Publications by authors named "Yao Bai"

49 Publications

A Novel Diagnostic Method for Invasive Fungal Disease Using the Factor G Alpha Subunit From .

Front Microbiol 2021 28;12:658144. Epub 2021 Jun 28.

Assisted Reproductive Center, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China.

Deaths due to invasive fungal disease (IFD) have been increasing every year. Early and rapid detection is important to reduce the mortality rate associated with IFD. In this study, we explored a novel diagnostic method for detecting IFD, which involves the G Factor α subunit (GFαSub) from . The GFαSub double-sandwich method was developed to detect (1,3)-β-D-glucans in human serum using purified GFαSub and horseradish peroxidase-labeled GFαSub. The GFαSub double-sandwich method and the G test were performed and compared. Using GFαSub sequence analysis, the expression plasmid pET30a-GFαSub252-668 was synthesized, and GFαSub252-668 was expressed and purified isopropyl-β-d-thiogalactoside induction and nickel-nitrilotriacetic acid affinity. The optimization method was established the orthogonal method. Using this method, the sera of 36 patients with IFD and 92 volunteers without IFD underwent detection, and the receiver operating characteristic curve of the GFαSub252-668 double-sandwich method was described. The sensitivity and specificity of the GFαSub252-668 double-sandwich method were 91.67 and 82.61%, respectively, and there was good correlation with the G test for the serum specimens of 36 patients with pulmonary IFD ( = 0.7592). In conclusion, our study suggests that the GFαSub252-668 double-sandwich method was satisfactory at detecting IFD cases. This method can be promoted and further developed as a novel method for diagnosing IFD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2021.658144DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8275026PMC
June 2021

Polymorphism of Antifolate Drug Resistance in From Local Residents and Migrant Workers Returned From the China-Myanmar Border.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2021 24;11:683423. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Department of Pathogen Biology and Immunology, Kunming Medical University, Kunming, China.

Drug-resistant  malaria impedes efforts to control, eliminate, and ultimately eradicate malaria in Southeast Asia. resistance to antifolate drugs derives from point mutations in specific parasite genes, including the dihydropteroate synthase (), dihydrofolate reductase (), and GTP cyclohydrolase I () genes. This study aims to investigate the prevalence and spread of drug resistance markers in populating the China-Myanmar border. Blood samples were collected from symptomatic patients with acute infection. Samples with single-clone infections were sequenced for and genesand genotyped for 6 flanking microsatellite markers. Copy number variation in the gene was also examined. Polymorphisms were observed in six different codons of the  gene (382, 383, 512, 549, 553, and 571) and six different codons of the  gene (13, 57, 58, 61, 99, 117) in two study sites. The quadruple mutant haplotypes 57I/L/58R/61M/117T of gene were the most common (comprising 76% of cases in Myitsone and 43.7% of case in Laiza). The double mutant haplotype 383G/553G of  gene was also prevalent at each site (40.8% and 31%). Microsatellites flanking the gene differentiated clinical samples from wild type and quadruple mutant genotypes ( = 0.259-0.3036), as would be expected for a locus undergoing positive selection. The lack of copy number variation of suggests that SP-resistant may harbor alternative mechanisms to secure sufficient folate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcimb.2021.683423DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8265503PMC
July 2021

Whole-Genome Sequencing and Machine Learning Analysis of Staphylococcus aureus from Multiple Heterogeneous Sources in China Reveals Common Genetic Traits of Antimicrobial Resistance.

mSystems 2021 Jun 8;6(3):e0118520. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

School of Veterinary Medicine and Science, University of Nottingham, Sutton Bonington, Leicestershire, United Kingdom.

Staphylococcus aureus is a worldwide leading cause of numerous diseases ranging from food-poisoning to lethal infections. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) has been found capable of acquiring resistance to most antimicrobials. MRSA is ubiquitous and diverse even in terms of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) profiles, posing a challenge for treatment. Here, we present a comprehensive study of S. aureus in China, addressing epidemiology, phylogenetic reconstruction, genomic characterization, and identification of AMR profiles. The study analyzes 673 S. aureus isolates from food as well as from hospitalized and healthy individuals. The isolates have been collected over a 9-year period, between 2010 and 2018, from 27 provinces across China. By whole-genome sequencing, Bayesian divergence analysis, and supervised machine learning, we reconstructed the phylogeny of the isolates and compared them to references from other countries. We identified 72 sequence types (STs), of which, 29 were novel. We found 81 MRSA lineages by multilocus sequence type (MLST), , staphylococcal cassette chromosome element (SCC), and Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) typing. In addition, novel variants of SCC type IV hosting extra metal and antimicrobial resistance genes, as well as a new SCC type, were found. New Bayesian dating of the split times of major clades showed that ST9, ST59, and ST239 in China and European countries fell in different branches, whereas this pattern was not observed for the ST398 clone. On the contrary, the clonal transmission of ST398 was more intermixed in regard to geographic origin. Finally, we identified genetic determinants of resistance to 10 antimicrobials, discriminating drug-resistant bacteria from susceptible strains in the cohort. Our results reveal the emergence of Chinese MRSA lineages enriched of AMR determinants that share similar genetic traits of antimicrobial resistance across human and food, hinting at a complex scenario of evolving transmission routes. Little information is available on the epidemiology and characterization of Staphylococcus aureus in China. The role of food is a cause of major concern: staphylococcal foodborne diseases affect thousands every year, and the presence of resistant Staphylococcus strains on raw retail meat products is well documented. We studied a large heterogeneous data set of S. aureus isolates from many provinces of China, isolated from food as well as from individuals. Our large whole-genome collection represents a unique catalogue that can be easily meta-analyzed and integrated with further studies and adds to the library of S. aureus sequences in the public domain in a currently underrepresented geographical region. The new Bayesian dating of the split times of major drug-resistant enriched clones is relevant in showing that Chinese and European methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) have evolved differently. Our machine learning approach, across a large number of antibiotics, shows novel determinants underlying resistance and reveals frequent resistant traits in specific clonal complexes, highlighting the importance of particular clonal complexes in China. Our findings substantially expand what is known of the evolution and genetic determinants of resistance in food-associated S. aureus in China and add crucial information for whole-genome sequencing (WGS)-based surveillance of S. aureus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mSystems.01185-20DOI Listing
June 2021

[Effect of Gaseous Pollutant Concentration on the Number of Daily Outpatient Visits for Acne in Lanzhou].

Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao 2021 Apr;43(2):180-187

Information Center,Lanzhou University Second Hospital,Lanzhou 730000,China.

Objective To determine the relationship between air pollutants [SO,NO,8 hours average concentration of ozone(O8h)] and outpatient visits for acne in Lanzhou,China. Methods Data of daily outpatient visits for acne and concentrations of air pollutants(SO,NO,and O8h)from January 2013 to December 2017 were collected.With the control of long-term trend and day-of-week effect,a distributed lag nonlinear model was used to analyze the lag and cumulative effects of air pollutants on the outpatient visits.The model was established based on the different groups of gender and age. Results During the study period,the average daily outpatient visits were 34.94±15.27,and the average concentrations of SO,NO,and O8h were 24.09,43.77,and 82.94 μg/m,respectively.The Spearman's correlation analysis showed that the daily outpatient visits for acne were positively correlated with NO concentration while negatively correlated with O8h concentration;SO concentration was negatively correlated with O8h concentration;NO concentration was positively correlated with SO and O8h concentrations.A 10 μg/m increase in daily concentrations of NO and SO was respectively associated with 2.61%(95% CI=0.98%-4.27%)and 1.71%(95% CI=0.54%-2.89%)increase in the outpatient visits for acne.A 10 μg/m increase in O8h concentration was associated with -0.62%(95% CI=-1.12%--0.11%)increase in the outpatient visits.Multipollutant models indicated that air pollutant concentrations were significantly associated with the daily outpatient visits for acne. Conclusions SO and NO are positively associated with daily dermatological department visits for acne in Lanzhou,while O8h concentration has a negative correlation with the visits.The sensitivity of acne daily outpatient visits to changes in SO,NO,and O8h varies among patients of different genders and at different ages.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3881/j.issn.1000-503X.12812DOI Listing
April 2021

Silencing of Long Non-Coding RNA FGD5-AS1 Inhibits the Progression of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer by Regulating the miR-493-5p/DDX5 Axis.

Technol Cancer Res Treat 2021 Jan-Dec;20:1533033821990007

Assisted Reproductive Center, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China.

Background: Long non-coding RNA FGD5 antisense RNA 1 (FGD5-AS1), identified to be a carcinogenic lncRNA, exhibits a regulatory role in some malignancies including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The aim of the present research is to decipher the function and underlying mechanism of FGD5-AS1 in progression of NSCLC.

Methods: Expression of FGD5-AS1, miR-493-5p and DEAD-box protein 5 (DDX5) in NSCLC tissues and cells was quantified utilizing qRT-PCR. Cell proliferation was assessed by CCK-8 method. Scratch healing test and Transwell assay were used for assaying cell migration and invasion. Expressions of DDX5 and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-related proteins were examined by Western blot. Additionally, targeting relationships between FGD5-AS1 and miR-493-5p, miR-493-5p and DDX5 were verified by dual-luciferase reporter gene assay.

Results: Expression of FGD5-AS1 in NSCLC tissues and cell lines was up-regulated. Expression of FGD5-AS1 was in association with enlarged tumor size and lymph node metastasis of the patients. Knockdown of FGD5-AS1 led to the inhibition of proliferation, migration, invasion and EMT of NSCLC cells. FGD5-AS1 directly targeted miR-493-5p, while DDX5 was the target of miR-493-5p in NSCLC cells. Additionally, FGD5-AS1 could positively regulate the expression of DDX5 via suppressing miR-493-5p.

Conclusion: FGD5-AS1 facilitates the proliferation, migration, invasion and EMT of NSCLC cells by sponging miR-493-5p and up-regulating DDX5.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1533033821990007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7876571PMC
February 2021

Thulium Laser in The Management of Ureteral Fibroepithelial Polyps: A Multicenter Retrospective Study.

J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A 2020 Nov 24. Epub 2020 Nov 24.

Department of Geriatric Urology, Xiangya International Medical Center, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, People's Republic of China.

To retrospectively review the multicenter outcome of patients with ureteral fibroepithelial polyps (UFPs) after endoscopic management with thulium laser. A total of 21 adult patients with UFPs were treated in three medical centers between May 2007 and June 2018. We performed ureteroscopy operation and resected the polyps with thulium laser. The Double-J stent was removed 6 weeks after surgery during the 11-year follow-up period. Thereafter, we conducted computed tomography urography (CTU) or ultrasonic checks every 3-6 months. All patients had UFPs resected with thulium laser. The mean length of the UFPs was 3.4 ± 1.43 cm (range 1.8-6.9). They included 12 men and 9 women with a mean age of 41.91 ± 13.56 years. Unilateral polyps were observed in 20 patients (left:  = 13; right:  = 7), whereas 1 patient had bilateral polyps. Back pain was the main symptom (12, 57.14%) identified. The amount of bleeding and the mean surgery time was 8.43 ± 4.02 mL and 42.43 ± 13.53 minutes, respectively. The average length of stay was 4 days (a range of 3-6 days). Notably, no patient exhibited ureteral perforation. We did not observe an increase in hydronephrosis during the follow-up period, ultrasonography showed that it was attenuated 6 weeks later. Besides, 3 months later, CTU revealed favorable recovery without recurrence or ureterostenosis. Ureteroscopy operation combined with thulium laser resection is a minimally invasive and effective method for treating UFPs. Based on our limited multicenter research findings, thulium laser achieves favorable outcomes in restoring drainage from the kidney and reduces recurrence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/lap.2020.0811DOI Listing
November 2020

Quantification of Cross-Contamination of Campylobacter jejuni during Food Preparation in a Model Kitchen in China.

J Food Prot 2021 May;84(5):850-856

China National Center for Food Safety Risk Assessment (CFSA), No. 7 Panjiayuan Nanli, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100021, People's Republic of China.

Abstract: Numerous outbreak investigations and case-control studies of campylobacteriosis have provided evidence that handling Campylobacter-contaminated chicken products is a high risk factor for infection and illness. In this study, the cross-contamination and transfer rates of Campylobacter jejuni from chicken to ready-to-eat food were determined in various food handling scenarios. Skinless raw chicken breasts were artificially contaminated with C. jejuni and diced on cutting boards of three different materials. Whether cold water, cold water with detergent, or hot water was used, statistically significant differences were found between the transfer rates of C. jejuni to unwashed and washed cutting boards or hands, respectively. When both kitchen knife and cutting board were reused after dicing the artificially contaminated chicken, the transfer rates of C. jejuni to cucumber cut on bamboo, wooden, and plastic cutting boards were 16.28, 12.82, and 5.32%, respectively. The transfer rates from chicken to bread, a large lift-up water faucet handle, and a small twist faucet handle via unwashed hands were 0.49, 4.64, and 3.14%, respectively. This research provides scientific evidence that various types of contaminated kitchenware and cook's hands are vital potential vehicles for the cross-contamination of Campylobacter from raw chicken to ready-to-eat food and emphasizes the importance of timely and proper cleaning to prevent cross-contamination during food handling; therefore, high-quality consumer education to reduce the risk of foodborne infection is urgent and necessary.

Highlights:
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4315/JFP-20-280DOI Listing
May 2021

Swertiamarin suppresses proliferation, migration, and invasion of hepatocellular carcinoma cells via negative regulation of FRAT1.

Eur J Histochem 2020 Oct 19;64(4). Epub 2020 Oct 19.

Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, the Second Affiliated Hospital of Kunming Medical University, Kunming.

Studies have shown that swertiamarin (STM) has multiple biological activities, but its anti-tumour effects and molecular mechanisms are still unclear. The present research aimed to validate the STM's impacts on the proliferation, migration, and invasion of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells, and to study its potential mechanism. Two HCC cell lines were treated with STM. Tumour growth was observed by the mouse tumour xenografts model. HCC cell lines stably expressing T-cell lymphomas 1 (FRAT1) were generated by lentivirusmediated overexpression. Cell viability, proliferation, migration, and invasion were observed using Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK8), the xCELLigence Real-Time Cell Analyzer system (RTCA), and transwell analysis, respectively. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and Western blotting were used to observe the expression of FRAT1 and proteins related to the Wnt/β-catenin signalling pathway. Tumour growth was inhibited by STM in vivo. STM suppressed the proliferation, migration, and invasion of HCC cells. STM negatively regulated FRAT1 expression, whereas overexpressed FRAT1 blocked the anti-tumour function of STM. The results revealed that STM suppressed the FRAT1/Wnt/β-catenin signalling pathway. The findings of this study provide new insights into investigation of therapeutic strategies against HCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4081/ejh.2020.3169DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7586251PMC
October 2020

Analysis of Urinary Pathogen Cultures and Drug Sensitivity in Patients with Urinary Stones for Five Consecutive Years in Xiangya Hospital, China.

Infect Drug Resist 2020 11;13:1357-1363. Epub 2020 May 11.

Xiangya International Medical Center, Department of Geriatrics Urology, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha 410008, People's Republic of China.

Objective: To analyze pathogen distribution and drug sensitivity in patients with urinary calculi and thereby gain insight into the most appropriate antibacterial drugs for perioperative therapy.

Materials And Methods: From January 2014 to December 2018, the results of mid-stream urine pathogen culture and drug sensitivity tests were evaluated retrospectively for 353 patients with urinary calculi. SPSS software version 23.0 was used to analyze the data.

Results: A total of 353 strains of pathogens were isolated from urine culture. Among these, 278 (79%) strains belonged to the top 10 most frequently isolated pathogens, comprising 209 (75.2%) Gram-negative bacilli and 69 (24.8%) Gram-positive cocci. was the most frequently isolated pathogen overall and the most frequently isolated Gram-negative bacillus, and was the most frequently isolated Gram-positive coccus. Drug sensitivity levels were effectively unchanged for less commonly used drugs, whereas drug resistance rates remained high for commonly used drugs such as ampicillin trihydrate, ampicillin/sulbactam, cefazolin, ceftriaxone, aztreonam, levofloxacin and ciprofloxacin.

Conclusion: and remain the most common Gram-negative bacillus and Gram-positive coccus uropathogens, respectively, in patients with urinary calculi. Mid-stream urine pathogen culture and drug sensitivity tests should be used to select appropriate antibacterial drugs before treatment, particularly for perioperative patients with urinary calculi.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IDR.S241036DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7227811PMC
May 2020

[Antimicrobial resistance, virulence factors, and molecular characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates cultured from ready-to-eat foods].

Wei Sheng Yan Jiu 2020 Jan;49(1):56-62

Key Laboratory of Food Safety Risk Assessment of Ministry of Health, China National Center for Food Safety Risk Assessment, Beijing 100021, China.

Objective: To understand the antimicrobial resistance, virulence factors, and molecular characterization of MRSA isolates cultured from ready-to-eat(RTE) foods from several provinces in China.

Methods: Totally, 397 S. aureus isolates were collected from RTE foods from several provinces in China, in 2017. The mecA gene was amplified to detect the MRSA strains among all 397 isolates by a polymerase chain reaction(PCR) method. Furthermore, the antimicrobial susceptibility and virulence factors of the MRSA isolates were detected by broth microdilution method and PCR, respectively, while the molecular characterization of all MRSA isolates were analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis(PFGE).

Results: In total, 32 MRSA isolates were identified from 397 isolates. All 32 MRSA isolates were resistant to penicillin, oxacillin and cefoxitin. Meanwhile, 78. 1%, 65. 6%, 53. 1, 28. 1% and 12. 5% of the 32 MRSA isolates showed resistant to erythromycin, clindamycin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, and ciprofloxacin, respectively. Resistance rates to gentamicin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole of all MRSA isolates were less than 10%. Eleven drug resistant spectrums were identified and 29 out of 32 MRSA isolates were identified as multi-drug resistant(MDR) isolates and two isolates were found to resistant to 9 antimicrobial agents tested in this study. Of all, 27 MRSA isolates were detected to harboring 13 virulence genes with sel-q(56. 3%), sel-k(43. 8%), seb(28. 1%) and sec(18. 8%) genes being the top four frequently detected. Besides, the result also showed that two or more virulence genes could be detected in one MRSA isolate. Finally, all 32 MRSA were identified to have 26 PFGE patterns and no dominant PFGE patterns were found in this study.

Conclusion: An overall high level antimicrobial resistance was found among RTE associated MRSA in China in 2017, so was the MDR condition. Virulence genes could be frequently detected in RTE associated MRSA isolates. The PFGE patterns of RTE associated MRSA showed wide distribution characteristics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.19813/j.cnki.weishengyanjiu.2020.01.010DOI Listing
January 2020

Seasonal Distribution and Meteorological Factors Associated with Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease among Children in Xi'an, Northwestern China.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2020 06;102(6):1253-1262

Department of Epidemiology, Ministry of Education Key Lab of Hazard Assessment and Control in Special Operational Environment, School of Public Health, Air Force Medical University, Xi'an, P. R. China.

Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is a common infectious disease in the Asia-Pacific region that primarily affects children younger than 5 years. Previous studies have confirmed that the seasonal transmission of this disease is strongly related to meteorological factors, but the results are not consistent. In addition, the associations between weather conditions and HFMD in northwestern China have not been investigated. Therefore, we aimed to examine this issue in Xi'an, the largest city of northwestern China that has been suffering from serious HFMD epidemics. In the current study, data for HFMD and six meteorological factors were collected from 2009 to 2018. Using cross-correlation analysis, the Granger causality test, and the distributed lag nonlinear model, we estimated the quantitative relationships and exposure-lag-response effects between weekly meteorological factors and HFMD incidence among children. We found that the seasonal distribution of HFMD in Xi'an has two peaks each year and is significantly impacted by the weekly temperature, precipitation, and evaporation over an 8-week period. Higher values of temperature and evaporation had positive associations with disease transmission, whereas the association between precipitation and HFMD showed an inverted-U shape. The maximum relative risks (RRs) of HFMD for the weekly mean temperature (approximately 31.1°C), weekly cumulative evaporation (57.9 mm), and weekly cumulative precipitation (30.0 mm) were 1.56 (95% CI: 1.35-1.81), 1.40 (95% CI: 1.05-1.88), and 1.16 (95% CI: 1.11-1.70), respectively. The identified risk determinants and lag effects could provide important information for early interventions to reduce the local disease burden.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.19-0916DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7253124PMC
June 2020

Exploration of Serum Exosomal LncRNA TBILA and AGAP2-AS1 as Promising Biomarkers for Diagnosis of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

Int J Biol Sci 2020 1;16(3):471-482. Epub 2020 Jan 1.

Key Laboratory of Laboratory Medical Diagnostics Designated by the Ministry of Education, School of Laboratory Medicine, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China.

Non-small cell lung cancer is the most common type of cancer with a poor prognosis, and development of an effective diagnostic method is urgently needed. Exosomal lncRNAs, a class of transcripts longer than 200 nucleotides packaged into exosomes, have been defined as an ideal diagnostic biomarker for cancer. However, little is known about the clinical utility of exosomal lncRNAs in NSCLC. Here, we aimed to identify exosomal lncRNAs as promising biomarkers for NSCLC diagnosis. First, serum exosomes from NSCLC patients were successfully isolated by a polymer precipitation kit and then identified by TEM, NTA and western blot analysis. A total of nine candidate lncRNAs were detected by qRT-PCR in a training set. The two exosomal lncRNA TBILA and AGAP2-AS1 were screened out for the higher levels in NSCLC patients than that of healthy controls in a validation set. And there was a significant positive correlation between these exosomal lncRNAs levels and tumor size, lymph node metastasis and TNM stage. Additionally, we validated that these exosomal lncRNAs were stable in serum. Next, we evaluated the diagnostic efficiency of exosomal lncRNAs in NSCLC patients by ROC curve analysis. The data showed that individual TBILA or AGAP2-AS1 exhibited better diagnostic efficiency in NSCLC patients with different tumor pathologic subtypes and early stage, whereas the combination of lncRNAs did not provide better results than individual lncRNAs. Notably, the combination of two exosomal lncRNAs and the serum tumor biomarker Cyfra21-1 widely used in clinical practices further improved the diagnostic accuracy for NSCLC patients. This study suggests that exosomal lncRNA TBILA and AGAP2-AS1 may be promising biomarkers for diagnosis of NSCLC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/ijbs.39123DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6990900PMC
January 2021

Entecavir downregulates interleukin-37 in patients with chronic active hepatitis B infection.

J Int Med Res 2020 Jan;48(1):300060519884157

Department of Laboratory Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0300060519884157DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7254606PMC
January 2020

Susceptibility (re)-testing of a large collection of Listeria monocytogenes from foods in China from 2012 to 2015 and WGS characterization of resistant isolates.

J Antimicrob Chemother 2019 07;74(7):1786-1794

NHC Key Laboratory of Food Safety Risk Assessment, China National Center for Food Safety Risk Assessment, Beijing, People's Republic of China.

Objectives: Our aim was to determine the antimicrobial susceptibilities of 2862 Listeria monocytogenes cultured from various foods in China and to use WGS to characterize the antimicrobial resistance and virulence genotypes of those expressing a resistance phenotype.

Methods: The susceptibilities of 2862 L. monocytogenes were determined by broth microdilution. Twenty-eight L. monocytogenes were found to be resistant to one to four antibiotics. All 28 resistant isolates were subsequently sequenced using short-read high accuracy protocols. The corresponding genomes were assembled and further analysis was carried out using appropriate bioinformatics pipelines.

Results: All 28 resistant L. monocytogenes were classified into five STs (ST3, ST8, ST9, ST155 and ST515). Both ST9 and ST155 were dominant and their genotypes correlated with their resistance phenotypes. All ST9 isolates were MDR and could be phylogenetically classified into two clusters. One was relatively close to clinical origins and one to food. Downstream analysis of the genetic contexts in which these resistance genotypes were found suggested that these may have been acquired from other bacteria by horizontal transfer or insertion into the chromosome. All isolates harboured Listeria pathogenicity island (LIPI)-1 and LIPI-2, and only two harboured LIPI-3.

Conclusions: This study reported on the antimicrobial susceptibilities of 2862 foodborne L. monocytogenes along with the genomic characterization of 28 resistant isolates, 11 of which expressed an MDR phenotype. These data showed that this bacterium can acquire resistance by horizontal gene transfer in and between species. This study may necessitate a re-evaluation of risk to public health, associated with this bacterial species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jac/dkz126DOI Listing
July 2019

Aerosol Phase State and Its Link to Chemical Composition and Liquid Water Content in a Subtropical Coastal Megacity.

Environ Sci Technol 2019 05 12;53(9):5027-5033. Epub 2019 Apr 12.

Shenzhen Graduate School , Peking University , Shenzhen 518055 , PR China.

Particle phase state plays a key role in gas-particle partitioning, heterogeneous and multiphase reactions, and secondary aerosol formation. In this work, the rebound fraction and chemical composition of submicron particles were simultaneously measured to investigate the particle phase state and its link to chemical composition in a subtropical coastal urban city (Shenzhen, China). Submicron particles were found to be in the liquid state for most of the measurement period in spring. During the sampling time, both high relative humidity (RH, ranged from 40% to 93%) and inorganic mass fraction in particles (62.6 ± 12.4% of dry particles, on average) resulted in abundant aerosol liquid water (43 ± 6% in the wet PM, on average), which may liquefy the particles. Considering the high frequency of ambient RH > 60% and large inorganic mass fraction in aerosol particles, we deduced that particles were in the liquid state throughout the year in coastal urban areas, where this study was performed. The liquid phase particles may accelerate the mass transfer of reactive trace gases and multiphase reactions, thereby enhanced secondary aerosol formation, further resulting in a rapid growth in aerosol mass. Our work suggested that in regions heavily impacted by SO and NO emissions, especially in developing countries, the presence of inorganics could significantly impact the phase state of ambient aerosol particles, and thus the mixing state of inorganic and organic matter should be taken into account for the investigation of the aerosol phase state in urban environments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.9b01196DOI Listing
May 2019

The Preparation and Properties of Nanocomposite from Bio-Based Polyurethane and Graphene Oxide for Gas Separation.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2018 Dec 23;9(1). Epub 2018 Dec 23.

College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 45001, China.

Petroleum depletion and climate change have inspired research on bio-based polymers and CO₂ capture. Tung-oil-based polyols were applied to partially replace polyether-type polyols from petroleum for sustainable polyurethane. Tung-oil-based polyurethane (TBPU), was prepared via a two-step polycondensation, that is, bulk prepolymerization and chain extension reaction. The graphene oxide (GO) was prepared via Hummer's method. Then, TBPU was composited with the GO at different ratios to form a TBPU/GO hybrid film. The GO/TBPU films were characterized by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and scanning electron microscope (SEM), followed by the measurement of mechanical properties and gas permeability. The results showed that the addition of tung-oil-based polyols enhanced the glass transition temperature and thermal stability of TBPU. The mechanical properties of the hybrid film were significantly improved, and the tensile strength and elongation at break were twice as high as those of the bulk TBPU film. When the GO content was higher than 2.0%, a brittle fracture appeared in the cross section of hybrid film. The increase of GO content in hybrid films improved the selectivity of CO₂/N₂ separation. When the GO content was higher than 0.35%, the resulting GO agglomeration constrained the gas separation and permeation properties.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nano9010015DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6358816PMC
December 2018

[Exposure Route of Dioxin-like Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Hair Based on Passive Sampling].

Huan Jing Ke Xue 2017 Jun;38(6):2594-2599

College of Life and Environmental Sciences, Minzu University of China, Beijing 100081, China.

The main exposure pathways of DL-PCBs in local population were studied by analyzing the levels, distributions and relationships of DL-PCBs in pooled tree bark samples and hair samples collected in Kaiyuan, Yunnan Province, China. The results indicated that the concentrations of DL-PCBs in bark and hair samples were 4.0 pg·g to 88.9 pg·g and 4.1 pg·g to 19.3 pg·g, respectively, suggesting the pollution levels of DL-PCBs were relatively low in local environment and human body. The predominant PCB congeners in bark and hair was PCB-118, contributing 48% of the total DL-PCB concentrations in the bark samples and 61% of the total DL-PCB concentrations in the hair samples. The DL-PCB congeners in tree bark might had the same sources and these compounds might be derived from atmospheric long-range transport. External and internal exposures were responsible for the DL-PCBs concentrations in hair, and external exposure contributed more to low chlorinated PCBs than to high chlorinated PCBs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.13227/j.hjkx.201611077DOI Listing
June 2017

[Mechanisms and Efficiencies of Removal of PPCPs by Pilot River Water Bypass Treatment Process].

Huan Jing Ke Xue 2018 Apr;39(4):1637-1644

State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084, China.

The pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) released into urban rivers are triggering certain ecological risks. The current study investigated the removal efficiencies of 30 frequently detected PPCPs by two river water bypass treatment processes (CS-BAF-UF-Ozone and CS-MBR-Ozone), and investigated the removal mechanism and eco-toxicological risk variation of target compounds via section-removal investigation and risk quotient model, respectively. Results indicated that both processes could efficiently remove the target PPCPs; the removal rates of tetracyclines and caffeine were>90% in the biological sections, while sulfonamides, fluoroquinolones, and other pharmaceuticals could only be efficiently removed when the COD of the influent and the water temperature were comparatively higher; the ozone process had particular effect on removing these compounds. The cumulative removal rate of all PPCPs during the whole process was higher than 92.5%. The total risk quotient (RQ) of target PPCPs could be efficiently reduced by the bypass treatment processes; the RQ decreased from 12.6 in the influent river water to 0.2 in the ozone effluent, with a removal rate of 98.4%.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.13227/j.hjkx.201707092DOI Listing
April 2018

[Antimicrobial resistance analysis and mechanism of Salmonella recovered from retail chicken carcasses in Beijing in summer, 2013].

Wei Sheng Yan Jiu 2017 Jul;46(4):538-545

Key Laboratory of Food Safety Risk Assessment of Health, China National Center for Food Safety Risk Assessment, Beijing 100021, China.

Objective: Research were carried out to determine the antimicrobial resistance and mechanism of Salmonella isolates recovered from retail chicken carcasses in Beijing in summer, 2013.

Methods: Broth microdilution method were used for antimicrobial susceptibility testing to obtain the minimal inhibitory concentration( MICs)against 11 antimicrobial compounds which belongs to 8 categories and 166 Salmonella strains isolated from 33 retail chicken carcasses in Beijing in summer, 2013 were tested. Cephalosporin resistant isolates were evaluated by ESBLs confirmation test, also resistance mechanism analysis was subjected to ciprofloxacin and cefotaxime co-resistant Salmonella isolates.

Results: 94. 6% isolates were resistant to at least one antimicrobial and 58. 4% were identified as multi-drug resistant strains. The highest rate of resistance was 92. 2% against nalidixic acid, followed by ampicillin( 48. 8%), ampicillin-sulbactam( 44. 0%), tetracycline( 44. 0%). There were 27 antimicrobial resistance spectrums with NAL and NAL-AMP-SAM being dominant spectrums. Totally, 41 ESBLs positive strains which contained 38 ciprofloxacin resistant isolates were recovered from 47 cefotaxime resistant strains. Detection of quinolones and β-lactams resistant genes for 38 ciprofloxacin and cefotaxime co-resistant and ESBLs positive Salmonella isolates indicate that QRDRs/PMQR/ESBLs antimicrobial resistance mechanism existed in these strains. Point mutations in gyrA and parC were identified in 37 isolates, and 38 isolates tested all contained PMQR genes such as qnrB、qnrS、oqxAB and aac( 6 ')-Ib-cr genes with a few mutations, while CTX-M( n = 35), TEM( n = 20), OXA( n = 36) type β-lactamases were detected.

Conclusion: High level antimicrobial resistance and complicated mechanism existed among Salmonella recovered from retail chicken carcasses in Beijing in summer, 2013. In order to protect public health, tendency and further mechanism on antimicrobial resistance and transmissibility should be described deeply by on-going surveillance and research, while rational drug use regulatory managements should be carried out in the overall process of chicken production, slaughtering, transportation and marketing, as well as clinical treatment for human Salmonella infections.
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July 2017

Longitudinal surveillance of drug resistance in Plasmodium falciparum isolates from the China-Myanmar border reveals persistent circulation of multidrug resistant parasites.

Int J Parasitol Drugs Drug Resist 2018 08 22;8(2):320-328. Epub 2018 May 22.

Department of Pathogen Biology and Immunology, Kunming Medical University, Kunming, China; Department of Entomology, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA. Electronic address:

Multidrug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum in the Greater Mekong Subregion of Southeast Asia is a major threat to malaria elimination and requires close surveillance. In this study, we collected 107 longitudinal clinical samples of P. falciparum in 2007-2012 from the malaria hypoendemic region of the China-Myanmar border and measured their in vitro susceptibilities to 10 antimalarial drugs. Overall, parasites had significantly different IC values to all the drugs tested as compared to the reference 3D7 strain. Parasites were also genotyped in seven genes that were associated with drug resistance including pfcrt, pfmdr1, pfmrp1, pfdhfr, pfdhps, pfnhe1, and PfK13 genes. Despite withdrawal of chloroquine and antifolates from treating P. falciparum, parasites remained highly resistant to these drugs and mutations in pfcrt, pfdhfr, and pfdhps genes were highly prevalent and almost reached fixation in the study parasite population. Except for pyronaridine, quinine and lumefantrine, all other tested drugs exhibited significant temporal variations at least between some years, but only chloroquine and piperaquine had a clear temporal trend of continuous increase of ICs. For the pfmrp1 gene, several mutations were associated with altered sensitivity to a number of drugs tested including chloroquine, piperaquine, lumefantrine and dihydroartemisinin. The association of PfK13 mutations with resistance to multiple drugs suggests potential evolution of PfK13 mutations amid multidrug resistance genetic background. Furthermore, network analysis of drug resistance genes indicated that certain haplotypes associated multidrug resistance persisted in these years, albeit there were year-to-year fluctuations of the predominant haplotypes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpddr.2018.05.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6039318PMC
August 2018

Transurethral vaporesection of prostate: diode laser or thulium laser?

Lasers Med Sci 2018 May 10;33(4):891-897. Epub 2018 Apr 10.

The Department of Anesthesiology, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, China.

This study compared the safety and effectiveness of the diode laser and thulium laser during prostate transurethral vaporesection for treating benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH). We retrospectively analyzed 205 patients with BPH who underwent a diode laser or thulium laser technique for prostate transurethral vaporesection from June 2016 to June 2017 and who were followed up for 3 months. Baseline characteristics of the patients, perioperative data, postoperative outcomes, and complications were compared. We also assessed the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), quality of life (QoL), maximum flow rate (Q), average flow rate (AFR), and postvoid residual volume (PVR) at 1 and 3 months postoperatively to evaluate the functional improvement of each group. There were no significant differences between the diode laser and thulium laser groups related to age, prostate volume, operative time, postoperative hospital stays, hospitalization costs, or perioperative data. The catheterization time was 3.5 ± 0.8 days for the diode laser group and 4.7 ± 1.8 days for the thulium laser group (p < 0.05). Each group had dramatic improvements in IPSS, QoL, Q, AFR, and PVR compared with the preoperative values (p < 0.05), although there were no significant differences between the two groups. Use of both diode laser and thulium laser contributes to safe, effective transurethral vaporesection in patients with symptomatic BPH. Diode laser, however, is better than thulium laser for prostate transurethral vaporesection because of its shorter catheterization time. The choice of surgical approach is more important than the choice of laser types during clinical decision making for transurethral laser prostatectomy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10103-018-2499-4DOI Listing
May 2018

Genetic diversity of the Plasmodium vivax phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase gene in two regions of the China-Myanmar border.

Infect Genet Evol 2018 07 17;61:45-52. Epub 2018 Feb 17.

Department of Entomology, Pennsylvania State University, 501 ASI Building, University Park, PA 16802, USA. Electronic address:

Artemisinin resistance in Plasmodium falciparum was associated with mutations in the propeller domain of the PfK13 gene and increased phosphatidylinositol-3'-kinase (PfPI3K) activity. Assessment of the genetic diversity of the PfK13 ortholog PvK12 in Plasmodium vivax field samples from the same hotspots of P. falciparum artemisinin resistance revealed a limited genetic diversity of PvK12. Following the same logic, we analyzed genetic variations of the PvPI3K gene in 188 P. vivax field isolates from two geographic locations along the China-Myanmar border. Overall, high genetic diversity of PvPI3K was observed; parasites from Yunnan's Tengchong County had higher genetic diversity than those from Laiza Township, Kachin State, Myanmar. Almost all the neutrality tests applied detected statistically significant deviation from zero. The negative Tajima's D values in both populations implicated that PvPI3K gene might have experienced either a directional selection or an expansion in population size. There was low linkage disequilibrium between the PvPI3K mutations in both populations, suggesting the existence of large, almost panmictic, parasite populations that enabled effective recombination. This later result was confirmed by the detection of a minimum of five recombination events in each population with two major breakpoints. Multiple tests for selection confirmed a signature of purifying selection on PvPI3K. All the amino acid mutations were predicted to be neutral for the PI3K protein's function. These findings provide insights on the genetic diversity of P. vivax populations along the China-Myanmar border.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meegid.2018.02.018DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6084786PMC
July 2018

Genotypic Characterization of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Pigs and Retail Foods in China.

Biomed Environ Sci 2017 Aug;30(8):570-580

Key Laboratory of Food Safety Risk Assessment, Ministry of Health, China National Center for Food Safety Risk Assessment, Beijing 100021, China.

Objective: To investigate the genotypic diversity of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolated from pigs and retail foods from different geographical areas in China and further to study the routes and rates of transmission of this pathogen from animals to food.

Methods: Seventy-one MRSA isolates were obtained from pigs and retail foods and then characterized by multi-locus sequencing typing (MLST), spa typing, multiple-locus variable number of tandem repeat analysis (MLVA), pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and antimicrobial susceptibility testing.

Results: All isolated MRSA exhibited multi-drug resistance (MDR). Greater diversity was found in food-associated MRSA (7 STs, 8 spa types, and 10 MLVA patterns) compared to pig-associated MRSA (3 STs, 1 spa type, and 6 MLVA patterns). PFGE patterns were more diverse for pig-associated MRSA than those of food-associated isolates (40 vs. 11 pulse types). Among the pig-associated isolates, CC9-ST9-t899-MC2236 was the most prevalent clone (96.4%), and CC9-ST9-t437-MC621 (20.0%) was the predominant clone among the food-associated isolates. The CC9-ST9 isolates showed significantly higher antimicrobial resistance than other clones. Interestingly, CC398-ST398-t034 clone was identified from both pig- and food-associated isolates. Of note, some community- and hospital-associated MRSA strains (t030, t172, t1244, and t4549) were also identified as food-associated isolates.

Conclusion: CC9-ST9-t899-MC2236-MDR was the most predominant clone in pigs, but significant genetic diversity was observed in food-associated MRSA. Our results demonstrate the great need for improved surveillance of MRSA in livestock and food and effective prevention strategies to limit MDR-MRSA infections in China.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3967/bes2017.076DOI Listing
August 2017

Co-inheritance of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency mutations and hemoglobin E in a Kachin population in a malaria-endemic region of Southeast Asia.

PLoS One 2017 22;12(5):e0177917. Epub 2017 May 22.

Department of Entomology, The Pennsylvania State University, Pennsylvania, United States of America.

Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency and hemoglobin E (HbE, β26 Glu-Lys) are two common red cell disorders in Southeast Asia. G6PD deficiency produces hemolytic anemia, which can be triggered by certain drugs or infections. HbE is asymptomatic or is manifested as microcytic, minimally hemolytic anemia. The association between G6PD deficiency and HbE is little understood. This study aimed to investigate G6PD deficiency and HbE in a Kachin ethnic group in the China-Myanmar border area. G6PD enzyme activity was measured using a quantitative G6PD assay, G6PD variants genotyped by the SNaPshot assay, and an HbE gene mutation identified by an amplification refractory mutation system and subsequently confirmed by using a reverse dot blot hybridization assay from 100 unrelated individuals in the study area. G6PD enzyme activity ranged from 0.4 to 24.7 U/g Hb, and six males had severe G6PD deficiency (<0.12-1.2 U/g Hb), while six males and 12 females had mild G6PD deficiency (>1.2-4.5 U/g Hb). Among the 24 G6PD-deficient subjects, 22 (92%) had the Mahidol 487G>A mutation (12 male hemizygotes, one female homozygote, and nine female heterozygotes), while the G6PD genotypes in two female subjects were unknown. HbE was identified in 39 subjects (20 males and 19 females), including 15 HbEE (seven males and eight females) and 24 HbAE (13 males and 11 females). Twenty-three subjects co-inherited both G6PD deficiency and HbE (22 with HbAE and one with HbEE). Whereas mean Hb levels were not significantly different between the HbA and HbE groups, G6PD-deficient males had significantly lower Hb levels than G6PD-normal males (P < 0.05, t-test). However, it is noteworthy that two G6PD-deficient hemizygous males with HbAE were severely anemic with Hb levels below 50 g/L. This study revealed high prevalence of co-inheritance of G6PD deficiency with HbAE in the Kachin ethnicity, and a potential interaction of the G6PD Mahidol 487G>A and HbAE in males leading to severe anemia. The presence of 6% males with severe G6PD deficiency raised a major concern in the use of primaquine for radical cure of vivax malaria.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0177917PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5439682PMC
September 2017

Stanniocalcin 1 promotes cell proliferation via cyclin E1/cyclin‑dependent kinase 2 in human prostate carcinoma.

Oncol Rep 2017 Apr 13;37(4):2465-2471. Epub 2017 Mar 13.

International Medical Center, Xiang Ya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410008, P.R. China.

Stanniocalcin 1 (STC1) is a glycoprotein hormone that is involved in calcium/phosphate homeostasis. Increasing evidence suggests that STC1 is involved in carcinogenesis; however, few studies have defined the mechanisms and functional roles of STC1 activity in prostate carcinogenesis. In the present study, MTT, flow cytometry and colony formation assays, and small interfering RNA (siRNA) and overexpression in multiple cell lines were used to investigate the function of STC1 in prostate carcinoma in vivo and in vivo. Knockdown of endogenous STC1 using a siRNA decreased the proliferation of DU145 and LNCaP2 cells. These results were consistent with the changes in the protein levels of cyclin E1 and cyclin‑dependent kinase 2. By contrast, increased expression of STC1 in RWPE-1 cells led to increased cell proliferation, suggesting that STC1 promotes prostate carcinoma cell proliferation. In summary, the present study investigated the impact of STC1 on the proliferation and growth of prostate cancer in an effort to evaluate STC1 as a predictive biomarker and as a potential target for therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/or.2017.5501DOI Listing
April 2017

Effects of octylphenol on the expression of StAR, CYP17 and CYP19 in testis of Rana chensinensis.

Environ Toxicol Pharmacol 2017 Apr 21;51:9-15. Epub 2017 Feb 21.

College of Life Science, Shaanxi Normal University, 199 South Chang'an Road, Xi'an 710062, China. Electronic address:

It has been proposed that a decline in sperm quality is associated with exposure to environmental chemicals with estrogenic activity. Seeking possible explanations for this effect, this study investigated the effects of octylphenol (OP) on the synthesis of steroid hormones in amphibian. Rana chensinensis were exposed to 10, 10 and 10mol/L OP after 10, 20, 30 and 40 days. The cDNA fragments of StAR (274bp), CYP17 (303bp) and CYP19 (322bp) were cloned. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry revealed that positive signals of StAR, CYP17, CYP19 mRNA and proteins mainly in the Leydig cells of testes. Real-time PCR showed that up-regulation of StAR and CYP19, and down-regulation of CYP17 after exposure to 10, 10 and 10mol/L OP. The results suggest that OP can alter transcriptions of StAR, CYP17 and CYP19, thus disturb the expressions of StAR, P450c17 and P450arom, thereby adversely affect steroid synthesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.etap.2017.02.016DOI Listing
April 2017

Organochlorine pesticides in tree bark and human hair in Yunnan Province, China: Concentrations, distributions and exposure pathway.

Sci Total Environ 2017 Feb 14;580:1027-1033. Epub 2016 Dec 14.

College of Life and Environmental Sciences, Minzu University of China, Beijing 100081, China; State Information Center, National Development and Reform Commission, Beijing 100045, China.

The concentrations and distributions of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in West China were investigated and internal and external exposure of humans to OCPs were assessed by analyzing samples of human hair and tree bark collected in Kaiyuan, in Yunnan Province, China. Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (collectively called DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were the dominant OCPs in the human hair and tree bark samples. The mean total DDT, total HCH, and HCB concentrations in the tree bark samples were 298pg/g dry weight (dw), 100pg/g dw, and 183pg/g dw, respectively, and the mean total DDT, total HCH, and HCB concentrations in the hair samples were 2850pg/g dw, 348pg/g dw, and 1026pg/g dw, respectively. The results indicated that relatively new DDT and lindane inputs have occurred in the study area. DDT and lindane may have been released in products that are used locally. The HCB in the environment in the study area is mainly supplied by long-range atmospheric transport. External exposure was found to be the main factor controlling the p,p'-DDT, γ-HCH, and HCB concentrations in human hair, whereas p,p'-DDE and β-HCH were found to be mainly controlled by internal exposure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.12.057DOI Listing
February 2017

Significant Divergence in Sensitivity to Antimalarial Drugs between Neighboring Plasmodium falciparum Populations along the Eastern Border of Myanmar.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2017 02 24;61(2). Epub 2017 Jan 24.

Department of Entomology, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania, USA

Malaria parasites in different areas where malaria is endemic display different levels of resistance to antimalarial drugs as the result of varied drug use histories. To provide updated knowledge of drug sensitivities during the malaria elimination phase in Southeast Asia, an epicenter of multidrug resistance, we determined in vitro susceptibilities of culture-adapted Plasmodium falciparum isolates from two eastern border regions (Wa and Kachin) of Myanmar to 10 drugs. Despite their close proximity, the Kachin parasites displayed higher 50% inhibitory concentrations than the Wa parasites to chloroquine, piperaquine, naphthoquine, mefloquine, quinine, pyrimethamine, pyronaridine, lumefantrine, and dihydroartemisinin. Genotyping of genes associated with drug resistance also showed significant differences in the prevalence rates of mutant alleles between the two regions. Particularly, major pfdhfr mutations mediating pyrimethamine resistance and the pfdhps A437G mutation had significantly higher frequencies in the Kachin parasites (P < 0.005). Moreover, when pfdhfr and pfdhps were considered together, the wild-type allele was found only in the Wa samples (22.6%). In addition, the pfmdr1 Y184F mutation reached 38.7% in the Kachin parasites, compared to 9.7% in the Wa parasites, whereas N86Y was only detected in the Wa parasites, at 22.6%. Furthermore, the F446I mutation and all mutations in the propeller domain of the PfK13 gene were significantly more frequent in the Kachin parasites. Collectively, this work demonstrates that even in spatially closely separated regions, parasites can exhibit drastic differences in drug sensitivities and genetic makeups underlying drug resistance, which may reflect regionally different drug histories and genetic drift of these isolated parasite populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AAC.01689-16DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5278693PMC
February 2017

Genetic diversity of the Pvk12 gene in Plasmodium vivax from the China-Myanmar border area.

Malar J 2016 Nov 4;15(1):528. Epub 2016 Nov 4.

Department of Pathogen Biology and Immunology, Kunming Medical University, Kunming, 650500, Yunnan Province, China.

Background: Plasmodium falciparum resistance to artemisinin emerged in the Greater Mekong Sub-region has been associated with mutations in the propeller domain of the kelch gene Pfk13.

Methods: Here the polymorphisms in Pvk12 gene, the orthologue of Pfk13 in Plasmodium vivax, were determined by PCR and sequencing in 262 clinical isolates collected in recent years (2012-2015) from the China-Myanmar border area.

Results: Sequencing of full-length Pvk12 genes from these isolates identified three synonymous mutations (N172N, S360S, S697S) and one non-synonymous mutation M124I, all of which were at very low prevalence (2.0-3.1%). Moreover, these mutations were non-overlapping between the two study sites on both sides of the border. Molecular evolutionary analysis detected signature of purifying selection on Pvk12.

Conclusions: There is no direct evidence that Pvk12 is involved in artemisinin resistance in P. vivax, but it remains a potential candidate requiring further investigation. Continuous monitoring of potential drug resistance in this parasite is needed in order to facilitate the regional malaria elimination campaign.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12936-016-1592-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5096284PMC
November 2016

Concentrations and distributions of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and novel brominated flame retardants in tree bark and human hair from Yunnan Province, China.

Chemosphere 2016 Jul 6;154:319-325. Epub 2016 Apr 6.

College of Life and Environmental Sciences, Minzu University of China, Beijing 100081, China.

The concentrations and distributions of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and novel brominated flame retardants (NBFRs) in tree bark and hair samples from the same area in Yunnan Province, China, were determined. The total PBDE and NBFR concentrations in the tree bark samples were 3.8 ng/g lipid weight to 91 ng/g lipid weight and 0.23 ng/g lipid weight to 5.0 ng/g lipid weight, respectively. The total PBDE and NBFR concentrations in the hair samples were 2.1 ng/g dry weight to 14 ng/g dry weight and 0.083 ng/g dry weight to 0.29 ng/g dry weight, respectively. Decabromodiphenyl ether had similar distributions in the tree bark and hair samples, but other PBDE congeners and NBFRs had different distributions in the tree bark and hair samples. External exposure was found to be mainly responsible for the total PBDE and pentabromotoluene concentrations in hair, but both external and internal exposure were responsible for the pentabromophenyl and hexabromobenzene concentrations in hair.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2016.03.132DOI Listing
July 2016
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