Publications by authors named "Yao Tong"

187 Publications

The first complete mitochondrial genome of (Gahan 1906) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Cerambycinae) and its phylogeny.

Mitochondrial DNA B Resour 2021 Jun 7;6(7):1929-1931. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

College of Chemistry and Life Science, Zhejiang Normal University, Jinhua, PR China.

is a common species of Cerambycidae, reported from Vietnam, Nepal, Laos, Burma, and China. To date, no mitochondrial genomes of the genus have been reported. In this study, we sequenced and analyzed the first mitochondrial genome of to discuss its phylogenetic relationship within the subfamily Cerambycinae. This mitochondrial genome showed the typical insect gene arrangement: a circular molecule of 15,885 bp long with 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNA genes (rRNAs), and 22 transfer RNA genes (tRNAs). The AT content of the whole mitogenome was 74.2% with a high asymmetric nucleotide presentation revealed by a positive AT-skew (0.067) and a negative GC-skew (-0.178), whereas the AT content of the A + T rich region was 80%. The Maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian inference (BI) phylogenetic analyses showed that is a sister clade of
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23802359.2021.1935354DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8189120PMC
June 2021

lncRNA Profiles Enable Prognosis Prediction and Subtyping for Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 28;9:656554. Epub 2021 May 28.

Department of Clinical Laboratory, The Second Hospital, Cheeloo College of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan, China.

Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have emerged as useful prognostic markers in many tumors. In this study, we investigated the potential application of lncRNA markers for the prognostic prediction of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). We identified ESCC-associated lncRNAs by comparing ESCC tissues with normal tissues. Subsequently, Kaplan-Meier (KM) method in combination with the univariate Cox proportional hazards regression (UniCox) method was used to screen prognostic lncRNAs. By combining the differential and prognostic lncRNAs, we developed a prognostic model using cox stepwise regression analysis. The obtained prognostic prediction model could effectively predict the 3- and 5-year prognosis and survival of ESCC patients by time-dependent receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves (area under curve = 0.87 and 0.89, respectively). Besides, a lncRNA-based classification of ESCC was generated using k-mean clustering method and we obtained two clusters of ESCC patients with association with race and Barrett's esophagus (BE) (both < 0.001). Finally, we found that lncRNA AC007128.1 was upregulated in both ESCC cells and tissues and associated with poor prognosis of ESCC patients. Furthermore, AC007128.1 could promote epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of ESCC cells by increasing the activation of MAPK/ERK and MAPK/p38 signaling pathways. Collectively, our findings indicated the potentials of lncRNA markers in the prognosis, molecular subtyping, and EMT of ESCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2021.656554DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8196240PMC
May 2021

OCRDetector: Accurately Detecting Open Chromatin Regions via Plasma Cell-Free DNA Sequencing Data.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 May 28;22(11). Epub 2021 May 28.

School of Computer Science and Technology, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049, China.

Open chromatin regions (OCRs) are special regions of the human genome that can be accessed by DNA regulatory elements. Several studies have reported that a series of OCRs are associated with mechanisms involved in human diseases, such as cancers. Identifying OCRs using ATAC-seq or DNase-seq is often expensive. It has become popular to detect OCRs from plasma cell-free DNA (cfDNA) sequencing data, because both the fragmentation modes of cfDNA and the sequencing coverage in OCRs are significantly different from those in other regions. However, it is a challenging computational problem to accurately detect OCRs from plasma cfDNA-seq data, as multiple factors-e.g., sequencing and mapping bias, insufficient read depth, etc.-often mislead the computational model. In this paper, we propose a novel bioinformatics pipeline, OCRDetector, for detecting OCRs from whole-genome cfDNA sequencing data. The pipeline calculates the window protection score (WPS) waveform and the cfDNA sequencing coverage. To validate the proposed pipeline, we compared the percentage overlap of our OCRs with those obtained by other methods. The experimental results show that 81% of the TSS regions of housekeeping genes are detected, and our results have obvious tissue specificity. In addition, the overlap percentage between our OCRs and the high-confidence OCRs obtained by ATAC-seq or DNase-seq is greater than 70%.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms22115802DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8198695PMC
May 2021

Erythropoietin Gene Therapy Delays Retinal Degeneration Resulting from Oxidative Stress in the Retinal Pigment Epithelium.

Antioxidants (Basel) 2021 May 25;10(6). Epub 2021 May 25.

Department of Molecular Genetics & Microbiology, College of Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA.

Erythropoietin (EPO) plays an important role in erythropoiesis by its action in blocking apoptosis of progenitor cells and protects both photoreceptors and retinal ganglion cells from induced or inherited degeneration. A modified form of EPO, EPO-R76E has attenuated erythropoietic activity but is effective in inhibiting apoptosis, oxidative stress, and inflammation in several models of retinal degeneration. In this study, we used recombinant Adeno Associated Virus (AAV) to provide long-term sustained delivery of EPO-R76E and demonstrated its effects in a mouse model of dry-AMD in which retinal degeneration is induced by oxidative stress in the retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells. Experimental vector AAV-EPO-R76E and control vector AAV-GFP were packaged into serotype-1 (AAV1) to enable RPE selective expression. RPE oxidative stress-mediated retinal degeneration was induced by exon specific deletion of the protective enzyme MnSOD (encoded by ) by cre/lox mechanism. Experimental mice received subretinal injection of AAV-EPO-R76E in the right eye and AAV-GFP in the left eye. Western blotting of RPE/choroid protein samples from AAV-EPO-R76E injected eyes showed RPE specific EPO expression. Retinal function was monitored by electroretinography (ERG). EPO-R76E over-expression in RPE delayed the retinal degeneration as measured by light microscopy in RPE specific knockout mice. Delivery of EPO-R76E vector can be used as a tool to prevent retinal degeneration induced by RPE oxidative stress, which is implicated as a potential cause of Age-Related Macular Degeneration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/antiox10060842DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8229633PMC
May 2021

Could COVID-19 pandemic be stopped with joint efforts of travel restrictions and public health countermeasures? A modelling study.

BMJ Open 2021 05 24;11(5):e046157. Epub 2021 May 24.

Key Laboratory of Environmental Medicine Engineering, School of Public Health, Southeast University, Nanjing, China

Objective: We aim to explore and compare the effect of global travel restrictions and public health countermeasures in response to COVID-19 outbreak.

Design: A data-driven spatio-temporal modelling to simulate the spread of COVID-19 worldwide for 150 days since 1 January 2020 under different scenarios.

Setting: Worldwide.

Interventions: Travel restrictions and public health countermeasures.

Main Outcome: The cumulative number of COVID-19 cases.

Results: The cumulative number of COVID-19 cases could reach more than 420 million around the world without any countermeasures taken. Under timely and intensive global interventions, 99.97% of infections could be avoided comparing with non-interventions. The scenario of carrying out domestic travel restriction and public health countermeasures in China only could contribute to a significant decrease of the cumulative number of infected cases worldwide. Without global travel restriction in the study setting, 98.62% of COVID-19 cases could be avoided by public health countermeasures in China only compared with non-interventions at all.

Conclusions: Public health countermeasures were generally more effective than travel restrictions in many countries, suggesting multinational collaborations in the public health communities in response to this novel global health challenge.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2020-046157DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8149266PMC
May 2021

Does lock-down of Wuhan effectively restrict early geographic spread of novel coronavirus epidemic during chunyun in China? A spatial model study.

BMC Public Health 2021 04 29;21(1):825. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Key Laboratory of Environmental Medicine Engineering, Ministry of Education; School of Public Health, Southeast University, Nanjing, 210009, Jiangsu, China.

Background: Prior to Wuhan lock-down in 2020, chunyun, the largest population mobility on this planet, had begun. We quantified impact of Wuhan lock-down on COVID-19 spread during chunyun across the nation.

Methods: During the period of January 1 to February 9, 2020, a total of 40,278 confirmed COVID-19 cases from 319 municipalities in mainland China were considered in this study. The cross-coupled meta-population methods were employed using between-city Baidu migration index. We modelled four scenarios of geographic spread of COVID-19 including the presence of both chunyun and lock-down (baseline); lock-down without chunyun (scenario 1); chunyun without lock-down (scenario 2); and the absence of both chunyun and lock-down (scenario 3).

Results: Compared with the baseline, scenario 1 resulted in 3.84% less cases by February 9 while scenario 2 and 3 resulted in 20.22 and 32.46% more cases by February 9. The geographic distribution of cases revealed that chunyun facilitated the COVID-19 spread in the majority but not all cities, and the effectiveness of Wuhan lock-down was offset by chunyun. Impacts of Wuhan lock-down during chunyun on the COVID-19 spread demonstrated heterogenetic geographic patterns.

Conclusion: Our results strongly supported the travel restriction as one of the effective responses and highlighted the importance of developing area-specific rather than universal countermeasures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-021-10837-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8082222PMC
April 2021

High fat diet, gut microbiome and gastrointestinal cancer.

Theranostics 2021 3;11(12):5889-5910. Epub 2021 Apr 3.

Department of Clinical Laboratory, The Second Hospital, Cheeloo College of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong, China.

Gastrointestinal cancer is currently one of the main causes of cancer death, with a large number of cases and a wide range of lesioned sites. A high fat diet, as a public health problem, has been shown to be correlated with various digestive system diseases and tumors, and can accelerate the occurrence of cancer due to inflammation and altered metabolism. The gut microbiome has been the focus of research in recent years, and associated with cell damage or tumor immune microenvironment changes via direct or extra-intestinal effects; this may facilitate the occurrence and development of gastrointestinal tumors. Based on research showing that both a high fat diet and gut microbes can promote the occurrence of gastrointestinal tumors, and that a high fat diet imbalances intestinal microbes, we propose that a high fat diet drives gastrointestinal tumors by changing the composition of intestinal microbes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/thno.56157DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8058730PMC
April 2021

Unmet care needs of community-dwelling stroke survivors: a systematic review of quantitative studies.

BMJ Open 2021 04 20;11(4):e045560. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

School of Information Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, China.

Objectives: Understanding the unmet needs of community-dwelling stroke survivors is essential for further intervention. This systematic review was performed to summarise their unmet needs from a quantitative viewpoint.

Design: Systematic review using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines.

Data Sources: A comprehensive search of six databases was conducted from inception to February 2020: PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, SCOPUS and CBM. The methodological quality of the studies was assessed. Unmet needs were categorised, and a pooled analysis of the main outcomes was conducted.

Eligibility Criteria For Selecting Studies: We included quantitative studies focused on the unmet needs of stroke survivors who live at homes rather than in any other institutionalised organisation.

Results: In total, 32 of 2660 studies were included, and 1980 unmet needs were identified. The prevalence of patients with unmet needs ranged from 15.08% to 97.59%, with a median of 67.20%; the median number of unmet needs per patient ranged from 2 to 8 (0-31). The prevalence of unmet needs was high at 6 months post-stroke (62.14%) and 2 years post-stroke (81.37%). After categorisation, the main concerns among these patients were revealed to be information support, physical function and mental health; a few studies reported unmet needs related to leisure exercise, return to work and so on. Additionally, differences in the measurement tools used across studies affect what unmet needs participants report.

Conclusions: Sufficient, accurate, individualised and dynamic information support is a priority among community-dwelling stroke survivors. Physical function and mental health are also the most significant concerns for re-achieving social participation. It is essential to design and disseminate standard, effective and time-saving tools to assess unmet needs.

Trial Registration Number: CRD42018112181.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2020-045560DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8061855PMC
April 2021

Forecasting Future Asthma Hospital Encounters of Patients With Asthma in an Academic Health Care System: Predictive Model Development and Secondary Analysis Study.

J Med Internet Res 2021 Apr 16;23(4):e22796. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Biomedical Informatics and Medical Education, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, United States.

Background: Asthma affects a large proportion of the population and leads to many hospital encounters involving both hospitalizations and emergency department visits every year. To lower the number of such encounters, many health care systems and health plans deploy predictive models to prospectively identify patients at high risk and offer them care management services for preventive care. However, the previous models do not have sufficient accuracy for serving this purpose well. Embracing the modeling strategy of examining many candidate features, we built a new machine learning model to forecast future asthma hospital encounters of patients with asthma at Intermountain Healthcare, a nonacademic health care system. This model is more accurate than the previously published models. However, it is unclear how well our modeling strategy generalizes to academic health care systems, whose patient composition differs from that of Intermountain Healthcare.

Objective: This study aims to evaluate the generalizability of our modeling strategy to the University of Washington Medicine (UWM), an academic health care system.

Methods: All adult patients with asthma who visited UWM facilities between 2011 and 2018 served as the patient cohort. We considered 234 candidate features. Through a secondary analysis of 82,888 UWM data instances from 2011 to 2018, we built a machine learning model to forecast asthma hospital encounters of patients with asthma in the subsequent 12 months.

Results: Our UWM model yielded an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.902. When placing the cutoff point for making binary classification at the top 10% (1464/14,644) of patients with asthma with the largest forecasted risk, our UWM model yielded an accuracy of 90.6% (13,268/14,644), a sensitivity of 70.2% (153/218), and a specificity of 90.91% (13,115/14,426).

Conclusions: Our modeling strategy showed excellent generalizability to the UWM, leading to a model with an AUC that is higher than all of the AUCs previously reported in the literature for forecasting asthma hospital encounters. After further optimization, our model could be used to facilitate the efficient and effective allocation of asthma care management resources to improve outcomes.

International Registered Report Identifier (irrid): RR2-10.2196/resprot.5039.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/22796DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8087967PMC
April 2021

Cardiac herniation presenting as superior vena cava obstruction syndrome after intrapericardial pnemonectomy for locally advanced lung cancer---case report.

J Cardiothorac Surg 2021 Mar 31;16(1):67. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Hebei North University, Zhangjiakou City, Hebei Province, People's Republic of China.

Introduction: Cardiac herniation is a rare complication after pulmonary surgery, and there are only a few reports about it. We now report a case of cardiac herniation presenting as superior vena cava obstruction after pneumonectomy.

Case Presentation: A-52-years old woman diagnosed right pulmonary squamous cell carcinoma was carried out right pneumonectomy, the pulmonary artery and right superior pulmonary vein were dissected and ligated intrapericardial. The patient developed tachycardia arrhythmias, hypotension, followed by loss of consciousness at about 18 h after operation. After resuscitation, the patient was conscious but developed cyanosis of the superior vena cava drainage area, uropenia, and hypotension (80/30 mmHg). Bedside-echocardiography showed that the SVC was obstructed due to thrombus formation. Chest radiography a shift of the heart into right hemithorax. Rethoracotomy was performed and the herniated heart was replaced into the pericardium, and the pericardium was repaired with Gore Tex patch. The patient recovered smoothly after the second surgery.

Conclusion: Cardiac herniation is a rare and fatally complication after thoracic surgery, and the prompt recognition with timely intervention is life-saving. Cardiac herniation is a rare but fatal complication of pneumonectomy. The increasing frequency of surgical resection for locally advanced thoracic carcinoma has led to a renewed emphasis regarding early diagnosis and treatment for cardiac herniation. Here we discuss a case of cardiac herniation presented with acute superior vena cava obstruction syndrome and hemodynamic instability after intrapericradial right pneumonectomy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13019-021-01439-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8011401PMC
March 2021

Single-cell RNA sequencing reveals the sustained immune cell dysfunction in the pathogenesis of sepsis secondary to bacterial pneumonia.

Genomics 2021 05 7;113(3):1219-1233. Epub 2021 Mar 7.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510515, China. Electronic address:

Sepsis is a leading cause of mortality in intensive care unit worldwide, it's accompanied by immune cell dysfunction induced by multiple factors. However, little is known about the specific alterations in immune cells in the dynamic pathogenesis of sepsis secondary to bacterial pneumonia. Here, we used single cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) to profile peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in a healthy control and two patients with sepsis secondary to bacterial pneumonia, including acute, stable and recovery stage. We analyzed the quantity and function of immune cells. During disease course, interferon gamma response was upregulated; T/NK cell subtypes presented activation and exhaustion properties, which might be driven by monocytes through IL-1β signaling pathways; The proportion of plasma cells was increased, which might be driven by NK cells through IFN signaling pathways; Additionally, interferon gamma response was upregulated to a greater degree in sepsis secondary to pneumonia induced by SARS-COV-2 compared with that induced by influenza virus and bacteria.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ygeno.2021.01.026DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7937330PMC
May 2021

A Mobile Phone App-Based Tai Chi Training in Parkinson's Disease: Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Study.

Front Neurol 2020 13;11:615861. Epub 2021 Jan 13.

Shanghai Key Laboratory for Human Athletic Ability Development and Support, School of Kinesiology, Shanghai University of Sport, Shanghai, China.

With an increasing number of China's aging population, Parkinson's disease (PD) increases year by year. Persons with PD exhibit abnormal balance functions, leading to motor skills difficulties, such as unstable walking or even falling. Therefore, activities of daily living and quality of life are affected. This study aims to explore the effectiveness of Tai Chi training based on the mobile phone app in improving the balance ability of persons with PD. A randomized, single-blind, parallel controlled trial will be conducted in this study. One hundred forty-four persons with PD who meet the inclusion criteria will be randomly divided into a 1:1:1 ratio: (1) control group, (2) basic experimental group (basic app with no Tai Chi training features), and (3) balanced-enhanced experimental group (basic app with Tai Chi training features). Individuals with PD will be evaluated on balance and motor function outcomes. The primary outcome measure is the limits of stability (including the maximum excursion and direction control); the secondary outcome measures include the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale III (UPDRS-III), Berg Balance Scale (BBS), Functional Reach Test (FRT), Timed Up & Go (TUG), 6-Minute Walk Test (6MWT), and 39-item Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire (PDQ-39). Each group of patients will go through an assessment at baseline, 17 and 33 weeks. This study will evaluate the effectiveness of the mobile phone app Tai Chi training on the balance function of persons with PD. We assume that a challenging Tai Chi project based on a mobile phone app will improve balance in the short and long term. As walking stability progresses, it is expected that daily activities and quality of life improve. These findings will be used to improve the effectiveness of future home management measures for persons with PD. This study has been approved by the ethical review committee of the Shanghai University of Sport (approval number: 102772019RT056). Informed consent will be obtained from all participants or their guardians. The authors intend to submit the study findings to peer-reviewed journals or academic conferences to be published. Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (ChiCTR2000029135).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2020.615861DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7838616PMC
January 2021

The HIV protease inhibitor Saquinavir attenuates sepsis-induced acute lung injury and promotes M2 macrophage polarization via targeting matrix metalloproteinase-9.

Cell Death Dis 2021 01 11;12(1):67. Epub 2021 Jan 11.

Department of Anesthesiology, National Cancer Center/National Clinical Research Center for Cancer/Cancer Hospital and Shenzhen Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, 518116, Shenzhen, China.

Imbalance of macrophage polarization plays an indispensable role in acute lung injury (ALI), which is considered as a promising target. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) is expressed in the macrophage, and has a pivotal role in secreting inflammatory cytokines. We reported that saquinavir (SQV), a first-generation human immunodeficiency virus-protease inhibitor, restricted exaggerated inflammatory response. However, whether MMP-9 could regulate macrophage polarization and inhibit by SQV is still unknown. We focused on the important role of macrophage polarization in CLP (cecal ligation puncture)-mediated ALI and determined the ability of SQV to maintain M2 over M1 phenotype partially through the inhibition of MMP-9. We also performed a limited clinical study to determine if MMP-9 is a biomarker of sepsis. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) increased MMP-9 expression and recombinant MMP-9 (rMMP-9) exacerbated LPS-mediated M1 switching. Small interfering RNA to MMP-9 inhibited LPS-mediated M1 phenotype and SQV inhibition of this switching was reversed with rMMP-9, suggesting an important role for MMP-9 in mediating LPS-induced M1 phenotype. MMP-9 messenger RNA levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of these 14 patients correlated with their clinical assessment. There was a significant dose-dependent decrease in mortality and ALI after CLP with SQV. SQV significantly inhibited LPS-mediated M1 phenotype and increased M2 phenotype in cultured RAW 264.7 and primary murine bone marrow-derived macrophages as well as lung macrophages from CLP-treated mice. This study supports an important role for MMP-9 in macrophage phenotypic switching and suggests that SQV-mediated inhibition of MMP-9 may be involved in suppressing ALI during systemic sepsis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41419-020-03320-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7798387PMC
January 2021

Genome-wide detection of short tandem repeat expansions by long-read sequencing.

BMC Bioinformatics 2020 Dec 28;21(Suppl 21):542. Epub 2020 Dec 28.

Raymond G. Perelman Center for Cellular and Molecular Therapeutics, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA, 19104, USA.

Background: Short tandem repeat (STR), or "microsatellite", is a tract of DNA in which a specific motif (typically < 10 base pairs) is repeated multiple times. STRs are abundant throughout the human genome, and specific repeat expansions may be associated with human diseases. Long-read sequencing coupled with bioinformatics tools enables the estimation of repeat counts for STRs. However, with the exception of a few well-known disease-relevant STRs, normal ranges of repeat counts for most STRs in human populations are not well known, preventing the prioritization of STRs that may be associated with human diseases.

Results: In this study, we extend a computational tool RepeatHMM to infer normal ranges of 432,604 STRs using 21 long-read sequencing datasets on human genomes, and build a genomic-scale database called RepeatHMM-DB with normal repeat ranges for these STRs. Evaluation on 13 well-known repeats show that the inferred repeat ranges provide good estimation to repeat ranges reported in literature from population-scale studies. This database, together with a repeat expansion estimation tool such as RepeatHMM, enables genomic-scale scanning of repeat regions in newly sequenced genomes to identify disease-relevant repeat expansions. As a case study of using RepeatHMM-DB, we evaluate the CAG repeats of ATXN3 for 20 patients with spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3) and 5 unaffected individuals, and correctly classify each individual.

Conclusions: In summary, RepeatHMM-DB can facilitate prioritization and identification of disease-relevant STRs from whole-genome long-read sequencing data on patients with undiagnosed diseases. RepeatHMM-DB is incorporated into RepeatHMM and is available at https://github.com/WGLab/RepeatHMM .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12859-020-03876-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7768641PMC
December 2020

Not All Stressors Are Equal: Mechanism of Stressors on RPE Cell Degeneration.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2020 19;8:591067. Epub 2020 Nov 19.

Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA, United States.

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a major cause of irreversible blindness among the elderly population. Dysfunction and degeneration of the retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) layer in the retina underscore the pathogenesis of both dry and wet AMD. Advanced age, cigarette smoke and genetic factors have been found to be the prominent risk factors for AMD, which point to an important role for oxidative stress and aging in AMD pathogenesis. However, the mechanisms whereby oxidative stress and aging lead to RPE cell degeneration are still unclear. As cell senescence and cell death are the major outcomes from oxidative stress and aging, here we review the mechanisms of RPE cell senescence and different kinds of cell death, including apoptosis, necroptosis, pyroptosis, ferroptosis, with an aim to clarify how RPE cell degeneration could occur in response to AMD-related stresses, including HO, 4-Hydroxynonenal (4-HNE), N-retinylidene-N-retinyl-ethanolamine (A2E), Alu RNA and amyloid β (Aβ). Besides those, sodium iodate (NaIO) induced RPE cell degeneration is also discussed in this review. Although NaIO itself is not related to AMD, this line of study would help understand the mechanism of RPE degeneration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2020.591067DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7710875PMC
November 2020

Testing the Generalizability of an Automated Method for Explaining Machine Learning Predictions on Asthma Patients' Asthma Hospital Visits to an Academic Healthcare System.

IEEE Access 2020 21;8:195971-195979. Epub 2020 Oct 21.

Department of Biomedical Informatics and Medical Education, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA.

Asthma puts a tremendous overhead on healthcare. To enable effective preventive care to improve outcomes in managing asthma, we recently created two machine learning models, one using University of Washington Medicine data and the other using Intermountain Healthcare data, to predict asthma hospital visits in the next 12 months in asthma patients. As is common in machine learning, neither model supplies explanations for its predictions. To tackle this interpretability issue of black-box models, we developed an automated method to produce rule-style explanations for any machine learning model's predictions made on imbalanced tabular data and to recommend customized interventions without lowering the prediction accuracy. Our method exhibited good performance in explaining our Intermountain Healthcare model's predictions. Yet, it stays unknown how well our method generalizes to academic healthcare systems, whose patient composition differs from that of Intermountain Healthcare. This study evaluates our automated explaining method's generalizability to the academic healthcare system University of Washington Medicine on predicting asthma hospital visits. We did a secondary analysis on 82,888 University of Washington Medicine data instances of asthmatic adults between 2011 and 2018, using our method to explain our University of Washington Medicine model's predictions and to recommend customized interventions. Our results showed that for predicting asthma hospital visits, our automated explaining method had satisfactory generalizability to University of Washington Medicine. In particular, our method explained the predictions for 87.6% of the asthma patients whom our University of Washington Medicine model accurately predicted to experience asthma hospital visits in the next 12 months.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/access.2020.3032683DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7685253PMC
October 2020

Three-dimensional hierarchical porous carbon derived from lignin for supercapacitors: Insight into the hydrothermal carbonization and activation.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 Jan 2;166:923-933. Epub 2020 Nov 2.

Faculty of Light Industry and Chemical Engineering, Dalian Polytechnic University, Dalian 116034, China. Electronic address:

Three-dimensional hierarchical porous carbon is prepared by utilizing enzymatic hydrolysis lignin as a carbon source via hydrothermal carbonization and activation. The complicated operational parameters including temperature, time, concentration and pH in the hydrothermal carbonization are systemically investigated. We employed the hydrochar as electrode for supercapacitors. Accordingly, we not only achieve a high-performance specific capacitance for supercapacitors but also rationalize the effects of hydrothermal conditions on the specific capacitance via various characterizations. The activation process of hydrochar is also studied by comparing various activators and the activator/hydrochar ratios. The obtained materials possess a three-dimensional interconnected hierarchical structure with rational pore size distribution and a specific surface area reach up to 1504 m g. Then the corresponding supercapacitors achieve a large specific capacitance of 324 F g as the current density is 0.5 A g. These supercapacitors acquire an outstanding cycling stability with 99.7% capacitance retention after 5000 cycles. The assembled symmetrical supercapacitors also show a high energy density of 17.9 W h kg and can maintain at 5.6 W h kg even at an ultra-high power density of 50,400 W kg.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2020.10.249DOI Listing
January 2021

Low Red Blood Cell Count as an Early Indicator for Myometrial Invasion in Women with Endometrioid Endometrial Carcinoma with Metabolic Syndrome.

Cancer Manag Res 2020 29;12:10849-10859. Epub 2020 Oct 29.

Laboratory of Gynecologic Oncology, Fujian Maternity and Child Health Hospital, Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou 350001, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: We investigated the relationship between metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components and erythrocyte parameters such as red blood cell count (RBC) and hemoglobin (Hb) levels, and their association with the risk of deep myometrial invasion in endometrioid endometrial carcinoma (EEC).

Patients And Methods: A total of 473 women diagnosed with EEC between January 2012 and December 2018 were included in the study. MetS was diagnosed using a modified version of the Chinese Diabetes Society 2004 criteria. Demographic and clinical characteristics were stratified by MetS and compared. Logistic regression analyses were performed to calculate the odds ratios (ORs) of myometrial invasion.

Results: The prevalence of MetS was 18.8% (89/473). RBC and Hb levels were significantly higher in EEC patients with MetS. RBC and Hb values increased linearly with the number of MetS components. The OR of the MetS risk increased across the RBC quartiles (OR=2.212, 95% confidence interval [Cl]=1.125-4.350, P˂0.05). Among EEC patients with MetS, the OR of deep myometrial invasion increased with the decrease of the RBC quartiles (P=0.037). Similarly, in EEC patients with obesity and hyperglycemia or with ≥2 MetS criteria, the lowest RBC level (Q1) was a risk factor for deep myometrial invasion compared with the reference RBC group (Q4, P˂0.05). However, this trend was not evident in EEC patients without MetS and its components.

Conclusion: EEC with MetS and its components had higher RBC and Hb levels. The association between the erythrocyte parameters and myometrial invasion differed with MetS. RBC was identified as a risk factor of myometrial invasion in EEC patients with MetS and its components.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/CMAR.S271078DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7605592PMC
October 2020

Cardiac hemodynamic response to the 6-minute walk test in patients with intestinal carcinoma undergoing bevacizumab treatment.

Ann Palliat Med 2021 Feb 30;10(2):1362-1369. Epub 2020 Sep 30.

Department of Medical Oncology, the Sixth Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China; Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Colorectal and Pelvic Floor Diseases, Guangzhou, China.

Background: Exercise capacity is evaluated using the 6-minute walk test (6MWT) in various cardiovascular diseases. Bevacizumab (BEV) has been associated with significant risk of cardiovascular complications. The aim of this study was to investigate BEV-related influences on cardiac hemodynamic response to 6MWT.

Methods: We prospectively studied 24 patients with intestinal carcinoma to assess the hemodynamic response during 6MWT, of whom eight underwent BEV treatment. Obtained data was analyzed to identify hemodynamic differences between BEV and non-BEV treated patients.

Results: Twenty-four patients with stage IV intestinal carcinoma consented to assessment after the completion of three cycles of BEV-combined chemotherapy (age, 46.4±16.7 years) or standard chemotherapy alone (age, 56.4±13.7 years). In comparison with non-BEV treated patients, BEV-treated patients walked less (484.3±42.4 vs. 503.0±48.2, P=0.339). These two groups manifested similar hemodynamic response during the 6MWT. The change of hemodynamic parameters at 1 minute after completion of 6MWT was defined as hemodynamic parameter recovery. BEV-treated patients had significantly lower change of left cardiac work index (LCWi), cardiac index (CI), cardiac output (CO) and stroke volume (SV) after 6MWT. Interestingly, in BEV-treated patients CI change after 6MWT was predominantly related to the decrease in SV instead of heart rate (HR) as suggested by a higher standardized beta coefficient (0.883 vs. 0.657) and semi-partial correlations (0.821 vs. 0.677).

Conclusions: Estimation of hemodynamic response to 6MWT is feasible, and may provide useful information of myocardial damage in BEV-treated patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/apm-20-435DOI Listing
February 2021

Caveolin-1 Derived from Brain Microvascular Endothelial Cells Inhibits Neuronal Differentiation of Neural Stem/Progenitor Cells In Vivo and In Vitro.

Neuroscience 2020 11 22;448:172-190. Epub 2020 Sep 22.

School of Chinese Medicine, LKS Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region. Electronic address:

Caveolin-1 (Cav-1) is an important modulator for adult neurogenesis in post stroke brain repair but its underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. In the present study, we report that endothelial Cav-1 inhibits neuronal differentiation of neural stem/progenitor cells (NSCs/NPCs) in post ischemic brain via regulating vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and NeuroD1 signaling pathway. We first investigated the dynamic change of Cav-1 and its impact on neuronal differentiation in rat and mouse models of 2 h transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) plus 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28 day of reperfusion. We then studied the roles of endothelial Cav-1 in modulating the neuronal differentiation of NPCs which were co-cultured with brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMVECs) under 2 h oxygen-glucose deprivation plus 5 days reoxygenation (OGD/R). The major discoveries include: (1) Cav-1 expression in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) was down-regulated on day 1 after 2 h cerebral ischemia, and gradually recovered with reperfusion time, accompanied with transient increased but gradually reduced neuronal differentiation of NPCs marked by doublecortin (DCX). (2) Cav-1 knockout mice exhibited the increased DCX and VEGF at the granular cell layers of hippocampal DG in post-ischemic brains. (3) Co-cultured with BMVECs, NPCs had remarkably decreased neuronal differentiation under OGD/R. Knockdown of Cav-1 in the BMVECs increased VEGF secretion into the medium and NeuroD1 cells, and rescued the neuronal differentiation of NPCs without affecting astroglial and oligodendroglial differentiation. (4) Cav-1 exosomes released from BMVECs inhibited neuronal differentiation of NPCs via decreasing the expression of VEGF, p44/42MAPK phosphorylation and NeuronD1 upon OGD/R insults. Taken together, endothelial Cav-1 serves as a niche regulator to inhibit neuronal differentiation via negatively modulating VEGF, p44/42MAPK phosphorylation and NeuronD1 signaling pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroscience.2020.09.031DOI Listing
November 2020

Coinfection of High-Risk Human Papillomavirus and Lower Genital Tract Pathogens in the Development of High-Grade Cervical Lesions.

Can J Infect Dis Med Microbiol 2020 30;2020:7640758. Epub 2020 Aug 30.

Laboratory of Gynecologic Oncology, Fujian Maternity and Child Health Hospital, Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou 350001, China.

Purpose: This study investigated the infection status and relationship between other common lower genital tract infectious pathogens and high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) in the high-grade cervical lesions.

Methods: Overall, 882 patients were enrolled in this retrospective study, of which 339 patients (≥HSIL group) were confirmed with high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) or cervical squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), while 543 patients (≤LSIL group) were diagnosed with low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL) or normal cervical pathology diagnosis. Cervical swab specimens were tested for HPV, pathogenic bacteria (PB), (UU), (MH), (CT) in both groups.

Results: The infection rates of HR-HPV, PB, UU (at high density), and CT were higher in the ≥HSIL group than in the ≤LSIL group ( < 0.001); however, higher infection rates with MH were not observed ( > 0.05). PB, UU, and CT were associated with HR-HPV infection ( < 0.001). The PB and UU infection rates in the ≥HSIL group were significantly different from those in the ≤LSIL group, regardless of whether there was an HR-HPV infection at the same time ( < 0.05). However, this was not the case for the CT ( > 0.05). Furthermore, 259 pathogenic bacterial strains were detected in 882 cases. The difference in the distribution of pathogenic bacterial flora in the different grades of cervical lesions had no statistical significance, which was prioritized over ( > 0.05).

Conclusion: PB, UU, and CT infection is associated with susceptibility to HR-HPV, HR-HPV coinfection with these pathogens might increase the risk of high-grade cervical lesions, and PB and UU might be independent risk factors for cervical lesions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/7640758DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7477613PMC
August 2020

Atrial fibrillation and alteration of heart rate variability after video-assisted pulmonary lobectomy versus thoracotomy pulmonary lobectomy.

J Cardiothorac Surg 2020 Aug 14;15(1):220. Epub 2020 Aug 14.

Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Hebei North University, Zhangjiakou City, Hebei Province, P.R. China.

Objective: To compare the incidence of atrial fibrillation (AF) and alteration of heart rate variability (HRV) after pulmonary lobectomy through video assisted thoracic surgery or thoracotomy, and to explore the role of autonomic nerves in the pathogenesis of atrial fibrillation after pulmonary lobectomy.

Methods: In a single institution, 224 patients (age > 60) with normal sinus rhythm were enrolled in the study. Experienced surgeons and anesthetists carried out operation and anesthesia according to the same procedure. The hearts were monitored using Holter for more than 96 h. Any new-onset AF was recorded and HRV was analyzed at different time intervals.

Results: One hundred twelve patients undergoing video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) and 112 patients undergoing thoracotomy (THOR) were matched for age and gender. Atrial fibrillation occurred in 39 patients, with a similar incidence between the two groups (VATS: 19/112, 16.9% and THOR: 20/112, 17.9%, P = 0.82). The post-operational heart variability at different time intervals was comparable between the two groups.

Conclusion: Pulmonary lobectomy through video assisted thoracic surgery does not reduce the postoperative atrial fibrillation. Autonomic nerve mechanism may be involved in the pathogenesis of postoperative atrial fibrillation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13019-020-01260-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7427877PMC
August 2020

Characteristics of Postoperative Pain After VATS and Pain-Related Factors: The Experience in National Cancer Center of China.

J Pain Res 2020 21;13:1861-1867. Epub 2020 Jul 21.

Department of Thoracic Surgery, Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: No final conclusion has yet been reached on characteristics of postoperative pain and pain-related factors after video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS). This study was designed to explore features of acute severe pain and chronic post-surgical pain (CPSP), and the pain-related factors of VATS.

Patients And Methods: Data of patients who underwent VATS for lung cancer in Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences between March 2017 and January 2019 were reviewed in this retrospective study. A numerical rating scale (NRS) was used for evaluating the intensity of postoperative pain including no pain (NRS=0), mild pain (NRS=1-3), moderate pain (NRS=4-6), and severe pain (NRS=7-10). Pain intensity was assessed daily within a week after operation, and also evaluated at 3 months postoperatively.

Results: One hundred and five (3.4%) of the 3072 patients enrolled experienced severe pain (NRS=7-10) on the 1st day after operation, and 17 (0.6%) on the 2nd day. Smoking history, three-port VATS, prolonged operation time, and without patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) were correlated to increased incidence of severe pain. Among all patients, 237 (7.7%) cases generated CPSP, and VATS type, operation time, duration of drainage, and severe pain on the 1st day were four independent risk factors related to CPSP.

Conclusion: Patients seemed to experience a lower incidence of acute severe pain and CPSP after VATS than traditional open surgery. Acute severe pain was correlated with smoking history, VATS type, operation time, and PCA; VATS type, operation time, duration of drainage, and severe pain on the 1st day postoperatively were four independent risk factors of CPSP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/JPR.S249134DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7382587PMC
July 2020

Age differences in the pulmonary and vascular pathophysiologic processes after long-term real-time exposure to particulate matter in rats.

Chemosphere 2020 Dec 16;261:127710. Epub 2020 Jul 16.

Department of Pharmacology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Xi'an Jiaotong University Health Science Center, 76 Yanta West Road, Xi'an, Shaanxi, 710061, China.

Existing experimental data do not sufficiently explain which pathophysiologic processes are involved in different age of rats exposed to long-term particulate matter. This study explored the pulmonary and cardiovascular effects of long-term PM and PM exposure in juvenile, adult and senescent rats. Tail cuff plethysmography, whole-body plethysmographic system, myograph, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry were used to detect the blood pressure, lung function, endothelium-dependent relaxation, inflammatory cytokines and heavy metals, respectively. The exposure time was from November, 2017 to October, 2018, and the average concentrations of PM and PM were 78.7 and 128.2 μg/m, respectively. Compared with the filtered air group, the body weight and survival rate in PM and PM exposure group were significantly decreased, and the survival rate of senescent exposed rats was only 30%. PM and PM exposure increased the blood pressure, elevated the levels of serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid inflammatory factors, and the senescent exposed rats showed an earlier rising trend in blood pressure and inflammatory factors than those of juvenile and adult exposed rats. Long-term PM and PM exposure could destroy intrapulmonary and small resistance arteries endothelial function, causing vasodilation disorders. PM and PM exposure caused particulate matter to accumulate in the lungs. Additionally, PM and PM exposure could also cause accumulation of cadmium (Cd) and lead in the liver, and chromium and Cd in the kidney. In conclusion, ambient PM and PM exposure induced particulate matter to accumulate in the body, caused severe pulmonary and vascular disorders, and demonstrated age-associated differences.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.127710DOI Listing
December 2020

Chronic real-time particulate matter exposure causes rat pulmonary arteriole hyperresponsiveness and remodeling: The role of ETR-ERK1/2 signaling.

Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2020 09 23;403:115154. Epub 2020 Jul 23.

Department of Pharmacology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Xi'an Jiaotong University Health Science Center, Xi'an, China. Electronic address:

Exposure to air pollution is associated with the incidence of respiratory diseases. The present study evaluated the pulmonary vascular system injury by chronic real-time particulate matter (PM) exposure and investigated the underlying mechanisms. Rats were exposed to PM or filtered air for 2 to 4 months using a whole body exposure system, and intraperitoneally injected with the MEK1/2 inhibitor U0126. Right heart catheterization and myography were performed to detect lung function and pulmonary vascular reactivity, respectively. Western blotting, qRT-PCR, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and histological analyses were used to detect the effects and mechanisms by which PM exposure-induced pulmonary vascular dysfunction. Functional experiment results showed that PM exposure increased the pulmonary artery pressure of rats and caused endothelin B receptor (ETR)-mediated pulmonary arteriole hyperreactivity. U0126 significantly rescued these pathological changes. PM exposure upregulated the contractile ETR of pulmonary arteriolar smooth muscle, and damaged pulmonary artery endothelial cells to induce the release of more endothelin 1 (ET-1). The upregulated ETR bound to increased ET-1 induced pulmonary arteriolar hyperresponsiveness and remodeling. U0126 inhibited the PM exposure-induced upregulation of ETR in pulmonary arteriole, ETR-mediated pulmonary arterial hyperresponsiveness and vascular remodeling. In conclusion, chronic real-time particulate matter exposure can activate the ERK1/2 signaling, thereby inducing the upregulation of contractile ETR in pulmonary arteriole, which may be involved in pulmonary arteriole hyperresponsiveness and remodeling in rats. These findings provide new mechanistic evidence of PM exposure-induced respiratory diseases, and a new possible target for treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.taap.2020.115154DOI Listing
September 2020

SETE: Sequence-based Ensemble learning approach for TCR Epitope binding prediction.

Comput Biol Chem 2020 Jun 20;87:107281. Epub 2020 Jun 20.

Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, The Second Affiliated Hospital, University of South China, Hengyang, 421001, China. Electronic address:

Predicting the binding of T cell receptors (TCRs) to epitopes plays a vital role in the immunotherapy, because it guides the development of therapeutic vaccines and cancer treatments. Many prediction methods attempted to explain the relationship between TCR repertoires from different aspects such as the V(D)J gene locus and the biophysical features of amino acids molecules, but the extraction of these features is time consuming and the performance of these models are limited. Few studies have investigated how k-mers formed by adjacent amino acids in TCR sequences direct the epitope recognition, and the specific mechanism of TCR epitope binding is still unclear. Motivated by these, we presented SETE (Sequence-based Ensemble learning approach for TCR Epitope binding prediction), a novel model to predict the TCR epitope binding accurately. The model deconstructed the CDR3β sequence to short amino acid chains as features and learned the pattern of them between different TCR repertoires with gradient boosting decision tree algorithm. Experiments have demonstrated that SETE can be helpful in predicting the TCRs' corresponding epitopes and it outperforms other state-of-the-art methods in predicting the epitope specificity of TCR on VDJdb data set. The source codes have been uploaded at https://github.com/wonanut/SETE for academic usage only.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compbiolchem.2020.107281DOI Listing
June 2020

Linking Esports to health risks and benefits: Current knowledge and future research needs.

J Sport Health Sci 2020 12 17;9(6):485-488. Epub 2020 Apr 17.

School of Kinesiology, Shanghai University of Sport, Shanghai 200438, China. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jshs.2020.04.006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7749245PMC
December 2020

Evaluation of PCR-Reverse Dot Blot Human Papillomavirus Genotyping Test in Predicting Residual/Recurrent CIN 2+ in Posttreatment Patients in China.

Cancer Manag Res 2020 1;12:2369-2379. Epub 2020 Apr 1.

Laboratory of Gynecologic Oncology, Fujian Provincial Maternity and Children's Health Hospital, Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, People's Republic of China.

Objective: To assess the clinical value of the PCR-reverse dot blot human papillomavirus genotyping test during follow-up of patients with CIN grade 2 or worse (CIN 2+).

Methods: Four hundred patients with CIN 2+ receiving treatment from January 2008 to January 2017 were included in our study. Postoperative follow-up procedures comprised HPV examination and cervical cytology every 3-6 months for the first 2 years and then followed up every 6-12 months. A pathology examination was performed when there was a positive funding for HPV 16/18 or an abnormal ThinPrep cytology test (TCT) with or without positive for HR-HPV according to the American Society for Coloscopy and Cervical Pathology (ASCCP) guidelines.

Results: The median follow-up period was 27.10±12.47 months (ranging from 3 to 50 months). During follow-up, 12.00% (48/400) of the women developed residual/recurrent disease. The highest risk in CIN 2+ and CIN 3+ residual/recurrence was HPV-16/-18 (hazard ratio (HR)=12.898, 95% CI= 6.849-24.289; HR= 20.726, 95% CI= 9.64-44.562, respectively). Among the different follow-up methods, type-specific (TP) HR-HPV persistent infection showed the highest cumulative incidence risk (CIR) (84.62%, 95% CI=73.29-95.94) and HR (5.38, 95% CI= 2.596-11.149) during the 4-year follow-up period. At the CIN 2+ and CIN 3+ endpoints, TP-HPV testing had relatively high sensitivity (84.62%, 95% CI=73.29-95.94 and 89.28%, 95% CI= 77.83-100.00, respectively) and specificity (78.07%, 95% CI= 72.70-83.44 and 75.73%, 95% CI= 70.30-81.17, respectively). However, at the CIN 2+/CIN 3+ endpoint, TCT follow-up had a sensitivity of 60.42%/62.16% (95% CI=46.58-72.25/46.54-77.79) and specificity of 90.18%/88.72% (95% CI=86.95-93.41/85.35-92.10).

Conclusion: TP HR-HPV follow-up can provide a reliable and sensitive clinical reference for CIN 2+ postoperative patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/CMAR.S237490DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7132552PMC
April 2020

Small towns shrinkage in the Jilin Province: A comparison between China and developed countries.

PLoS One 2020 13;15(4):e0231159. Epub 2020 Apr 13.

Northeast Institute of Geography and Agroecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun, China.

Urban shrinkage is currently spreading at global level. At the same time, the scale of urban shrinkage is not limited to urban agglomerations, metropolitan areas, or big cities, but begins to expand to a vast number of small towns. Over the years, the characteristics, models, and mechanisms of shrinkage in large cities have attracted the attention of scholars; however, the problem of shrinkage in small towns has not been fully discussed. In China, small towns are located at the margins of cities and are the first part of the countryside; hence, they are the link and the bridge between urban and rural areas, and a space carrier to solve the diseases of big cities and for rural rejuvenation as a whole. However, in the process of rapid urbanization, some small towns have experienced urban shrinkage, mainly through a decline in township enterprises and the deterioration of the living environment, which has restricted their role in coordinating the spatial support of urban and rural development. Therefore, a correct understanding of the shrinkage of small towns has considerable theoretical and practical guiding significance. We focused on the towns of the Jilin Province as the research unit, and combined township population, economy, land use, and employment indices to establish an urban shrinkage index, identifying the status, spatial distribution, and influencing factors of small towns shrinkage in the Jilin Province. Moreover, we analyzed the similarities and differences of small towns shrinkage between the Jilin Province and developed countries. The results show that small towns shrinkage in the Jilin Province shares similar characteristics with developed countries, as well as important differences in aspects such as population migration, low-level industrial structure, and administrative division adjustments.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0231159PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7153881PMC
July 2020

Diffused hepatic angiosarcoma with Kasabach-Merritt syndrome-case report and literature review.

BMC Gastroenterol 2020 Mar 30;20(1):80. Epub 2020 Mar 30.

Department of hepatobiliary surgery, Beijing Chaoyang Hospital, Capital Medical University, 8 Gongti South Street, Chaoyang, 100021, District Beijing, China.

Background: Hepatic angiosarcoma is a rare malignant tumor featured by highly aggressive behavior and poor prognosis. There are few reports about diffused hepatic angiosarcoma with Kasabach-Merritt syndrome till now.

Case Presentation: A male patient with the chief complain of hepatic space-occupying lesion accompanied by disturbance of consciousness and jaundice. Hyperbilirubinemia, anemia, thrombocytopenia, prolonged prothrombin time, hypofibrinogenemia, decreased prothrombin activity, and increased fibrinogen degradation product and D-dimer were confirmed by blood analysis; multiple focal hypodense lesions in liver was detected by abdominal computed tomography. Liver failure and Kasabach-Merritt syndrome induced by hepatic hemangioma was diagnosed before operation and liver transplantation was performed. Hepatic angiosarcoma was finally proven by postoperative pathology. This patient died of tumor metastasis 2 months after operation.

Conclusions: Hepatic angiosarcoma which can generate Kasabach-Merritt syndrome and even liver failure has an extremely poor prognosis; liver transplantation option should not be considered in hepatic angiosarcoma regardless of the reason.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12876-020-01216-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7104501PMC
March 2020
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