Publications by authors named "Yanyan Zhang"

658 Publications

Applied surface enhanced Raman Spectroscopy in plant hormones detection, annexation of advanced technologies: A review.

Talanta 2022 Jan 25;236:122823. Epub 2021 Aug 25.

Department of Bioresource Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture and Environmental Studies, McGill University, Sainte-Anne-de-Bellevue, QC, H9X 3V9, Canada.

Plant hormones are the molecules that control the vigorous development of plants and help to cope with the stress conditions efficiently due to vital and mechanized physiochemical regulations. Biologists and analytical chemists, both endorsed the extreme problems to quantify plant hormones due to their low level existence in plants and the technological support is devastatingly required to established reliable and efficient detection methods of plant hormones. Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) technology is becoming vigorously favored and can be used to accurately and specifically identify biological and chemical molecules. Subsistence molecular properties with varying excitation wavelength require the pertinent substrate to detect SERS signals from plant hormones. Three typical mechanisms of Raman signal enhancement have been discovered, electromagnetic, chemical and Tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS). Though, complex detection samples hinder in consistent and reproducible results of SERS-based technology. However, different algorithmic models applied on preprocessed data enhanced the prediction performances of Raman spectra by many folds and decreased the fluorescence value. By incorporating SERS measurements into the microfluidic platform, further highly repeatable SERS results can be obtained. This review paper tends to study the fundamental working principles, methods, applications of SERS systems and their execution in experiments of rapid determination of plant hormones as well as several ways of integrated SERS substrates. The challenges to develop an SERS-microfluidic framework with reproducible and accurate results for plant hormone detection are discussed comprehensively and highlighted the key areas for future investigation briefly.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.talanta.2021.122823DOI Listing
January 2022

Metabolic Score for Visceral Fat: a Novel Predictor for the Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

Br J Nutr 2021 Oct 11:1-20. Epub 2021 Oct 11.

Department of Epidemiology and Health Statistics, College of Public Health, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan, People's Republic of China.

To investigate the association between the Metabolic Score for Visceral Fat (METS-VF) and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and compare the predictive value of the METS-VF for T2DM incidence with other obesity indices in Chinese people. A total of 12,237 non-T2DM participants aged over 18 from the Rural Chinese Cohort Study of 2007-2008 were included at baseline and followed up during 2013-2014. The cox proportional hazards regression was used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between baseline METS-VF and T2DM risk. Restricted cubic splines were used to model the association between METS-VF and T2DM risk. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) analysis was used to evaluate the ability of METS-VF to predict T2DM incidence. During a median follow-up of 6.01 (5.09-6.06) years, 837 cases developed T2DM. After adjusting for potential confounding factors, the adjusted HR (95% CI) for the highest versus lowest METS-VF quartile was 5.97 (4.28-8.32), with a per 1-standard deviation increase in METS-VF positively associated with T2DM risk. Positive associations were also found in the sensitivity and subgroup analyses, respectively. A significant nonlinear dose-response association was observed between METS-VF and T2DM risk for all participants (Pnonlinearity = 0.0347). Finally, the AUC value of METS-VF for predicting T2DM was largest among six indices. The METS-VF may be a reliable and applicable predictor of T2DM incidence in Chinese people regardless of sex, age, or body mass index.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007114521004116DOI Listing
October 2021

MiRNA-29a serves as a promising diagnostic biomarker in children with temporal lobe epilepsy and regulates seizure-induced cell death and inflammation in hippocampal neurons.

Epileptic Disord 2021 Oct 1. Epub 2021 Oct 1.

Department of Pediatric Hematology and Neurology, Binzhou Medical University Hospital, Binzhou, Shandong, 256603, China.

Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) in children is one of the most common refractory epilepsies. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) show abnormal expression in neurological disorders. The objective of this study was to determine changes in expression and the role of miR-29a in children with TLE. Sixty-five TLE patients and 70 normal controls were recruited. The levels of miR-29a were quantified using qRT-PCR. An in vitro TLE cell model was established using primary hippocampal cells cultured in magnesium-free medium. Cell viability, cell apoptosis and inflammatory cytokine concentrations were evaluated. The luciferase reporter assay was applied to confirm the target gene, HMGB1. A low level of MiR-29a expression was observed in the serum of children with TLE, which demonstrated a negative association with the concentration of serum TNF-α, IL-6, and IFN-γ. The level of MiR-29a demonstrated high specificity and sensitivity in children with TLE. A low level of expression of miR-29a was also detected in the TLE cell model. MiR-29a over-expression reversed the decreased cell viability induced by TLE, and alleviated cell apoptosis. Release of TNF-α, IL-6, and IFN-γ induced by TLE was also inhibited by miR-29a over-expression. HMGB1, which was downregulated in the serum of TLE patients, was shown to be a target gene of miR-29a, and negatively correlated with miR-29a level. The downregulation of serum miR-29a may serve as a non-invasive diagnostic biomarker for children with TLE. MiR-29a may be involved in the pathogenesis of TLE through regulation of neuronal apoptosis and neuroinflammation via targeting HMGB1.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1684/epd.2021.1331DOI Listing
October 2021

Selection of DNA Aptamers Recognizing EpCAM-Positive Prostate Cancer by Cell-SELEX for in vitro and in vivo MR Imaging.

Drug Des Devel Ther 2021 21;15:3985-3996. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Department of Radiology, The Second Affiliated Hospital, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, Shaanxi Province, 710004, People's Republic of China.

Background: The sensitive and specific detection of pathogenic cells is important in tumor diagnosis at an early stage. Aptamers are short single-stranded oligonucleotides evolved from systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX). It has been proved that aptamers can interact with cognate target molecules with high affinity and specificity and have great potential in the development of medical imaging at molecular level.

Purpose: To select epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) specific aptamers targeting prostate cancer and further to conjugate aptamers with GoldMag nanoparticles (a typical iron oxide core/gold shell structure) to construct magnetic molecular probes for medical imaging.

Methods: EpCAM-specific aptamers were selected by Cell-SELEX. The enrichment of specific aptamer candidates was monitored by flow cytometric analysis. Aptamers were further conjugated with GoldMag nanoparticles to construct magnetic molecular probes. The affinity and specificity of aptamer candidates and aptamer-conjugated GoldMag nanoparticles were evaluated. The MR imaging of aptamer-conjugated GoldMag nanoparticles to prostate cancer was further explored in vitro and in vivo.

Results: After 12 rounds of selection, aptamer candidates Eppc6 and Eppc14 could specifically target three types of prostate cancer cells, revealing a high affinity of Eppc6 and Eppc14. Moreover, aptamer-conjugated GoldMag nanoparticles not only exhibited good affinity to different prostate cancer cells but also produced strong T2WI signal intensity reduction distinguished from peritumoral tissue in MRI, indicating that the molecular probes possess both the affinity properties of EpCAM-specific aptamer and the superparamagnetic features of iron oxide.

Conclusion: Our study indicates that aptamer Eppc6 and Eppc14 can recognize prostate cancer cells and tissues. The aptamer-conjugated GoldMag nanoparticles constructed in the study can be used as a molecular imaging agent for detection of PCa in MRI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/DDDT.S322854DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8464308PMC
September 2021

Thermal-Responsive and Fire-Resistant Materials for High-Safety Lithium-Ion Batteries.

Small 2021 Sep 27:e2103679. Epub 2021 Sep 27.

Institute of Applied Physics and Materials Engineering, Joint Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education, University of Macau, Avenida da Universidade, Taipa, Macau, SAR, 999078, P. R. China.

As one of the most efficient electrochemical energy storage devices, the energy density of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) has been extensively improved in the past several decades. However, with increased energy density, the safety risk of LIBs becomes higher too. The frequently occurred battery accidents worldwide remind us that safeness is a crucial requirement for LIBs, especially in environments with high safety concerns like airplanes and military platforms. It is generally recognized that the catastrophic thermal runaway (TR) event is the major cause of LIBs related accidents. Tremendous efforts have been devoted to coping with the TR concerns in LIBs, and thus enhance battery safety. This review first gives an introduction to the fundamentals of LIBs and the origins of safety issues. Then, the authors summarize the recent advances to improve the safety of LIBs with a unique focus on thermal-responsive and fire-resistant materials. Finally, a perspective is proposed to guide future research directions in this field. It is anticipated this review will stimulate inspiration and arouse extensive studies on further improvement in battery safety.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.202103679DOI Listing
September 2021

Metabolic Score for Visceral Fat: A reliable indicator of visceral obesity for predicting risk for hypertension.

Nutrition 2021 Aug 10;93:111443. Epub 2021 Aug 10.

Department of Epidemiology and Health Statistics, College of Public Health, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the association of the Metabolic Score for Visceral Fat (METS-VF) with the risk for hypertension and to compare the ability of the METS-VF, the metabolic score for insulin resistance, visceral adiposity index, waist-to-height ratio, waist circumference, and body mass index to predict hypertension incidence based on a large prospective study of rural Chinese individuals.

Methods: In all, 10 297 non-hypertensive adults (≥18 y of age) from a rural Chinese cohort study in 2007 and 2008 were included at baseline and followed up in 2013 and 2014. Multivariable logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between baseline METS-VF and hypertension risk. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) analysis was used to evaluate the ability of METS-VF to predict hypertension incidence.

Results: We identified 2071 hypertension cases during follow-up. After adjusting for multivariable confounding factors, the adjusted ORs (95% CIs) for the highest versus lowest METS-VF quartile overall and for men and women were 3.84 (3.23-4.56), 3.25 (2.48-4.24), and 4.14 (3.30-5.20), respectively. Also, per-SD increase in METS-VF was positively associated with hypertension risk overall and for men and women. Similar results were found in the sensitivity and subgroup analyses. Finally, the AUC value for hypertension was higher for METS-VF than the other five indices overall and for men and women.

Conclusions: The present study indicated that METS-VF was positively associated with hypertension incidence and performed better in predicting hypertension risk than five other indices, which suggests that METS-VF is a reliable predictor of hypertension in the Chinese population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nut.2021.111443DOI Listing
August 2021

Molecular characterization and immune protection of the 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase gene in Echinococcus granulosus.

Parasit Vectors 2021 Sep 23;14(1):489. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

State Key Laboratory of Sheep Genetic Improvement and Healthy Production/Institute of Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Medicine, Xinjiang Academy of Agricultural and Reclamation Sciences, 832000, Shihezi, China.

Background: Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a serious parasitic zoonosis caused by the larvae of the tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus. The development of an effective vaccine is one of the most promising strategies for controlling CE.

Methods: The E. granulosus 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (EgHCDH) gene was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. The distribution of EgHCDH in protoscoleces (PSCs) and adult worms was analyzed using immunofluorescence. The transcript levels of EgHCDH in PSCs and adult worms were analyzed using quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR). The immune protective effects of the rEgHCDH were evaluated.

Results: The 924-bp open reading frame sequence of EgHCDH, which encodes a protein of approximately 34 kDa, was obtained. RT-qPCR analysis revealed that EgHCDH was expressed in both the PSCs and adult worms of E. granulosus. Immunofluorescence analysis showed that EgHCDH was mainly localized in the tegument of PSCs and adult worms. Western blot analysis showed that the recombinant protein was recognized by E. granulosus-infected dog sera. Animal challenge experiments demonstrated that dogs immunized with recombinant (r)EgHCDH had significantly higher serum IgG, interferon gamma and interleukin-4 concentrations than the phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) control group. The rEgHCDH vaccine was able to significantly reduce the number of E. granulosus and inhibit the segmental development of E. granulosus compared to the PBS control group.

Conclusions: The results suggest that rEgHCDH can induce partial immune protection against infection with E. granulosus and could be an effective candidate for the development of new vaccines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13071-021-05001-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8460197PMC
September 2021

Inhibition of DNA methylation in newborns reprograms ischemia-sensitive biomarkers resulting in development of a heart ischemia-sensitive phenotype late in life.

Reprod Toxicol 2021 Oct 15;105:198-210. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Center for Perinatal Biology, Division of Pharmacology, Department of Basic Sciences, Loma Linda University School of Medicine, Loma Linda, CA, United States. Electronic address:

Adverse environmental stress exposure at critical perinatal stages can alter cardiovascular development, which could persist into adulthood and develop a cardiovascular dysfunctional phenotype late in life. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain largely unknown. The present study provided a direct evidence that DNA methylation is a key epigenetic mechanism contributing to the developmental origins of adult cardiovascular disease. We hypothesized that DNA hypomethylation at neonatal stage alters gene expression patterns in the heart, leading to development of a cardiac ischemia-sensitive phenotype late in life. To test this hypothesis, a DNA methylation inhibitor 5-Aza-2-deoxycytidine (5-Aza) was administered in newborn rats from postnatal day 1-3. Cardiac function and related key genes were measured in 2-week- and 2-month-old animals, respectively. 5-Aza treatment induced an age- and sex-dependent inhibition of global and gene-specific DNA methylation levels in left ventricles, resulting in a long-lasting growth restriction but an asymmetry increase in the heart-to-body weight ratio. In addition, treatment with 5-Aza enhanced ischemia and reperfusion-induced cardiac dysfunction and injury in adults as compared with the saline controls, which was associated with up-regulations of miRNA-181a and angiotensin II receptor type 1 & 2 gene expressions, but down-regulations of PKCε, Atg5, and GSK3β gene expressions in left ventricles. In conclusion, our results provide compelling evidence that neonatal DNA methylation deficiency is a key mechanism contributing to differentially reprogram cardiac gene expression patterns, leading to development of a heart ischemia-sensitive phenotype late in life.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.reprotox.2021.09.007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8511209PMC
October 2021

Fetal e-cigarette exposure programs a neonatal brain hypoxic-ischemic sensitive phenotype via altering DNA methylation patterns and autophagy signaling pathway.

Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Lawrence D. Longo, MD Center for Perinatal Biology, Division of Pharmacology, Department of Basic Sciences, Loma Linda University School of Medicine, Loma Linda, California, United States.

Maternal e-cigarette (e-cig) exposure is a pressing perinatal health concern. Emerging evidence reveals its potential adverse impacts on brain development in offspring, yet the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. The present study tested the hypothesis that fetal e-cig exposure induces an aberrant DNA methylation profiles in the developing brain, leading to alteration of autophagic flux signaling and programming of a sensitive phenotype to neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). Pregnant rats were exposed to chronic intermittent e-cig aerosol. Neonates were examined at the age of 9-days-old. Maternal e-cig exposure decreased the body weight and brain weight but enhanced the brain-to-body weight ratio in the neonates. E-cig exposure induced a gender-dependent increase in hypoxic-ischemia-induced brain injury in male neonates associated with enhanced ROS activity. It differentially altered DNA methyltransferase expression and enhanced both global DNA methylation levels and specific CpG methylation at the autophagy-related gene 5 (ATG5) promoter. In addition, maternal e-cig exposure caused down-regulations of ATG5, microtubule associated protein 1 light chain 3 beta and sirtuin 1 expression in neonatal brains. Of importance, knockdown of ATG5 in neonatal pups exaggerated neonatal HIE. In conclusion, the present study reveals that maternal e-cig exposure downregulates autophagy-related gene expression via DNA hypermethylation, leading to programming of a hypoxic-ischemic sensitive phenotype in the neonatal brain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpregu.00207.2021DOI Listing
September 2021

SARS-CoV-2 3C-like protease antagonizes interferon-beta production by facilitating the degradation of IRF3.

Cytokine 2021 12 3;148:155697. Epub 2021 Sep 3.

College of Life Sciences, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou 450002, China. Electronic address:

The prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 is a great threat to global public health. However, the relationship between the viral pathogen SARS-CoV-2 and host innate immunity has not yet been well studied. The genome of SARS-CoV-2 encodes a viral protease called 3C-like protease. This protease is responsible for cleaving viral polyproteins during replication. In this investigation, 293T cells were transfected with SARS-CoV-2 3CL and then infected with Sendai virus (SeV) to induce the RIG-I like receptor (RLR)-based immune pathway. q-PCR, luciferase reporter assays, and western blotting were used for experimental analyses. We found that SARS-CoV-2 3CL significantly downregulated IFN-β mRNA levels. Upon SeV infection, SARS-CoV-2 3CL inhibited the nuclear translocation of IRF3 and p65 and promoted the degradation of IRF3. This effect of SARS-CoV-2 3CL on type I IFN in the RLR immune pathway opens up novel ideas for future research on SARS-CoV-2.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cyto.2021.155697DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8413301PMC
December 2021

ASFV bearing an I226R gene-deletion elicits a robust immunity in pigs to African swine fever.

J Virol 2021 Sep 8:JVI0119921. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

Changchun Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, 666 Liuying West Road, Changchun 130122, P. R. China.

African swine fever (ASF) is a severe hemorrhagic infectious disease in pigs caused by the African swine fever virus (ASFV), leading to devastating economic losses in the epidemic regions. Its control currently depends on thorough culling and clearance of the diseased and the surrounding suspected pigs. ASF vaccine has been extensively explored for years worldwide, especially in hog-intensive areas where it is highly desired, but it is still unavailable due to numerous reasons. Herein, we reported another ASF vaccine candidate named SY18ΔI226R bearing a deletion of the I226R gene in replacement of an eGFP expression cassette at the right end of the viral genome. This deletion results in complete loss of virulence of SY18 as the gene-deleted strain does not cause any clinical symptoms in all pigs inoculated with either a dosage of 10 TCID or 10 TCID. An apparent viremia with the gradual decline was monitored, while the virus shedding was only occasionally detected in oral- or anal swabs. ASFV specific antibody appeared at 9 days post-inoculation. After intramuscular challenge with its parental strain ASFV SY18 on 21 days post inoculation, all the challenged pigs survived without obvious febrile or abnormal clinical signs. No viral DNA could be detected on the dissection of any tissue when viremia disappeared. These indicated that SY18ΔI226R is safe in swine and elicits a robust immunity to the virulent ASFV infection. Outbreaks of African swine fever have resulted in devastating losses to the swine industry worldwide, but there is currently no commercial vaccine available. Although several vaccine candidates have been reported, none has been approved for use due to several reasons, especially the ones concerning bio-safety. Here, we identified a new undescribed functional gene, I226R. When deleted from the ASFV genome, the virus completely loses its virulence in the swine. Importantly, pigs infected with this gene-deleted virus were resistant to infection by an intramuscular challenge of 10 or 10 TCID of its virulent parental virus. Furthermore, rarely the nucleic acid of the gene-deleted virus and its virulent parental virus was detected from oral- or anal swabs. Viruses could not be detected in any tissues after necropsy when viremia became negative, indicating that robust immunity was achieved. Therefore, SY18ΔI226R is a novel, ideal and efficacious vaccine candidate for genotype II ASF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.01199-21DOI Listing
September 2021

Personality and Developmental Characteristics of Primary School Students Personality Types.

Front Psychol 2021 18;12:693329. Epub 2021 Aug 18.

Department of Psychology, School of Philosophy and Sociology, Jilin University, Changchun, China.

The aim of the current study was to investigate the personality characteristics and developmental characteristics of primary school students' personality types in a cross-sectional sample of 10,366 Chinese children. The was used to evaluate primary school students' personality. Latent profile analysis (LPA) was used to classify primary school students' personality types. One-way ANOVA was used to explore the personality characteristics of personality types, and Chi-square tests were used to investigate grade and gender differences of primary school students' personality types. Results showed that the primary school students could be divided into three personality types: the resilient, the overcontrolled, and the undercontrolled. Resilients had the highest scores, and undercontrollers had the lowest scores on all of five personality dimensions (intelligence, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and emotional stability). The overcontrollers' scores on personality were between the other two types, with lower emotional stability. As the grade level increased, the proportion of undercontrolled students in primary schools generally showed an upward trend and reached the maximum in grade 5. The proportion of resilient students in primary schools generally showed a downward trend. The proportion of resilient students was highest in grade 2 and lowest in grade 5. Girls were significantly more likely than boys to be resilient personality types, while boys were significantly more likely than girls to be undercontrolled personality types. The overcontrolled personality type did not show significant gender differences. Because of the undesirable internalizing problems related to overcontrollers and the externalizing problems related to undercontrollers, our results have implications for Chinese schools, families, and society in general.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.693329DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8416512PMC
August 2021

Cyanobacterial community succession and associated cyanotoxin production in hypereutrophic and eutrophic freshwaters.

Environ Pollut 2021 Aug 27;290:118056. Epub 2021 Aug 27.

Office of Research and Development, United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), Cincinnati, OH, 45268, USA. Electronic address:

Cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms (cyanoHABs) in freshwater bodies are mainly attributed to excess loading of nutrients [nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P)]. This study provides a comprehensive review of how the existing nutrient (i.e., N and P) conditions and microbial ecological factors affect cyanobacterial community succession and cyanotoxin production in freshwaters. Different eutrophic scenarios (i.e., hypereutrophic vs. eutrophic conditions) in the presence of (i) high levels of N and P, (ii) a relatively high level of P but a low level of N, and (iii) a relatively high level of N but a low level of P, are discussed in association with cyanobacterial community succession and cyanotoxin production. The seasonal cyanobacterial community succession is mostly regulated by temperature in hypereutrophic freshwaters, where both temperature and nitrogen fixation play a critical role in eutrophic freshwaters. While the early cyanoHAB mitigation strategies focus on reducing P from water bodies, many more studies show that both N and P have a profound contribution to cyanobacterial blooms and toxin production. The availability of N often shapes the structure of the cyanobacterial community (e.g., the relative abundance of N-fixing and non-N-fixing cyanobacterial genera) and is positively linked to the levels of microcystin. Ecological aspects of cyanotoxin production and release, related functional genes, and corresponding nutrient and environmental conditions are also elucidated. Research perspectives on cyanoHABs and cyanobacterial community succession are discussed and presented with respect to the following: (i) role of internal nutrients and their species, (ii) P- and N-based control vs. solely P-based control of cyanoHABs, and (iii) molecular investigations and prediction of cyanotoxin production.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2021.118056DOI Listing
August 2021

Analysis and prediction of produced water quantity and quality in the Permian Basin using machine learning techniques.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Aug 18;801:149693. Epub 2021 Aug 18.

Dept. of Civil Engineering, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM, United States. Electronic address:

Appropriate produced water (PW) management is critical for oil and gas industry. Understanding PW quantity and quality trends for one well or all similar wells in one region would significantly assist operators, regulators, and water treatment/disposal companies in optimizing PW management. In this research, historical PW quantity and quality data in the New Mexico portion (NM) of the Permian Basin from 1995 to 2019 was collected, pre-processed, and analyzed to understand the distribution, trend and characteristics of PW production for potential beneficial use. Various machine learning algorithms were applied to predict PW quantity for different types of oil and gas wells. Both linear and non-linear regression approaches were used to conduct the analysis. The prediction results from five-fold cross-validation showed that the Random Forest Regression model reported high prediction accuracy. The AutoRegressive Integrated Moving Average model showed good results for predicting PW volume in time series. The water quality analysis results showed that the PW samples from the Delaware and Artesia Formations (mostly from conventional wells) had the highest and the lowest average total dissolved solids concentrations of 194,535 mg/L and 100,036 mg/L, respectively. This study is the first research that comprehensively analyzed and predicted PW quantity and quality in the NM-Permian Basin. The results can be used to develop a geospatial metrics analysis or facilitate system modeling to identify the potential opportunities and challenges of PW management alternatives within and outside oil and gas industry. The machine learning techniques developed in this study are generic and can be applied to other basins to predict PW quantity and quality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.149693DOI Listing
August 2021

Effects of secondary polyethylene microplastic exposure on crucian (Carassius carassius) growth, liver damage, and gut microbiome composition.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Aug 19;802:149736. Epub 2021 Aug 19.

School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xi'an Shiyou University, Xi'an 710000, China.

Microplastics (MPs) have been found in the natural environment and even in the organs of fish, which is attracting worldwide attention. In this study, agricultural film was milled to simulate secondary polyethylene microplastics (PE-MPs) to evaluate their effect and toxicity on the growth, liver damage, and gut microbiome composition of crucian (Carassius carassius), a common freshwater fish, after 30 days of feed exposure. Three fish feed treatments with different PE-MPs concentrations, low, medium, and high, whose PE-MPs intake was 6.38, 12.18, and 22.33 mg MPs/fish/day, respectively, were used. The results indicated that crucian growth was promoted in the low and medium PE-MPs groups due to the increase in Firmicutes and decrease in Bacteroidetes, probably resulting in obesity and lipid accumulation, while the growth rate of crucians in the high PE-MPs group showed a clear downward trend. Severe liver damage was observed in PE-MPs-treated groups. Disordered liver tissue and necrosis of pancreatic acinar epithelial cells were observed in the medium and high PE-MPs groups compared with those of the control group. The gut microbiome composition of crucians showed significant alteration, and some harmful bacteria were found in the gut following PE-MPs exposure. Alpha diversity indices revealed that the diversity of the gut microbiome rose markedly in the low, medium, and high PE-MPs groups. This study suggests that MPs adversely affect crucian growth and health, with increased disease risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.149736DOI Listing
August 2021

miR-200c-141 Enhances Sheep Kidney Cell Reprogramming into Pluripotent Cells by Targeting ZEB1.

Int J Stem Cells 2021 Aug 31. Epub 2021 Aug 31.

College of Animal Science and Technology, Shihezi University, Xinjiang, China.

Background And Objectives: Sheep-induced pluripotent stem cells (siPSCs) have low reprogramming efficiency, thereby hampering their use in biotechnology and agriculture. Several studies have shown that some microRNAs play an important role in promoting somatic reprogramming in mouse and human. In this study, we investigated the effect of miR-200c-141 on somatic reprogramming in sheep and explored the mechanism of promoting the reprogramming.

Methods And Results: The lentivirus system driven by tetracycline (TET)-on carrying Oct4, Sox2, c-Myc, Klf4, Nanog, Lin28, hTERT, and SV40LT (OSKMNLST) could reprogram sheep kidney cells into pluripotent cells. Overexpression of miR-200c-141 in combination with OSKMNLST could significantly improve the efficiency of sheep iPSC generation (p<0.01). Sheep iPSCs derived from miR-200c-141 showed embryonic stem cell (ESC)-like pluripotent properties, were positive for alkaline phosphatase and some pluripotent markers by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and immunofluorescence, and were able to differentiate into three germ layers . Oar-miR-200c was transfected into HEK293FT cells and was able to target the zinc finger E-box-binding homeobox 1 (ZEB1) 3'UTR using dual luciferase reporting analysis. Overexpression of oar-miR-200c in SKCs significantly reduced the expression of ZEB1, but increased the expression of E-cadherin by qRT-PCR and western blotting analysis.

Conclusions: These results suggest that miR-200c-141 can promote the reprogramming of sheep somatic cells to iPSCs, and oar-miR-200c targeted ZEB1 3'UTR, significantly decreased expression of ZEB1, and increased expression of E-cadherin. Oar-miR-200c may improve the MET process by affecting the TGF- signaling pathway, thus improving the efficiency of somatic cell reprogramming in sheep.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.15283/ijsc21080DOI Listing
August 2021

Mining and engineering exporters for titer improvement of macrolide biopesticides in Streptomyces.

Microb Biotechnol 2021 Aug 26. Epub 2021 Aug 26.

School of Life Science, Northeast Agricultural University, No. 59 Mucai Street, Xiangfang District, Harbin, 150030, China.

Exporter engineering is a promising strategy to construct high-yield Streptomyces for natural product pharmaceuticals in industrial biotechnology. However, available exporters are scarce, due to the limited knowledge of bacterial transporters. Here, we built a workflow for exporter mining and devised a tunable plug-and-play exporter (TuPPE) module to improve the production of macrolide biopesticides in Streptomyces. Combining genome analyses and experimental confirmations, we found three ATP-binding cassette transporters that contribute to milbemycin production in Streptomyces bingchenggensis. We then optimized the expression level of target exporters for milbemycin titer optimization by designing a TuPPE module with replaceable promoters and ribosome binding sites. Finally, broader applications of the TuPPE module were implemented in industrial S. bingchenggensis BC04, Streptomyces avermitilis NEAU12 and Streptomyces cyaneogriseus NMWT1, which led to optimal titer improvement of milbemycin A3/A4, avermectin B and nemadectin α by 24.2%, 53.0% and 41.0%, respectively. Our work provides useful exporters and a convenient TuPPE module for titer improvement of macrolide biopesticides in Streptomyces. More importantly, the feasible exporter mining workflow developed here might shed light on widespread applications of exporter engineering in Streptomyces to boost the production of other secondary metabolites.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1751-7915.13883DOI Listing
August 2021

Evaluation of the cadmium phytoextraction potential of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) and rhizosphere micro-characteristics under different cadmium levels.

Chemosphere 2021 Aug 6;286(Pt 2):131714. Epub 2021 Aug 6.

College of Forestry, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou, 450002, China. Electronic address:

In this study, a field-scale and pot experiment were performed to evaluate the remedial efficiency of Cd contaminated soil by tobacco and explore rhizosphere micro-characteristics under different cadmium levels, respectively. The results indicated that tobacco could remove 12.9 % of Cd from soil within a short growing period of 80 d. The pot experiment revealed that tobacco could tolerate soil Cd concentrations up to 5.8 mg kg and bioaccumulate 68.1 and 40.8 mg kg Cd in shoots and roots, respectively. The high Cd bioaccumulation in tobacco might be attributed to strong acidification in the rhizosphere soil and the increase in Cd bioavailability. Rhizobacteria did not appear to be involved in Cd mobilization. In contrast, tobacco tended to enrich sulfate-reducing bacteria (such as Desulfarculaceae) under high Cd treatment (5.8 mg kg) but enrich plant growth-promoting bacteria (such as Bacillus, Dyadobacter, Virgibacillus and Lysobacter) to improve growth under low Cd treatment (0.2 mg kg), suggesting that tobacco employed different microbes for responding to Cd stress. Our results demonstrate the advantages of using tobacco for bioremediating Cd contaminated soil and clarify the rhizosphere mechanisms underlying Cd mobilization and tolerance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.131714DOI Listing
August 2021

Analysis of Changes of Intestinal Flora in Elderly Patients with Alzheimer's Disease and Liver Cancer and Its Correlation with Abnormal Gastrointestinal Motility.

J Oncol 2021 13;2021:7517379. Epub 2021 Aug 13.

Department of Geriatrics, The First People's Hospital of Lianyungang, Lianyungang 222000, China.

Objective: To investigate the changes of intestinal flora in elderly patients with Alzheimer's disease and liver cancer and its correlation with abnormal gastrointestinal motility.

Methods: From January 2018 to December 2020, 102 elderly patients with Alzheimer's disease and liver cancer were selected as the observation group. Eighty-nine healthy patients during the same period were selected as the control group. The two groups of intestinal flora (intestinal microbial diversity) were detected by real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) and high-throughput sequencing. The two groups of serum motilin (MTL) and gastrin (GAS) levels were measured by the Hitachi automatic biochemical analyzer 7600. Pearson correlation analysis software was used to analyze the relationship between changes in the intestinal flora and gastrointestinal motility in elderly patients with Alzheimer's disease and liver cancer.

Results: The contents of and in the observation group were lower than those in the control group, and the contents of , and were higher than those in the control group. The Chaol index and Shannon index in the observation group were higher than those in the control group. The gastrointestinal motility levels MTL and GAS of the observation group were higher than those of the control group. The results of Pearson correlation analysis showed that the Chaol index and Shannon index of elderly patients with Alzheimer's disease and liver cancer were positively correlated with MTL and GAS.

Conclusion: Elderly patients with Alzheimer's disease and liver cancer often have changes in the intestinal flora, which are correlated with abnormal gastrointestinal motility. Strengthening the analysis of changes in patients' intestinal flora can enhance clinical medication knowledge and improve gastrointestinal motility in patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/7517379DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8378974PMC
August 2021

The prognostic value of serum bilirubin in colorectal cancer patients with surgical resection.

Int J Biol Markers 2021 Jun;36(2):17246008211036128

Jiangsu Cancer Hospital & 26481Jiangsu Institute of Cancer Research & The Affiliated Cancer Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, 210009, PR China.

Purpose: Serum bilirubin plays an important role in antioxidant and anticancer processes. The inverse association between serum bilirubin and cancer risk have been widely reported in multiple cancers. The aim of this retrospective study was to investigate the prognostic impact of serum bilirubin in colorectal cancer patients undergoing surgical resection.

Methods: The value of serum bilirubin including total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, and indirect bilirubin were tested at pre-operatively in 330 colorectal cancer patients. The optimal cut-off values for these three biomarkers were determined by X-tile program. The relationship between serum bilirubin and outcomes were examined using Kaplan-Meier curves log-rank test, univariate and multivariate cox regression. Moreover, a number of risk factors were used to form a nomogram for evaluating risk of survival.

Results: The optimal cut-off points of serum total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, and indirect bilirubin were 19.5 μmol/L, 5.0 μmol/L and 8.1 μmol/L, respectively. Elevated total bilirubin and direct bilirubin were significantly associated with overall survival in surgical colorectal cancer patients. Additionally, predictive nomogram including total bilirubin and direct bilirubin for overall survival was established for predicting overall survival in surgical colorectal cancer patients.

Conclusions: These findings indicated that preoperative elevated total bilirubin and direct bilirubin could be considered as independent prognostic biomarkers for poor overall survival of colorectal cancer patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/17246008211036128DOI Listing
June 2021

Association of hypertriglyceridemic waist-to-height ratio and its dynamic status with risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus: The Rural Chinese Cohort Study.

Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2021 Sep 8;179:108997. Epub 2021 Aug 8.

Department of Endocrinology, The Affiliated Luohu Hospital of Shenzhen University Health Science Center, Shenzhen, Guangdong, PR China.; Study Team of Shenzhen's Sanming Project, The Affiliated Luohu Hospital of Shenzhen University Health Science Center, Shenzhen, Guangdong, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Aims: To evaluate the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in a prospective study with hypertriglyceridemic waist-to-height ratio (HWHtR) and its dynamic status.

Methods: We collected data for 12,248 participants ≥18 years in this study. Cox's proportional-hazards regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for T2DM risk by baseline HWHtR. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs for T2DM risk by transformation in HWHtR.

Results: We identified 839 T2DM cases during a median follow-up of 5.92 years. Compared with normal TG level and normal WHtR, T2DM risk was increased with high TG level and high WHtR (aHR 2.04, 95% CI 1.49-2.79). Similar results were observed in subgroup analyses by sex and age. During follow-up, T2DM risk was increased with stable high TG level and high WHtR (aOR 4.45, 95% CI 2.76-7.17) compared with stable normal TG level and normal WHtR. The results above were robust in sensitivity analyses.

Conclusions: HWHtR phenotype and its dynamic status were associated with risk of T2DM. Our study suggests that primary prevention and avoiding the appearance of the HWHtR phenotype in the rural Chinese population may reduce the T2DM risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.diabres.2021.108997DOI Listing
September 2021

Prevalence and risk factors of preoperative frailty in Chinese elderly inpatients with gastric and colorectal cancer undergoing surgery: a single-center cross-sectional study using the Groningen Frailty Indicator.

Support Care Cancer 2021 Aug 7. Epub 2021 Aug 7.

Department of General Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, No.218 Jixi Road, Hefei, 230022, Anhui, China.

Background: Frailty is emerging as an important determinant for health. Compared with Western countries, research in the field of frailty started at a later stage in China and mainly focused on older community dwellers. Little is known about frailty in Chinese cancer patients, nor the risk factors of frailty. This study aimed at investigating the prevalence of frailty and its risk factors in elderly inpatients with gastric and colorectal cancer.

Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted at a tertiary hospital in China from Mar. 2020 to Nov. 2020. The study enrolled 265 eligible inpatients aged 60 and older with gastric and colorectal cancer who underwent surgery. Demographic and clinical characteristics, biochemical laboratory parameters, and anthropometric data were collected from all patients. The Groningen Frailty Indicator was applied to assess the frailty status of patients. A multivariate logistic regression model analysis was performed to identify the risk factors of frailty and to estimate their 95% confidence intervals.

Results: The prevalence of frailty in elderly inpatients with gastric and colorectal cancer was 43.8%. A multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that older age (OR = 1.065, 95% CI: 1.001-1.132, P = 0.045), low handgrip strength (OR = 4.346, 95% CI: 1.739-10.863, P = 0.002), no regular exercise habit (OR = 3.228, 95% CI: 1.230-8.469, P = 0.017), and low MNA-SF score (OR = 11.090, 95% CI: 5.119-24.024, P < 0.001) were risk factors of frailty.

Conclusions: This study suggested a relatively high prevalence of frailty among elderly inpatients with gastric and colorectal cancer. Older age, low handgrip strength, no regular exercise habit, and low MNA-SF score were identified as risk factors of frailty.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00520-021-06483-4DOI Listing
August 2021

A Facile Strategy to Prepare Small Water Clusters via Interacting with Functional Molecules.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jul 31;22(15). Epub 2021 Jul 31.

CAS Key Lab of Colloid, Interface and Chemical Thermodynamics, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China.

Although small water clusters (SWCs) are important in many research fields, efficient methods of preparing SWCs are still rarely reported, which is mainly due to the lack of related materials and understanding of the molecular interaction mechanisms. In this study, a series of functional molecules were added in water to obtain small water cluster systems. The decreasing rate of the half-peak width in a sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-water system reaches ≈20% at 0.05 mM from O nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) results. Based on density functional theory (DFT) and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation calculation, it can be concluded that functional molecules with stronger negative electrostatic potential (ESP) and higher hydrophilicity have a stronger ability to destroy big water clusters. Notably, the concentrations of our selected molecule systems are one to two magnitudes lower than that of previous reports. This study provides a promising way to optimize aqueous systems in various fields such as oilfield development, protein stability, and metal anti-corrosion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms22158250DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8347634PMC
July 2021

Commercialization-Driven Electrodes Design for Lithium Batteries: Basic Guidance, Opportunities, and Perspectives.

Small 2021 Aug 5:e2102233. Epub 2021 Aug 5.

College of Chemical Engineering, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou, 350116, P. R. China.

Current lithium-ion battery technology is approaching the theoretical energy density limitation, which is challenged by the increasing requirements of ever-growing energy storage market of electric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles, and portable electronic devices. Although great progresses are made on tailoring the electrode materials from methodology to mechanism to meet the practical demands, sluggish mass transport, and charge transfer dynamics are the main bottlenecks when increasing the areal/volumetric loading multiple times to commercial level. Thus, this review presents the state-of-the-art developments on rational design of the commercialization-driven electrodes for lithium batteries. First, the basic guidance and challenges (such as electrode mechanical instability, sluggish charge diffusion, deteriorated performance, and safety concerns) on constructing the industry-required high mass loading electrodes toward commercialization are discussed. Second, the corresponding design strategies on cathode/anode electrode materials with high mass loading are proposed to overcome these challenges without compromising energy density and cycling durability, including electrode architecture, integrated configuration, interface engineering, mechanical compression, and Li metal protection. Finally, the future trends and perspectives on commercialization-driven electrodes are offered. These design principles and potential strategies are also promising to be applied in other energy storage and conversion systems, such as supercapacitors, and other metal-ion batteries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.202102233DOI Listing
August 2021

Treatment of subclinical varicocele with acupuncture: A case report.

Explore (NY) 2021 Jul 12. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Department of Acupuncture and Moxibustion, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang Chinese Medical University, Hangzhou 310005, China. Electronic address:

Varicocele is a vascular lesion characterized by abnormal dilatation and/or tortuosity of the veins of the pampiniform plexus, which sometimes manifests as chronic, dull pain in the scrotum, testicle or inguinal area. Subclinical varicocele (SCV) is as an early phase in the progression of its clinical analog. Given the lack of relevant studies on treatment strategies, no conclusive answer exists regarding how SCV should be managed. In this case report, a 40-year-old male patient visited our acupuncture outpatient clinic for left-sided scrotal pain and heaviness caused by SCV. After ten sessions of acupuncture treatments (acupuncture was performed at Zhongji (CV3), Guanyuan (CV4), qihai (CV6) and bilateral Guilai (ST29), Hegu (LI4), Taichong (LR3), Zusanli (ST36), Sanyinjiao (SP6), with electroacupuncture (EA) stimulation at Qihai (CV6) and Zhongji (CV3) as well as Guilai (ST29) on both sides), the patient was symptom-free. More unexpectedly, ultrasound reexamination showed no obvious abnormalities in bilateral spermatic veins. From this case, we conclude that acupuncture may be an effective alternative therapy for SCV treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.explore.2021.07.001DOI Listing
July 2021

Influence of protein extraction and texturization on odor-active compounds of pea proteins.

J Sci Food Agric 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Food Material Science, Institute of Food Science and Biotechnology, University of Hohenheim, Stuttgart, Germany.

Background: The use of plant proteins as food ingredients might be limited due to the presence of foreign or 'off' flavors, which may evolve during extraction and subsequent processing. In this study, the influence of dry (TVP) and wet (WTP) texturization on characteristic volatile compounds of two different pea protein isolates was assessed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-olfactometry (GC-MS-O) after direct immersion stir bar sorptive extraction (DI-SBSE).

Results: Twenty-four odor-active compounds were found, with a prevalence of carbonyls from fat oxidation. Nine of these compounds which are also known as major (off-) flavor contributors in peas were distinctively impacted in all texturates: hexanal, nonanal, 2-undecanone, (E)-2-octenal, (E, Z)-3,5-octadiene-2-one, (E, E)-2,4-decadienal, 2-pentyl-furan, 2-pentyl-pyridine, and γ-nonalactone. For example, hexanal, a characteristic green odorant, was reduced by up to sixfold by wet texturization, from 3.29 ± 1.05% (Pea Protein I) to 0.52 ± 0.02% (Pea WTP I). Furthermore, (E,Z)-3,5-Octadiene-2-one and (E,E)-2,4-decadienal were decreased by 1.5- and 1.8-fold when Pea Protein I and Pea TVP I were compared.

Conclusion: An overall reduction in fat oxidation products and of green and fatty odor-active compounds was observed. The results represent a first insight into the process-related modulation of pea protein (off-) flavors to broaden the applicability of pea proteins as food ingredients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.11437DOI Listing
July 2021

The association between low-density lipoprotein cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio cholesterol ratio and thickened carotid intima-media thickness: A case-control study.

Vascular 2021 Jul 27:17085381211035282. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Epidemiology and Health Statistics, School of Public Health, Shenzhen University Health Science Center, Shenzhen, Guangdong, People's Republic of China.

Background: It is indicated that Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio (LDL-C/HDL-C ratio) has greater predictive value for thickened carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) comparing with classic lipid parameters. However, there have been few reports about their association in general Chinese population.

Method: We included a total of 1220 CIMT participants and 2440 matched controls, who had ultrasonography of carotid artery during 2009 and 2016. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for thickened CIMT risk associated with LDL-C/HDL-C ratio.

Result: In the univariate logistic regression model, there was significant association between LDL-C/HDL-C ratio and thickened CIMT (Q4 vs. Q1, OR = 1.94, 95% CI: 1.60-2.36; < 0.05). After adjusting for potential covariates, LDL-C/HDL-C ratio remained significantly associated with thickened CIMT (Q4 vs. Q1, OR = 1.81, 95% CI: 1.41-2.34, < 0.001; ≥3.05 v.s. <3.05, OR = 1.66, 95% CI: 1.37-2.02). In subgroup analyses, the association between LDL-C/HDL-C ratio and thickened CIMT remained significant in the subgroups stratified by sex, impaired fasting glucose (IFG), hypertension, and fatty liver disease but only remained significant in the subgroups of ≥45 years (OR = 2.01, 95% CI: 1.46-2.76; 0.05), BMI ≥24 (kg/m) (OR = 2.22; 95% CI = 1.63-3.03; Ptrend < 0.05) and BMI ≥25 (kg/m) (OR = 2.50, 95% CI: 1.76-3.54; < 0.05), dyslipidemia (OR = 3.28, 95% CI: 1.83-5,85; 0.001), and without periodontitis (OR = 2.08, 95% CI: 1.54-2.81 ; Ptrend < 0.05) comparing Q4 to Q1. Similar results were observed in the subgroup analyses for LDL-C/HDL-C ratio ≥3.05 v.s. <3.05 except for the age stratification.

Conclusion: High LDL-C/HDL-C ratio could significantly increase the risk of thickened CIMT independent of gender, IFG, hypertension, and fatty liver disease in general Chinese population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/17085381211035282DOI Listing
July 2021

Oxymatrine Synergistically Enhances Doxorubicin Anticancer Effects in Colorectal Cancer.

Front Pharmacol 2021 30;12:673432. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

The State Key Laboratory of Functions and Applications of Medicinal Plants (The High Efficacy Application of Natural Medicinal Resources Engineering Center of Guizhou Province), Guizhou Medical University, Guiyang, China.

The combination of chemotherapy with natural products is a common strategy to enhance anticancer effects while alleviating the dose-dependent adverse effects of cancer treatment. Oxymatrine (OMT) has been extensively reported as having anticancer activity. Doxorubicin (DOX) is a chemotherapeutic DNA-damaging agent used for the treatment of carcinoma. In this study, we investigated whether synergistic effects exist with the combination treatment with OMT and DOX using human colorectal cancer cell (CRC) lines and the potential mechanisms involved in and activities. The MTT and colony formation assay results showed that compared to either OMT or DOX monotherapy, the combination of OMT + DOX markedly inhibited the growth of HT-29 and SW620 cells. Wound healing assays showed significant inhibition of cell migration with co-treatment, supported by the change in E-cadherin and N-cadherin expressions in Western blotting. Furthermore, flow cytometry analysis revealed that OMT + DOX co-treatment enhanced cell apoptosis as a result of ROS generation, whereas NAC attenuated OMT + DOX-induced apoptosis. Similarly, the apoptosis-related proteins (cleaved caspase-3, cleaved caspase-9, and the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2) were determined by Western blotting, which showed that the expressions of these markers were notably increased in the co-treatment group. Furthermore, co-administration of a low dose of DOX and OMT inhibited xenograft tumor growth in a dose-dependent manner. TUNEL assay and Ki67 staining images indicated more apoptosis and less proliferation occurred in OMT plus DOX-treated xenograft tumors. Meanwhile, the combination strategy decreased cardiotoxicity, which is the most serious side effect of DOX. RNA sequencing was performed to explore the precise molecular alterations involved in the combination group. Among the numerous differentially expressed genes, downregulated FHL-2 and upregulated cleaved SPTAN1 were validated in both mRNA and protein levels of HT-29 and SW620 cells. These two proteins might play a pivotal role involving in OMT + DOX synergistic activity. Overall, OMT in combination with DOX presented an outstanding synergistic antitumor effect, indicating that this beneficial combination may offer a potential therapy for CRC patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2021.673432DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8297828PMC
June 2021

Understanding how starch constituent in frozen dough following freezing-thawing treatment affected quality of steamed bread.

Food Chem 2022 Jan 16;366:130614. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

College of Food and Biological Engineering, Zhengzhou University of Light Industry, 5 Dongfeng Road, Zhengzhou, Henan 450002, China; Collaborative Innovation Center for Food Production and Safety, 5 Dongfeng Road, Zhengzhou, Henan 450002, China; Henan Key Laboratory of Cold Chain Food Quality and Safety, 5 Dongfeng Road, Zhengzhou, Henan, China. Electronic address:

Understanding how starch constituent in frozen dough affected bread quality would be valuable for contributing to the frozen products with better quality. To elucidate the underlying mechanism, starch was fractionated from multiple freezing-thawing (F/T) treated dough and reconstituted with gluten. Results showed that F/T treatment destructed the molecular and supramolecular structures of starch, which were more severe as the F/T cycle increasing. These structural disorganizations made water molecules easier to permeate into the interior of starch granules and form hydrogen bonds with starch molecular chains, which elevated the peak, breakdown, setback and final viscosity of starch paste. In addition, F/T treatment resulted in decreased specific volume (from 1.54 to 0.90 × 10 m/Kg) and increased hardness (from 42.98 to 52.31 N) for steamed bread. We propose the strengthened water absorption ability and accelerated intra- and inter-molecular rearrangement of starch molecules and weak stability of "starch-gluten matrices" would allow interpreting deteriorated bread quality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2021.130614DOI Listing
January 2022

Gastrodin Improves Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Through Activation of the Adenosine Monophosphate-Activated Protein Kinase Signaling Pathway.

Hepatology 2021 Jul 23. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, China.

Background And Aims: NASH is currently one of the most common causes of liver transplantation and hepatocellular carcinoma. Thus far, there is still no effective pharmacological therapy for this disease. Recently, Gastrodin has demonstrated hepatoprotective effects in a variety of liver diseases. The aim of this study is to investigate the function of Gastrodin in NASH.

Approach And Results: In our study, Gastrodin showed potent therapeutic effects on NASH both in vivo and in vitro. In high-fat diet or high-fat and high-cholesterol diet-fed mice, the liver weight, hepatic and serum triglyceride and cholesterol contents, and serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activity levels were markedly reduced by Gastrodin treatment as compared with the corresponding vehicle groups. Notably, Gastrodin showed minimal effects on the function and histological characteristics of other major organs in mice. We further examined the effects of Gastrodin on lipid accumulation in primary mouse hepatocytes and human hepatocyte cell line and observed that Gastrodin showed a significant decrease in lipid accumulation and inflammatory response in hepatocytes under metabolic stress. Furthermore, RNA-sequencing analysis systemically indicated that Gastrodin suppressed the pathway and key regulators related to lipid accumulation, inflammation, and fibrosis in the pathogenesis of NASH. Mechanistically, we found that Gastrodin protected against NASH by activating the adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway, which was supported by the result that the AMPK inhibitor Compound C or AMPK knockdown blocked the Gastrodin-mediated hepatoprotective effect.

Conclusions: Gastrodin attenuates steatohepatitis by activating the AMPK pathway and represents a therapeutic for the treatment of NASH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hep.32068DOI Listing
July 2021
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