Publications by authors named "Yascha Khodamoradi"

5 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

The role of the human gut microbiota in colonization and infection with multidrug-resistant bacteria.

Gut Microbes 2021 Jan-Dec;13(1):1-13

Department of Internal Medicine, Infectious Diseases, University Hospital Frankfurt, Goethe University Frankfurt, Frankfurt Am Main, Germany.

About 100 years ago, the first antibiotic drug was introduced into health care. Since then, antibiotics have made an outstanding impact on human medicine. However, our society increasingly suffers from collateral damage exerted by these highly effective drugs. The rise of resistant pathogen strains, combined with a reduction of microbiota diversity upon antibiotic treatment, has become a significant obstacle in the fight against invasive infections worldwide.Alternative and complementary strategies to classical "Fleming antibiotics" comprise microbiota-based treatments such as fecal microbiota transfer and administration of probiotics, live-biotherapeutics, prebiotics, and postbiotics. Other promising interventions, whose efficacy may also be influenced by the human microbiota, are phages and vaccines. They will facilitate antimicrobial stewardship, to date the only globally applied antibiotic resistance mitigation strategy.In this review, we present the available evidence on these nontraditional interventions, highlight their interaction with the human microbiota, and discuss their clinical applicability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/19490976.2021.1911279DOI Listing
April 2021

2021 update of the AGIHO guideline on evidence-based management of COVID-19 in patients with cancer regarding diagnostics, viral shedding, vaccination and therapy.

Eur J Cancer 2021 04 10;147:154-160. Epub 2021 Feb 10.

Department of Haematology and Medical Oncology, Clinic for Internal Medicine II, University Hospital Jena, Jena, Germany; Leibniz Institute for Natural Product Research and Infection Biology, Hans Knöll Institute, Jena, Germany.

The worldwide spread of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and the associated infectious coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has posed a unique challenge to medical staff, patients and their families. Patients with cancer, particularly those with haematologic malignancies, have been identified to be at high risk to develop severe COVID-19. Since publication of our previous guideline on evidence-based management of COVID-19 in patients with cancer, research efforts have continued and new relevant data has come to light, maybe most importantly in the field of vaccination studies. Therefore, an update of our guideline on several clinically important topics is warranted. Here, we provide a concise update of evidence-based recommendations for rapid diagnostics, viral shedding, vaccination and therapy of COVID-19 in patients with cancer. This guideline update was prepared by the Infectious Diseases Working Party (AGIHO) of the German Society for Haematology and Medical Oncology by critically reviewing the currently available data on these topics applying evidence-based medicine criteria.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejca.2021.01.033DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7874914PMC
April 2021

Low-Avidity CD4 T Cell Responses to SARS-CoV-2 in Unexposed Individuals and Humans with Severe COVID-19.

Immunity 2020 12 26;53(6):1258-1271.e5. Epub 2020 Nov 26.

Institute of Immunology, Christian-Albrechts-University of Kiel & UKSH Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel, Germany.

CD4 T cells reactive against SARS-CoV-2 can be found in unexposed individuals, and these are suggested to arise in response to common cold coronavirus (CCCoV) infection. Here, we utilized SARS-CoV-2-reactive CD4 T cell enrichment to examine the antigen avidity and clonality of these cells, as well as the relative contribution of CCCoV cross-reactivity. SARS-CoV-2-reactive CD4 memory T cells were present in virtually all unexposed individuals examined, displaying low functional avidity and multiple, highly variable cross-reactivities that were not restricted to CCCoVs. SARS-CoV-2-reactive CD4 T cells from COVID-19 patients lacked cross-reactivity to CCCoVs, irrespective of strong memory T cell responses against CCCoV in all donors analyzed. In severe but not mild COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells displayed low functional avidity and clonality, despite increased frequencies. Our findings identify low-avidity CD4 T cell responses as a hallmark of severe COVID-19 and argue against a protective role for CCCoV-reactive T cells in SARS-CoV-2 infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.immuni.2020.11.016DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7689350PMC
December 2020

Evidence-based management of COVID-19 in cancer patients: Guideline by the Infectious Diseases Working Party (AGIHO) of the German Society for Haematology and Medical Oncology (DGHO).

Eur J Cancer 2020 11 21;140:86-104. Epub 2020 Sep 21.

Department of Haematology and Medical Oncology, Clinic for Internal Medicine II, University Hospital Jena, Jena, Germany; Leibniz Institute for Natural Product Research and Infection Biology, Hans Knöll Institute, Jena, Germany.

Since its first detection in China in late 2019 the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and the associated infectious disease COVID-19 continue to have a major impact on global healthcare and clinical practice. Cancer patients, in particular those with haematological malignancies, seem to be at an increased risk for a severe course of infection. Deliberations to avoid or defer potentially immunosuppressive therapies in these patients need to be balanced against the overarching goal of providing optimal antineoplastic treatment. This poses a unique challenge to treating physicians. This guideline provides evidence-based recommendations regarding prevention, diagnostics and treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 as well as strategies towards safe antineoplastic care during the COVID-19 pandemic. It was prepared by the Infectious Diseases Working Party (AGIHO) of the German Society for Haematology and Medical Oncology (DGHO) by critically reviewing the currently available data on SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 in cancer patients applying evidence-based medicine criteria.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejca.2020.09.009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7505554PMC
November 2020

The Role of Microbiota in Preventing Multidrug-Resistant Bacterial Infections.

Dtsch Arztebl Int 2019 10;116(40):670-676

Department of Internal Medicine, Infectious Diseases, University Hospital Frankfurt, Johann Wolfgang Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main; Department of Internal Medicine, Hematology/Oncology, University Hospital Frankfurt, Johann Wolfgang Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main; Department I of Internal Medicine, University Hospital of Cologne, Center for Integrated Oncology Aachen, Bonn, Köln, Düsseldorf; German Center for Infection Research (DZIF), Bonn-Cologne.

Background: The introduction of industrially produced antibiotics was a milestone in the history of medicine. Now, almost a century later, the adverse consequences of these highly effective drugs have become evident in the form of antibiotic-resistant infections, which are on the rise around the world. The search for solutions to this problem has involved both the introduction of newer types of antibiotics and, increasingly, the development of alternative strategies to prevent infections due to multidrug-resistant bacteria. In this article, we review the pathophysiological connection between the use of antibiotics and the occurrence of such infections. We also discuss some alternative strategies that are currently under development.

Methods: This review is based on pertinent articles that appeared from January 2000 to April 2019 and were retrieved by a selective search in the PubMed database employing the search term "(microbiota OR microbiome) AND infection." Further suggestions by our author team regarding relevant literature were considered as well.

Results: The spectrum of preventive strategies encompasses measures for the protection of the intestinal microbiota (antimicrobial stewardship, neutralization of antibiotic residues in the bowel, use of phages and species-specific antibiotics) as well as measures for its reconstitution (prebiotics, probiotics, and fecal microbiota transfer).

Conclusion: In view of the major problem that multidrug-resistant bacteria pose for the world's population and the resources now being spent on the search for a solution, derived both from public funding and from the pharmaceutical industry, we hope to see new, clinically useful approaches being developed and implemented in the near future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3238/arztebl.2019.0670DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6859878PMC
October 2019