Publications by authors named "Yaser Jenab"

34 Publications

Does Baseline BUN Have an Additive Effect on the Prediction of Mortality in Patients with Acute Pulmonary Embolism?

J Tehran Heart Cent 2020 Apr;15(2):57-63

Tehran Heart Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

In patients with heart failure, elevated levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) is a prognostic factor. In this study, we investigated the prognostic value of elevated baseline BUN in short-term mortality among patients with acute pulmonary embolism (PE). : Between 2007 and 2014, cardiac biomarkers and BUN levels were measured in patients with acute PE. The primary endpoint was 30-day mortality, evaluated based on the baseline BUN (≥14 ng/L) level in 4 groups of patients according to the European Society of Cardiology's risk stratification (low-risk, intermediate low-risk, intermediate high-risk, and high-risk). Our study recruited 492 patients with a diagnosis of acute PE (mean age=60.58±16.81 y). The overall 1-month mortality rate was 6.9% (34 patients). Elevated BUN levels were reported in 316 (64.2%) patients. A high simplified pulmonary embolism severity index (sPESI) score (OR: 5.23, 95% CI: 1.43-19.11; P=0.012), thrombolytic or thrombectomy therapy (OR: 2.42, 95% CI: 1.01-5.13; P=0.021), and elevated baseline BUN levels (OR: 1.04, 95% CI: 1.01-1.03; P=0.029) were the independent predictors of 30-day mortality. According to our receiver-operating characteristics analysis for 30-day mortality, a baseline BUN level of greater than 14.8 mg/dL was considered elevated. In the intermediate-low-risk patients, mortality occurred only in those with elevated baseline BUN levels (7.2% vs. 0; P=0.008). An elevated baseline BUN level in our patients with PE was an independent predictor of short-term mortality, especially among those in the intermediate-risk group.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18502/jthc.v15i2.4184DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7825466PMC
April 2020

Incidence and predictors of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension following first episode of acute pulmonary embolism.

Adv Respir Med 2020 ;88(6):539-547

Department of Cardiology, Tehran Heart Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Introduction: Late obstructive pulmonary artery remodeling presented as CTEPH portends adverse sequelae and therapeutic challenges. Although progressive dyspnea on exertion beyond three-month period of treatment with anticoagulants is a diagnostic cornerstone, uncertainty still surrounds early identification and risk factors.

Material And Methods: We have conducted a prospective study among survivors of acute pulmonary embolism (PE) who were treated by anticoagulants for at least 3 months. Patients with preexisting pulmonary hypertension (PH), severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and low ejection fraction (EF) in baseline echocardiography (EF < 30%) were excluded. Complete follow-up for 290 subjects were performed. According to a predetermined stepwise diagnostic protocol, patients with exertional Dyspnea and PH probable features in echocardiography underwent lung perfusion scan.

Results: Cumulative two-year incidence of CTEPH was 8.6% (n = 25). There was no patient with normal baseline right ventricular (RV) function in CTEPH group. In the same way, none of these patients had only segmental involvement in baseline CT angiography (CTA) in CTEPH group. Greater proportion of CTEPH group received fibrinolytic therapy, however the difference was not significant (2.6% vs 8 %, P = 0.16). Multivariate logistic regression demonstrated significant association of RV diameter, and PAP in baseline echocardiography as well as RV strain in CTA with development of CTEPH. Corresponding odds ratios were 1.147 (1.063-1.584) P < 0.0001) , 1.062 (1.019-1.106, P = 0.004), and 2.537 (1.041-6.674), P = 0.027), respectively.

Conclusions: We found that incidence of CTEPH was relatively high in the present investigation. RV diameter, baseline PAP and RV dysfunction were independent predictors of CTEPH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5603/ARM.a2020.0200DOI Listing
January 2020

Novel combined topical gel of lidocaine-verapamil-nitroglycerin can dilate the radial artery and reduce radial pain during trans-radial angioplasty.

Int J Cardiol Heart Vasc 2021 Feb 25;32:100689. Epub 2020 Dec 25.

Department of Clinical Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Introduction: Radial approach for coronary angioplasty is accepted by many specialists in medical centers around the world. The use of radial access is associated with fewer vascular complications and the same success rate in comparison with traditional femoral access. Radial artery spasm is one of the main concerns in this method. The small size of the radial artery and high density of alpha-1 adrenergic receptors in this artery can accelerate the spasm. The objects of this study were to evaluate whether the combined topical gel of lidocaine-verapamil-nitroglycerin could dilate the radial artery and reduce patient pain and sympathetic response during radial puncture.

Methods: Patients undergoing elective trans-radial angioplasty were randomized to either placebo or therapeutic gel group in single-center, double-blind study. Placebo or therapeutic gel applied 1 cm proximal to the radial styloid process. Radial artery size was measured by ultrasound. Radial pain was reported by the visual analog scale (VAS) and the sympathetic response was assessed by changes in systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and heart rate (HR). The incidence of spasm was defined by the radial artery spasm score.

Results: 60 patients (30 patients in each group) participated in this study. A significant increase in the size of the radial artery was observed in the group receiving therapeutic gel compared to the placebo group (mean diameter, mm: 2.95 ± 0.48 vs. 2.54 ± 0.43, p = 0.001; area, cm: 0.07 vs. 0.05, p = 0.001). During radial puncture, the radial pain intensity was significantly decreased in patients receiving therapeutic gel (4 (1-5) vs. 2 (1-2), p = 0.003). Radial artery spasm didn't happen in any group.

Conclusion: Based on our results, Pre-procedural administration of combined topical gel of verapamil-nitroglycerin-lidocaine significantly increases the size of the radial artery and effectively reduces the radial pain during radial puncture in patients undergoing trans-radial angioplasty.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcha.2020.100689DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7773593PMC
February 2021

The impact of a dedicated coronavirus disease 2019 primary angioplasty protocol on time components related to ST‑segment elevation myocardial infarction management in a 24/7 primary percutaneous coronary intervention-capable hospital.

Kardiol Pol 2020 12 21;78(12):1227-1234. Epub 2020 Sep 21.

Background: Primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) as the treatment of choice for ST‑segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) should be rapidly performed. It is necessary to use preventive strategies during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‑19) outbreak, which is an ongoing global concern. However, critical times in STEMI management may be influenced by the implementation of infection control protocols.

Aims: We aimed to investigate the impact of our dedicated COVID‑19 PPCI protocol on time components related to STEMI care and catheterization laboratory personnel safety. A subendpoint analysis to compare patient outcomes at a median time of 70 days during the pandemic with those of patients treated in the preceding year was another objective of our study.

Methods: Patients with STEMI who underwent PPCI were included in this study. Chest computed tomography (CT) and real‑time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (rRT‑PCR) tests were performed in patients suspected of having COVID‑19. A total of 178 patients admitted between February 29 and April 30, 2020 were compared with 146 patients admitted between March 1 and April 30, 2019.

Results: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection was confirmed by rRT‑PCR in 7 cases. In 6 out of 7 patients, CT was indicative of COVID‑19. There were no differences between the study groups regarding critical time intervals for reperfusion in STEMI. The 70‑day mortality rate before and during the pandemic was 2.73% and 4.49%, respectively (P = 0.4).

Conclusions: The implementation of the dedicated COVID‑19 PPCI protocol in patients with STEMI allowed us to achieve similar target times for reperfusion, short‑term clinical outcomes, and staff safety as in the prepandemic era.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.33963/KP.15607DOI Listing
December 2020

Occurrence of acute coronary syndrome, pulmonary thromboembolism, and cerebrovascular event in COVID-19.

Clin Case Rep 2020 Jul 22. Epub 2020 Jul 22.

Cardiology Department Tehran Heart Center Tehran University of Medical Sciences Tehran Iran.

COVID-19 causes significant hypoxia along with an exacerbated inflammatory milieu, which may be a trigger for atherosclerotic plaque rupture and/or thromboembolic events. Herein, we presented a case of COVID-19 presented with acute coronary syndrome followed by pulmonary thromboembolism and cerebrovascular accident.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ccr3.3112DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7404759PMC
July 2020

A pseudoaneurysm of the left atrium as a rare source of coronary artery embolization.

Echocardiography 2020 08 26;37(8):1318-1320. Epub 2020 Jul 26.

Cardiology, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran Heart Center, Tehran, Iran.

A 67 years old woman with history of surgical Mitral valve replacement underwent transoesophageal echocardiography for evaluation of mild dyspnoea. It revealed a large narrow-necked outpouching from medial portion of the inferior wall of the left atrium (LA) that was extended to the interatrial septum. A diagnosis of the LA pseudoaneurysm was made. It contained a fresh clot. Five days later, the patient presented with an acute inferior ST-elevation myocardial infarction. Coronary angiography revealed an occluded right coronary artery at its distal part by a large thrombus. Thromboaspiration was done and resulted in restoration of a Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction Score (TIMI) flow 3 without underlying stenosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/echo.14798DOI Listing
August 2020

Safety and efficacy of high intensity interval training in a patient with acute pulmonary embolism.

Prog Cardiovasc Dis 2020 May - Jun;63(3):393-394. Epub 2020 Feb 12.

Department of Interventional Cardiology, Tehran Heart Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pcad.2020.02.008DOI Listing
August 2020

Catheter-Directed Thrombolysis in Acute Iliofemoral Deep Vein Thrombosis with or without Stenting: A Case Series.

J Tehran Heart Cent 2018 Oct;13(4):186-190

Sina Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Iliofemoral deep vein thrombosis (IFDVT) is a potentially devastating condition comprising a quarter of all cases of lower extremity DVT. It can lead to serious consequences such as pulmonary embolism, limb malperfusion, and post-thrombotic syndrome (PTS), which is a chronic sequela of IFDVT. We herewith present 18 IFDVT cases managed with catheter-directed thrombolysis at our hospital. Nine of these patients underwent stenting of the involved iliac veins. The remaining 9, who did not receive stenting, had a residual stenosis of more than 50% in the common femoral or iliac veins following the procedure. Based on a final residual stenosis of less than 50% in the iliac veins, we had 9 successful (patients with stenting) and 9 unsuccessful procedures (patients without stenting). In subsequent follow-ups at a median follow-up of 39.5 months, using the Villalta score, while only 2 out of the 9 patients who underwent stenting suffered PTS, 4 patients among the other 9 patients comprising the non-stenting group developed PTS. Our results support the notion that stenting might have a role in decreasing the PTS risk in patients undergoing catheter-directed thrombolysis.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6450815PMC
October 2018

CHA2DS2-VASc Score as an Independent Predictor of Suboptimal Reperfusion and Short-Term Mortality after Primary PCI in Patients with Acute ST Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction.

Medicina (Kaunas) 2019 Feb 1;55(2). Epub 2019 Feb 1.

Tehran Heart Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran 1411713138, Iran.

We aimed to demonstrate the clinical utility of CHA2DS2-VASc score in risk assessment of patients with STEMI regarding adverse clinical outcomes particularly no-reflow phenomenon. We designed a retrospective cohort study using the data of Tehran Heart Center registry for acute coronary syndrome. The study included 1331 consecutive patients with STEMI who underwent primary angioplasty. Patients were divided into two groups according to low and high CHA2DS2-VASc score. Angiographic results of reperfusion were inspected to evaluate the association of high CHA2DS2-VASc score and the likelihood of suboptimal TIMI flow. The secondary endpoint of the study was short-term in-hospital mortality of all cause. The present study confirmed that CHA2DS2-VASc model enables us to determine the risk of no-reflow and all-cause in-hospital mortality independently. Odds ratios were 1.59 (1.30⁻2.25) and 1.60 (1.17⁻2.19), respectively. Moreover, BMI, high thrombus grade, and cardiogenic shock were predictors of failed reperfusion (odds were 1.07 (1.01⁻1.35), 1.59 (1.28⁻1.76), and 8.65 (3.76⁻24.46), respectively). We showed that using a cut off value of ≥ two in CHA2DS2-VASc model provides a sensitivity of 69.7% and specificity of 64.4% for discrimination of increased mortality hazards. Area under the curve: 0.72 with 95% CI (0.62⁻0.81). Calculation of CHA2DS2-VASc score applied as a simple risk stratification tool before primary PCI affords great predictive power. Furthermore, incremental values are obtained by using both CHA2DS2-VASc and no-reflow regarding mortality risk assessment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/medicina55020035DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6409514PMC
February 2019

Association between elevated red blood cell distribution width and long-term mortality in acute pulmonary embolism

Turk J Med Sci 2018 Apr 30;48(2):318-323. Epub 2018 Apr 30.

Background/aim: The prognostic value of the red cell distribution width (RDW) as a cost-effective and noninvasive test in acute pulmonary embolism (PE) is still unknown. We aimed to investigate the prognostic value of the admission RDW level in the long-term survival of PE patients. Materials and methods: In this registry-based, prospective cohort study, a total of 378 patients (mean age: 60.4 ± 17.11 years, 47.4% female) who presented with acute PE were enrolled. All the clinical data for each patient were obtained from our institutional PE registry. The follow-up was performed at a median time of 17 months. The primary endpoint was death at follow-up. Results: The mean RDW in study patients was 14.67 ± 2.13. The all-cause mortality rate during the follow-up was 15.6% (n = 59). After adjustment for potential confounders, the relationship between RDW and long-term mortality showed a trend of a significant level (hazard ratio: 1.109; 95% CI, 0.998−1.232; P = 0.053). We divided patients into 3 groups based on the European Society of Cardiology’s classification. As we moved from the low risk to the higher risk categories, the mean RDW increased significantly (P = 0.037). Conclusion: It seems there may be an independent association between RDW at presentation and PE mortality within 17 months.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3906/sag-1709-46DOI Listing
April 2018

Two-year Follow-up of Patients With Unstable Angina/Non-ST Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction Undergoing Early Invasive Strategy: Predictors of Normal or Near-Normal Coronary Angiography and Mortality.

Crit Pathw Cardiol 2018 03;17(1):47-52

Background: Predictors of normal or near-normal coronary angiography (NONCAG) in patients with unstable angina/non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (UA/NSTEMI) and their importance regarding the prognosis are not understood. Accordingly, we determined these predictors as well as mortality risk factors at 2-year follow-up of UA/NSTEMI patients managed by the early invasive strategy.

Methods: We prospectively studied consecutive patients with UA/NSTEMI managed with the early invasive strategy at Tehran Heart Center, in 1-year period. Echocardiography was performed before coronary angiography (CAG) for all the patients. Baseline characteristics, laboratory parameters, echocardiographic findings, invasive treatment modalities, and survival status after 2 years of follow-up were collected. We identified the predictors of NONCAG in the first phase of the study and then the risk factors of mortality in the second phase.

Results: In the study period, 298 patients including 211 (71%) males, with the age of 59.31 ± 10.72 years were enrolled. The following factors were predictors of NONCAG: the female sex (P < 0.001); negative family history of CAD (P = 0.028); Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) risk score (P < 0.001); and early transmitral flow velocity/mean mitral annular velocity (E/E'mean) (P = 0.003). The following items were significant protective factors against mortality: percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) (P = 0.012), age (P = 0.001), and E/E'mean (P = 0.020).

Conclusion: Patients' baseline characteristics as well as echocardiographic data could help in predicting those with NONCAG and PCI can be considered as the treatment of strategy with the most protection against mortality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HPC.0000000000000108DOI Listing
March 2018

Predictors of High-Sensitivity Cardiac Troponin T Elevation in Patients with Acute Paroxysmal Supraventricular Tachycardia and Ischemic Heart Disease.

Tex Heart Inst J 2017 Oct 1;44(5):306-311. Epub 2017 Oct 1.

We studied the predictors and patterns of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) elevation in patients with paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia (PSVT) in the presence and absence of ischemic heart disease. During calendar year 2013, we enrolled 70 of 72 consecutive adult patients with PSVT who presented at our center within 4 hours after the onset of tachycardia. On the basis of increased hs-cTnT at either of 2 initial measurements, we divided patients into groups (hs-cTnT-positive and hs-cTnT-negative), to study the predictors of enzyme elevation. We then divided the hs-cTnT-positive patients into 2 groups-those with and those without ischemic heart disease-and compared hs-cTnT changes. We observed hs-cTnT elevation in 52 of the 70 patients (74.3%). The hs-cTnT-positive patients were significantly older (=0.008) and had a significantly higher duration of tachycardia (=0.01). Older age, the presence of chest pain, lower diastolic blood pressure, and longer duration of tachycardia increased the odds of enzyme elevation. Among patients with elevated hs-cTnT levels, the baseline and maximal hs-cTnT levels were significantly higher in ischemic patients (=0.01 and =0.003, respectively). The increase in hs-cTnT seemed to be higher and longer in ischemic patients, although this was not statistically significant (=0.908). Finally, hs-cTnT did not decrease to baseline levels within 48 hours in either group. We found that hs-cTnT levels increased in all our patients with PSVT, more so in those with ischemic heart disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14503/THIJ-15-5338DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5731582PMC
October 2017

Psychological Features of Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy: Report of Four Cases.

J Tehran Heart Cent 2017 Apr;12(2):95-98

Tehran Heart Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Takotsubo or stress-induced cardiomyopathy is a cardiomyopathy in which the patient has a sudden onset, reversible left ventricular systolic dysfunction without any significant coronary artery disease. Four women, who were at a mean age of 64 years and suffered from chest pain exacerbated by emotional stress, were admitted as cases of acute coronary syndrome and were completely evaluated through precise history taking, physical examination, and ECG. Coronary angiography or coronary multidetector computed tomography was used to exclude significant coronary artery disease. In these patients with confirmed Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, in addition to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of the American Psychiatric Association (DSM-IV) criteria, a 71-item form of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)-Mini-Mult-was employed for psychological assessment. The main common elevated scale was hypochondriasis. Individuals with high scores on this scale are obsessed with themselves, especially in regard to their body, and often use their disease symptoms in order to manipulate others. They are mainly passive aggressive, critical, and demanding, which stems from their lack of effective verbal abilities as a means of communication, specifically when it comes to anger or hostility expression. To the best of our knowledge, there is no available study evaluating patients with Takotsubo cardiomyopathy using the Mini-Mult questionnaire for psychological assessment.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5558063PMC
April 2017

Comparing the effect of cardiac biomarkers on the outcome of normotensive patients with acute pulmonary embolism.

Monaldi Arch Chest Dis 2017 05 18;87(1):767. Epub 2017 May 18.

Tehran University of Medical Sciences.

Acute pulmonary embolism (PE) is a cardiovascular challenge with potentially fatal consequences. This study was designed to observe the association of novel cardiac biomarkers with outcome in this setting. In this prospective study, from 86 patients with a confirmed diagnosis of PE, 59 patients met the inclusion criteria (22 men, 37 women; mean age, 63.36±15.04 y).The plasma concentrations of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15), heart-type fatty acid-binding protein (H-FABP), tenascin-C, and D-dimer were measured at the time of confirmed diagnosis. The endpoints of the study were defined as the short-term adverse outcome and long-term all-cause mortality. Totally, 11.8% (7/59) of the patients had the short-term adverse outcome. The mean value of logNT-proBNP was 6.40±1.66 pg/ml. Among all the examined biomarkers, only the mean value of logNT-proBNP was significantly higher in the patients with the short-term adverse outcome (7.88±0.67 vs. 6.22± 1.66 pg/ml; OR, 2.359; 95% CI, 1.037 to 5.367; P=0.041). After adjustment, a threefold increase in the short-term adverse outcome was identified (OR, 3.239; 95% CI, 0.877 to 11.967; P=0.078).Overall, 18.64% (11/59) of the patients had expired by the long-term follow-up. Moreover, adjustment revealed an evidence regarding association between increased logNT-proBNP levels and long-term mortality (HR, 2.163; 95%CI, 0.910 to 5.142; P=0.081). Our study could find evidences on association between increased level of NT-proBNP and short-term adverse outcome and/or long-term mortality in PE. This biomarker may be capable of improving prediction of outcome and clinical care in non-high-risk PE.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4081/monaldi.2017.767DOI Listing
May 2017

Association between herpes simplex virus Types 1 and 2 with cardiac myxoma.

Cardiovasc Pathol 2017 Mar - Apr;27:31-34. Epub 2017 Jan 3.

Department of cardiac surgery, Tehran Heart Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Most cases of atrial myxoma are sporadic, and the exact etiology is unknown. We examined if herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1 and HSV-2 antigens and/or DNA could be detected in a cohort of Iranian patients with cardiac myxomas. From July 2004 to June 2014, among a total of 36,703 patients undergoing open heart surgeries, consecutive patients with cardiac myxoma who were treated by surgical excision at our center included in this study. Of 73 patients studied, 56% were female with a mean age of 54 years (ranging from 23 to 77 years). Seventy-four myxomas were surgically removed from 73 patients, since one patient had two myxomas which were located on both the right atrium and right ventricle. The materials for this analysis were retrospectively gathered from extracted tumors that stored in a pathology bank of tissue paraffin blocks. The formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue samples were investigated for HSV genomic DNA by both immunohistochemistry (IHC) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis. In all 74 cases there was no presence of HSV 1 and HSV 2 infection. This suggests that HSV may not play a role in sporadic cardiac myxomas; however, evidence for such association is currently lacking, and further studies are required to determine such a role.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carpath.2016.12.004DOI Listing
March 2017

Role of clinical and pulmonary computed tomography angiographic parameters in the prediction of short- and long-term mortality in patients with pulmonary embolism.

Intern Emerg Med 2016 Apr 28;11(3):405-13. Epub 2015 Dec 28.

Tehran Heart Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, North Kargar Street, 1411713138, Tehran, Iran.

The utility of pulmonary computed tomography angiography (CTA) in the prediction of short- and long-term outcomes after pulmonary embolism (PE) is controversial. Between November 2011 and September 2014, 190 normotensive patients (age, 61 ± 16.90 years, 53.7 % female) were diagnosed with acute PE using a 128-slice dual-source pulmonary CTA scanner. All the related clinical and cardiovascular measurements were recorded. Primary endpoints were 30-day PE-related death, 30-day composite complications (death, hemodynamic instability, thrombolysis and thrombectomy, inotrope, and mechanical ventilation use), and long-term all-cause mortality during a median follow-up of 14.78 months. Overall 1-month mortality is 5.8 %, and death is PE-related in 4.7 % of total patients. Although non-significant, O2 saturation <90 % and the right ventricular short-axis to left ventricular short-axis diameters (RV/LV) ratio increase the risk of PE-related death by 3.5 and 2 times, respectively. The independent predictors of 30-day complications (15.8 %) are O2 saturation <90 % (OR: 3.924, 95 % CI 1.505-10.229), RV/LV ratio (OR: 3.018, 95 % CI 1.455-6.263), and heart rate ≥ 110 beats/min (OR: 2.607, 95 % CI 1.063-6.391). For long-term mortality (13.7 %), O2 saturation <90 % is an independent predictor (HR: 4.454, 95 % CI 2.016-8.862). The independent impact of the RV/LV ratio on the long-term mortality has a trend towards statistical significance (HR: 1.762, 95 % CI 0.968-4.218; p value = 0.064). The PE-related death is 4.7 % within 30 days after admisson and 13.7 % after a median follow-up of 14 months. Among the pulmonary CTA parameters, only the RV/LV ratio and among the clinical and paraclinical measures, O2 saturation <90 % remain independent predictors of short- and long-term mortality and complications after the diagnosis of PE.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11739-015-1376-4DOI Listing
April 2016

Efficacy of colchicine versus placebo for the treatment of pericardial effusion after open-heart surgery: A randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

Am Heart J 2015 Dec 3;170(6):1195-201. Epub 2015 Oct 3.

Tehran Heart Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Pericardial effusion (PE), a common complication after open-heart surgery, accounts for 50% to 85% of patients. Although reversible in most of the cases, it could be life threatening in the occurrence of tamponade in large effusions. We aimed to determine the therapeutic efficacy of colchicine on PE after open-heart surgery.

Methods: The study is a prospective, randomized, triple-blind, placebo-controlled single-center trial at Tehran Heart Center. A total of 149 patients with mild or moderate PE in transthoracic echocardiography were randomly assigned to receive 1 mg/d colchicine (n = 74) or 1 tablet of placebo (n = 75) for 2 weeks and then underwent follow-up echocardiography.

Results: Baseline and clinical characteristics were not significantly different between the 2 study groups except for age (P = .02) and graft numbers (P = .005). There was no significant difference in pretreatment and posttreatment PE sizes between the 2 study groups (P = .440 and .844, respectively). Median (25th-75th percentiles) of effusion changes was 5 mm (1-7.6 mm) in the colchicine group and 5 mm (1-6.6 mm) in the placebo group (P = .932). Intervention had no significant impact on pretreatment and posttreatment effusion values and changes in isolated coronary artery bypass graft surgery patients (P = .607, .539, and .628, respectively). After adjustment for possible confounders, there was still no significant difference in postoperative PE between the 2 study groups (t = -0.285, P = .776).

Conclusion: We concluded that prescription of colchicine does not seem to be effective in treatment of asymptomatic postoperative PE. This could be justified in case that the etiology of most of the PEs might be contribution of noninflammatory factors which are better to be dealt with observational approaches.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ahj.2015.09.020DOI Listing
December 2015

Unscheduled Return Visits and Leaving the Chest Pain Unit Against Medical Advice.

Iran Red Crescent Med J 2015 May 31;17(5):e18320. Epub 2015 May 31.

Clinical Research Department, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran.

Background: Rate of Unscheduled Return Visits (URVs) to the Emergency Department has been considered as a key indicator for evaluating the quality of the Emergency Department care for decades. A higher rate of URVs can have a negative impact on the quality of health care. Investigations of the reasons for these returns have indicated that many of these visits can be preventable.

Objectives: Given that there are no clear findings about the frequency and reasons for 72 hours URVs to the Chest Pain Unit (CPU), in the present study, we investigated the causes of 72 hours URVs to our CPU in order to find out the inadequacies, and propose preventive strategies.

Patients And Methods: This research was a single-center retrospective case control study in the setting of CPU of Tehran Heart Center (a 460-bed, tertiary-care teaching hospital), Tehran, Iran. The medical records of the patients who were presented to our CPU with the chief complaint of chest pain between December 28(th), 2010 and February 28(th), 2011 were reviewed. Of the 6247 eligible patients, forty-nine URVs that fulfilled our criteria were identified. The control group consisted of 196 patients who did not return to the Emergency Department during our study period.

Results: Patient-related factors accounted for most 72 hours URVs (49%). Multivariable analysis revealed that in our CPU, leaving Against medical advice was the most important predictor for 72 hours URVs (P value < 0.001). Additionally, male sex, history of hypertension, first-visit disposition to observation unit and age were the other factors associated with URVs.

Conclusions: Considering that the most frequent reason for our URVs was patient-related factors, where all cases had left the CPU Against Medical Advice (AMA) during their first attendance, we recommend that further appropriate strategies be devised to prevent leaving against medical advice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5812/ircmj.17(5)2015.18320DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4464376PMC
May 2015

Study of the possible medical and medication explanatory factors of angiographic outcomes in patients with acute ST elevation myocardial infarction undergoing primary percutaneous intervention.

Adv Biomed Res 2014 4;3:186. Epub 2014 Sep 4.

Department of Radiology, Tabriz University of Medical Science, Tabriz, Iran.

Background: Myocardial blush grade (MBG), thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) and corrected TIMI frame count (cTFC) are indices of successful angiographic reperfusion. This study sought to determine the predictors of angiographically successful reperfusion including demographic, clinical and angiographic factors in patients with ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI).

Materials And Methods: A cross-sectional study of patients with a confirmed diagnosis of STEMI undergoing pPCI was designed. Eligible patients referring to a university heart center were enrolled in the study from March 2012 to December 2012. Successful epicardial reperfusion was defned as TIMI flow grade 3 or cTFC<= 28 frames and successful myocardial reperfusion as MBG 2 or 3.

Results: The study population consisted of 100 patients, including 74 males and 26 females, with mean ± standard deviation age of 58.27 ± 11.60 years. Achieving open microvasculature (MBG 2/3) was positively associated with a history of nitrate intake (P = 0.03) and history of calcium channel blocker (CCB) intake (P = 0.005). Hyperglycemia was inversely associated with achieving a final cTFC ≤ 28 frames (r = -0.32, P = 0.001).

Conclusions: Our findings suggest that patients with a history of nitrate and CCB intake had a higher likelihood of successful PCI. In addition, patients with a higher blood glucose level on admission may have a reduced rate of reperfusion success. Future studies with a larger sample size are recommended to investigate the significant relationships observed in this study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/2277-9175.140096DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4166209PMC
September 2014

Syncope paradox in the outcome of patients with pulmonary thromboembolism: short-term and midterm outcome.

Clin Respir J 2016 Jan 28;10(1):90-7. Epub 2014 Jul 28.

Tehran Heart Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background And Aim: We compare the early and midterm outcomes of pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) in patients with and without syncope in our single-center registry.

Method: Between December 2006 and May 2013, 351 consecutive patients (mean age = 60.21 ± 16.91 years, 55.3% male) with confirmed acute symptomatic PTE were divided in with and without syncope groups. Groups were compared in terms of the effect of syncope on 30-day mortality and adverse events, and mortality in a median follow-up time of 16.9 months.

Results: From 351 patients, 39 (11.1%) had syncope and 312 (88.9%) did not. Syncope group had less frequently chest pain (30.8% vs 51.4%; P value = 0.015). Also, the rates of 30-day adverse events and mortality were 12.8% and 5.1% for the group with syncope, and 14.4% and 10.3% for the group without syncope, respectively, with no significant difference. At follow up, 65 patients died and mortality was 18.5% for 351 patients (5.1% in the group with syncope and 20.2% for the other group). After adjustment for confounding factors, the effect of syncope on 30-day adverse events and mortality remained non-significant and on the midterm mortality was significant, showing that the presence of syncope was associated with lower midterm mortality (P value = 0.038).

Conclusion: Among PTE patients in our registry, 11.1% presented with syncope. Relationship between syncope and 30-day adverse events and mortality remained non-significant after adjustments for other factors. However, in midterm follow up, patients with syncope were significantly at decreased risk of mortality compared to those without syncope.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/crj.12183DOI Listing
January 2016

Correlates of syncope in patients with acute pulmonary thromboembolism.

Clin Appl Thromb Hemost 2015 Nov 2;21(8):772-6. Epub 2014 Jul 2.

Tehran Heart Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Identification of pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE), as a cause of syncope, is important and may be life saving. We prospectively analyzed data on 335 patients with acute PTE. Relationships between syncope secondary to acute PTE and clinical findings, risk factors, and imaging modalities were analyzed. Of the 335 patients, 36 (10.7%) had syncope at presentation. Compared to patients without syncope, those with syncope had a higher frequency of right ventricular (RV) dysfunction (94.3% vs 72.1%, respectively; P value = .004) and saddle embolism (24.2% vs 10.9%, respectively; P value = .044). Frequency of RV dysfunction was similar between patients with and without saddle embolism. Although not significant, more patients with syncope had a history of previous PTE (P value = .086). By multivariable analysis, RV dysfunction and saddle embolism were independent correlates of syncope in patients with PTE. In-hospital mortality was not significantly different between the groups. In conclusion, among patients with PTE, RV dysfunction and saddle embolism were the independent correlates of syncope.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1076029614540037DOI Listing
November 2015

Plasma Vitamin D Status and Its Correlation with Risk Factors of Thrombosis, P-selectin and hs-CRP Level in Patients with Venous Thromboembolism; the First Study of Iranian Population.

Iran J Pharm Res 2014 ;13(1):319-27

Department of Clinical pharmacy, faculty of Pharmacy and Research Center for Rational Use of Drugs, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Low plasma level of vitamin D is linked to the increased risk of cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia and peripheral vascular diseases. Vitamin D deficiency is a worldwide problem that involves Iranian population. To the best of our knowledge, this was the first investigation on venous thromboembolism (VTE) subjects that assessed the correlation of vitamin D level with plasma P-selectin, hs-CRP, and risk factors of thrombosis. In this prospective pilot study, patients with diagnosis of acute deep vein thrombosis and/ or pulmonary embolism were enrolled. All patients' clinical data, demographics and risk factors of thrombosis were evaluated. Plasma level of P-selectin and hs-CRP were measured by ELISA method. Radio immune assay method was used to determine plasma level of 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH) D). In this study, 60 subjects were included. The mean ± SD plasma 25-hydroxy vitamin D level (25(OH) D) of participants was 21.4 ± 14.6 ng/mL. The vitamin D deficiency was detected in 60% of patients. No significant relation was found between the plasma 25(OH)D level and P-selectin and hs-CRP. In multiple regression analysis, there was a significant relationship between the level of 25(OH)D and the patients' age (beta = 0.452; p = 0.001), diabetes (beta = 0.280; p = 0.036) and positive family history of cardiovascular diseases (beta = 0.373; p = 0.003). Vitamin D deficiency is a frequent problem in Iranian VTE patients. Moreover, Plasma level of vitamin D is not associated with P-selectin and hs-CRP in VTE patients.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3985233PMC
April 2014

Strain imaging for evaluating response to thrombolytic therapy in pulmonary thromboembolism.

Acta Cardiol 2014 Feb;69(1):23-8

Objective: Patients with acute pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) and right ventricular (RV) dysfunction may benefit from thrombolytic therapy. We sought to determine the usefulness of RV strain imaging in the demonstration of improvement in RV function in response to thrombolytic therapy.

Methods: This study prospectively enrolled 32 consecutive patients who received thrombolytic therapy due to diagnosis of PTE.The diagnosis was verified by 256-slice multi-detector computed tomography. Right ventricular function parameters were assessed via conventional and tissue Doppler imaging echocardiography before and 2-3 days after thrombolytic therapy.

Results: Echocardiographic study showed that mean tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion and RV fractional shortening area change increased significantly from 13.32 +/- 3.46 mm to 18.18 +/- 4.77 mm and from 22.95 +/- 9.73% to 36.20 +/- 10.17%, respectively, before compared to after treatment. A significant decrease was observed in systolic pulmonary artery pressure from 61.57 +/- 10.49 mm Hg to 38.78 +/- 14.27 mm Hg. Mid-ventricular peak systolic strain and strain rate of the RV also significantly improved (-6.08 +/- 11.19% to -19.13 +/- 9.51% and -0.72 +/- 0.96 S(-1) to -1.54 +/- 0.66 S(-1), respectively).

Conclusions: Tissue Doppler-derived peak systolic strain of RV mid-ventricular wall may be potentially useful in the serial quantification of improvement in RV function in response to thrombolytic therapy in acute PTE.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/ac.69.1.3011341DOI Listing
February 2014

Effect of delay in hospital presentation on clinical and imaging findings in acute pulmonary thromboembolism.

J Emerg Med 2014 Apr 22;46(4):465-71. Epub 2014 Jan 22.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: There is limited information on the extent and clinical importance of the delay in hospital presentation of acute pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE).

Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the delay in hospital presentation of PTE and its association with clinical and imaging findings in PTE.

Methods: This prospective study was conducted on patients admitted to our hospital with a diagnosis of acute PTE between September 2007 and September 2011. Relationships between delay in hospital presentation and clinical findings, risk factors, imaging findings, and in-hospital mortality were analyzed.

Results: Of the 195 patients enrolled, 84 (43.1%) patients presented 3 days after the onset of symptoms. Patients with chest pain, history of immobility for more than 3 days, recent surgery, and estrogen use had significantly less delayed presentation. Right ventricular dysfunction was significantly more frequent in patients with delayed presentation (odds ratio [OR] = 2.38; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.27-4.44; p = 0.006); however, no relationship was found between delay in presentation and pulmonary computed tomographic angiography or color Doppler sonography findings. Patients with delayed presentation were at higher risk of in-hospital mortality (OR = 4.32; 95% CI 1.12-16.49; p = 0.021).

Conclusions: Our study showed that a significant portion of patients with acute PTE had delayed presentation. Also, patients with delayed presentation had worse echocardiographic findings and higher in-hospital mortality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jemermed.2013.09.014DOI Listing
April 2014

Recurrence of takotsubo cardiomyopathy: role of multi-detector computed tomography coronary angiography.

J Tehran Heart Cent 2013 Jul 30;8(3):164-6. Epub 2013 Jul 30.

Tehran Heart Center, Tehran University of Medical sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TCM), also known as stress-induced cardiomyopathy, is a clinical syndrome of transient left ventricular (LV) apical wall motion abnormality with relative preservation of the basal heart segments in the absence of any significant atherosclerosis. Recurrence of this condition is rare. We report a postmenopausal woman, who experienced two episodes of TCM within 4 months following emotional and physical stress. In the first episode, she was admitted due to severe dyspnea, accompanied by sudden-onset, prolonged, burning chest pain and palpitation. Transthoracic echocardiography revealed akinesia of the LV, with the exception of the basal regions. Coronary angiography demonstrated no significant coronary artery disease, and follow-up echocardiography showed normalization of the LV wall motion abnormalities. In the second episode, she experienced similar symptoms and echocardiography revealed similar changes. Multi-detector computed tomography revealed normal coronary arteries. After 9 days, she was discharged in good condition; and at 3 months' follow-up, she was symptom-free with normal echocardiography.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3874378PMC
July 2013

Sex-related changes in tissue Doppler imaging parameters among patients with acute pulmonary thromboembolism.

J Ultrasound Med 2013 Nov;32(11):1997-2005

Tehran Heart Center, Department of Echocardiography, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, North Kargar Street, Tehran 14117 13138, Iran.,

Objectives: There are few studies evaluating serial changes in tissue Doppler imaging parameters in acute pulmonary thromboembolism. We aimed to compare these changes in male and female patients separately.

Methods: Between September 2010 and September 2011, 41 of 64 hemodynamically stable acute patients with pulmonary thromboembolism were included in the study. Twenty-two healthy individuals served as a control group.

Results: Compared to the control group, the acute pulmonary thromboembolism group had a lower tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion, basal peak systolic velocity of the tricuspid valvular annulus, right ventricular (RV) peak systolic strain, and RV peak systolic strain rate and a higher RV diameter, peak systolic pulmonary artery pressure, and RV myocardial performance index (P < .05). Values for these parameters were not different between men and women in the patient group. In men, compared to admission, predischarge echocardiography showed significant improvement in the tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (mean ± SD, 16.08 ± 4.33 versus 19.29 ± 3.74 mm; P = .002), basal tricuspid annular peak systolic velocity (10.11 ± 3.66 versus 11.66 ± 3.38 cm/s; P = .007), and peak systolic strain (-13.00% ± 14.99% versus -23.20% ± 10.23%; P = .001), whereas in women, predischarge and 3-month follow-up echocardiography showed marked improvement in the tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (17.50 ± 4.88 versus 19.79 ± 5.58 mm; P = .021) and peak systolic strain (-15.70% ± 13.52% versus -21.01% ± 10.57%, respectively; P= .045). Female patients did not show improvement in these parameters during hospitalization.

Conclusions: Patterns of changes in the RV function over time during a 3-month follow-up might differ between male and female patients with acute pulmonary thromboembolism, and the recovery process could be slower in women. Moreover, the midventricular peak systolic strain might be useful for serial evaluation of the recovery process.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7863/ultra.32.11.1997DOI Listing
November 2013

Effects of N-acetylcysteine on the cardiac remodeling biomarkers and major adverse events following acute myocardial infarction: a randomized clinical trial.

Am J Cardiovasc Drugs 2014 Feb;14(1):51-61

Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, P.O.Box 14155/6451, 1417614411, Tehran, Iran.

Aims: The aims of this study were to evaluate the effects of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on cardiac remodeling and major adverse events following acute myocardial infarction (AMI).

Methods: In a prospective, double-blind, randomized clinical trial, the effect of NAC on the serum levels of cardiac biomarkers was compared with that of placebo in 98 patients with AMI. Also, the patients were followed up for a 1-year period for major adverse cardiac events (MACE), including the occurrence of recurrent myocardial infarction, death, and need for target vessel revascularization.

Results: In patients who received NAC, the serum levels of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 and MMP-2 after 72 h were significantly lower than those in the placebo group (p = 0.014 and p = 0.045, respectively). The length of hospitalization in patients who received NAC was significantly shorter than that in the placebo group (p = 0.024). With respect to MACE, there was a significant difference between those who received NAC (14 %) and those patients on placebo (25 %) (p = 0.024). Re-infarction took place in 4 % of patients in the NAC group as compared with 16.7 % in patients who received placebo (p = 0.007).

Conclusion: NAC can be beneficial in preventing early remodeling by reducing the level of MMP-2 and MMP-9. Moreover, NAC decreased the length of hospital stays in patients after AMI. By decreasing MACE, NAC could possibly be introduced as a 'magic bullet' in the pharmacotherapy of patients with AMI. Further studies are needed to elucidate NAC's role in this population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40256-013-0048-xDOI Listing
February 2014

N-Acetylcysteine effects on transforming growth factor-β and tumor necrosis factor-α serum levels as pro-fibrotic and inflammatory biomarkers in patients following ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction.

Drugs R D 2013 Sep;13(3):199-205

Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran Heart Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran,

Background And Aims: Ischemia following acute myocardial infarction (AMI) increases the level of pro-fibrotic and inflammatory cytokines, including transforming growth factor (TGF)-β and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) has therapeutic benefits in the management of patients with AMI. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that has evaluated the effect of NAC on TNF-α and TGF-β levels in patients with AMI.

Methods: Following confirmation of AMI, 88 patients were randomly administered NAC 600 mg (Fluimucil(®), Zambon, Ticino, Switzerland) or placebo orally twice daily for 3 days. For quantification of TGF-β and TNF-α serum levels after 24 and 72 h of NAC or placebo administration, peripheral venous blood (10 mL) samples were collected at these time points.

Results: Comparisons between levels of TGF-β and TNF-α after 24 and 72 h within the NAC or placebo groups revealed that there was not any significant difference except for TGF-β levels in the placebo group, which increased significantly over time (p = 0.042). Significant relationships existed between patients' ejection fraction (p = 0.005) and TGF-β levels.

Conclusions: Receiving NAC could prevent TGF-β levels from increasing after 72 h as compared with not receiving NAC. As TGF-β had strong correlations with the ejection fraction, its antagonism seems to be important in the prevention of remodeling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40268-013-0025-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3784054PMC
September 2013

Prevalence and determinants of elevated high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

J Cardiol 2014 Feb 4;63(2):140-4. Epub 2013 Sep 4.

Tehran Heart Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: This study was designed to evaluate the prevalence and determinants of increased high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) as a marker of cardiac injury in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM).

Methods: A total of 98 consecutive patients with HCM (71.4% males; mean age 51.18 ± 15.47 years) between 2012 and 2013 were evaluated by measuring the level of serum hs-cTnT along with other clinical assessments.

Results: There were 42 (42.9%) patients with a minimum serum hs-cTnT level of 14 ng/L. The mean hs-cTnT level was 12.37 ng/L (6.94-24.26 ng/L). There were significant differences in chest pain New York Heart Association functional class, left ventricular hypertrophy in the surface electrocardiogram, non-sustained ventricular tachycardia in 24-h electrocardiogram-Holter monitoring, left atrial (LA) area index, ratio of peak early (E) transmitral filling velocity to peak early diastolic annular velocity (Ea septal) at the level of the septal mitral annulus (E/Ea septal), maximum left ventricular (LV) wall thickness ≥ 30 mm, and peak LV outflow gradient ≥ 30 mmHg in echocardiography between the patients with hs-cTnT<14 ng/L and those with hs-cTnT ≥ 14 ng/L. However, after multivariate analysis, age, maximum LV wall thickness, LA area index, and E/Ea septal remained as the independent determinants of elevated hs-cTnT in HCM.

Conclusions: The results demonstrated that hs-cTnT was elevated in a significant number of our HCM patients; therefore, hs-cTnT can be introduced as a valuable marker of myocardial injury in HCM patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jjcc.2013.07.008DOI Listing
February 2014

Broken heart syndrome: a case report.

J Tehran Heart Cent 2012 Aug 31;7(3):136-9. Epub 2012 Aug 31.

Tehran Heart Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Stress-induced cardiomyopathy or Takotsubo cardiomyopathy is a recently increasing diagnosed disease manifested by transient apical or mid left ventricular dilation and dysfunction. This sign is similar to acute myocardial infarction but without significant coronary artery stenosis. There are important and essential differences between Takotsubo cardiomyopathy and acute myocardial infarction in terms of management, necessitating a good understanding of the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of the former.We report a case of Takotsubo cardiomyopathy which presented with dizziness and near syncope after an intense emotional stress. Electrocardiogram showed ST-T changes in V1-V3 and echocardiography revealed severe left ventricular systolic dysfunction with marked regional wall motion abnormalities. Coronary angiography demonstrated minimal coronary artery disease.The patient was treated with beta -blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, Aspirin, Clopidogrel, and diuretics. At the follow-up visit, all the symptoms had disappeared and control echocardiography showed significant improvement in the left ventricular systolic function with a normal ejection fraction and normal wall motion.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3524327PMC
August 2012