Publications by authors named "Yao Yao"

792 Publications

An analysis of the heart rates and the therapeutic effect of aminophylline injections in patients with acute cervical spinal cord injuries and bradycardia.

Am J Transl Res 2021 15;13(9):10341-10347. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Bone Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of North Hebei Academy Zhangjiakou 075000, Hebei, China.

Objective: To investigate the changes in the heart rates and the clinical effectiveness of aminophylline injections in acute cervical spinal cord injury (ACSCI) patients with bradycardia.

Methods: This retrospective study was conducted by studying the clinical data of 100 ACSCI patients also suffering from bradycardia admitted to our hospital from June 2019 to June 2020. The patients were randomly placed into a control group (n=50) that was administered atropine therapy and a test group (n=50) that was administered aminophylline injections. The changes in the patients' heart rates and the clinical effectiveness were analyzed.

Results: After the treatment, the test group had a significantly higher average heart rate, shorter heart rate recovery times, and a lower bradycardia recurrence rate than the control group (all P<0.05). The systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) levels in the test group were significantly higher than they were in the control group (all P<0.05). Remarkably higher clinical effectiveness and satisfaction rates and a significantly lower incidence of adverse reactions were observed in the test group compared to the control group (all P<0.05). In addition, the Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) cervical spine scores were similar in the two groups (P>0.05).

Conclusion: For ACSCI patients also suffering from bradycardia, aminophylline injections ameliorate the clinical heart rate and have a good clinical effectiveness with few adverse reactions, so the treatment merits clinical promotion and application.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8507032PMC
September 2021

Prevalence and pattern of refractive error and visual impairment among schoolchildren: the Lhasa childhood eye study.

BMC Ophthalmol 2021 Oct 12;21(1):363. Epub 2021 Oct 12.

Beijing Tongren Eye Center, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology & Visual Sciences, No.1, Dong Jiao Min Xiang Street, Dongcheng District, Beijing, 100730, China.

Background: Early and effective ocular screening may help to eliminate treatable eye disorders. The Lhasa Childhood Eye Study (LCES) revealed the particular prevalence of refractive error and visual impairment in grade one schoolchildren (starting age of 6 years old) in Lhasa.

Methods: This is a cross-sectional part of school-based cohort study. One thousand nine hundred forty-three children were enrolled (median age, 6.78 years, range, 5.89 to 10.32). Each child underwent general and ocular examinations, including logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) visual acuity, cycloplegic autorefraction, and slit-lamp biomicroscopy evaluation. Multivariate and correlation analyses were performed to evaluate the association between refractive error with gender and ethnics.

Results: The prevalence of visual impairment (logMAR visual acuity ≥0.3 in the better-seeing eye) of uncorrected, presenting and best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was 12.2, 11.7 and 2.7%, respectively. Refractive error presented in 177 (78.0%) out of 227 children with bilateral visual impairment. Myopia (spherical equivalent refractor [SER] ≤ - 0.50 diopter [D] in either eye) was present in 4.7% children when measured after cycloplegic autorefraction. Hyperopia (SER ≥ + 2.00 D) affected 12.1% children. Hyperopia was significantly associated with female gender (P<0.001). Astigmatism (cylinder value ≤ - 0.75 D) was present in 44.8% children. In multivariate regression and correlation analysis, SER had no significant difference between ethnic groups.

Conclusion: The Lhasa Childhood Eye Study is the first school-based cohort study to reveal the prevalence and pattern of refractive error and visual impairment in Lhasa. Effective strategies such as corrective spectacles should be considered to alleviate treatable visual impairment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12886-021-02134-8DOI Listing
October 2021

An Adipose-Derived Injectable Sustained-Release Collagen Scaffold of Adipokines Prepared Through a Fast Mechanical Processing Technique for Preventing Skin Photoaging in Mice.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 24;9:722427. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Department of Plastic Surgery, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China.

Ultraviolet A (UVA) radiation is the major contributor to skin photoaging, associated with increased collagen degradation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) expression. Adipokines have been proven as promising therapeutic agents for skin photoaging. However, adipokine therapy is generally limited by the short release duration and biological instability. Therefore, developing a treatment that provides a sustained release of adipokines and enhanced therapeutic effects is desirable. In this study, we developed a novel mechanical processing technique to extract adipose tissue-derived ECM components, named the "adipose collagen fragment" (ACF). The physical characterization, injectability, collagen components, residual DNA/RNA and adipokine release pattern of ACF were identified . L929 cells were treated with ACF or phosphate-buffered saline for 24 h after UVA irradiation . The expression of senescence-associated xβ-galactosidase (SA-β-gal), ROS and antioxidase were investigated. Then, we evaluated its therapeutic efficacy by injecting ACF and phosphate-buffered saline, as a control, into the dermis of photoaging nude mice and harvesting skin samples at weeks 1, 2, and 4 after treatment for assessment. The content of adipokines released from ACF was identified . The collagen synthesis and collagen degradation in ACF implants were evaluated by immune staining. Dermal thickness, fibroblast expression, collagen synthesis, ROS level, antioxidase expression, capillary density, and apoptotic cell number were evaluated by histological assessment, immune staining, and polymerase chain reaction in the skin samples. We demonstrated that ACF is the concentrated adipose extracellular matrix collagen fragment without viable cells and can be injected through fine needles. The lower expression of SA-β-gal, ROS and higher expression of antioxidase were observed in the ACF-treated group. ACF undergoes collagen degradation and promotes neocollagen synthesis in ACF implants. Meanwhile, ACF serves as a sustained-release system of adipokines and exhibits a significantly higher therapeutic effect on mouse skin photoaging by enhancing angiogenesis, antioxidant abilities, antiapoptotic activities, and collagen synthesis through sustainedly releasing adipokines. To sum up, ACF is an adipokines-enriched, sustained-release extracellular matrix collagen scaffold that can prevent UVA-induced skin photoaging in mice. ACF may serve as a novel autologous skin filler for skin rejuvenation applications in the clinic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2021.722427DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8497903PMC
September 2021

The incidence, clinical characteristics, and outcome of polytrauma patients with the combination of pulmonary contusion, flail chest and upper thoracic spinal injury.

Injury 2021 Oct 1. Epub 2021 Oct 1.

Division of Trauma Surgery, Tongji Trauma Center, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology. Electronic address:

Background: Chest trauma was the third most common cause of death in polytrauma patients, accounting for 25% of all deaths from traumatic injury. Chest trauma involves in injury to the bony thorax, intrathoracic organs and thoracic medulla. This study aimed to investigate the incidence, clinical characteristics, and outcome of polytrauma patients with pulmonary contusion, flail chest and upper thoracic spinal injury.

Methods: Patients who met inclusion criteria were divided into groups: Pulmonary contusion group (PC); Pulmonary contusion and flail chest group (PC + FC); Pulmonary contusion and upper thoracic spinal cord injury group (PC + UTSCI); Thoracic trauma triad group (TTT): included patients with flail chest, pulmonary contusion and the upper thoracic spinal cord injury coexisted. Outcomes were determined, including 30-day mortality and 6-month mortality.

Results: A total 84 patients (2.0%) with TTT out of 4176 polytrauma patients presented to Tongji trauma center. There was no difference in mean ISS among PC + FC group, PC + UTSCI group and TTT group. Patients with TTT had a longer ICU stay (21.4 days vs. 7.5 and 6.2; p<0.01), relatively higher 30-day mortality (40.5% vs. 6.0% and 4.3%; p<0.01), and especially higher 6-month mortality (71.4% vs. 6.5%, 13.0%; p<0.01), compared to patients with PC + FC or with PC + UTSCI. The leading causes of death for patients with TTT were ARDS (44.1%) and pulmonary infection (26.5%) during first 30 days after admission. For those patients who died later than 30 days during the 6 months, the predominant underlying cause of death was MOF (53.8%).

Conclusions: Lethal triad of thoracic trauma (LTTT) were described in this study, which consisting of pulmonary contusion,flail chest and the upper thoracic spine cord injury. Like the classic "lethal triad", there was a synergy between the factors when they coexist, resulting in especially high mortality rates. Polytrauma patients with LTTT were presented relatively high 30-day mortality and 6 months mortality. We should pay much more attention to the patients with LTTT for further minimizing complications and mortality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.injury.2021.09.053DOI Listing
October 2021

Silencing GS Homeobox 2 Alleviates Gemcitabine Resistance in Pancreatic Cancer Cells by Activating SHH/GLI1 Signaling Pathway.

Dig Dis Sci 2021 Oct 8. Epub 2021 Oct 8.

Department of Gastroenterology, Changhai Hospital, Navy Military Medical University, 168 Changhai Road, Shanghai, 200433, China.

Sonic hedgehog (SHH) signaling pathway and glioma-associated oncogene homolog 1 (GLI1) play important roles in the initiation and progression of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). GS homeobox 2 (GSX2, formerly GSH2) is a downstream target of SHH signaling, but its role in pancreatic cancer remains unclear. This study evaluates the role of GSH2 in the development and drug resistance of pancreatic cancer. Both cell culture and xenograft mouse model were used. Immunohistochemistry, Western blotting and quantitative RT-PCR were used to examine the expression of GSH2 and other related molecules. CCK8 assay was used to test the cell proliferation, and flow cytometry used to examine cell apoptosis upon gemcitabine treatment. It was found that GSH2 is overexpressed in human pancreatic cancer tissues and cells. The expression of SHH and GLI1 was reversely correlated with GSH2 in pancreatic cancer cells. SHH and GLI1 have protein-protein interactions with GSH2. GSH2 silencing in pancreatic cancer cells inhibited cell proliferation, migration and invasion, increased cell apoptosis and sensitized pancreatic cancer cells to gemcitabine treatment. Furthermore, in vivo study demonstrated that silencing GSH2 increased the efficacy of gemcitabine-based treatment. Our results indicate that GSH2 is overexpressed in pancreatic cancer. GSH2 silencing in pancreatic cancer alleviates gemcitabine resistance by activating SHH/GLI1 pathway. Thus, targeting GSH2 in PDAC could be a novel cancer therapeutic strategy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10620-021-07262-1DOI Listing
October 2021

Effectiveness of 23-Valent Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Vaccine Against Pneumococcal Diseases Among the Elderly Aged 60 Years or Older: A Matched Test Negative Case-Control Study in Shanghai, China.

Front Public Health 2021 20;9:620531. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

infection among adults, especially in adults over 60 years old in China results in a large number of hospitalizations and a substantial financial burden. This study assessed the vaccine effectiveness (VE) of 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23) against pneumococcal diseases among the elderly aged 60 years or older in Shanghai, China. We conducted a test-negative case-control study among the elderly aged 60 years or older who sought care at hospitals in 13 districts of Shanghai from September 14, 2013 to August 31, 2019. A case was defined as pneumococcal disease and testing positive for . Controls had symptoms congruent with pneumococcal disease but were negative for . We conducted 1:2 matching by gender, age, hospital and admission date. Vaccination status was verified from the immunization system database. VE was calculated with conditional logistic regression according to the formula (1-OR) ×100%. Overall, 603 adults aged 60 years or older with pneumococcal disease and positive for were included as cases, and 19.6% (118 persons) had a recorded PPV23 vaccination. The controls included 1,206 adults, whose vaccination rate was 23.8% (287 persons). The VE against pneumococcal diseases among the whole population was 24% (95% : 2%, 40%) and among women 44% (95% : 6%, 67%). After adjusting for multiple variables, the effectiveness of PPV23 against pneumococcal diseases was still statistically significant with VE for all of 25% (95% : 3%, 42%) and VE for women of 49% (95% 11%, 71%). PPV23 was effective against pneumococcal diseases in adults aged 60 years or older in Shanghai, China. Its relatively high effectiveness among women warrants this group to be particularly targeted for vaccination, with further research on why vaccination effectiveness is less among men.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2021.620531DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8488431PMC
September 2021

Leisure Activities, ε4, and Cognitive Decline: A Longitudinal Cohort Study.

Front Aging Neurosci 2021 20;13:736201. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Center for Healthy Aging and Development Studies at National School of Development, Peking University, Beijing, China.

Both leisure activities and the ε4 allele of the apolipoprotein E ( ε4) have been shown to affect cognitive health. We aimed to determine whether engagement in leisure activities protects against ε4-related cognitive decline. We used the cohort data from the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey. A total of 3,017 participants (mean age of 77.0 years, SD = 9.0; 49.3% female) from 23 provinces of China were recruited in 2008 and were reinterviewed in 2014. We assessed cognitive function using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). We calculated cognitive decline using subtraction of the MMSE score of each participant in 2008 and 2014. We genotyped a number of ε4 alleles for each participant at baseline and determined the Index of Leisure Activities (ILAs) by summing up the frequency of nine types of typical activities in productive, social, and physical domains. We used ordinal logistic regression models to estimate the effects of leisure activities, ε4, and their interaction on cognitive decline, statistically adjusted for a range of potential confounders. There were significant associations between ε4 and faster cognitive decline, independent of potential confounders, and between leisure activities and mitigated cognitive decline. The odds ratios were 1.25 (95% CI: 1.03, 1.53) and 0.93 (95% CI: 0.89, 0.97), respectively. We found significant interactions of ε4 with leisure activities with a -value of 0.018. We also observed interactive effects of subtypes of leisure activities: participants who regularly engaged in productive activities were more likely to reduce the risk of ε4-related cognitive decline. Our findings provide support for the indication that participating in leisure activities reduces the risk of ε4-related cognitive decline.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnagi.2021.736201DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8488387PMC
September 2021

Green Tea Catechins Attenuate Human Primary Pterygium Cell Survival and Migration Via Modulation of ERK p42/p44 and p38 Pathways.

J Agric Food Chem 2021 Oct 5;69(41):12209-12218. Epub 2021 Oct 5.

Joint Shantou International Eye Center of Shantou University and The Chinese University of Hong Kong, North Dongxia Road, Shantou 515041, Guangdong, China.

Pterygium belongs to an ocular surface disease with triangular-shaped hyperplastic growth, characterized by conjunctivalization, inflammation, and connective tissue remodeling. We previously demonstrated neoplastic-like properties of pterygium cells. Green tea catechin, (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), has been shown to possess antitumorigenic properties; herein, we aimed to determine the effects of green tea catechins on human primary pterygium cell survival and migration and compared to that on patients' conjunctival cells. Both human primary pterygium and conjunctival cells expressed EGCG receptor, the 67 kDa laminin receptor. Seven-day treatment of green tea extract (Theaphenon E; 16.25 μg/mL) and EGCG (25 μM) attenuated pterygium cell proliferation by 16.78% ( < 0.001) and 24.09% ( < 0.001) respectively, without significantly influencing conjunctival cells. Moreover, green tea extract (16.25 μg/mL) and EGCG (25 μM) treatments also hindered pterygium cell migration by 35.22% ( < 0.001) and 25.20% ( = 0.019), respectively, but not conjunctival cells. Yet, green tea extract and EGCG treatments did not significantly induce pterygium cell apoptosis. Furthermore, green tea extract and EGCG treatments significantly increased the phosphorylation of p38 protein but reduced the phosphorylation of p42/p44 protein in pterygium cells. In summary, this study revealed that green tea extract and EGCG attenuated human primary pterygium cell survival and migration without damaging conjunctival cells, suggesting a novel potential therapeutic approach for primary pterygium treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.1c04422DOI Listing
October 2021

Ni/Fe layered double hydroxide nanosheet/G-quadruplex as a new complex DNAzyme with highly enhanced peroxidase-mimic activity.

Analyst 2021 Oct 5. Epub 2021 Oct 5.

School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Jiangsu University of Science and Technology, Zhenjiang 212003, Jiangsu Province, PR China.

A novel and low-cost DNAzyme, Ni/Fe layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanosheet/G-quadruplex (without hemin) with enhanced peroxidase-mimic activity was designed. The catalytic mechanism was investigated. The detection of Cu(II) in actual serum samples could be realized sensitively this efficient DNAzyme-based method.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1an01405fDOI Listing
October 2021

Fast random number generator based on optical physical unclonable functions.

Opt Lett 2021 Oct;46(19):4875-4878

We propose an approach for fast random number generation based on homemade optical physical unclonable functions (PUFs). The optical PUF is illuminated with input laser wavefront of continuous modulation to obtain different speckle patterns. Random numbers are fully extracted from speckle patterns through a simple post-processing algorithm. Our proof-of-principle experiment achieves total random number generation rate of 0.96 Gbit/s with verified randomness, which is far faster than previous optical-PUF-based schemes. Our results demonstrate that the presented random number generator (RNG) proposal has great potential to achieve ultrafast random number generation rate up to several hundreds of Gbit/s.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OL.435221DOI Listing
October 2021

homozygous missense variant causes nonobstructive azoospermia.

Asian J Androl 2021 Sep 24. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Department of Urology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei 230022, China.

Nonobstructive azoospermia (NOA) is a common cause of infertility and is defined as the complete absence of sperm in ejaculation due to defective spermatogenesis. The aim of this study was to identify the genetic etiology of NOA in an infertile male from a Chinese consanguineous family. A homozygous missense variant of the membrane-bound O-acyltransferase domain-containing 1 (MBOAT1) gene (c.770C>T, p.Thr257Met) was found by whole-exome sequencing (WES). Bioinformatic analysis also showed that this variant was a pathogenic variant and that the amino acid residue in MBOAT1 was highly conserved in mammals. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR) analysis showed that the mRNA level of MBOAT1 in the patient was 22.0% lower than that in his father. Furthermore, we screened variants of MBOAT1 in a broader population and found an additional homozygous variant of the MBOAT1 gene in 123 infertile men. Our data identified homozygous variants of the MBOAT1 gene associated with male infertility. This study will provide new insights for researchers to understand the molecular mechanisms of male infertility and will help clinicians make accurate diagnoses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/aja202160DOI Listing
September 2021

Growth-Controllable Triboelectric Nanogenerator Based on Surface-Attached Metal-Organic Framework Layer on Living Leaf.

Small 2021 Oct 1:e2103430. Epub 2021 Oct 1.

Laboratory of Agricultural Information Intelligent Sensing, College of Biosystems Engineering and Food Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310058, P.R. China.

Plant nanoelectronics aims to achieve specific functions by selecting suitable nanomaterials to connect or implant into plants. In this work, a new cyclic-spraying method is developed to attain controllable growth of surface-attached metal-organic framework (SURMOF) coatings on various complex substrates, including cotton, silk, and plant leaves. The covalent bonds formed between the SURMOF layer and substrate enable them to connect firmly without additional adhesive and do not fall off from the microstructured substrate surface with the change of biological activity or environment. Noteworthily, the triboelectric polarity of SURMOF can be regulated by changing the ligand molecule. As a proof of concept, a growth-controllable triboelectric nanogenerator (GC-TENG) based on living leaves and coated SURMOF layer is developed, and the feasibility of using it in the self-driven agricultural monitoring system is explored. In addition, long-term monitoring results show that the growth of SURMOF coating will not cause damage to plant leaf tissue, nor will it affect plant photosynthesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.202103430DOI Listing
October 2021

Metabolomics analysis of the 3D L-02 cell cultures revealing the key role of metabolism of amino acids in ameliorating hepatotoxicity of perfluorooctanoic acid.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Sep 20;806(Pt 1):150438. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Southern Marine Science and Engineering Guangdong Laboratory, School of Marine Sciences, Sun Yat-Sen University, Zhuhai 519082, China. Electronic address:

To simulate the real cell status and morphology in the living systems is substantial for using cell models to address the detrimental effects of toxic contaminants. In this study, the comparative profiles of metabolites in three-dimensional (3D) human normal liver (L-02) cell spheroids with perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) treatment were analyzed using a metabolomic approach. The uniform 3D cell spheroids were well formed in 3 days (e.g., sphericity index >0.9) and stably maintained over the subsequent 11 days. The cytotoxicity of PFOA to the 3D L-02 cell spheroids was highly dependent on both exposure concentration and duration. Comparative analysis of metabolomes showed that the number of differential metabolites in the 3D cell spheroids treated with 300 μM PFOA for 10 days (n = 59) was greater than those with a 4-day exposure to 300 μM PFOA (n = 17). Six metabolic pathways related to amino acids metabolism were only found in the 3D cell spheroids with a 10-day treatment of 300 μM PFOA, which could not be found in the 2D monolayer cells and those 3D cell spheroids with a 4-day exposure. The suppression of PFOA on glutamine metabolism substantially decreased glutathione (GSH) production and accordingly increased the level of reactive oxygen species in the 3D cell spheroids. On the contrary, the supplementation of glutamine increased GSH production and the viability of cell spheroids, indicating that glutamine metabolism played a critical role in the chronic toxic effects of PFOA. Our study strongly suggested that comprehensive toxicological methodologies based on the 3D cell models could currently be robust and suitable for addressing the chronic adverse effects of toxic contaminants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.150438DOI Listing
September 2021

Multifunctional Pd/[email protected] Confined Core-Shell Catalysts with Wrinkled Surface for Selective Catalysis.

Chem Asian J 2021 Sep 21. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Department of Chemistry, University of Texas at San Antonio, One UTSA Circle, San Antonio, TX 78249-0698, USA.

Process intensification, targeting the maximization of spatial-temporal productivity utilizing minimum energy and resources has always been the constant trends especially in chemical industry. In this regard, tandem reactions that are able to perform a multi-step reaction in a single pot by eliminating costly separation steps have been viewed as a typical paradigm. However, a spatial isolation of varied active sites with a controlled manner in a single catalyst to avoid deactivation and work synergistically is a challenging problem yet sometimes being overlooked. In this work, a spatial base-metal core-shell structured catalyst with wrinkled surface was successfully fabricated by a direct homoepitaxial growth method in an acid/water system, which exhibited increased hydrophobicity, exposure of active sites and significantly improved product selectivity towards one-pot Knoevenagel condensation-hydrogenation tandem reaction compared with the uncoated catalyst. Meanwhile, the catalytic performance was largely retained and the structural stability was maintained even after successive 8 cycles, which shows great promise for industrial applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/asia.202100922DOI Listing
September 2021

Therapeutic Potential of Nucleic Acids when Combined with Extracellular Vesicles.

Aging Dis 2021 Sep 1;12(6):1476-1493. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

1Regenerative Bioscience Center, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA.

Extracellular vesicles (EVs), endogenous nanocarriers of proteins, lipids, and genetic material, have been harnessed as intrinsic delivery vectors for nucleic acid therapies. EVs are nanosized lipid bilayer bound vesicles released from most cell types responsible for delivery of functional biologic material to mediate intercellular communication and to modulate recipient cell phenotypes. Due to their innate biological role and composition, EVs possess several advantages as delivery vectors for nucleic acid based therapies including low immunogenicity and toxicity, high bioavailability, and ability to be engineered to enhance targeting to specific recipient cells . In this review, the current understanding of the biological role of EVs as well as the advancements in loading EVs to deliver nucleic acid therapies are summarized. We discuss the current methods and associated challenges in loading EVs and the prospects of utilizing the inherent characteristics of EVs as a delivery vector of nucleic acid therapies for genetic disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14336/AD.2021.0708DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8407886PMC
September 2021

Comparative transcriptome analysis of root types in salt tolerant and sensitive rice varieties in response to salinity stress.

Physiol Plant 2021 Sep 12. Epub 2021 Sep 12.

Graduate School of Bioagricultural Sciences, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Aichi, Japan.

Salinity tolerance in rice is a very important trait, especially in areas that are affected by soil salinity, such as tsunami-devastated areas and coastal regions in rice-producing countries. The roots are the key organs that first detect and respond to salinity stress; thus, it is important to have an understanding of how roots contribute to salinity tolerance in agricultural crops. After salinity treatment of the salt tolerant (Mulai) and sensitive (IR29) rice varieties, it appeared that among the three types of roots, the L-type lateral roots (LLR) were the most sensitive to salinity stress in Mulai and the most tolerant in IR29. The nodal roots (NR) and the S-type lateral roots (SLR) were all negatively affected by salinity treatment in both rice varieties. In order to elucidate the molecular mechanism of the difference in stress response among rice root types, the RNA-seq transcriptome profiles of NR, LLR, and SLR were analyzed in Mulai and IR29. Between the two rice varieties, more transporters were found to participate in the regulation of salt tolerance in Mulai roots, such as those involved in ion and sugar transport. In IR29, many of the genes detected were associated with transcription regulation, including stress-inducible genes such as NAC, WRKY and MYB. Among the different root types, gene expression in LLR and SLR were significantly regulated in both rice varieties. Taken together, the genes identified in this study may be utilized in the varietal improvement of rice with very specific root traits that can enhance tolerance to salinity stress.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ppl.13553DOI Listing
September 2021

Stereoacuity and its determinants in 7-year-old children: the Lhasa Childhood Eye Study.

Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2021 Sep 9. Epub 2021 Sep 9.

Department of Strabismus and Pediatric Ophthalmology, Beijing Tongren Eye Center, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University, No. 1 Dongjiaominxiang Street, Dongcheng District, 100730, Beijing, China.

Purpose: To explore the distribution of stereoacuity and to examine its determinants in school-age children in Tibetan plateau, Southwest China.

Methods: This is the cross-sectional part of a school-based cohort study of 7-year-old children in Lhasa, Tibet Autonomous Region, Southwest China. Children in first year of primary school were invited to undergo a comprehensive examination, including height, weight, visual acuity, cycloplegic autorefraction (1% cyclopentolate), anterior segment, cover and uncover test, and stereoacuity (Titmus Stereo Test).

Results: A total of 1833 eligible subjects were included, with a mean age of 6.82 ± 0.46 years. Mean stereoacuity was 1.78 ± 0.21 in log units (median: 60 arcsec). Children with stereoacuity equal to 40 arcsec and stereoacuity worse than 100 arcsec accounted for 29.24% and 8.18% of the cohort, respectively. Tibetan ethnicity (OR = 1.98; 95%CI, 1.30-3.03), astigmatism (OR = 1.65; 95%CI, 1.26-2.17), strabismus (OR = 2.92; 95%CI, 1.38-6.18), and amblyopia (OR = 3.77; 95%CI, 1.14-12.49) were risk factors for normal stereoacuity (= 40 arcsec). Shorter height, younger age, strabismus, and worse BCVA (P < 0.05 for all) were both related to lower stereoacuity in Spearman correlation analysis and associated with lower stereoacuity in multivariate regression analysis.

Conclusion: Stereoacuity maturation does not appear fully completed in 7-year-old children, while few children present stereoacuity worse than 100 arcsec (8.18%). Lower stereoacuity was associated with younger age, shorter height, strabismus, and lower best-corrected visual acuity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00417-021-05390-yDOI Listing
September 2021

Assessing the effect of interaction between C-reactive protein and gut microbiome on the risks of anxiety and depression.

Mol Brain 2021 09 4;14(1):133. Epub 2021 Sep 4.

Key Laboratory of Trace Elements and Endemic Diseases of National Health and Family Planning Commission, School of Public Health, Health Science Center, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, 71006, China.

Cumulative evidence shows that gut microbiome can influence brain function and behavior via the inflammatory processes. However, the role of interaction between gut dysbiosis and C-reactive protein (CRP) in the development of anxiety and depression remains to be elucidated. In this study, a total of 3321 independent single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) loci associated with gut microbiome were driven from genome-wide association study (GWAS). Using individual level genotype data from UK Biobank, we then calculated the polygenetic risk scoring (PRS) of 114 gut microbiome related traits. Moreover, regression analysis was conducted to evaluate the possible effect of interaction between gut microbiome and CRP on the risks of Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) (N = 113,693) and Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7) (N = 114,219). At last, 11 candidate CRP × gut microbiome interaction with suggestive significance was detected for PHQ-9 score, such as F_Ruminococcaceae (β = - 0.009, P = 2.2 × 10), G_Akkermansia (β = - 0.008, P = 7.60 × 10), F_Acidaminococcaceae (β = 0.008, P = 1.22 × 10), G_Holdemanella (β = - 0.007, P = 1.39 × 10) and O_Lactobacillales (β = 0.006, P = 1.79× 10). 16 candidate CRP × gut microbiome interaction with suggestive significance was detected for GAD-7 score, such as O_Bacteroidales (β = 0.010, P = 4.00×  10), O_Selenomonadales (β = - 0.010, P = 1.20 × 10), O_Clostridiales (β = 0.009, P = 2.70 × 10) and G_Holdemanella (β = - 0.008, P = 4.20 × 10). Our results support the significant effect of interaction between CRP and gut microbiome on the risks of anxiety and depression, and identified several candidate gut microbiomes for them.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13041-021-00843-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8418706PMC
September 2021

A review on graphitic carbon nitride (g-CN) based hybrid membranes for water and wastewater treatment.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Oct 16;792:148462. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

State Key Joint Laboratory of Environmental Simulation and Pollution Control, China-Canada Center for Energy, Environment and Ecology Research, UR-BNU, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China.

Graphitic carbon nitride (g-CN) has gained enormous attention for water and wastewater treatment. Compared with g-CN nanopowders, g-CN based hybrid membranes have demonstrated great potential for its superior practicability. This review outlines the preparation and characterization of g-CN based hybrid membranes and presents their representative applications in water and wastewater treatment (e.g., removal of organic dyes, phenolic compounds, pharmaceuticals, salt ions, heavy metals, and oils). Meanwhile, g-CN based films for the removal of contaminants through photocatalytic degradation is also summarized. In addition, the corresponding mechanisms and relevant findings are discussed. Finally, the challenges and research needs in the future and application of g-CN based hybrid membranes are highlighted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.148462DOI Listing
October 2021

Age, Prognostic Nutritional Index, and Charlson Comorbidity Index Were Independent Risk Factors for Postoperative Long-Term Mortality in Chinese Geriatric Patients Who Sustain Hip Fracture.

J Am Med Dir Assoc 2021 Aug 27. Epub 2021 Aug 27.

Central Laboratory, Hainan Hospital of Chinese People's Liberation Army General Hospital, Sanya, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jamda.2021.08.001DOI Listing
August 2021

Preparation of Cellulose Nanoparticles from Foliage by Bio-Enzyme Methods.

Materials (Basel) 2021 Aug 13;14(16). Epub 2021 Aug 13.

Yunnan Key Laboratory of Wood Adhesives and Glue Products, Southwest Forestry University, Kunming 650224, China.

There are vast reserves of foliage in nature, which is an inexhaustible precious resource. In this study, the chemical components of five foliage types (pine needles, black locust tree leaves, bamboo leaves, elm leaves and poplar leaves) were analyzed, including cellulose content, hemicellulose content, and lignin content. The bio-enzymatic method was then used to prepare cellulose nanoparticles (CNPs) from these five kinds of leaves, and the prepared CNPs were analyzed using TEM, FTIR, FESEM, and XRD. The results showed that the content of hemicellulose in bamboo leaves was the highest, and the lignin content in the other four leaves was the highest. The cellulose content in the five kinds of foliage was arranged from large to small as pine needles (20.5%), bamboo leaves (19.5%), black locust leaves (18.0%), elm leaves (17.6%), and poplar leaves (15.5%). TEM images showed that the CNPs prepared by the five kinds of foliage reached the nanometer level in width and the micrometer level in length; therefore, the CNPs prepared in this study belonged to cellulose nanofibers (CNFs). The results of FTIR and XRD showed that CNFs prepared by the enzyme treatment exhibited a typical crystalline structure of cellulose II. The degree of crystallinity () of CNFs prepared from pine needle, poplar leaves, and bamboo leaves are 78.46%, 77.39%, and 81.51%, respectively. FESEM results showed that the CNFs prepared from pine needles, poplar leaves and bamboo leaves by enzymatic method presents a three-dimensional (3D) network structure, and their widths are 31 nm, 36 nm, and 37 nm, respectively. This study provides a meaningful reference for broadening the use of foliage types and improving their added value.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma14164557DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8400275PMC
August 2021

Astragaloside IV ameliorates cognitive impairment and neuroinflammation in an oligomeric Aβ induced Alzheimer's disease mouse model via inhibition of microglial activation and NADPH oxidase expression.

Biol Pharm Bull 2021 Aug 25. Epub 2021 Aug 25.

School of Pharmacy, Ningxia Engineering and Technology Research Center for Modernization of Traditional Chinese Medicine, and Key Laboratory of Traditional Chinese Medicine Modernization, Ministry of Education, Ningxia Medical University.

Microglial activation and neuroinflammation induced by amyloid β (Aβ) play pivotal roles in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis. Astragaloside IV (AS-IV) is one of the major active compounds of the traditional Chinese medicine Astmgali Radix. It has been reported that AS-IV could protect against Aβ-induced neuroinflammation and cognitive impairment, but the underlying mechanisms need to be further clarified. In this study, the therapeutic effects of AS-IV were investigated in an oligomeric Aβ (oAβ) induced AD mice model. The effects of AS-IV on microglial activation, neuronal damage and NADPH oxidase expression were further studied. Different doses of AS-IV were administered intragastrically once a day after intracerebroventricularly oAβ injection. Results of behavioral experiments including novel object recognition (NOR) test and Morris water maze (MWM) test revealed that AS-IV administration could significantly ameliorate oAβ-induced cognitive impairment in a dose dependent manner. ELISA results showed that increased levels of ROS, TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 in hippocampal tissues induced by oAβ injection were remarkably inhibited after AS-IV treatment. OAβ induced microglial activation and neuronal damage was significantly suppressed in AS-IV-treated mice brain, observed in immunohistochemistry results. Furthermore, oAβ upregulated protein expression of NADPH oxidase subunits gp91phox, p47phox, p22phox and p67phox were remarkably reduced by AS-IV in western blotting assay. These results revealed that AS-IV could ameliorate oAβ-induced cognitive impairment, neuroinflammation and neuronal damage, which were possibly mediated by inhibition of microglial activation and down-regulation of NADPH oxidase protein expression. Our findings provide new insights of AS-IV for the treatment of neuroinflammation related diseases such as AD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1248/bpb.b21-00381DOI Listing
August 2021

Phase II, Randomized Study of Spartalizumab (PDR001), an Anti-PD-1 Antibody, versus Chemotherapy in Patients with Recurrent/Metastatic Nasopharyngeal Cancer.

Clin Cancer Res 2021 Aug 25. Epub 2021 Aug 25.

Division of Medical Oncology, National Cancer Centre Singapore, Singapore.

Background: No standard treatment exists for platinum-refractory, recurrent/metastatic nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC). This phase II study (NCT02605967) evaluated progression-free survival (PFS) of spartalizumab, an antiprogrammed cell death protein-1 (PD-1) monoclonal antibody, versus chemotherapy, in NPC.

Patients And Methods: Patients with nonkeratinizing recurrent/metastatic NPC who progressed on/after platinum-based chemotherapy were enrolled. Spartalizumab was dosed 400 mg once every 4 weeks, and chemotherapy was received per investigator's choice.

Results: Patients were randomized to receive either spartalizumab (82 patients) or chemotherapy (40 patients). The most common spartalizumab treatment-related adverse events were fatigue (10.3%) and pruritus (9.3%). Median PFS in the spartalizumab arm was 1.9 months versus 6.6 months in the chemotherapy arm ( = 0.915). The overall response rate in the spartalizumab arm was 17.1% versus 35.0% in the chemotherapy arm. Median duration of response was 10.2 versus 5.7 months in the spartalizumab versus chemotherapy arms, respectively. Median overall survival was 25.2 and 15.5 months in the spartalizumab and chemotherapy arms, respectively. Tumor RNA sequencing showed a correlation between response to spartalizumab and , and gene expression.

Conclusions: Spartalizumab demonstrated a safety profile consistent with other anti-PD-1 antibodies. The primary endpoint of median PFS was not met; however, median overall survival and median duration of response were longer with spartalizumab compared with chemotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-21-0822DOI Listing
August 2021

The impact of graduated compression stockings on calf-vein deformation and blood velocity in patients awaiting total knee arthroplasty.

BMC Musculoskelet Disord 2021 Aug 23;22(1):722. Epub 2021 Aug 23.

Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital Clinical College of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, 210008, People's Republic of China.

Objectives: This study was designed to explore venous deformation of the lower extremities and the changes in venous hemodynamics in supine position before and after wearing graduated elastic stockings in patients awaiting total knee arthroplasty (TKA).

Method: The leg veins of 21 elderly patients awaiting TKA were imaged in the supine position with and without knee-length graduated compression stockings (GCS) according to a fixed protocol. Measured parameters including the lateromedial (LM) diameter, anteroposterior (AP) diameter, and cross-sectional area (CSA) of the great saphenous vein (GSV), gastrocnemius vein (GV), soleus vein (SV), posterior tibial vein (PTV), fibular vein (FV), and anterior tibial vein (ATV). In addition, the mean and maximum velocities of the popliteal vein (PV) and superficial femoral vein (FSV) were measured.

Results: GCS-related compression was observed for all the measured veins. Maximal reduction was observed for the GV and SV, whereas the GSV exhibited the lowest degree of GCS-related compression. The mean cross-sectional area reduction values associated with GCS were 33.1 ± 41.2 % for the GSV, 94.8 ± 11.1 % for the GV, and 85.6 ± 20.3 % for the SV, while the mean reduction of anteroposterior diameter was 18.1 ± 34.5 % for the GSV, 89.0 ± 22.5 % for the GV, and 72.9 ± 35.1 % for the SV, and the mean reduction of the lateromedial diameter was 25.9 ± 36.4 % for the GSV, 89.6 ± 19.6 % for the GV, 78.2 ± 28.3 % for the SV. No significant GCS-related changes in blood velocity in the superficial femoral veins or popliteal veins were detected.

Conclusions: For elderly patients awaiting TKA, knee-length GCS can significantly reduce calf vein dilation while at rest in the supine position, with the greatest reductions being observed for the soleus and gastrocnemius veins. These data might help provide a theoretical basis for the GCS in reducing incidence of deep vein thrombosis in patients undergoing TKA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12891-021-04603-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8381553PMC
August 2021

Regenerative Medicine Technologies to Treat Dental, Oral, and Craniofacial Defects.

Front Bioeng Biotechnol 2021 6;9:704048. Epub 2021 Aug 6.

Department of Oral Medicine, Infection, and Immunity, Harvard School of Dental Medicine, Boston, MA, United States.

Additive manufacturing (AM) is the automated production of three-dimensional (3D) structures through successive layer-by-layer deposition of materials directed by computer-aided-design (CAD) software. While current clinical procedures that aim to reconstruct hard and soft tissue defects resulting from periodontal disease, congenital or acquired pathology, and maxillofacial trauma often utilize mass-produced biomaterials created for a variety of surgical indications, AM represents a paradigm shift in manufacturing at the individual patient level. Computer-aided systems employ algorithms to design customized, image-based scaffolds with high external shape complexity and spatial patterning of internal architecture guided by topology optimization. 3D bioprinting and surface modification techniques further enhance scaffold functionalization and osteogenic potential through the incorporation of viable cells, bioactive molecules, biomimetic materials and vectors for transgene expression within the layered architecture. These computational design features enable fabrication of tissue engineering constructs with highly tailored mechanical, structural, and biochemical properties for bone. This review examines key properties of scaffold design, bioresorbable bone scaffolds produced by AM processes, and clinical applications of these regenerative technologies. AM is transforming the field of personalized dental medicine and has great potential to improve regenerative outcomes in patient care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fbioe.2021.704048DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8378232PMC
August 2021

Editorial: Pluripotent Cells for Stroke: From Mechanism to Therapeutic Strategies.

Front Cell Neurosci 2021 4;15:738240. Epub 2021 Aug 4.

Key Laboratory of Biorheological Science and Technology, Ministry of Education, College of Bioengineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fncel.2021.738240DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8371199PMC
August 2021

Traumatic events during childhood and its risks to substance use in adulthood: an observational and genome-wide by environment interaction study in UK Biobank.

Transl Psychiatry 2021 08 20;11(1):431. Epub 2021 Aug 20.

Key Laboratory of Trace Elements and Endemic Diseases of National Health and Family Planning Commission, School of Public Health, Health Science Center, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, China.

We aimed to explore the underlying genetic mechanisms of traumatic events during childhood affecting the risks of adult substance use in present study. Using UK Biobank cohort, linear regression model was first applied to assess the relationships between cigarette smoking and alcohol drinking in adults with traumatic events during childhood, including felt hated by family member (41,648-111,465), felt loved (46,394-124,481) and sexually molested (47,598-127,766). Using traumatic events as exposure variables, genome-wide by environment interaction study was then performed by PLINK 2.0 to identify cigarette smoking and alcohol drinking associated genes interacting with traumatic events during childhood. We found that the frequency of cigarette smoking was significantly associated with felt hated by family member (coefficient = 0.42, P < 1.0 × 10), felt loved (coefficient = -0.31, P < 1.0 × 10) and sexually molested (coefficient = 0.46, P < 1.0 × 10). We also observed weaker associations of alcohol drinking with felt hated by family member (coefficient = 0.08, P = 3.10 × 10) and felt loved (coefficient = -0.06, P = 3.15 × 10). GWEIS identified multiple candidate loci interacting with traumatic events, such as CTNNA3 (rs189142060, P = 4.23 × 10) between felt hated by family member and the frequency of cigarette smoking, GABRG3 (rs117020886, P = 2.77 × 10) between felt hated by family member and the frequency of alcohol drinking. Our results suggested the significant impact of traumatic events during childhood on the risk of cigarette smoking and alcohol drinking.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41398-021-01557-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8379203PMC
August 2021

Predictive value of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio for primary patency of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty in hemodialysis arteriovenous fistula stenosis.

Vascular 2021 Aug 20:17085381211039672. Epub 2021 Aug 20.

Department of Vascular Surgery, People's Hospital of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, Urumqi, China.

Objective: The aim of this study is to investigate the potential association of the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) with the primary patency of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) in hemodialysis arteriovenous fistula (AVF) stenosis.

Methods: This study conducted a retrospective review of patients with end-stage renal disease referred for hemodialysis AVF stenosis in one center. The study consisted of 114 patients with significant (significant stenosis was defined as a reduction in the caliber of the fistula vein of > 50% with respect to the non-aneurysmal venous segment). AVF stenosis patients were treated with PTA, with conventional balloon angioplasty. The NLR and PLR were calculated from the pre-interventional blood samples. The patients were classified into two groups: group A, primary patency < 12 months ( = 35) and group B, and primary patency ≥ 12 months ( = 79). Comparisons between the groups were performed using the Mann-Whitney test. Kaplan-Meier analysis was performed to compare the factors, NLR and PLR, for association with primary patency AVFs. A receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis was performed to identify the sensitivity and specificity of the NLR and PLR cut-off values in the prediction of primary patency time.

Results: There was no difference in gender; age; side of AVF; AVF type; comorbid diseases such as diabetes mellitus and hypertension; or blood parameters such as white cell count, erythrocytes, hemoglobin, neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils, C-reactive protein, NLR, or PLR between the two groups ( > 0.05). There was also no significant difference in the patency rate between the NLR < 4.13 and NLR ≥ 4.13 groups at 12 months (NLR cut-off point = 4.13, = 0.273). There were statistically significant differences between the primary patency rates of the PLR < 187.86 and PLR ≥ 187.86 groups at 12 months (PLR cut-off point = 187.86, = 0.023). The cut-off value for PLR for the determination of primary patency was 187.86, with a sensitivity of 57.0% and specificity of 34.4%.

Conclusion: An increased level of PLR may be a risk factor for the development of early AVF restenosis after successful PTA. However, more studies are needed to validate this finding.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/17085381211039672DOI Listing
August 2021

A review on recent advances of egg byproducts: Preparation, functional properties, biological activities and food applications.

Food Res Int 2021 09 28;147:110563. Epub 2021 Jun 28.

Jiangxi Key Laboratory of Natural Products and Functional Food, Jiangxi Agricultural University, Nanchang 330045, China. Electronic address:

The rapid development of egg industries produced vast byproducts that have not been effectively used. In this paper, the comprehensive utilization of egg byproducts was reviewed. Protein extraction and enzymatic hydrolysis were the main used ways for recycle of egg byproducts. The fact that eggshell membrane could accelerate would healing and improve facial skin of healthy people for 12 weeks was found. However, salted egg white had poor functional properties owing to high salt and ultrafiltration was an effective technology to remove 92.93% of salt. Moreover, Defatted yolk protein had the great potential to be used as food additives and functional foods. Other egg byproducts such as egg inhibitor and eggshells also were discussed. The novel applications of egg byproducts in the food field included food additives, feeds, food packaging materials and nutraceuticals based on current knowledge, but the proportion needed to be improved. This paper would provide a new insight for comprehensive utilization of egg byproducts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2021.110563DOI Listing
September 2021

Optimization of cerebral organoids: a more qualified model for Alzheimer's disease research.

Transl Neurodegener 2021 08 9;10(1):27. Epub 2021 Aug 9.

School of Basic Medical Sciences, Ningxia Medical University, Yinchuan, 750004, China.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease that currently cannot be cured by any drug or intervention, due to its complicated pathogenesis. Current animal and cellular models of AD are unable to meet research needs for AD. However, recent three-dimensional (3D) cerebral organoid models derived from human stem cells have provided a new tool to study molecular mechanisms and pharmaceutical developments of AD. In this review, we discuss the advantages and key limitations of the AD cerebral organoid system in comparison to the commonly used AD models, and propose possible solutions, in order to improve their application in AD research. Ethical concerns associated with human cerebral organoids are also discussed. We also summarize future directions of studies that will improve the cerebral organoid system to better model the pathological events observed in AD brains.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40035-021-00252-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8349709PMC
August 2021
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