindicates its use in clinical practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2515/therapie:2006047DOI Listing
November 2006

Mycograb for the treatment of invasive candidiasis.

Clin Infect Dis 2006 Oct;43(8):1083; author reply 1083-4

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/507547DOI Listing
October 2006

Antifungal combination treatment: a future perspective.

Int J Antimicrob Agents 2006 Jun 19;27 Suppl 1:25-30. Epub 2006 May 19.

Département d'Hématologie et d'Oncologie, Hôpital de Hautepierre, Strasbourg, France.

The use of antifungal combination therapy is a new clinical approach for combating fungal infections. Although few conclusive clinical studies have been performed to date, data exist that strongly suggest that combination therapy would benefit specific patient subgroups (e.g. stem-cell transplant recipients). This paper examines the evidence available from in vitro, experimental, and clinical studies, and seeks to discover viable clinical strategies for this promising new therapeutic approach.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2006.03.016DOI Listing
June 2006

Clinical pharmacokinetics of voriconazole.

Int J Antimicrob Agents 2006 Apr 24;27(4):274-84. Epub 2006 Mar 24.

Department of Pharmacy, Hôpital Hautepierre, Avenue Molière, 67000 Strasbourg, France.

This review presents the published clinical pharmacokinetic data for the antifungal agent voriconazole. Aspects regarding absorption, tissue distribution, elimination and kinetic interactions are also discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2006.01.003DOI Listing
April 2006

The lipid formulations of amphotericin B.

Expert Opin Pharmacother 2003 Aug;4(8):1277-87

Départment d'Hématologie et d'Oncologie, Hôpital de Hautepierre, 67098 Strasbourg, France.

Amphotericin B spectrum covers most of the fungal pathogens involved in human diseases. Its use is limited by infusion-related effects and nephrotoxicity. As a result of strong lipophilic properties, encapsulation in liposomes or binding to lipid complexes led to the development of lipid formulations in an attempt to increase both efficacy and safety. Three lipid formulations of amphotericin B are commercially available: a liposomal preparation, a lipid complex and a colloidal dispersion. They differ in their lipid composition, shape, pharmacokinetic behaviour and clinical effects. The nephrotoxicity of these formulations is significantly decreased compared to their parent compound. Infusion-related events are lowest with liposomal amphotericin B. Increased efficacy of the lipid formulations over conventional amphotericin B, however, still has to be demonstrated. These formulations are mainly indicated for the treatment of documented fungal infections in patients failing conventional amphotericin B or with renal impairment. Liposomal amphotericin B is also indicated for empirical therapy of suspected fungal infections in febrile neutropenic patients giving this compound an advantage over the two other formulations. Lipid formulations of amphotericin B are extremely expensive. Whether the increase in cost translates into a long-term benefit for the patient is still unknown.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1517/14656566.4.8.1277DOI Listing
August 2003