Publications by authors named "Yao Guo"

134 Publications

Nonlinear Amplification of Chirality in Self-Assembled Plasmonic Nanostructures.

ACS Nano 2021 Mar 4. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

School of Physics, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081, China.

Molecular chirality transfer and amplification is at the heart of the fundamental understanding of chiral origin and fabrication of artificial chiral materials. We investigate here the nonlinear amplification effect in the chiral transfer from small molecules to assembled plasmonic nanoparticles. Our results show clearly a recognizable nonlinear behavior of the electronic and plasmonic circular dichroism activities, demonstrating the validity of the "majority-rules" principle operating in both the three-dimensional interface-confined molecularly chiral environment and the assembled plasmonic nanoparticles. Such twin "majority-rules" effects from the self-assembled organic-inorganic nanocomposite system have not been reported previously. By establishing a direct correlation between the dynamic template of the molecularly chiral environment and the nonlinear chiral amplification in the nanoparticle assemblies, this study may provide an insightful understanding of the hierarchical and cooperative chiral information transfer from molecular levels to nanoscales.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsnano.1c01158DOI Listing
March 2021

Regulative Electronic States around Ruthenium/Ruthenium Disulphide Heterointerfaces for Efficient Water Splitting in Acidic Media.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2021 Feb 25. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Wuhan University of Technology, State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processi, 122 Luoshi Road, State Lab, Wuhan Univsersity of Technology, 430070, Wuhan, CHINA.

Theoretical calculations unveil the charge redistribution over abundant interfaces and the enhanced electronic states of Ru/RuS 2 heterostructure. The resulting surface electron-deficient Ru sites display optimized adsorption behavior toward diverse reaction intermediates, thereby reducing the thermodynamic energy barriers. Experimentally, for the first time the laminar Ru/RuS 2 heterostructure is rationally engineered by virtue of the synchronous reduction and sulfurization under eutectic salt system. Impressively, it exhibits extremely high catalytic activity for both OER (201 mV @ 10 mA cm -2 ) and HER (45 mV @ 10 mA cm -2 ) in acidic media due to favorable kinetics and excellent specific activity, consequently leading to a terrific performance in acidic overall water splitting devices (1.501 V @ 10 mA cm -2 ). The in-depth insight into the internal activity origin of interfacial effect could offer precise guidance for the rational establishment of hybrid interfaces.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.202101539DOI Listing
February 2021

Highly efficient self-trapped exciton emission in a one-dimensional face-shared hybrid lead bromide.

Chem Commun (Camb) 2021 Feb 15. Epub 2021 Feb 15.

Key Laboratory of Magnetic Molecules & Magnetic Information Materials, Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry & Material Science, Shanxi Normal University, Linfen 041004, P. R. China. and School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024, P. R. China.

A new one-dimensional (1D) face-shared hybrid lead bromide of (2cepiH)PbBr3, which exhibits intrinsic broadband yellow-light emission with a quantum yield of 16.8% outperforming all previously reported 1D face-shared hybrid metal halides, is obtained. The origin of broadband emission and the coexistence of free excitons and self-trapped excitons are deeply investigated by variable-temperature photoluminescence spectra. Our work paves the way to discovering more wonderful light-emitting materials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0cc08218jDOI Listing
February 2021

TRIM47 accelerates aerobic glycolysis and tumor progression through regulating ubiquitination of FBP1 in pancreatic cancer.

Pharmacol Res 2021 Jan 30;166:105429. Epub 2021 Jan 30.

Department of Pancreatic Surgery, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430022, China. Electronic address:

Increasing studies demonstrated that ubiquitination plays a vital role in the pathogenesis of pancreatic cancer, and targeting regulation of the ubiquitination process is a potential means for cancer treatment. However, the role of tripartite motif 47 (TRIM47) in pancreatic cancer is still unclear. Here, significantly upregulated TRIM47 and decreased FBP1 expressions were found in pancreatic cancer patient tissues and pointed to a lower survival rate. In addition, we show that TRIM47 was upregulated in pancreatic cancer cells and promoted cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistic investigations showed that TRIM47 promoted the aerobic glycolysis of pancreatic cancer cells, which was largely dependent on the direct binding to and ubiquitination of fructose-1, 6-biphosphatase (FBP1). Furthermore, the promotion of TRIM47 on the Warburg effect and pancreatic cancer progression was abolished by the overexpression of FBP1. Therefore, targeting TRIM47/FBP1 axis might provide a novel strategy to suppress the development of pancreatic cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phrs.2021.105429DOI Listing
January 2021

Prolonged melatonin treatment promote testicular recovery by enhancing RAC1-mediated apoptotic cell clearance and cell junction-dependent spermatogensis after heat stress.

Theriogenology 2021 Mar 16;162:22-31. Epub 2020 Dec 16.

State Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University, Beijing, 100193, China. Electronic address:

Introduction: A decline in semen quality caused by global warming and torrid working conditions is a major cause of human male infertility, and heat stress-induced decreases in male reproductive ability results in economic losses in livestock husbandry. Increasing evidence suggests that melatonin exerts protective effects on stress-induced DNA damage and apoptosis in germ cells. However, few studies have assessed the effects of melatonin on testicular recovery during post-heat stress and the underlying mechanisms.

Methods And Results: In vivo studies using 8-week-old male CD-1 mice revealed that melatonin pretreatment (50 mg/kg for 5 days) did not alleviate heat stress-induced germ cell loss and disrupted testicular histomorphology, however, long-term melatonin administration after heat stress accelerated germ cell apoptosis, spermatogenic cell regeneration, and testicular weight recovery. In vitro studies demonstrated that melatonin enhanced RAC1 activity, resulting in increased phagocytosis of apoptotic germ cells by Sertoli cells. In addition, melatonin restored gap junctions and tight junctions after heat stress, thereby promoting hollow seminiferous tubule filling.

Discussion: Long-term melatonin administration accelerated testicular recovery after heat stress by enhancing the phagocytotic activity of Sertoli cells and the regeneration of spermatogenic cells. This finding suggests that melatonin is a potential therapeutic for heat stress-induced male infertility.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.theriogenology.2020.12.015DOI Listing
March 2021

DHA/EPA-Enriched Phosphatidylcholine Suppresses Tumor Growth and Metastasis via Activating Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor γ in Lewis Lung Cancer Mice.

J Agric Food Chem 2021 Jan 6;69(2):676-685. Epub 2021 Jan 6.

College of Food Science and Engineering, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266003, Shandong, China.

In the present study, the antitumor effects of docosahexaenoic acid-phosphatidylcholine (DHA-PC) and eicosapentanoic acid-phosphatidylcholine (EPA-PC) in Lewis lung cancer mice were investigated. As observed, DHA-PC and EPA-PC obviously inhibited the transplanted tumor growth and the positive expression of Ki67. The metastatic nodules and hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining of the lung indicated that DHA-PC and EPA-PC suppressed lung metastasis. PPARγ has a key role in cell survival, which may be a target for cancer therapy. Further mechanism research indicated that DHA-PC and EPA-PC significantly enhanced the levels of PPARγ and subsequently downregulated the NF-κB pathway. DHA-PC and EPA-PC accelerate cancer cell apoptosis by decreasing NF-κB-mediated antiapoptotic factors Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL, thereby inhibiting tumor growth. In addition, DHA-PC and EPA-PC significantly decreased the levels of NF-κB-mediated matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP9) and heparanase (HPA), which block the extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation, thereby suppressing lung metastasis. These findings suggested that DHA-PC and EPA-PC could be used as food supplements and/or functional ingredients for cancer patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.0c06890DOI Listing
January 2021

A review of wearable and unobtrusive sensing technologies for chronic disease management.

Comput Biol Med 2021 Feb 13;129:104163. Epub 2020 Dec 13.

Center for Intelligent Medical Electronics, School of Information Science and Technology, Fudan University, Shanghai, 200433, China. Electronic address:

With the rapidly increasing number of patients with chronic disease, numerous recent studies have put great efforts into achieving long-term health monitoring and patient management. Specifically, chronic diseases including cardiovascular disease, chronic respiratory disease and brain disease can threaten patients' health conditions over a long period of time, thus effecting their daily lives. Vital health parameters, such as heart rate, respiratory rate, SpO and blood pressure, are closely associated with patients’ conditions. Wearable devices and unobtrusive sensing technologies can detect such parameters in a convenient way and provide timely predictions on health condition deterioration by tracking these biomedical signals and health parameters. In this paper, we review current advancements in wearable devices and unobtrusive sensing technologies that can provides possible tools and technological supports for chronic disease management. Current challenges and future directions of related techniques are addressed accordingly.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compbiomed.2020.104163DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7733550PMC
February 2021

Disinhibition of somatostatin interneurons confers resilience to stress in male but not female mice.

Neurobiol Stress 2020 Nov 10;13:100238. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Department of Biology, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, 16802, USA.

Chronic stress represents a vulnerability factor for anxiety and depressive disorders and has been widely used to model aspects of these disorders in rodents. Disinhibition of somatostatin (SST)-positive GABAergic interneurons in mice by deletion of γ2 GABA receptors selectively from these cells (SSTCre:γ2 mice) has been shown to result in behavioral and biochemical changes that mimic the responses to antidepressant doses of ketamine. Here we explored the extent to which SSTCre:γ2 mice exhibit resilience to unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS). We found that male SSTCre:γ2 mice are resilient to UCMS-induced (i) reductions in weight gain, (ii) reductions in SST-immuno-positive cells in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), (iii) increases in phosphorylation of eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF2) in mPFC, and (iv) increased anxiety in a novelty suppressed feeding test. Female SSTCre:γ2 mice were resilient to UCMS-induced reductions in SST-immuno-positive cells indistinguishably from males. However, in contrast to males, they showed no UCMS effects on weight gain independent of genotype. Moreover, in mPFC of female γ2 control mice, UCMS resulted in paradoxically reduced p-EF2 levels without stress effects in the SSTCre:γ2 mutants. Lastly, female SSTCre:γ2 mice showed increased rather than reduced UCMS induced anxiety compared to γ2 controls. Thus, disinhibition of SST interneurons results in behavioral resilience to UCMS selectively in male mice, along with cellular resilience of SST neurons to UCMS independent of sex. Thus, mechanisms underlying vulnerability and resilience to stress are sex specific and map to mPFC rather than hippocampus but appear unrelated to changes in expression of SST as a marker of corresponding interneurons.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ynstr.2020.100238DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7739040PMC
November 2020

Early essential newborn care is associated with increased breastfeeding: a quasi-experimental study from Sichuan Province of Western China.

Int Breastfeed J 2020 Nov 23;15(1):99. Epub 2020 Nov 23.

National Center for Women and Children's Health, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, 100081, China.

Background: Breastfeeding is critical to promote maternal and child health. China has set national targets to further improve the exclusive breastfeeding rate. We aimed to examine associations between the provision of early essential newborn care (EENC) and breastfeeding outcomes among full term vaginally delivered neonates in the first 6 months of life.

Methods: We conducted a quasi-experimental study in eight maternal and children's hospitals in Mianyang City and Deyang City in Sichuan Province of western China. Four hospitals were randomly selected as the intervention group with the implementation of EENC while others as the control group receiving routine care. We assessed effects of EENC on breastfeeding initiation time, duration of first-time breastfeeding, and exclusive breastfeeding rates up to 6 months of age. Data were collected after delivery, at hospital discharge, 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months post birth in the baseline phase from May to June 2017 and post-EENC phase from October to December 2017. We performed univariate analyses to ascertain differences between the two groups, and difference in difference (DID) models to explore the net effects.

Results: Of the 1349 enrolled mother and newborn pairs in our study, 1131 (83.9%) were followed up at 1 month of age, 1075 (79.7%) at 3 months, and 981 (72.7%) at 6 months. EENC was associated with earlier median time to initiate breastfeeding (25 min vs. 33 min, P <  0.01), an increased chance of successful first-time breastfeeding (OR 5.53; 95% CI 2.69, 11.40), longer duration of skin to skin contact (SSC) (21.53 min; 95% CI 18.17, 24.89) and longer duration of the first breastfeed (4.16 min; 95% CI 2.10, 6.22), and an increased likelihood of being exclusively breastfed at discharge (74.5% vs. 55.0%, P <  0.001), 3 months (OR 3.20; 95% CI 1.01, 10.15), and 6 months (OR 4.91; 95% CI 1.71, 14.13) of age.

Conclusions: EENC enhances breastfeeding initiation and increases exclusive breastfeeding at 6 months of age. Our evidence suggests that nationwide scale up of EENC would increase the exclusive breastfeeding rate in the first 6 months of life.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13006-020-00343-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7684754PMC
November 2020

Night-restricted feeding improves locomotor activity rhythm and modulates nutrient utilization to accelerate growth in rabbits.

FASEB J 2021 Jan 13;35(1):e21166. Epub 2020 Nov 13.

State Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University, Beijing, China.

An unfavorable lifestyle disrupts the circadian rhythm, leading to metabolic dysfunction in adult humans and animals. Increasing evidence suggests that night-restricted feeding (NRF) can effectively prevent ectopic fat deposition caused by circadian rhythm disruption, and reduce the risk of metabolic diseases. However, previous studies have mainly focused on the prevention of obesity in adults by regulating dietary patterns, whereas limited attention has been paid to the effect of NRF on metabolism during growth and development. Here, we used weaning rabbits as models and found that NRF increased body weight gain without increasing feed intake, and promoted insulin-mediated protein synthesis through the mTOR/S6K pathway and muscle formation by upregulating MYOG. NRF improved the circadian clock, promoted PDH-regulated glycolysis and CPT1B-regulated fatty-acid β-oxidation, and reduced fat content in the serum and muscles. In addition, NRF-induced body temperature oscillation might be partly responsible for the improvement in the circadian clock and insulin sensitivity. Time-restricted feeding could be used as a nondrug intervention to prevent obesity and accelerate growth in adolescents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1096/fj.202001265RRDOI Listing
January 2021

The dynamics in rhizosphere microbial communities under bacterial wilt resistance by mulberry genotypes.

Arch Microbiol 2020 Nov 9. Epub 2020 Nov 9.

Industrial Crops Institute, Hubei Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Wuhan, 430064, China.

The contribution of crops and soil microbial community structure and functional diversity in soil-borne diseases control mulberry plant production is still inadequately understood. In this work, a comparative study was undertaken on the microbial abundance, community structure, and functional diversity in the soil rhizosphere between the resistant (Kangqing 10) and the susceptible (Guisang 12) mulberry genotypes. The study deployed the use of dilution plate method, micro-ecology technology, and polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) techniques. The study aimed at developing better crop management methods for mulberry cultivation as well as preventing and controlling the occurrence and impacts of bacterial wilt on mulberry productivity. The results indicated that the soil rhizosphere microorganisms were more abundant in the normal resistant mulberry genotype than in the normal susceptible mulberry genotype. Carbon source utilization was better in the normal susceptible mulberry genotype. These properties were lower in the sickly resistant mulberry genotype than in the susceptible sickly mulberry genotype. Through the PCR-DGGE, it was shown that the bacterial and fungal community structures of the resistant genotypes were more stable than those of the susceptible genotypes. Through correlation regression analysis, it was shown that the mulberry bacterial wilt significantly contributes to the loss of soil nutrients, particularly organic matter and nitrogen, a possible cause to disrupted balance between the soil microbial community and the loss of soil organic matter. Resistant genotype plants displayed more resistance to bacterial wilt. Therefore, this study recommends the need to promote the cultivation of resistant genotype mulberry for increased yield.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00203-020-02098-1DOI Listing
November 2020

The strategy and efficacy of prophylaxis against hepatitis B virus recurrence after liver transplantation for HBV-related diseases in the era of potent nucleos(t)ide analogues: A meta-analysis.

J Dig Dis 2021 Feb;22(2):91-101

Department of Infectious Diseases, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan Province, China.

Objectives: This meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the clinical outcome of liver transplant (LT) recipients under potent nucleoside or nucleotide analogue (NA)-based regimens and investigate different prophylactic schemes.

Methods: We followed PRISMA statement to conduct this study. Two reviewers independently searched relevant literature via PubMed, Embase, Ovid MEDLINE, Web of Science and Insightmeme. Studies were included if they evaluated hepatitis B virus (HBV) recurrence under potent NA-based regimens in patients who received HBV-related LT. Primary and secondary outcomes were HBV recurrence, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) recurrence, all-cause and HBV recurrence-related mortality. Incidences with 95% confidence intervals were calculated and assessed by fixed and random effects models. Subgroup analyses were used to examine the impact of different treatment strategies.

Results: Altogether 25 studies (N = 2327) were included, with a pooled HBV recurrence rate of 1.01% (95% CI 0.53%-1.59%). HBV viremia or hepatitis D virus superinfection did not influence HBV recurrence significantly (P = 0.23 and 0.71, respectively). The recurrence rate under an indefinite combination of potent NA and hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG) was lower than that under potent NA monotherapy (P = 0.000) and similar to that under NA plus a finite course of HBIG (P = 0.48). The pooled HCC recurrence rate was 5.34% (95% CI 0.78%-12.48%). HBV recurrence-related mortality and all-cause mortality were 0% and 6.95% (95% CI 4.30%-10.08%), respectively.

Conclusions: Potent NA-based regimens provide satisfactory HBV antiviral prophylaxis and improve long-term outcomes for LT recipients. A finite combination of potent NA and HBIG is an alternative to life-long dual therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1751-2980.12959DOI Listing
February 2021

Oridonin Attenuates TNBS-induced Post-inflammatory Irritable Bowel Syndrome via PXR/NF-κB Signaling.

Inflammation 2020 Oct 30. Epub 2020 Oct 30.

School of Pharmaceutical, Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan, 030000, Shanxi, China.

To investigate the beneficial effects of oridonin, a diterpenoid compound isolated from Rabdosia rubescens, on the inflammatory response in TNBS-induced post-inflammatory irritable bowel syndrome (PI-IBS) model and the underlying mechanism. Using the PI-IBS rat model and Caco-2 cell lines, we found that intestinal barrier function reflected by lactulose/mannitol (L/M) ratio and tight junction protein level was significantly ameliorated by oridonin. We also demonstrated that oridonin abrogated inflammation through inhibiting the phosphorylation of NF-κBp65 as well as its downstream gene (iNOS, COX-2, IL-1β, and IL-6) level. Molecular docking studies confirmed the good binding activity between oridonin and PXR. In Caco-2 cell lines, oridonin markedly inhibited LPS-induced NF-κB activation in a PXR-dependent manner. Meanwhile, PXR and its target genes CYP3A4 and P-gp were induced by oridonin, which was associated with the decreased expression of NF-κB and the recovery of intestinal barrier. This study indicated that the therapeutic effect of oridonin on experimental PI-IBS through repairing intestinal barrier function may be closely associated with the regulatory role of PXR/NF-κB signaling pathway. Oridonin may serve as a PXR ligand for the development of drugs in the therapy for PI-IBS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10753-020-01364-0DOI Listing
October 2020

Charge density waves and degenerate modes in exfoliated monolayer 2H-TaS.

IUCrJ 2020 Sep 25;7(Pt 5):913-919. Epub 2020 Aug 25.

School of Physics, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081, People's Republic of China.

Charge density waves spontaneously breaking lattice symmetry through periodic lattice distortion, and electron-electron and electron-phonon inter-actions, can lead to a new type of electronic band structure. Bulk 2H-TaS is an archetypal transition metal dichalcogenide supporting charge density waves with a phase transition at 75 K. Here, it is shown that charge density waves can exist in exfoliated monolayer 2H-TaS and the transition temperature can reach 140 K, which is much higher than that in the bulk. The degenerate breathing and wiggle modes of 2H-TaS originating from the periodic lattice distortion are probed by optical methods. The results open an avenue to investigating charge density wave phases in two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides and will be helpful for understanding and designing devices based on charge density waves.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1107/S2052252520011021DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7467171PMC
September 2020

Development of a highly sensitive method for detection of FLT3D835Y.

Biomark Res 2020 12;8:30. Epub 2020 Aug 12.

Department of Pathology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, 940 Stanton L. Young Blvd., BMSB 451, Oklahoma City, OK 73104 USA.

Background: Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a malignant hematological neoplasm of myeloid progenitor cells. Mutations of FLT3 in its tyrosine kinase domain (FLT3-TKD) are found in ~ 8% of patients with AML, with D835Y as the most common substitution. This mutation activates survival signals that drives the disease and is resistant to the first generation FLT3 inhibitors. Development of a highly sensitive method to detect FLT3D835Y is important to direct therapeutic options, predict prognosis, and monitor minimal residual disease in patients with AML.

Methods And Results: In the present study, we developed a highly sensitive FLT3D835Y detection method by using the restriction fragment nested allele-specific PCR technique. The method consists of three steps: 1) initial amplification of DNA samples with PCR primers surrounding the FLT3D835Y mutation site, 2) digestion of the PCR products with restriction enzyme EcoRV that only cleaves the wild type allele, and 3) detection of FLT3D835Y by allele-specific PCR with nested primers. We were able to detect FLT3D835Y with a sensitivity of 0.001% by using purified plasmid DNAs and blood cell DNAs containing known proportions of FLT3D835Y. We analyzed blood cell DNA samples from 64 patients with AML and found six FLT3D835Y-positive cases, two of which could not be detected by conventional DNA sequencing methods. Importantly, the method was able to detect FLT3D835Y in a sample collected from a relapsed patient while the patient was in complete remission with negative MRD determined by flow cytometry. Therefore, our RFN-AS-PCR detected MRD after treatment that was missed by flow cytometry and Sanger DNA sequencing, by conventional methods.

Conclusions: We have developed a simple and highly sensitive method that will allow for detection of FLT3D835Y at a very low level. This method may have major clinical implications for treatment of AML.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40364-020-00210-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7424998PMC
August 2020

Dietary Components, Microbial Metabolites and Human Health: Reading between the Lines.

Foods 2020 Aug 3;9(8). Epub 2020 Aug 3.

Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory of Animal Intestinal Function and Regulation, College of Life Sciences, Hunan Normal University, Changsha 410006, China.

Trillions of bacteria reside in the human gut and they metabolize dietary substances to obtain nutrients and energy while producing metabolites. Therefore, different dietary components could affect human health in various ways through microbial metabolism. Many such metabolites have been shown to affect human physiological activities, including short-chain fatty acids metabolized from carbohydrates; indole, kynurenic acid and para-cresol, metabolized from amino acids; conjugated linoleic acid and linoleic acid, metabolized from lipids. Here, we review the features of these metabolites and summarize the possible molecular mechanisms of their metabolisms by gut microbiota. We discuss the potential roles of these metabolites in health and diseases, and the interactions between host metabolism and the gut microbiota. We also show some of the major dietary patterns around the world and hope this review can provide insights into our eating habits and improve consumers' health conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods9081045DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7466307PMC
August 2020

Cross-Subject and Cross-Modal Transfer for Generalized Abnormal Gait Pattern Recognition.

IEEE Trans Neural Netw Learn Syst 2021 Feb 4;32(2):546-560. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

For abnormal gait recognition, pattern-specific features indicating abnormalities are interleaved with the subject-specific differences representing biometric traits. Deep representations are, therefore, prone to overfitting, and the models derived cannot generalize well to new subjects. Furthermore, there is limited availability of abnormal gait data obtained from precise Motion Capture (Mocap) systems because of regulatory issues and slow adaptation of new technologies in health care. On the other hand, data captured from markerless vision sensors or wearable sensors can be obtained in home environments, but noises from such devices may prevent the effective extraction of relevant features. To address these challenges, we propose a cascade of deep architectures that can encode cross-modal and cross-subject transfer for abnormal gait recognition. Cross-modal transfer maps noisy data obtained from RGBD and wearable sensors to accurate 4-D representations of the lower limb and joints obtained from the Mocap system. Subsequently, cross-subject transfer allows disentangling subject-specific from abnormal pattern-specific gait features based on a multiencoder autoencoder architecture. To validate the proposed methodology, we obtained multimodal gait data based on a multicamera motion capture system along with synchronized recordings of electromyography (EMG) data and 4-D skeleton data extracted from a single RGBD camera. Classification accuracy was improved significantly in both Mocap and noisy modalities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TNNLS.2020.3009448DOI Listing
February 2021

Tumor progression locus 2 (TPL2) in tumor-promoting Inflammation, Tumorigenesis and Tumor Immunity.

Theranostics 2020 9;10(18):8343-8364. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

The Key Laboratory of Biorheological Science and Technology, Ministry of Education, College of Bioengineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044, China.

Over the years, tumor progression locus 2 (TPL2) has been identified as an essential modulator of immune responses that conveys inflammatory signals to downstream effectors, subsequently modulating the generation and function of inflammatory cells. TPL2 is also differentially expressed and activated in several cancers, where it is associated with increased inflammation, malignant transformation, angiogenesis, metastasis, poor prognosis and therapy resistance. However, the relationship between TPL2-driven inflammation, tumorigenesis and tumor immunity has not been addressed. Here, we reconcile the function of TPL2-driven inflammation to oncogenic functions such as inflammation, proliferation, apoptosis resistance, angiogenesis, metastasis, immunosuppression and immune evasion. We also address the controversies reported on TPL2 function in tumor-promoting inflammation and tumorigenesis, and highlight the potential role of the TPL2 adaptor function in regulating the mechanisms leading to pro-tumorigenic inflammation and tumor progression. We discuss the therapeutic implications and limitations of targeting TPL2 for cancer treatment. The ideas presented here provide some new insight into cancer pathophysiology that might contribute to the development of more integrative and specific anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer therapeutics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/thno.45848DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7381748PMC
July 2020

Application of artificial intelligence in surgery.

Front Med 2020 Aug 23;14(4):417-430. Epub 2020 Jul 23.

Institute of Medical Robotics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, 200240, China.

Artificial intelligence (AI) is gradually changing the practice of surgery with technological advancements in imaging, navigation, and robotic intervention. In this article, we review the recent successful and influential applications of AI in surgery from preoperative planning and intraoperative guidance to its integration into surgical robots. We conclude this review by summarizing the current state, emerging trends, and major challenges in the future development of AI in surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11684-020-0770-0DOI Listing
August 2020

Association between admission hypothermia and outcomes in very low birth weight infants in China: a multicentre prospective study.

BMC Pediatr 2020 06 29;20(1):321. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Heze Municipal Hospital, Heze, China.

Background: The objective of this prospective, multicentre, observational cohort study was to evaluate the association between admission hypothermia and neonatal outcomes in very low-birth weight (VLBW) infants in multiple neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) in China.

Methods: Since January 1, 2018, a neonatal homogeneous cooperative research platform-Shandong Neonatal Network (SNN) has been established. The platform collects clinical data in a prospective manner on preterm infants with birth weights (BWs) < 1500 g and gestational ages (GAs) < 34 weeks born in 28 NICUs in Shandong Province. These infants were divided into normothermia, mild or moderate/severe hypothermia groups according to the World Health Organization (WHO) classifications of hypothermia. Associations between outcomes and hypothermia were tested in a bivariate analysis, followed by a logistic regression analysis.

Results: A total of 1247 VLBW infants were included in this analysis, of which 1100 infants (88.2%) were included in the hypothermia group, 554 infants (44.4%) in the mild hypothermia group and 546 infants (43.8%) in the moderate/severe hypothermia group. Small for gestational age (SGA), caesarean section, a low Apgar score at 5 min and intubation in the delivery room (DR) were related to admission hypothermia (AH). Mortality was the lowest when their admission temperature was 36.5 ~ 37.5 °C, and after adjustment for maternal and infant characteristics, mortality was significantly associated with AH. Compared with infants with normothermia (36.5 ~ 37.5 °C), the adjusted ORs of all deaths increased to 4.148 (95% CI 1.505-11.437) and 1.806 (95% CI 0.651-5.009) for infants with moderate/severe hypothermia and mild hypothermia, respectively. AH was also associated with a high likelihood of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH), and late-onset neonatal sepsis (LOS).

Conclusions: AH is still very high in VLBW infants in NICUs in China. SGA, caesarean section, a low Apgar score at 5 min and intubation in the DR were associated with increased odds of hypothermia. Moderate/severe hypothermia was associated with mortality and poor outcomes, such as RDS, IVH, LOS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12887-020-02221-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7322890PMC
June 2020

MLiBePO and MLi(LiP)PO (M = Cs, Rb): deep-ultraviolet nonlinear-optical phosphates with a tetrahedra-substituted paracelsian-like framework.

Chem Commun (Camb) 2020 Aug 29;56(61):8639-8642. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Key Laboratory of Magnetic Molecules and Magnetic Information Material of Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Material Science, Shanxi Normal University, Linfen 041004, China.

New paracelsian-like beryllophosphates MLiBePO and their tetrahedra-substituted phases MLi(LiP)PO (MLiPO, M = Cs, Rb) were designed and synthesized. Interestingly, two types of phases undergo a structural transformation, resulting from the radius and valence charge number of tetrahedral cations. Four crystals demonstrate potential deep-UV NLO properties such as short absorption edges (<190 nm) and phase-matching SHG response.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0cc03159cDOI Listing
August 2020

Comparison of different molecular forms of astaxanthin in inhibiting lipogenesis and its mechanism.

Curr Pharm Biotechnol 2020 Jun 26. Epub 2020 Jun 26.

College of Food Science and Engineering, Ocean University of China, Qingdao. China.

Background: Astaxanthin is a natural active substance with a plurality of biological activities, such as antioxidation, anti-inflammatory and anti-cardio-cerebrovascular diseases. However, there is less research on the effects of astaxanthin on obesity. Astaxanthin with different structural forms affect corresponding biological activity.

Objective: Comparing Astaxanthin-octanoic acid diester (C8-AST) and Free astaxanthin (F-AST) to explore the effect on lipogenesis in vitro.

Methods: 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were cultured under astaxanthin treatment. Cell proliferation and differentiation were evaluated by MTT assay and oil red O staining, respectively. The synthesis metabolic mechanism of intracellular fatty acids and triglycerides were examined by qRT-PCR and Western blotting.

Results: C8-AST and F-AST had no effect on adipocyte proliferation at low concentration, but inhibited adipocyte differentiation. The treatment of astaxanthin could inhibit the expression of PPARγ, C/EBPα and SREBP-1c in adipocytes, upregulate the expression of Wnt10b, LRP6, FZ in Wnt/ β-catenin signaling pathway and increase the β-catenin entry into nucleus, suggesting that activation of Wnt/ β-catenin signaling was involved in axtaxanthin-regulated lipogenesis. Notably, inhibition effect of lipogenesis on C8-AST was better than F-AST overall.

Conclusion: At the cellular level, both two kinds of astaxanthins inhibit the synthesis of intracellular fatty acids and triglycerides. Notably, the inhibition effect of C8-AST is better than F-AST overall.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1389201021666200626162301DOI Listing
June 2020

Association of whole grains intake and the risk of digestive tract cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Nutr J 2020 06 3;19(1):52. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, College of Public Health, Zhengzhou University, 100 Kexue Avenue, Zhengzhou, 450001, Henan, China.

Background: Several epidemiological studies have investigated the association between whole grains intake and digestive tract cancer risk; however, the results are still controversial. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to assess the association.

Methods: Studies published before March 2020 were searched in database and other sources. The risk ratio (RR) with the 95% confidence interval (CI) were pooled using fix or random-effects models.

Results: This meta-analysis included 34 articles reporting 35 studies, 18 studies of colorectal cancer, 11 studies of gastric cancer and 6 studies of esophagus cancer, involving 2,663,278 participants and 28,921 cases. Comparing the highest-intake participants with the lowest-intake participants for whole grains, we found that the intake of whole grains were inversely related to colorectal cancer (RR = 0.89, 95% CI: 0.84-0.93, P < 0.001), gastric cancer (RR = 0.64, 95% CI: 0.53-0.79, P < 0.001), esophagus cancer (RR = 0.54, 95% CI: 0.44-0.67, P < 0.001), respectively. However, subgroup analysis of colorectal cancer found no significant association in the case-control studies and studies of sample size < 500, and subgroup analysis of gastric cancer found no significant association in the cohort studies and studies of American population. No study significantly affected the findings in the sensitivity analysis. No publication bias was found in the studies for colorectal cancer and esophagus cancer except in the studies for gastric cancer.

Conclusion: This meta-analysis provides further evidence that whole grains intake was associated with a reduced risk of digestive tract cancer. Our result supports the dietary guidelines that increase whole grains intake to reduce the risk of digestive tract cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12937-020-00556-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7271550PMC
June 2020

Simvastatin inhibits the adipogenesis of bone marrow‑derived mesenchymal stem cells through the downregulation of chemerin/CMKLR1 signaling.

Int J Mol Med 2020 Aug 18;46(2):751-761. Epub 2020 May 18.

Department of Orthopaedics, Shanxi Bethune Hospital Affiliated to Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan, Shanxi 030032, P.R. China.

Simvastatin is effective in the treatment of osteoporosis, partly through the inhibition of the adipogenesis of bone‑marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). The present study focused on the mechanisms responsible for the inhibitory effects of simvastatin on adipogenesis and examined the effects of simvastatin on the expression of peroxisome proliferator‑activated receptor γ (PPARγ), chemerin, chemokine‑like receptor 1 (CMKLR1), G protein‑coupled receptor 1 (GPR1) and the adipocyte marker gene, adiponectin. BMSCs were isolated from 4‑week‑old female Sprague‑Dawley (SD) rats, and adipogenesis was measured by the absorbance values at 490 nm of Oil Red O dye. The expression of each gene was evaluated by western blot analysis or reverse transcription‑quantitative PCR (RT‑qPCR). The expression of chemerin increased during adipogenesis, while CMKLR1 exhibited a trend towards a decreased expression. On days 7 and 14, the simvastatin‑treated cells exhibited a downregulated expression of chemerin, whereas the upregulated expression of its receptor, CMKLR1 was observed. The results also revealed that CMKLR1 is required for adipogenesis and the simvastatin‑mediated inhibitory effect on adipogenesis. Simvastatin regulated adipogenesis by negatively modulating chemerin‑CMKLR1 signaling. Importantly, simvastatin stimulation inhibited the upregulation of PPARγ and PPARγ‑mediated chemerin expression to prevent adipogenesis. Treatment with the PPARγ agonist, rosiglitazone, partially reversed the negative regulatory effects of simvastatin. On the whole, the findings of the present study demonstrate that simvastatin inhibits the adipogenesis of BMSCs through the downregulation of PPARγ and subsequently prevents the PPARγ‑mediated induction of chemerin/CMKLR1 signaling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/ijmm.2020.4606DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7307816PMC
August 2020

The Effect of Bisphosphonates on Managing Osteoporosis After Spinal Cord Injury: A Meta-Analysis.

Curr Pharm Des 2020 ;26(39):5072-5078

Department of Orthopaedics, Shanxi Bethune Hospital, Taiyuan, Shanxi Province, China.

Background: The increased bone loss after spinal cord injury (SCI) is associated with an increase in the morbidity and mortality of fragility fractures, which can constitute a substantial cost to health care systems. Bisphosphonates (BPs) are now the principal class of medications used for osteoporosis.

Objective: To demonstrate the effect of BPs on treating osteoporosis after SCI.

Methods: A comprehensive search in PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science and Cochrane Central databases was undertaken for randomized controlled trials (RCTs), exploring the effect of BPs on osteoporosis after SCI. The primary outcome measures were the BMD of different locations, serum bone turnover marker levels, serum biochemistry marker levels and adverse effect (AE) risks. The final search was performed in September 2019. Reporting was carried out according to PRISMA Guidelines.

Results: Six RCTs were included. A total of 147 patients met the inclusion criteria. BPs were found to statistically prevent bone loss in the total hip, femoral neck and trochanter at the 6- and 12-month follow-up points and to increase the BMD of the lumbar spine at the 12-month follow-up time point. BPs had no clear effect on serum PINP or serum calcium levels at the 12-month follow-up time point.

Conclusion: BP therapy may prevent bone loss in the lumbar spine and hip when administered early after SCI and has relatively high safety.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1381612826666200504115747DOI Listing
January 2020

Coupled Real-Synthetic Domain Adaptation for Real-World Deep Depth Enhancement.

IEEE Trans Image Process 2020 Apr 23. Epub 2020 Apr 23.

Advances in depth sensing technologies have allowed simultaneous acquisition of both color and depth data under different environments. However, most depth sensors have lower resolution than that of the associated color channels and such a mismatch can affect applications that require accurate depth recovery. Existing depth enhancement methods use simplistic noise models and cannot generalize well under real-world conditions. In this paper, a coupled real-synthetic domain adaptation method is proposed, which enables domain transfer between high-quality depth simulators and real depth camera information for super-resolution depth recovery. The method first enables the realistic degradation from synthetic images, and then enhances degraded depth data to high quality with a color-guided sub-network. The key advantage of the work is that it generalizes well to real-world datasets without further training or fine-tuning. Detailed quantitative and qualitative results are presented, and it is demonstrated that the proposed method achieves improved performance compared to previous methods fine-tuned on the specific datasets.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TIP.2020.2988574DOI Listing
April 2020

Simultaneous evaluation of bioactivity and settleability of activated sludge using fractal dimension as an intermediate variable.

Water Res 2020 Jul 18;178:115834. Epub 2020 Apr 18.

CAS Key Laboratory of Urban Pollutant Conversion, Department of Applied Chemistry, University of Science & Technology of China, Hefei, 230026, China. Electronic address:

Bioactivity and settleability of activated sludge are essential for the operation of activated sludge systems in wastewater treatment. In this work, the fractal dimension of sludge image is proposed as a tool to evaluate these two factors. The specific endogenous respiration rate (SOUR) and the specific quasi-endogenous respiration rate (SOUR) are found to be more dependent on the 3D structure of sludge than the specific total respiration rate (SOUR). The relationship between the fractal structure and bioactivity suggests that the bioactivity governs the acceptable upper bound of the fractal dimension (D), as at its theoretical maximum of 2.0, the non-porous compact flocs are predominant. The settleability or the biomass concentration determines the acceptable lower bound of D, as at its theoretical minimum of 1.0, the free-swimming microbes are predominant. Our data reveal that the activated sludge has an acceptable fractal dimension D in a range of 1.07-1.68. In practice, the fractal dimension should be controlled at a reasonable value as there is a trade-off between the bioactivity and physical structure to achieve better performance. A decrease or increase in the fractal dimension can serve as a signal for the change of the operational status, and this is further elucidated from the perspective of settling tanks using state point analysis. Compared with respirogram measurement, measuring fractal dimension is a complex process and its online implementation is challenging. Also, the measured value varies with the methods used. In addition, the difference in their theoretical values depends on the homogeneity of the sludge structure. Since the fractal dimension D reflects both bioactivity and settleability of the sludge but is difficult to measure, in this work a relationship between D and the easily measurable respirogram is established, and a method using the respirogram as a proxy of D is proposed to control the bioactivity and settleability simultaneously. This respiration-based method is able to simultaneously control aeration and settling tanks, and could serve as an efficient tool for the management of wastewater treatment plants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2020.115834DOI Listing
July 2020

Altered inter-frequency dynamics of brain networks in disorder of consciousness.

J Neural Eng 2020 06 2;17(3):036006. Epub 2020 Jun 2.

School of Electrical and Information Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin, People's Republic of China.

Objective: Growing evidence have linked disorders of consciousness (DOC) with the changes in frequency-specific functional networks. However, the alteration of inter-frequency dynamics in brain networks remain largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the network integration and segregation across frequency bands in a multiplex network framework.

Approach: Resting-state EEG data were recorded and analysed from 19 patients in minimally conscious state, 35 patients in unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (UWS) and 23 healthy controls. Frequency-based multiplex (cross-frequency) networks were reconstructed by integrating the five frequency-specific networks. Multiplex graph metrics, named multiplex participation coefficient and multiplex clustering coefficient, were employed to assess the network topology of subjects with different levels of consciousness.

Main Results: Results revealed DOC networks, compared to those of healthy controls, may work at a less optimal point (closer to complete disorder) with increased integration and decreased segregation considering inter-frequency dynamics. Both metrics show increased spatial and temporal variability with the consciousness levels. Moreover, significant correlation can be found between the alteration of cross-frequency networks in DOC patients and their behavioural performance at both local and global scales.

Significance: These findings may contribute to the development of EEG network study and benefit our understanding of the processes of consciousness and their pathophysiology for DOC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1741-2552/ab8b2cDOI Listing
June 2020

The dynamic change of neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio is predictive of pathological complete response after neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer patients.

Breast Cancer 2020 Sep 18;27(5):982-988. Epub 2020 Apr 18.

Department of Breast Surgery, Chengdu Fifth People's Hospital, Chengdu, 611130, Sichuan, People's Republic of China.

Background: The pre-treatment neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) has been reported to be a predictive factor for pathologic complete response (pCR) after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) in breast cancer patients. However, whether the dynamic change of post-treatment neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (delta-NLR) can better predict the same outcome remains unclear.

Materials And Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 242 consecutive patients affected by breast cancer and candidates of NACT. The complete blood cell counts before and after NACT were evaluated to calculate NLR. The relationships between delta-NLR and pCR, along with other clinical-pathological characteristics were analyzed. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed using a logistic regression model.

Results: Of the 242 patients, 65 (26.9%) achieved a pCR. Pre-treatment NLR and post-treatment NLR were not significantly associated with pCR if analyzed separately in multivariate analyses. However, when combining together, patients with delta-NLR < 0 profile achieved a significantly higher rate of pCR compared to those with delta-NLR ≥ 0 (OR 2.84, 95% CI 1.35-5.96, p = 0.006). Additionally, the predictive value of delta-NLR was independent from common prognostic factors such as Ki-67, and molecular subtypes.

Conclusions: Delta-NLR, rather than pre-treatment or post-treatment NLR is associated with pCR rate, suggesting that the dynamic change of NLR may be an important factor predicting the response to NACT in breast cancer patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12282-020-01096-xDOI Listing
September 2020

Association between fluoride exposure and behavioural outcomes of school-age children: a pilot study in China.

Int J Environ Health Res 2020 Apr 13:1-10. Epub 2020 Apr 13.

Department of Environment Health, School of Public Health, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan, P. R. China.

To assess the association between fluoride exposure and children's behavioural outcomes, we recruited 325 resident school-age children (7-13 years old) lived in Tongxu County of Henan Province in China. We measured urinary fluoride (UF) concentrations using the ion-selective electrode method. Children's behavioural outcomes were assessed by Conners' Parent Rating Scale-Revised, including conduct problems, learning problems, psychosomatic problems, impulsive-hyperactive, anxiety, and ADHD index. It turned out that each 1.0 mg/L increment in UF concentration corresponded with an elevation in the psychosomatic problem score of 4.01 (95% : 2.74, 5.28) and a 97% (= 1.97, 95% : 1.19, 3.27) increase in the prevalence of psychosomatic problems after adjusting for potential influencing factors. The sensitivity analysis results were consistent with those observed in our preliminary analysis. Our study suggests that fluoride exposure is positively related to the behavioural problem in school-age children, psychosomatic problem in particular.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09603123.2020.1747601DOI Listing
April 2020