Publications by authors named "Yanyan Gong"

63 Publications

Development of Acute Myocardial Infarction Mortality and Readmission Models for Public Reporting on Hospital Performance in Canada.

CJC Open 2021 Aug 1;3(8):1051-1059. Epub 2021 May 1.

Canadian Institute for Health Information, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Background: Given changes in the care and outcomes of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients over the past several decades, we sought to develop prediction models that could be used to generate accurate risk-adjusted mortality and readmission outcomes for hospitals in current practice across Canada.

Methods: A Canadian national expert panel was convened to define appropriate AMI patients for reporting and develop prediction models. Preliminary candidate variable evaluation was conducted using Ontario patients hospitalized with a most responsible diagnosis of AMI from April 1, 2015 to March 31, 2018. National data from the Canadian Institute for Health Information was used to develop AMI prediction models. The main outcomes were 30-day all-cause in-hospital mortality and 30-day urgent all-cause readmission. Discrimination of these models (measured by c-statistics) was compared with that of existing Canadian Institute for Health Information models in the same study cohort.

Results: The AMI mortality model was assessed in 54,240 Ontario AMI patients and 153,523 AMI patients across Canada. We observed a 30-day in-hospital mortality rate of 6.3%, and a 30-day all-cause urgent readmission rate of 10.7% in Canada. The final Canadian AMI mortality model included 12 variables and had a c-statistic of 0.834. For readmission, the model had 13 variables and a c-statistic of 0.679. Discrimination of the new AMI models had higher c-statistics compared with existing models (c-statistic 0.814 for mortality; 0.673 for readmission).

Conclusions: In this national collaboration, we developed mortality and readmission models that are suitable for profiling performance of hospitals treating AMI patients in Canada.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cjco.2021.04.012DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8413230PMC
August 2021

Microplastics deteriorate the removal efficiency of antibiotic resistance genes during aerobic sludge digestion.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jul 30;798:149344. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Centre for Technology in Water and Wastewater, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Technology Sydney, Ultimo, NSW 2007, Australia. Electronic address:

Sludge from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is considered to be reservoirs of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), which can be efficiently removed by sludge treatment processes, e.g., aerobic sludge digestion. However, recent studies report microplastics, which also accumulate in sludge, may serve as carriers for ARGs. In the presence of microplastics, whether ARGs can still be efficiently destroyed by aerobic sludge digestion remains to be urgently investigated. In this study, the fate of ARGs during aerobic digestion was investigated with and without the addition of three prevalent categories of (i.e., polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polyethylene (PE), and polyethylene terephthalate (PET)). Nine ARGs and class 1 integron-integrase gene (intI1) that represents the horizontal transfer potential of ARGs were tested in this study. Compared with the control, the ARGs removal efficiency decreased by 129.6%, 137.0%, and 227.6% with the presence of PVC, PE, and PET, respectively, although a negligible difference was observed with their solids reduction efficiencies. The abundance of potential bacterial hosts of ARGs and intI1 increased in the reactors with the addition of microplastics, suggesting that microplastics potentially selectively enriched bacterial hosts and promoted the horizontal transfer of ARGs during aerobic sludge digestion. These may have contributed to the deteriorated ARGs removal efficiency. This study demonstrated that microplastics in sludge would decrease the ARGs removal efficiency in aerobic digestion process, potentially leading to more ARGs entering the local environment during sludge disposal or utilization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.149344DOI Listing
July 2021

Evaluation of three common alkaline agents for immobilization of multi-metals in a field-contaminated acidic soil.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Jun 24. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

School of Environment and Energy, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, 510006, China.

We investigated three common alkaline agents (NaOH, CaO, and Mg(OH)) for immobilization of four heavy metals (Pb, Zn, Cu, and Cd) in a field-contaminated soil and elucidated the underpinning principles. NaOH caused the highest pH spike in the soil, while CaO and Mg(OH) served as a longer-lasting source of OH. Amending the soil with CaO or Mg(OH) at ≥0.1 mol as OH (kg·soil) for 24 h was able to immobilize all four metals, while NaOH failed. NaOH leached up to 3 times more organic carbon than CaO and Mg(OH), resulting in elevated leachability of the metals. Column elution tests showed that amendments by CaO and Mg(OH) lowered the leachable Pb, Zn, Cu, and Cd by 52-54%, 71-75%, 69-73%, and 68%, respectively, after 1440 pore volumes of elution. Sequential extraction revealed that the soil amendments converted the exchangeable fraction of the metals to the much less available forms. XRD and FTIR analyses indicated that formation of metal oxide precipitates and complexation with soil organic matter were responsible for the metals immobilization. Taken together the chemical cost, technical effectiveness, and environmental impact, CaO is the most suitable alkaline agent for remediation of soil contaminated with heavy metals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-14670-3DOI Listing
June 2021

The influence of cooperative action intention on object affordance: evidence from the perspective-taking ability of individuals.

Psychol Res 2021 May 19. Epub 2021 May 19.

School of Psychology, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi'an, 710062, Shaanxi, China.

In complex interactive scenarios, action understanding lies at the heart of social interactions. Nevertheless, the ability to understand action intention may differ among people. The current study distinguished two groups of participants with different social intention-understanding abilities (high and low) based on a perspective-taking task to investigate the influence of social intention on object affordance under conditions of individual and cooperative action intention. In the affordance perception experiment, participants were shown a video with the presenter reaching to grasp an object in different grips and asked to classify objects into kitchen or non-kitchen items by pressing the left- or right-hand button under the two intention conditions. The results showed that the object affordance effects were modulated by the participants' understanding of social intention in the interactive scenarios. Specifically, the object affordance effects were observed only in the high perspective-taking ability group under the condition of cooperative action intention. However, under the condition of individual action intention, object affordance effects were shown in both the high and low perspective-taking ability groups, and the difference between the two groups was not significant. This study suggests that processing of object affordance depends greatly on the contextual correspondence of perception and action and that the understanding of cooperative action intention can affect the activation of object affordance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00426-021-01523-4DOI Listing
May 2021

Realization of flexible and parallel laser direct writing by multifocal spot modulation.

Opt Express 2021 Mar;29(6):8698-8709

In this investigation, we propose a strip segmentation phase (SSP) method for a spatial light modulator (SLM) to generate independent multifocal spots when the beam passes through a high numerical aperture (NA) lens. With the SSP method, multifocal spots can be generated with each spot independently, flexibly and uniformly distributed. The performance of the SSP method is first validated with numerical simulation. Then, by applying the modulation method with SLM and importing the beams into an inverted fluorescence microscopy system with a high-NA lens, the spot distribution and their shapes can be observed by fluorescent image. The fluorescent image exhibits high uniformity and high consistency with the aforementioned numerical simulations. Finally, we dynamically load a series of phase maps on SLM to realize continuous and independent spot movement in a multifocal array. By laser direct writing on photoresist, a complex NWU-shape structure can be realized flexibly with multi-task fabrication capability. The SSP method can significantly improve the efficiency and flexibility of laser direct writing. It is also compatible with most recent techniques, e.g., multiphoton absorption, stimulated emission depletion and photo-induced depolymerization etc., to realize parallel super-resolution imaging and fabrications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.417937DOI Listing
March 2021

Occurrence and fate of linear alkylbenzenes and their potential as environmental molecular markers in highly urbanized river systems.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Mar 4;760:143946. Epub 2020 Dec 4.

Guangdong Key Laboratory of Environmental Pollution and Health, School of Environment, Jinan University, Guangzhou 511443, China. Electronic address:

Rapid industrialization, urbanization, and population growth have led to the common occurrence of black-stinking urban rivers. Assessing regional anthropogenic influences is beneficial to develop effective remediation strategies. This study comprehensively investigated the occurrence and fate of linear alkylbenzenes (LABs) as molecular markers of anthropogenic influences in three media (filtered water, suspended particulate matter (SPM), and sediment) in a highly urbanized river (Baihaimian River) in Guangzhou, South China. The concentrations of LABs ranged from 41 to 215 ng/L in the dissolved phase, from 7122 to 46,640 ng/g dry weight in the SPM phase, and from 73 to 3650 ng/g dry weight in surface sediments (0-10 cm depth). The spatial distribution of LABs was probably affected by the surrounding environment, river flux, and sediment properties. No biotransformation of LABs in water samples and a slight biotransformation in sediments were observed. Significant correlations were found between total nitrogen, ammonia nitrogen, and LABs in river water, indicating the same domestic wastewater sources. The positive correlation between total organic carbon (TOC) and LABs in sediments suggested that TOC worked as the controlling factor for the redistribution of LABs and that local sewage discharge was the dominant TOC input. The total mass inventory of LABs in sediment in Baihaimian River was 21 kg. The total mass of LABs released into Baihaimian River was 183 kg per year, among them, 63% was discharged into the adjacent Liuxi River.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.143946DOI Listing
March 2021

Simultaneous immobilization of multi-metals in a field contaminated acidic soil using carboxymethyl-cellulose-bridged nano-chlorapatite and calcium oxide.

J Hazard Mater 2021 04 8;407:124786. Epub 2020 Dec 8.

School of Environment and Energy, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006, China; The Key Lab of Pollution Control and Ecosystem Restoration in Industry Clusters, Ministry of Education, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006, China.

We prepared and tested carboxymethyl-cellulose-bridged nano-chlorapatite (CMC-CAP) for simultaneous immobilization of Pb, Zn, Cu, and Cd in a field-contaminated acidic soil. Amending the field-contaminated soil using 0.5 wt.% CMC-CAP and 0.1 wt.% CaO was most effective in immobilizing the four metals, which decreased the leachabilities by 98.2%, 98.3%, 96.3%, and 96.2% for Pb, Zn, Cu, and Cd, respectively, after 1 day of treatment. The acid-leached metals fluctuated in the first 60 days, and then approached to steady state after 180 days, where the acid-leachable concentrations all met the regulation levels, and the immobilization was further consolidated when further aged for 365 days. Column elution tests showed that the soil amendment lowered the peak metal concentrations by > 92.5%, and the total eluted masses by >71.9%. Sequential extraction revealed that the soil amendment converted the exchangeable fractions to the much less available Fe-Mn oxides bound and residual forms, and thus, lowered the risk levels to "low risk" for all the metals. The immobilization of the metals was facilitated through formation of stable metal (chloro)phosphates, surface complexation, and/or ion exchange reactions. Combined CMC-CAP and CaO may serve as an effective formulation for simultaneous and long-term immobilization of multiple heavy metals in acidic soil.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2020.124786DOI Listing
April 2021

Enhanced removal of zinc and cadmium from water using carboxymethyl cellulose-bridged chlorapatite nanoparticles.

Chemosphere 2021 Jan 19;263:128038. Epub 2020 Aug 19.

School of Environment and Energy, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, 510006, China; The Key Lab of Pollution Control and Ecosystem Restoration in Industry Clusters, Ministry of Education, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, 510006, China.

Zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd) in water pose serious threats to human health and the environment. In search for a more effective treatment technology, we prepared a type of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) bridged chlorapatite (CMC-CAP) nanoparticles and tested the material for removal of Zn and Cd from water. CMC macromolecules were attached to CAP by bidentate bridging and hydrogen bonding, preserving the high adsorption capacity of CAP nanoparticles while allowing for easy gravity-separation of the nanoparticles. CMC-CAP showed rapid adsorption kinetics and 22.8% and 11.2% higher equilibrium uptake for Zn and Cd, respectively, than pristine CAP. An extended dual-mode isotherm model, which takes into account both sorption and chemical precipitation, provided the best fits to the sorption isotherms, giving a maximum Langmuir sorption capacity of 141.1 mg g for Zn and 150.2 mg g for Cd by CMC-CAP. Na at up to 5 mM showed modest effects on the uptake of the heavy metals, while 2-5 mM of Ca exerted notable inhibitive effects. Dissolved organic matter (up to 5 mg L as TOC) inhibited the Zn uptake by 16.5% but enhanced the Cd removal by 8.6%. Material characterizations and surface binding analyses revealed that ion exchange, surface precipitation, and surface complexation were the removal mechanisms for the heavy metals. This study demonstrates stabilizer bridging may serve as a convenient strategy to facilitate water treatment uses of nanoparticles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.128038DOI Listing
January 2021

Phosphorus hyperaccumulation in nano-MgO using a circular recovery process based on multiple phase transitions from periclase to brucite.

Sci Total Environ 2020 Jul 16;727:138510. Epub 2020 Apr 16.

Guangdong Key Laboratory of Environmental Pollution and Health, School of Environment, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632, China. Electronic address:

Phosphorus recovery from water is not only necessary for the protection of aquatic environments but also to meet the needs of sustainable development. We find that the adsorption capacity of nano-MgO is far from being fully utilized because of its simultaneous hydration into brucite. Annealing is a useful method of recovering its adsorption capacity without the need for desorption. Phosphate can be accumulated to a much higher level, even surpassing its theoretical equilibrium adsorption limit, so that high-quality fertilizer can be obtained (115.9 mg-P/g-MgO). Phosphate ions exist as HPO and PO in the sorbent during its phase transition from periclase to brucite, which is the main reason for its extremely high and reactivatable phosphorus recovery properties. This finding not only provides a new efficient phosphorous recovery strategy but will also lead to new understandings of traditional reactive nano-sorbents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.138510DOI Listing
July 2020

Modulation of BIN2 kinase activity by HY5 controls hypocotyl elongation in the light.

Nat Commun 2020 03 27;11(1):1592. Epub 2020 Mar 27.

State Key Laboratory of Protein and Plant Gene Research, School of Advanced Agricultural Sciences and School of Life Sciences, Peking-Tsinghua Center for Life Sciences, Peking University, 100871, Beijing, China.

ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL 5 (HY5), a basic domain/leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factor, acts as a master regulator of transcription to promote photomorphogenesis. At present, it's unclear whether HY5 uses additional mechanisms to inhibit hypocotyl elongation. Here, we demonstrate that HY5 enhances the activity of GSK3-like kinase BRASSINOSTEROID-INSENSITIVE 2 (BIN2), a key repressor of brassinosteroid signaling, to repress hypocotyl elongation. We show that HY5 physically interacts with and genetically acts through BIN2 to inhibit hypocotyl elongation. The interaction of HY5 with BIN2 enhances its kinase activity possibly by the promotion of BIN2 Tyr autophosphorylation, and subsequently represses the accumulation of the transcription factor BRASSINAZOLE-RESISTANT 1 (BZR1). Leu of HY5 is found to be important for the HY5-BIN2 interaction and HY5-mediated regulation of BIN2 activity, without affecting the transcriptional activity of HY5. HY5 levels increase with light intensity, which gradually enhances BIN2 activity. Thus, our work reveals an additional way in which HY5 promotes photomorphogenesis, and provides an insight into the regulation of GSK3 activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-15394-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7101348PMC
March 2020

Efficient removal of mercury from simulated groundwater using thiol-modified graphene oxide/Fe-Mn composite in fixed-bed columns: Experimental performance and mathematical modeling.

Sci Total Environ 2020 Apr 17;714:136636. Epub 2020 Jan 17.

Guangdong Key Laboratory of Environmental Pollution and Health, School of Environment, Jinan University, Guangzhou 511443, China.

Mercury contamination in groundwater has been considered as an environmental and public health issue all over the world. Yet, effective in situ remediation techniques have been lacking. A thiol-modified graphene oxide/Fe-Mn composite (SGO/Fe-Mn) was employed as a reactive sorbent of permeable reactive barrier (PRB) for in situ remediation of mercury contaminated groundwater using fixed-bed columns. Mercury existed as HgCl, Hg(OH), and HgClOH, and was mainly removed through surface complexation. The Brunauer-Emmett-Teller sorption isotherm model provided adequate fitting of the sorption isotherm data with a maximum monolayer sorption capacity of 112.03 ± 16.59 mg g. Breakthrough time, the time when 5% of initial Hg concentration is measured in the effluent, increased with the decrease of influent mercury concentration, pore velocity, dissolved oxygen (DO), and dissolved organic matter (DOM). The resultant column sorption capacity was enhanced at higher influent mercury concentration, lower groundwater pore velocity, lower DOM and DO. Moreover, when the SGO/Fe-Mn was thoroughly mixed with quartz sand in the column, the breakthrough time was increased and the resultant sorption capacity was improved compared to the case that SGO/Fe-Mn was packed between two layers of quartz sand. Mathematically, the Adams-Bohart model satisfactorily reproduced the initial behavior of mercury breakthrough curves (<40 pore volumes). Yan model adequately simulated the breakthrough curves. The results reveal the potential of SGO/Fe-Mn as an efficient PRB reactive material for in situ remediation of mercury in contaminated groundwater.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.136636DOI Listing
April 2020

Efficient removal and long-term sequestration of cadmium from aqueous solution using ferrous sulfide nanoparticles: Performance, mechanisms, and long-term stability.

Sci Total Environ 2020 Feb 21;704:135402. Epub 2019 Nov 21.

Environmental Engineering Program, Department of Civil Engineering, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849, United States. Electronic address:

Cadmium (Cd) is one of the most commonly detected toxic heavy metals in the environment. Ferrous sulfide (FeS) nanoparticles were prepared using sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) as a stabilizer and tested for removal of Cd from aqueous solutions. Effects of CMC concentration, initial Cd concentration, pH, humic acid (HA) and dissolved oxygen were examined. Fully stabilized FeS (100 mg/L) nanoparticles were obtained using 0.01 wt% CMC. Batch kinetic tests showed that the nanoparticles at 100 mg/L as FeS rapidly removed 93% of 1 mg/L Cd within 4 h at pH 7.0, and the kinetic data were well interpreted by a pseudo-second-order rate model with a rate constant of 6.68 g·mg·hr. Sorption isotherm was well simulated by a dual-mode isotherm model with a maximum Langmuir sorption capacity of 497.5 mg/L at pH 7.0. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) analyses suggested that chemical precipitation and surface complexation between Cd and FeS were dominant immobilization mechanisms. Increasing pH from 4.0 to 8.0 enhanced Cd removal rate from 73.0% to 98.8%, whereas addition of 3 mg/L HA (as total organic matter) inhibited the removal rate by 2.7% and the presence of molecular oxygen had negligible effect. Increasing NaCl or CaCl from 0 to 10 mM suppressed Cd removal by 10.1% and 27.7%, respectively. The immobilized Cd remained insoluble when aged for 717 days under anoxic or oxic conditions. This study demonstrated that CMC-stabilized FeS nanoparticles can facilitate long-term immobilization of cadmium in contaminated water.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.135402DOI Listing
February 2020

Efficient natural organic matter removal from water using nano-MgO coupled with microfiltration membrane separation.

Sci Total Environ 2020 Apr 21;711:135120. Epub 2019 Nov 21.

Guangdong Key Laboratory of Environmental Pollution and Health, School of Environment, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632, China. Electronic address:

Excess natural organic matter (NOM) in water not only lead to unpleasant black color and dissolved oxygen depletion in wastewater and natural water body but also causes carcinogenic chlorinated organic byproduct during drinking water chlorine disinfection. We try to develop a novel cost-effective and green technology for water NOM removal. In our simulated NOM removal process using humic acid (HA) as typical organic matter, we find that mesoporous nano-MgO performs an abnormally high NOM removal capacity (1260 mg-HA/g-MgO, or 446 mgC/g-MgO) when coupled with microfiltration membrane separation, which can't be illustrated by traditional adsorption mechanism. Actually, Mg from dissolved Mg(OH) contributes ∼ 92% NOM removal via coagulation while Mg(OH) is responsible for the residue ∼ 8% via adsorption. MgO serves as a two-in-one coagulant and adsorbent. The MgO treatment process is highly pH sensitive and weak acidic condition is favored for high NOM removal efficiency. MgO can be regenerated for more than 10 circulations by annealing Mg(OH)/Mg-NOM composite at 500 °C, so that our MgO recycling process will be sustainable without the need of continuous chemical purchase. More importantly, no solid waste is generated in this novel process. This MgO-recycling NOM-removal process is simple, efficient, and sustainable for water NOM removal and will be significant in promoting novel sustainable technologies for NOM- or HA-related water remediation and treatment while minimizing the generation of solid waste.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.135120DOI Listing
April 2020

Alkali resistant nanocomposite gel beads as renewable adsorbents for water phosphate recovery.

Sci Total Environ 2019 Oct 21;685:10-18. Epub 2019 May 21.

Guangdong Key Laboratory of Environmental Pollution and Health, School of Environment, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632, China. Electronic address:

Hydrous zirconium oxide (HZO) encapsulated alginate gel beads were synthesized for phosphate recovery from water. Importantly, we find that HZO/alginate gel beads (ZrA) crosslinked with Ca, Mg, Fe, Al, and Zr are unstable under an intense alkali regeneration condition. Only Sr-crosslinked ZrA can endure a high alkali solution. ZrA possesses a high specific surface area (80.84 m·g) and a mesoporous structure (15.3 nm and 0.196 cm·g), which endow them with a high Langmuir adsorption capacity of 52.5 mg-P/g. ZrA can be easily recycled, and the mass loss of HZO is prevented. Furthermore, the strontium alginate gel framework protects the encapsulated HZO nanoparticles from adverse humic acid contamination. ZrA can be regenerated for at least 5 adsorption/desorption cycles. Cost analysis indicates the potential scale application feasibility for ZrA. This study provides a novel, simple, and environmentally benign solution to immobilize HZO for efficient phosphate recovery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.05.296DOI Listing
October 2019

In situ remediation of mercury-contaminated soil using thiol-functionalized graphene oxide/Fe-Mn composite.

J Hazard Mater 2019 07 1;373:783-790. Epub 2019 Apr 1.

Guangdong Key Laboratory of Environmental Pollution and Health, School of Environment, Jinan University, Guangzhou, 511443, China.

Mercury (Hg) contamination in soil is a paramount concern to the environment and public health. Yet, effective in situ remediation technologies have been lacking. In this study, a novel thiol-functionalized graphene oxide/Fe-Mn (SGO/Fe-Mn) composite was prepared and investigated for in situ immobilization of Hg in contaminated soil. Batch tests showed that application of SGO/Fe-Mn at doses of 0.4% and 0.8% effectively reduced HO, HSO and HNO, CHCOOH, and CaCl-extractable Hg by 90.3-98.9% and 96.5-98.9%, respectively, upon equilibrium after 72 d. An increasing of soil moisture content from 0 to 12.5% significantly enhanced the immobilization efficiency from 75.0% to 97.6%. XRD, FTIR, and XPS analyses suggested that the composite mainly immobilized Hg through surface complexation and chemical precipitation. Sequential extraction procedure demonstrated that the composite promoted the conversion of more accessible Hg (exchangeable and carbonate fractions) into the less accessible forms, i.e., oxides, organic matter, and residual fractions, resulting in substantially reduced environmental risk of Hg. The application of SGO/Fe-Mn enhanced soil cation exchange capacity, available N and K, and total organic carbon, and can be used to effectively improve soil properties. Moreover, immobilized Hg in soil by this composite remained stable over one year. The present study demonstrates the potential and viability of SGO/Fe-Mn for enhanced immobilization of Hg in soil and sediment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2019.03.132DOI Listing
July 2019

Application of Iron-Based Materials for Remediation of Mercury in Water and Soil.

Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 2019 May 12;102(5):721-729. Epub 2019 Feb 12.

College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Pollution Processes and Environmental Criteria, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Pollution Control, Nankai University, Tianjin, 300350, China.

Mercury contamination in soil and water has become a major concern to environmental quality and human health. Among the existing remediation technologies for mercury pollution control, sorption via iron-based materials has received wide attention as they are environmental friendly and economic, and their reactivity is high and controllable through modulating the morphology and surface properties of particulate materials. This paper aimed to provide a comprehensive overview on environmental application of a variety of iron-based sorbents, namely, zero valent iron, iron oxides, and iron sulfides, for mercury remediation. Techniques to improve the stability of these materials while enhancing mercury sequestration, such as nano-scale size control, surface functionalization, and mechanical support, were summarized. Mechanisms and factors affecting the interaction between mercury and iron-based materials were also discussed. Current knowledge gaps and future research needs are identified to facilitate a better understanding of molecular-level reaction mechanisms between iron-based materials and mercury and the long-term stability of the immobilized mercury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00128-019-02559-4DOI Listing
May 2019

Effective removal of inorganic mercury and methylmercury from aqueous solution using novel thiol-functionalized graphene oxide/Fe-Mn composite.

J Hazard Mater 2019 03 18;366:130-139. Epub 2018 Nov 18.

College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Key Laboratory of Pollution Processes and Environmental Criteria (Ministry of Education), Tianjin Engineering Center of Environmental Diagnosis and Contamination Remediation, Nankai University, Tianjin 300350, China.

A novel thiol-functionalized graphene oxide/Fe-Mn (SGO/Fe-Mn) was investigated for aqueous Hg and CHHg removal. Mercury were removed mainly through ligand exchange and surface complexation with surface active sites (i.e., -SH, OH, OCO, CC, SiO, and ππ bond). SH had the strongest binding ability with mercury, forming sulfur-containing organic matter or polymers with Hg, and sulfur-containing organometallic compounds or thiolate-like species with CHHg. The BET sorption isotherm model well simulated the sorption isotherm data of Hg (R=0.995, q=233.17 mg/g) and CHHg (R=0.997, q=36.69 mg/g), indicating a multilayer adsorption process. The mercury uptake was promoted with the increase of 3-MPTS content, adsorbent dosage, and pH (<5.5), whereas the uptake was inhibited by high pH (>5.5) and high concentrations of humic acid and electrolytes. SGO/Fe-Mn demonstrated high mercury uptake in simulated surface water/groundwater and in the presence of Pb, Cu, Ni, Sb, Cd and Zn. The mercury-laden SGO/Fe-Mn can be successfully regenerated and reused for three times with 98.1% and 67.0% of original Hg and CHHg sorption capacity when 5% thiourea + 2 M KI was used as the desorbing agent. This study demonstrates potential and viability of SGO/Fe-Mn for mercury remediation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2018.11.074DOI Listing
March 2019

An overview of field-scale studies on remediation of soil contaminated with heavy metals and metalloids: Technical progress over the last decade.

Water Res 2018 12 10;147:440-460. Epub 2018 Oct 10.

Centre for Technology in Water and Wastewater, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Technology Sydney, Ultimo, NSW, 2007, Australia.

Soil contamination by heavy metals and metalloids has been a major concern to human health and environmental quality. While many remediation technologies have been tested at the bench scale, there have been only limited reports at the field scale. This paper aimed to provide a comprehensive overview on the field applications of various soil remediation technologies performed over the last decade or so. Under the general categories of physical, chemical, and biological approaches, ten remediation techniques were critically reviewed. The technical feasibility and economic effectiveness were evaluated, and the pros and cons were appraised. In addition, attention was placed to the environmental impacts of the remediation practices and long-term stability of the contaminants, which should be taken into account in the establishment of remediation goals and environmental criteria. Moreover, key knowledge gaps and practical challenges are identified.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2018.10.024DOI Listing
December 2018

Degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in seawater by simulated surface-level atmospheric ozone: Reaction kinetics and effect of oil dispersant.

Mar Pollut Bull 2018 Oct 23;135:427-440. Epub 2018 Jul 23.

Environmental Engineering Program, Department of Civil Engineering, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849, USA; The Key Laboratory of Water and Sediment Science, Ministry of Education, College of Environment Science and Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China. Electronic address:

Oil degradation by surface-level atmospheric ozone has been largely ignored in the field. To address this knowledge gap, this study investigated the ozonation rate and extent of typical petroleum compounds by simulated surface-level ozone, including total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs), n-alkanes, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Moreover, the work explored the effect of a prototype oil dispersant, Corexit EC9500A, on the ozonation rate. Rapid oxidation of TPHs, n-alkanes and PAHs was observed at various gaseous ozone concentrations (i.e. 86, 200 and 300 ppbv). Generally, the presence of the oil dispersant enhanced ozonation of the oil compounds. The addition of humic acid inhibited the reaction, while increasing salinity accelerated the degradation. Both direct ozonation by molecular ozone and indirect oxidation by ozone-induced radicals play important roles in the degradation process. The findings indicate that ozonation should be taken into account in assessing environmental fate and weathering of spilled oil.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2018.07.047DOI Listing
October 2018

Combined zero valent iron and hydrogen peroxide conditioning significantly enhances the dewaterability of anaerobic digestate.

J Environ Sci (China) 2018 May 19;67:378-386. Epub 2017 Apr 19.

Institute of Engineering, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Tokyo 184-8588, Japan.

The importance of enhancing sludge dewaterability is increasing due to the considerable impact of excess sludge volume on disposal costs and on overall sludge management. This study presents an innovative approach to enhance dewaterability of anaerobic digestate (AD) harvested from a wastewater treatment plant. The combination of zero valent iron (ZVI, 0-4.0g/g total solids (TS)) and hydrogen peroxide (HP, 0-90mg/g TS) under pH3.0 significantly enhanced the AD dewaterability. The largest enhancement of AD dewaterability was achieved at 18mg HP/g TS and 2.0g ZVI/g TS, with the capillary suction time reduced by up to 90%. Economic analysis suggested that the proposed HP and ZVI treatment has more economic benefits in comparison with the classical Fenton reaction process. The destruction of extracellular polymeric substances and cells as well as the decrease of particle size were supposed to contribute to the enhanced AD dewaterability by HP+ZVI conditioning.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jes.2017.04.004DOI Listing
May 2018

The Role of Representation Strength of the Prime in Subliminal Visuomotor Priming.

Exp Psychol 2017 Nov;64(6):422-431

1 School of Psychology, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi'an, China.

This study investigated the role of representation strength of the prime in subliminal visuomotor priming in two experiments. Prime/target compatibility (compatible and incompatible) and preposed object type (jumbled lines, strong masking; and rectangular outlines, weak masking) were manipulated in Experiment 1. A significant negative compatibility effect (NCE) was observed in the rectangle condition, whereas no compatibility effect was found in the line condition. However, when a new variable, prime duration, was introduced in Experiment 2, the NCE was reversed with an increase in the prime duration in the rectangle condition, whereas the NCE was maintained in the line condition. This result is consistent with the claim that increasing the prime duration causes the prime representation to be too strong for inhibition in the rectangle condition but strong enough to reliably trigger inhibition in the line condition. The findings demonstrated that prime representation has a causal role in subliminal visuomotor priming.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1027/1618-3169/a000381DOI Listing
November 2017

Immobilization of hexavalent chromium in contaminated soils using biochar supported nanoscale iron sulfide composite.

Chemosphere 2018 Mar 1;194:360-369. Epub 2017 Dec 1.

Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, United States.

Biochar supported carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC)-stabilized nanoscale iron sulfide (FeS) composite ([email protected]) was prepared and tested for immobilization of hexavalent chromium Cr(VI) in soil. Results of UV-vis and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed that the backbone of biochar suppressed the aggregation of FeS, resulting in smaller particle size and more sorption sites than bare FeS. The composite at a dosage of 2.5 mg per gram soil displayed an enhanced Cr(VI) immobilization efficiency (a 94.7% reduction in the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) based leachability and a 95.6% reduction in the CaCl extraction) compared to plain biochar and bare FeS. Sequential extraction procedure (SEP) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis suggested that [email protected] promoted the conversion of more accessible Cr (exchangeable and carbonate-bound fractions) into the less accessible forms (iron-manganese oxides-bound, organic material-bound, and residual fractions) to reduce the toxicity of Cr(VI) and that surface sorption and reduction were dominant mechanisms for Cr(VI) immobilization. [email protected] greatly reduced the bioavailability of Cr(VI) to wheat and earthworms (Eisenia fetida). Moreover, the application of [email protected] enhanced soil organic matter content and microbial activity. This work highlighted the potential of [email protected] composite as a low-cost, "green", and effective amendment for immobilizing Cr(VI) in contaminated soils and improving soil properties.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2017.11.182DOI Listing
March 2018

Critical role of top-down processes and the push-pull mechanism in semantic single negative priming.

Conscious Cogn 2018 01 1;57:84-93. Epub 2017 Dec 1.

School of Psychology, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi'an 710062, China; Shaanxi Provincial Key Laboratory of Behavior & Cognitive Neuroscience, Xi'an 710062, China.

The present study investigated the roles of bottom-up mask-triggered inhibition and top-down inhibition in semantic categorization using the single negative priming (NP) paradigm. The masking (bottom-up) and ignore instructions (top-down, i.e., instructing participants to ignore the primes) were manipulated in Experiments 1-3 and Experiment 4, respectively. No priming was observed when only the masking was manipulated (Experiments 2 and 3), but NP was observed when a possible top-down ignore strategy (Experiment 1) or an ignore instruction (Experiment 4) was added. The results indicate that bottom-up mask-triggered inhibition cannot elicit semantic single NP by itself. However, top-down inhibition from an ignore instruction or ignore strategy is critical for triggering reliable semantic single NP. The findings suggest that semantic single NP originates from a push-pull mechanism by facilitating responses to unrelated trials and inhibiting responses to related trials. The experimental evidence also suggests that unconscious processes can be modulated by top-down control.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.concog.2017.11.007DOI Listing
January 2018

Versatile Device Architectures for High-Performing Light-Soaking-Free Inverted Polymer Solar Cells.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2017 Sep 13;9(38):32678-32687. Epub 2017 Sep 13.

School of Materials Science and Engineering and ‡State Key Laboratory of Silicate Materials for Architectures, Wuhan University of Technology , Wuhan 430070, China.

Metal oxide charge transport layers have been widely employed to prepare inverted polymer solar cells with high efficiency and long lifetime. However, the intrinsic defects in the metal oxide layers, especially those prepared from low-temperature routes, overshadow the high efficiency that can be achieved and also introduce "light-soaking" issues to these devices. In this work, we have employed polyethyleneimine (PEI) and poly(9,9-bis(6'-(N,N-diethylamino)propyl)-fluorene-alt-9,9-bis-(3-ethyl(oxetane-3-ethyloxy)-hexyl)-fluorene] (PFN-OX) to modify our low-temperature-processed TiO electron transport layer (ETL) and demonstrated that the light-soaking issue can be effectively eliminated by PEI modifications because of the formation of abundant dipole moments, whereas PFN-OX was ineffective as a result of deficient dipole moments at the interface. Excitingly, PEI modifications enable versatile device architectures to obtain light-soaking-free, inverted PTB7-Th:PCBM solar cells with efficiencies of over 10%, by adding PEI either in the bulk or as an adjacent layer below or above the TiO ETL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.7b08130DOI Listing
September 2017

Reduction of Cr(VI) in simulated groundwater by FeS-coated iron magnetic nanoparticles.

Sci Total Environ 2017 Oct 11;595:743-751. Epub 2017 Apr 11.

School of Environment, Guangzhou Key Laboratory of Environmental Exposure and Health, Guangdong Key Laboratory of Environmental Pollution and Health, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632, China.

FeS-coated iron (Fe/FeS) magnetic nanoparticles were easily prepared, characterized, and applied for Cr(VI) removal in simulated groundwater. TEM, XRD, and BET characterization tests showed that FeS coating on the surface of Fe inhibited the aggregation of Fe and that Fe/FeS at a S/Fe molar ratio of 0.207 possessed a large surface area of 62.1m/g. Increasing the S/Fe molar ratio from 0 to 0.138 decreased Cr(VI) removal by 42.8%, and a further increase to 0.207 enhanced Cr(VI) removal by 63% within 72h. Moreover, Fe/FeS inhibited the leaching of Fe, reducing the toxicity of the particles. Mechanistic analysis indicated that Fe, Fe, and S were synergistically involved in the reduction of Cr(VI) to nontoxic Cr(III), which further precipitated as (CrFe)(OH) and Cr(III)-Fe-S. The process of Cr(VI) sorption by Fe/FeS (S/Fe=0.207) was fitted well with a pseudo-second-order kinetic model, and the isotherm data were simulated by Langmuir isotherm model with a maximum sorption capacity of 69.7mg/g compared to 48.9mg/g for Fe. Low pH and initial Cr(VI) concentration favored Cr(VI) removal. Continuous fixed bed column studies showed that simulated permeable reactive barriers (PRB) with Fe/FeS was considerably effective for in situ removal of Cr(VI) from groundwater. This study demonstrated the high potential of Fe/FeS for Cr(VI) immobilization in water, groundwater, and soil.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.03.282DOI Listing
October 2017

Technologies for reducing sludge production in wastewater treatment plants: State of the art.

Sci Total Environ 2017 Jun 1;587-588:510-521. Epub 2017 Mar 1.

Advanced Water Management Centre (AWMC), The University of Queensland, QLD 4072, Australia.

This review presents the state-of-the-art sludge reduction technologies applied in both wastewater and sludge treatment lines. They include chemical, mechanical, thermal, electrical treatment, addition of chemical un-coupler, and predation of protozoa/metazoa in wastewater treatment line, and physical, chemical and biological pretreatment in sludge treatment line. Emphasis was put on their effect on sludge reduction performance, with 10% sludge reduction to zero sludge production in wastewater treatment line and enhanced TS (total solids) or volatile solids removal of 5-40% in sludge treatment line. Free nitrous acid (FNA) technology seems good in wastewater treatment line but it is only under the lab-scale trial. In sludge treatment line, thermal, ultrasonic (<4400kJ/kg TS), FNA pretreatment and temperature-phased anaerobic digestion (TPAD) are promising if pathogen inactivation is not a concern. However, thermal pretreatment and TPAD are superior to other pretreatment technologies when pathogen inactivation is required. The new wastewater treatment processes including SANI®, high-rate activated sludge coupled autotrophic nitrogen removal and anaerobic membrane bioreactor coupled autotrophic nitrogen removal also have a great potential to reduce sludge production. In the future, an effort should be put on the effect of sludge reduction technologies on the removal of organic micropollutants and heavy metals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.02.203DOI Listing
June 2017

Effects of oil dispersant on ozone oxidation of phenanthrene and pyrene in marine water.

Chemosphere 2017 Apr 4;172:468-475. Epub 2017 Jan 4.

Environmental Engineering Program, Department of Civil Engineering, Auburn University, Auburn, AL, 36849, USA. Electronic address:

This work investigated effects of a popular oil dispersant (Corexit EC9500A) on oxidation of phenanthrene and pyrene (two model polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) in Gulf coast seawater under simulated atmospheric ozone. The degradation data followed a two-stage pseudo-first order kinetics, a slower initial reaction rate followed by a much faster rate in longer time. The ozonation rate for pyrene was faster than that for phenanthrene. The presence of 18 and 180 mg/L of the dispersant inhibited the first-order degradation rate by 32-80% for phenanthrene, and 51-85% for pyrene. In the presence of 18 mg/L of the dispersant, the pyrene degradation rate increased with increasing ozone concentration, but decreased with increasing solution pH and temperature, while remained independent of ionic strength. For the first time, the results indicate that atmospheric ozone may play a significant role in the weathering of dispersed persistent oil components in natural and engineered systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2017.01.007DOI Listing
April 2017

Response readiness modulates the development of association-based automaticity in masked priming.

Atten Percept Psychophys 2017 Apr;79(3):820-832

School of Psychology, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi'an, 710062, China.

The current study investigated the role of the automatization of stimulus and response (S-R) associations and response readiness in triggering the motor activation for masked primes in two experiments. The automatization of associations was manipulated by employing different types of stimuli, and response readiness was manipulated by varying the relative frequency of Go trials in a modified Go/No-Go task. Compatibility (compatible and incompatible), stimulus type (arrows and parallel lines), and test session (Sessions 1, 2, and 3) were manipulated in a high response-readiness condition (Experiment 1) and in a low response-readiness condition (Experiment 2). Negative compatibility effects (NCEs) occurred regardless of session and experiment in the arrow stimuli condition. However, in the parallel-line stimuli condition, no significant compatibility effect (CE) appeared regardless of the experiment in Sessions 1 and 2, whereas a significant NCE appeared in Experiment 1 but not in Experiment 2 in Session 3. These results are consistent with the claim that motor activation can only occur if the association between specific stimuli and specific responses has been automatized by previous practice, and response readiness can modulate the development of automaticity, but this modulation will have a minimal effect once the association is automatized. The findings also provide experimental evidence for the assumption that the formation of association-based automaticity could be modulated by top-down control (e.g., response readiness).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/s13414-016-1275-4DOI Listing
April 2017

Mechanistic investigation into sunlight-facilitated photodegradation of pyrene in seawater with oil dispersants.

Mar Pollut Bull 2017 Jan 4;114(2):751-758. Epub 2016 Nov 4.

Environmental Engineering Program, Department of Civil Engineering, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849, United States. Electronic address:

This study investigated the effects of 3 model oil dispersants (Corexit EC9500A, Corexit EC9527A and SPC 1000) on photodegradation of pyrene under simulated sunlight. Both Corexit dispersants enhanced photodegradation of pyrene, while SPC1000 slightly inhibited the reaction. Span 80 and Tween 85 were the key ingredients causing the effects, though the underlying mechanisms differed. Span 80 enriches pyrene in the upper layer of water column, whereas Tween 85 induces a photosensitization process. Two reactive oxygen species, O and O, were found responsible for pyrene photodegradation, though the presence of EC9500A suppressed the O pathway. In terms of photodegradation products, EC9500A enhanced generation of polyaromatic intermediates, i.e., phenaleno[1,9-cd][1,2]dioxine, 1-hydroxypyrene, and 1,8-pyrenequinone, but did not alter the classical photodegradation pathway. The Corexit dispersants were more prone to photochemical decomposition, with multiple by-products detected. The information aids in our understanding of the effects of dispersants on photochemical weathering of oil compositions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2016.10.077DOI Listing
January 2017

Quality of Care for Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: Development of Canadian Cardiovascular Society Quality Indicators.

Can J Cardiol 2016 12 25;32(12):1570-1573. Epub 2016 Jul 25.

University of Alberta, Mazankowski Alberta Heart Institute, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.

Currently there are more than 40 centres in Canada that perform more than 65,000 percutaneous coronary interventions (PCIs) in a year. Considering the high volume of procedures and number of operators, the potential for variation in processes of care is high, and might lead to variation in the quality of care. As part of its quality initiative, the Canadian Cardiovascular Society convened a working group to develop a set of PCI Quality Indicators (QIs) that would be relevant, scientifically acceptable, and feasible to measure and report. The working group was comprised of clinical experts from across Canada and members of provincial and federal organizations involved in promoting the quality of health care. Using the Canadian Cardiovascular Society "Best Practices for Developing Cardiovascular Quality Indicators" methodology, a total of 23 QIs were proposed. Subsequent ranking and discussion led to the selection of 8 QIs. The selection and ranking of QIs were on the basis of clinical importance and relevance, scientific acceptability, and feasibility of their operationalization at a national level. The data definitions and technical notes of the QIs were refined after feasibility testing and Web consultation. Feasibility testing indicated that standardization and enhancements of knowledge infrastructure are essential to provide the comprehensive patient data necessary to evaluate the quality of PCI across Canada.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cjca.2016.07.511DOI Listing
December 2016
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