Publications by authors named "Yanping Xiao"

29 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Significant optical force enhancements of nanostructure with balanced gain and loss.

Opt Express 2021 Jul;29(14):22202-22213

In this paper, we theoretically analyze the optical force between a pair of active and passive plasmonic core-shell nanoparticles (NPs). The optical force between the NPs can be either attractive or repulsive near the critical point while the passive dimer provides only attractive force. We reveal that the reversal of attractive or repulsive force is determined by the relative phase of electric dipole (ED) modes, which can be strongly affected by the gain and loss coefficient κ. Compared with the passive dimer with the same size, the active-passive dimer can exhibit a very high repulsive force (about two orders of magnitude) while remaining the same order magnitude attractive force when the value of coefficient is 0.345. Interestingly, we find that the position of the maximum repulsive force occurs near the critical point. We also investigate the influence of variations in geometrical parameters of the dimer and polarization angle on the force. Finally, the numerical results demonstrate that when the dimer is illuminated by a laser beam, the attractive and repulsive forces can also be achieved. The manipulation of optical force can find potential in optical sorting and transport of NPs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.430719DOI Listing
July 2021

Impact of inappropriate empirical antibiotic treatment on clinical outcomes of urinary tract infections caused by Escherichia coli: a retrospective cohort study.

J Glob Antimicrob Resist 2021 Jun 9;26:148-153. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Jiangxi Provincial Key Laboratory of Medicine, Clinical Laboratory of the Second Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang, Jiangxi, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Objectives: We aimed to determine the clinical impact of inappropriate empirical antibiotic treatment (IEAT) compared with appropriate empirical antibiotic treatment (AEAT) in hospitalised patients with urinary tract infections (UTIs) caused by Escherichia coli (E. coli).

Methods: This retrospective cohort study included adult patients with a primary diagnosis of UTI who were treated with empirical antibiotics at a tertiary hospital in southern China over a 2-year period. Clinical data of patients who received IEAT were compared with those of patients receiving AEAT. We used multivariable logistic regression to identify the predictors for receiving IEAT and the risk factors affecting clinical outcomes.

Results: A total of 213 patients were enrolled (median age, 61 years), of whom 103 (48.4%) received IEAT. IEAT was associated with empirical use of fluoroquinolones, male sex and age-adjusted Charlson comorbidity index (aCCI) score >6. Hospital length of stay (LOS) was longer for patients who received IEAT than for those who received AEAT (13.6 ± 8.6 days vs. 10.8 ± 7.9 days; P = 0.008). IEAT was an independent risk factor for longer LOS along with aCCI score ≥2, lung disease and cardiac disease.

Conclusion: Empirical use of fluoroquinolones for UTIs should be avoided, especially in male patients with aCCI score >6. Improved empirical antimicrobial therapy may have a beneficial impact in reducing bacterial resistance and healthcare costs by decreasing the LOS. Therefore, interventions to promote in-depth antibiotic stewardship programmes in China are needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jgar.2021.05.016DOI Listing
June 2021

A Retrospective Analysis of Risk Factors and Patient Outcomes of Bloodstream Infection with Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase-Producing in a Chinese Tertiary Hospital.

Infect Drug Resist 2020 24;13:4289-4296. Epub 2020 Nov 24.

Jiangxi Provincial Key Laboratory of Medicine, Clinical Laboratory of the Second Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang, Jiangxi, People's Republic of China.

Objective: The present study assessed risk factors and patient outcomes of bloodstream infection (BSI) caused by extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing ().

Methods: A retrospective study was performed to analyze risk factors and patient outcomes of BSI caused by extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing (ESBL-EC) in one Chinese tertiary hospital over a 7.5-year period. The clinical characteristics of patients infected with ESBL-producing and non-ESBL-producing were compared. Predictors of 30-day mortality in patients with BSI were also identified in our study.

Results: The results of drug sensitivity showed that quinolones, aminoglycosides, -lactam/-lactamase inhibitor combinations (BLICs) and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole exhibited significant differences between the ESBL and non-ESBL groups. Of the 963 patients with BSI, 57.6% developed ESBL-EC. Multivariate analysis showed that biliary tract infection (BTI) [P<0.001,OR (95% CI):1.798 (1.334-2.425)], urinary tract obstructive disease [P=0.001,OR (95% CI):2.106 (1.366-3.248)], surgery within 3 months [P=0.002,OR (95% CI):1.591 (1.178-2.147)], hospitalization within 3 months [P<0.001,OR (95% CI):2.075 (1.579-2.725)], ICU admission [P=0.011,OR (95% CI):1.684 (1.124-2.522)] and history of cephalosporin use [P=0.006,OR (95% CI):3.097 (1.392-6.891)] were statistically significant. In mortality analysis, aCCI>2 [P=0.016,OR (95% CI): 2.453 (1.179-5.103)], gastrointestinal catheterization [P=0.004, OR (95% CI): 2.525 (1.333-4.782)] were significantly associated with 30-day mortality. According to Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, we found that in SOFA<2 group and SOFA≥2 group, the mortality rate of patients treated with BLICs were lower than that of carbapenems(P<0.05).

Conclusion: This study showed that BTI, urinary tract obstructive disease, surgery within 3 months, hospitalization within 3 months, ICU admission and cephalosporin exposure were independent risk factors for the emergence of ESBL-EC BSI. Analysis of risk factors for 30-day mortality revealed that the factors independently associated with a higher risk of mortality were aCCI>2, gastrointestinal catheterization. Compared to carbapenems, the BLICs had preferable effect to treat patients with ESBL-EC BSI. Notably, patients with severe illness were inlcined to use carbapenems, which affected the analysis results. Therefore, we suggest that BLICs could be recommended to treat mild patients with ESBL-EC bacteremia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IDR.S269989DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7699446PMC
November 2020

Association Among Blood Transfusion, Postoperative Infectious Complications, and Cancer-Specific Survival in Patients with Stage II/III Gastric Cancer After Radical Gastrectomy: Emphasizing Benefit from Adjuvant Chemotherapy.

Ann Surg Oncol 2021 Apr 14;28(4):2394-2404. Epub 2020 Sep 14.

Department of Gastroduodenal and Pancreatic Surgery, Hunan Cancer Hospital and the Affiliated Cancer Hospital of Xiangya School of Medicine, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, China.

Objectives: This study was designed to investigate the potential additive influence of perioperative blood transfusion (BTF) and postoperative infections on cancer-specific survival (CSS) in patients with stage II/III gastric cancer (GC) after radical gastrectomy.

Methods: The medical records of 2114 consecutive stage II/III GC patients who underwent curative resection and planned to receive adjuvant chemotherapy (AC) were retrospectively reviewed. The independent predictive factors for infections were identified using univariate and multivariate analyses. Cox regression analysis was used to assess any associations between BTF, infection and CSS.

Results: A total of 507 (24.0%) received perioperative BTF and 148 (7.0%) developed infections with BTF being identified as an independent predictor for infections. Both BTF and infections independently predicted poor CSS (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.193, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.007-1.414; HR 1.323, 95% CI 1.013-1.727) and an additive effect was confirmed as patients who had both BTF and infection had even worse CSS. Further stratified analyses showed that complete AC (≥ 6 cycles) could significantly improve CSS in patients who had BTF and/or infection, which was comparable to those without BTF and/or infection (P = 0.496).

Conclusions: Infection was the most common complication after gastrectomy and BTF was identified as an independent risk factor. BTF was associated with shorter CSS in stages II/III GC, independent of infections, and receiving BTF and developing infections had an additive effect that was associated with even worse CSS. However, complete AC could significantly improve CSS in these patients. Thus, strategies designed to ensure the completion of AC, such as neoadjuvant chemotherapy, should be further investigated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1245/s10434-020-09102-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7940152PMC
April 2021

Neutrophil extracellular trap from Kawasaki disease alter the biologic responses of PBMC.

Biosci Rep 2020 09;40(9)

Department of Vascular Surgery, Affiliated Hospital of Chengde Medical University, No. 36, Nanyingzi Street, Shuangqiao District, Chengde, Hebei 067000, China.

Kawasaki disease (KD), also known as mucocutaneous lymph node syndrome, is an acute systemic vasculitis syndrome that mainly occurs in infants under 5 years of age. In the current manuscript, we were aiming to analyze the role of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) in the pathogenesis of KD, especially their interplay with peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Neutrophils were exposed to 20 nM phorbol myristate acetate (PMA), we found that neutrophils of KD patients were more likely to form NETs compared with healthy controls (HCs). Furthermore, PBMCs were cultured with NETs for 24 h, and we observed that NETs significantly increased the cell viability, suppressed cell apoptosis, and enhanced the pro-inflammatory cytokines production and NF-κB activation in PBMCs from KD patients. In addition, with the stimulation of NETs, the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) were increased, which were related with the pathological mechanism of KD. At last, we examined the activation of phosphoinositide 3 kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling, and we found NETs treatment obviously enhanced the activation of PI3K and Akt. In conclusion, these findings suggested that the formation of NETs may alter the biologic responses of PBMC and affect the vascular injury in KD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1042/BSR20200928DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7477316PMC
September 2020

Diagnostic accuracy of procalcitonin as an early predictor of infection after radical gastrectomy for gastric cancer: A prospective bicenter cohort study.

Int J Surg 2020 Mar 22;75:3-10. Epub 2020 Jan 22.

Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, Hunan Cancer Hospital and the Affiliated Cancer Hospital of Xiangya School of Medicine, Central South University, Changsha, China; Department of Orthopedics, Hunan Cancer Hospital and the Affiliated Cancer Hospital of Xiangya School of Medicine, Central South University, Changsha, China. Electronic address:

Objective: To investigate the diagnostic accuracy of procalcitonin (PCT) as an early predictor of infection following radical gastrectomy to treat gastric cancer (GC).

Methods: A prospective, observational, cohort study was conducted in two high-volume tertiary centers (registered under ClinicalTrials.gov). A total of 552 consecutive adult patients undergoing radical gastrectomy for GC from June 2018 to July 2019 were included. Routine blood tests (white blood cell count (WBC); neutrophil count; the neutrophil:WBC ratio, N%) and PCT were measured on post-operative day (POD) 3 and 5. Post-operative infection was recorded based on the criteria of the Center for Disease Control. The area under the curve (AUC) summarizing receiver-operating characteristic was calculated and compared for each biomarker measured.

Results: Ninety three adverse events occurred in 70 patients (12.7%), with infections being the most common (n = 37, 6.7%). With cutoff values of 0.695 ng/mL at POD 3 and 0.515 ng/mL at POD 5, specificity and negative predictive value for infections were 0.656 and 96.3%, 0.816 and 96.1%, respectively. PCT had a better AUC than the WBC and neutrophil count to detect post-operative complications, especially infections (AUC: 0.678, 0.600, 0.592, P = 0.028 and 0.017, respectively) at POD 3, but which were comparable at POD 5. Additionally, 4 of the 8 patients with PCT levels ≥3 ng/mL on POD 5 were confirmed to have an infection.

Conclusion: PCT is a more reliable predictor than WBC and neutrophil count to detect infections following radical gastrectomy for GC. PCT levels <0.695 ng/mL at POD 3 and < 0.515 ng/mL at POD 5 makes post-operative infections very unlikely but extreme high PCT levels should alert the surgeon to the possibility of infections.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijsu.2020.01.019DOI Listing
March 2020

Blockade of RGMb inhibits allergen-induced airways disease.

J Allergy Clin Immunol 2019 07 29;144(1):94-108.e11. Epub 2019 Jan 29.

Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Mass; Sean N Parker Center for Allergy and Asthma Research, Department of Medicine, Stanford University, Stanford, Calif. Electronic address:

Background: Allergic asthma causes morbidity in many subjects, and novel precision-directed treatments would be valuable.

Objective: We sought to examine the role of a novel innate molecule, repulsive guidance molecule b (RGMb), in murine models of allergic asthma.

Methods: In models of allergic asthma using ovalbumin or cockroach allergen, mice were treated with anti-RGMb or control mAb and examined for airway inflammation and airway hyperreactivity (AHR), a cardinal feature of asthma. The mechanisms by which RGMb causes airways disease were also examined.

Results: We found that blockade of RGMb by treatment with anti-RGMb mAb effectively blocked the development of airway inflammation and AHR. Importantly, blockade of RGMb completely blocked the development of airway inflammation and AHR, even if treatment occurred only during the challenge (effector) phase. IL-25 played an important role in these models of asthma because IL-25 receptor-deficient mice did not develop disease after sensitization and challenge with allergen. RGMb was expressed primarily by innate cells in the lungs, including bronchial epithelial cells (known producers of IL-25), activated eosinophils, and interstitial macrophages, which in the inflamed lung expressed the IL-25 receptor and produced IL-5 and IL-13. We also found that neogenin, the canonical receptor for RGMb, was expressed by interstitial macrophages and bronchial epithelial cells in the inflamed lung, suggesting that an innate RGMb-neogenin axis might modulate allergic asthma.

Conclusions: These results demonstrate an important role for a novel innate pathway in regulating type 2 inflammation in patients with allergic asthma involving RGMb and RGMb-expressing cells, such as interstitial macrophages and bronchial epithelial cells. Moreover, targeting this previously unappreciated innate pathway might provide an important treatment option for allergic asthma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaci.2018.12.1022DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8088837PMC
July 2019

PD-L1 Binds to B7-1 Only on the Same Cell Surface.

Cancer Immunol Res 2018 08 5;6(8):921-929. Epub 2018 Jun 5.

Department of Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.

Programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1)-mediated immunosuppression regulates peripheral tolerance and is often co-opted by tumors to evade immune attack. PD-L1 binds to PD-1 but also binds to B7-1 (CD80) to regulate T-cell function. The binding interaction of PD-L1 with B7-1 and its functional role need further investigation to understand differences between PD-1 and PD-L1 tumor immunotherapy. We examined the molecular orientation of PD-L1 binding to B7-1 using cell-to-cell binding assays, ELISA, and flow cytometry. As expected, PD-L1-transfected cells bound to PD-1-transfected cells, and B7-1 cells bound to CD28 or CTLA-4-transfected cells; however, PD-L1 cells did not bind to B7-1 cells. By ELISA and flow cytometry with purified proteins, we found PD-L1 and B7-1 had a strong binding interaction only when PD-L1 was flexible. Soluble PD-1 and B7-1 competed for binding to PD-L1. Binding of native PD-L1 and B7-1 on the same cell surface was demonstrated with NanoBiT proximity assays. Thus, PD-L1-B7-1 interaction can occur on the same cell but not between two cells, which suggests a model in which PD-L1 can bend via its 11-amino acid, flexible stalk to bind to B7-1 , in a manner that can competitively block the binding of PD-L1 to PD-1 or of B7-1 to CD28. This binding orientation emphasizes the functional importance of coexpression of PD-L1 and B7-1 on the same cell. We found such coexpression on tumor-infiltrating myeloid cells. Our findings may help better utilize these pathways in cancer immunotherapy. .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/2326-6066.CIR-17-0316DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7394266PMC
August 2018

Incomplete resection and linitis plastica are factors for poor survival after extended multiorgan resection in gastric cancer patients.

Sci Rep 2017 11 17;7(1):15800. Epub 2017 Nov 17.

Department of Gastroduodenal and Pancreatic Surgery, Hunan Cancer Hospital and The Affiliated Cancer Hospital of Xiangya School of Medicine, Central South University, Changsha, 410013, China.

The aim of this retrospective study was to analyze the morbidity, mortality, and survival rates of extended multiorgan resection (EMR) for locally advanced gastric cancer patients compared to gastrectomy alone and a palliative operation. 893 locally advanced gastric cancer patients without distant metastasis had surgery including gastrectomy alone (GA group, n = 798), EMR resection (EMR group, n = 75), and palliative operation (palliative gastrectomy or gastrojejunostomy (PO group, n = 20)). Postoperative mortality and complication rates in the EMR group were significantly higher than in the GA group (2.7% vs 0.4%, P = 0.010 and 25.3% vs 8.1%, P < 0.001, respectively), but similar in the PO group. The median survival time of the EMR group was significantly longer than in the PO group (27 months vs 11 months, P = 0.020), but significantly worse (P = 0.020) than in the GA group (44 months). Incompleteness of resection (R1) and linitis plastica were independent prognostic factors for survival in the EMR group. Three different gastric cancer surgeries led to different postoperative mortality and complication rates. EMR had a better survival rate compared with PO while GA had the longest survival time with the lowest mortality and complication rates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-16078-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5694005PMC
November 2017

Intra-abdominal infection after radical gastrectomy for gastric cancer: Incidence, pathogens, risk factors and outcomes.

Int J Surg 2017 Dec 24;48:195-200. Epub 2017 Jul 24.

Department of Gastroduodenal and Pancreatic Surgery, Hunan Cancer Hospital, The Affiliated Cancer Hospital of Xiangya School of Medicine, Central South University, 410013 Changsha, Hunan, China. Electronic address:

Background: Surgical site infection, particularly intra-abdominal infection (IAI), remains a clinically important event after gastrectomy for gastric cancer. The aim of this retrospective study was to clarify the incidence, pathogens, risk factors and outcomes of IAI following gastrectomy for gastric cancer.

Methods: The study cohort was 1835 patients who underwent gastrectomy for gastric cancer from January 2011 through December 2016. The incidence, pathogens, and treatment outcomes of IAI were examined, and the risk factors were identified using univariate and multivariate analyses.

Results: In total, 73 patients (4.0%) developed IAI after radical gastrectomy. Bacterial culture in these patients showed that Gram-negative bacilli, such as Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumonia were the most common pathogens. Multivariate analysis identified that combined multi-organ resection (Odds Ratio [OR] = 2.262, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.114-4.596, P = 0.024), and body mass index (BMI) ≥ 25 kg/m (OR = 1.968, 95% CI: 1.107-3.500, P = 0.021) were independent risk factors. Three patients (4.1%) developed IAI who died from sepsis and/or multiple-organ failure, which was significantly higher than in the remaining 1762 patients without IAI (5 cases, 0.3%, P = 0.003). Moreover, IAI required more re-operations (5.5% vs 0.8%, P = 0.005) and longer post-operative hospital stays (23.3 days vs 11.2 days, P < 0.001) compared without IAI.

Conclusions: IAI is a major complication after radical gastrectomy for gastric cancer, and associated with combined multi-organ resection and a BMI ≥ 25 kg/m; thus, meticulous surgical procedures need to be performed in patients with these specific risk factors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijsu.2017.07.081DOI Listing
December 2017

Effects of iron and calcium carbonate on the variation and cycling of carbon source in integrated wastewater treatments.

Bioresour Technol 2017 Feb 22;225:262-271. Epub 2016 Nov 22.

China Institute of Water Resources and Hydropower Research, Beijing 100038, China.

Iron and calcium carbonate were added in wastewater treatments as the adjusting agents to improve the contaminant removal performance and regulate the variation of carbon source in integrated treatments. At different temperatures, the addition of the adjusting agents obviously improved the nitrogen and phosphorous removals. TN and TP removals were respectively increased by 29.41% and 23.83% in AC-100 treatment under 1-day HRT. Carbon source from dead algae was supplied as green microbial carbon source and Fe was supplied as carbon source surrogate. COD concentration was increased to 30mg/L and above, so the problem of the shortage of carbon source was solved. Dead algae and Fe as carbon source supplement or surrogate played significant role, which was proved by microbial community analysis. According to the denitrification performance in the treatments, dead algae as green microbial carbon source combined with iron and calcium carbonate was the optimal supplement carbon source in wastewater treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2016.11.074DOI Listing
February 2017

Influences of seasons, N/P ratios and chemical compounds on phosphorus removal performance in algal pond combined with constructed wetlands.

Sci Total Environ 2016 Dec 4;573:906-914. Epub 2016 Sep 4.

China Institute of Water Resources and Hydropower Research, Beijing 100038, China.

Nitrogen (N) and phosphorous (P) are main contaminants and P removal was restrained by several factors: season, N/P, and chemical compounds (CCs) in water ecosystems. In this paper, two algal ponds combined with constructed wetlands were built to increase the removal performance. Different hydraulic retention time (HRT), different N/P and chemical compounds were chosen to investigate the influences of the above factors on the contaminant removal performance. The optimum phosphorus removal rate was 69.74% under the nitrogen removal of 92.85% in influent containing PO after 3-day HRT in algal pond combined with constructed wetlands. The investigation results indicated that these factors improved the nutrient removal efficiencies. Seasonal influence on the removal performance can be avoided by choosing the optimal HRT length of 3days. The higher N/P at 60 can improve the phosphorus removal and the lower N/P at 15 showed the stronger synergistic effect between phosphorus and nitrogen removals. Compared with PO and PO in influent, PO affected phosphorus removal more significantly. The better linear fitting between organic phosphorus removal and nitrogen removal in influent contained PO was found. Algae can absorb nutrients for growth, and oxygen release, microbial activity intensification and microbial carbon replenishment induced by algae will improve the performance. The study suggested that the control of HRTs, N/Ps, CCs, and algae might be an effective way to improve wastewater treatment performance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.08.148DOI Listing
December 2016

Influences of iron and calcium carbonate on wastewater treatment performances of algae based reactors.

Bioresour Technol 2016 Sep 14;216:1-11. Epub 2016 May 14.

College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Donghua University, State Environmental Protection Engineering Center for Pollution Treatment and Control in Textile Industry, Shanghai 201620, China.

The influences of iron and calcium carbonate (CaCO3) addition in wastewater treatments reactors performance were investigated. Adding different concentrations of Fe(3+) (5, 10, 30 and 50mmol/m(3)), iron and CaCO3 powder led to changes in algal characteristics and physico-chemical and microbiological properties. According to the investigation results, nutrient removal efficiency in algae based reactors was obviously increased by the addition of 10mmol/m(3) Fe(3+), iron (5mmol/m(3)) and CaCO3 powder (0.2gm(-3)) and the removal efficiencies of BOD5, TN, and TP in Stage 2 were respectively increased by 28%, 8.9%, and 22%. The improvements in physico-chemical performances were verified by microbial community tests (bacteria quantity, activity and community measured in most probable number, extracellular enzymes activity, and Biolog Eco Plates). Microbial variations indicated the coexistence of Fe ions and carbonate-bicarbonate, which triggered the synergistic effect of physico-chemical action and microbial factors in algae based reactors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2016.05.043DOI Listing
September 2016

[Analysis of Porosity in the Fixed Dental Prostheses].

Zhongguo Yi Liao Qi Xie Za Zhi 2016 May;40(3):212-3

Fixed dental prostheses with ceramic were widely used in people for their good strength and aesthetics. As the defect of the products wil lead to failure in prostheses, good quality is essential in daily use. Accroding to analysis the date of the fixed dental prostheses in porosity test, and link with the shape and location of the pores, we have the result that the reject ratio of the fixed dental prostheses in porosity is exceed 40%, the main unqualified category is that big pores with diameter greater than 150 mm exist in ceramic. This may be introduced by the mechanic in the process of brush porcelain by mixing in bubbles or impurities.
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May 2016

[Significance of serum neuron-specific enolase before treatment in predicting brain metastases and prognosis of advanced non-small cell lung cancer].

Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi 2015 Jul;37(7):508-11

Clinical Laboratory Department of Fujian Tumor Hospital, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou 350014, China.

Objective: To explore the value of serum neuron-specific enolase (NSE) before treatment in predicting brain metastases and prognosis of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).

Methods: A total of 128 hospitalized patients with advanced NSCLC from Jan 2012 to Mar 2012 were followed up, and their clinicopathological data, serum NSE, carcinoembryonic antigen, cytokeratin 21-1 (cyfra21-1) levels, albumin (ALB), white blood cell (WBC) before treatment were analyzed retrospectively to determine the factors affecting brain metastasis and prognosis of advanced NSCLC.

Results: Among the 128 NSCLC patients, 90 cases were of adenocarcinoma, 30 cases were of squamous cell carcinoma, and 8 cases were of large cell carcinoma. The median levels of pre-treatment NSE, CEA and cyfra21-1 were 13.6 ng/ml, 7.8 ng/ml and 6.1 ng/ml, respectively. The average levels of ALB and WBC were (35.41 ± 5.60) g/L and (8.16 ± 2.53) × 10⁹/ml, respectively. Multi-variate logistic regression analysis showed that serum NSE before treatment was associated with brain metastasis of advanced NSCLC (P = 0.030). Pre-treatment NSE levels were (34.18 ± 28.48) ng/ml in 28 patients with brain metastasis and (13.87 ± 4.49) ng/ml in 98 patients without brain metastasis (P < 0.05). The median survival time were 3.5 months in patients with normal levels of NSE, and 10.7 months in patients with elevated levels of NSE pre-treatment (P < 0.05).

Conclusions: A higher pre-treatment level of NSE is closely correlated with brain metastasis of advanced NSCLC, and can be used as a predictor of brain metastases in advanced NSCLC. High pre-treatment levels of NSE indicate a poor prognosis in advanced NSCLC patients.
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July 2015

A New B7:CD28 Family Checkpoint Target for Cancer Immunotherapy: HHLA2.

Clin Cancer Res 2015 May 13;21(10):2201-3. Epub 2015 Apr 13.

Department of Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.

HHLA2 is a newly identified B7 family member that modulates T-cell functions through interaction with TMIGD2 and possibly a second receptor, with coinhibition in two studies and costimulation in one study. HHLA2 is expressed on a variety of human cancers, and its coinhibitory function makes it a candidate for cancer immunotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-14-2658DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4433776PMC
May 2015

The microsatellite instable subset of colorectal cancer is a particularly good candidate for checkpoint blockade immunotherapy.

Cancer Discov 2015 Jan;5(1):16-8

Department of Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.

The microsatellite instable (MSI) subset of colorectal cancer exhibits an active Th1/CTL immune microenvironment, probably due to recognition of a high number of tumor neoantigens. However, the high expression of checkpoint molecules PD-1, PD-L1, CTLA-4, LAG-3, and IDO in MSI colorectal cancer distinguishes MSI from microsatellite stable colorectal cancer and creates an immunosuppressive microenvironment that may help MSI tumors evade immune destruction by the infiltrating immune cells. Though colorectal cancer does not have a good response rate to PD-1 pathway immunotherapy, these results suggest that the MSI subset of colorectal cancer is a particularly good candidate for checkpoint immunotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/2159-8290.CD-14-1397DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4295637PMC
January 2015

RGMb is a novel binding partner for PD-L2 and its engagement with PD-L2 promotes respiratory tolerance.

J Exp Med 2014 May 21;211(5):943-59. Epub 2014 Apr 21.

Department of Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute; 2 Division of Immunology and Department of Pediatrics, Boston Children's Hospital; 3 Department of Microbiology and Immunobiology and 4 Department of Pathology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115.

We report that programmed death ligand 2 (PD-L2), a known ligand of PD-1, also binds to repulsive guidance molecule b (RGMb), which was originally identified in the nervous system as a co-receptor for bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs). PD-L2 and BMP-2/4 bind to distinct sites on RGMb. Normal resting lung interstitial macrophages and alveolar epithelial cells express high levels of RGMb mRNA, whereas lung dendritic cells express PD-L2. Blockade of the RGMb-PD-L2 interaction markedly impaired the development of respiratory tolerance by interfering with the initial T cell expansion required for respiratory tolerance. Experiments with PD-L2-deficient mice showed that PD-L2 expression on non-T cells was critical for respiratory tolerance, but expression on T cells was not required. Because PD-L2 binds to both PD-1, which inhibits antitumor immunity, and to RGMb, which regulates respiratory immunity, targeting the PD-L2 pathway has therapeutic potential for asthma, cancer, and other immune-mediated disorders. Understanding this pathway may provide insights into how to optimally modulate the PD-1 pathway in cancer immunotherapy while minimizing adverse events.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1084/jem.20130790DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4010901PMC
May 2014

Life cycle inventory of the production of rare earths and the subsequent production of NdFeB rare earth permanent magnets.

Environ Sci Technol 2014 Apr 12;48(7):3951-8. Epub 2014 Mar 12.

Materials Innovation Institute (M2i) , P.O. Box 5008, 2600 GA Delft, The Netherlands.

Neodymium is one of the more critical rare earth elements with respect to current availability and is most often used in high performance magnets. In this paper, we compare the virgin production route of these magnets with two hypothetical recycling processes in terms of environmental impact. The first recycling process looks at manual dismantling of computer hard disk drives (HDDs) combined with a novel hydrogen based recycling process. The second process assumes HDDs are shredded. Our life cycle assessment is based both on up to date literature and on our own experimental data. Because the production process of neodymium oxide is generic to all rare earths, we also report the life cycle inventory data for the production of rare earth oxides separately. We conclude that recycling of neodymium, especially via manual dismantling, is preferable to primary production, with some environmental indicators showing an order of magnitude improvement. The choice of recycling technology is also important with respect to resource recovery. While manual disassembly allows in principle for all magnetic material to be recovered, shredding leads to very low recovery rates (<10%).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es404596qDOI Listing
April 2014

TNF superfamily member 13, APRIL, inhibits allergic lung inflammation.

Eur J Immunol 2011 Jan 1;41(1):164-71. Epub 2010 Dec 1.

Department of Microbiology & Immunology, University of Miami, Leonard Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USA.

The T-cell functions of a proliferation-inducing ligand (APRIL, also known as TNFSF13) remain largely undefined. We previously showed that APRIL suppressed Th2 cytokine production in cultured CD4(+) T cells and Th2 antibody responses. Here we show that APRIL suppresses allergic lung inflammation, which is associated with diminished expression of the transcription factor c-maf. Mice deficient in the April gene (April(-/-) mice) had significantly aggravated lung inflammation compared with WT mice in the ovalbumin-induced allergic lung inflammation model. Likewise, blockade of APRIL in WT mice by the APRIL-receptor fusion protein, transmembrane activator and calcium modulator and cyclophilin ligand interactor (TACI)-Ig, enhanced lung inflammation. Transfer of APRIL-sufficient, ovalbumin-specific, TCR-transgenic CD4(+) T (OT-II) cells to April(-/-) mice restored the suppressive effect of APRIL on lung inflammation. Mechanistically, the expression of the Th2 cytokine transcription factor c-maf, but not GATA-3, was markedly enhanced in April(-/-) CD4(+) T cells at the RNA and protein level and under non-polarizing (Th neutral, ThN) and Th2-polarizing conditions. Since c-maf transactivates the IL-4 gene, the increased c-maf expression in April(-/-) mice readily explains increased Th2 cytokine production. Independent of its effect on IL-4, APRIL suppressed IL-13 expression. APRIL thus may regulate lung inflammation in a dual way, by acting on c-maf expression and by directly controlling IL-13 production.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/eji.201040436DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3516998PMC
January 2011

[Study on serum selenium level of people in service sectors in Taigu County, Shanxi Province].

Wei Sheng Yan Jiu 2010 Mar;39(2):215-7

Institute for Nutrition and Food Safety, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 100050, China.

Objective: To detect serum selenium level of people in non-selenium-deficiency region.

Methods: A total of 793 subjects were recruited by random sampling from people engaged in service sectors in Taign county, Shanxi province. Information about gender, age, occupation and educational level were collected and the content of serum selenium was measured by fluorospectrophotometry. All data were statistically analyzed with SPSS software version 13.0.

Results: The age distribution for these samples ranged from 20 to 67 years old. Their average serum selenium level and standard deviation (SD) were (0.0913 +/- 0.0186) mcirog/ml, (0.0947 +/- 0.0184) microg/ml and (0.0887 +/- 0.0184) microg/ml for total, male and female, respectively, and the level of male was significantly higher than that of female. There were no significant differences of serum selenium in each group of different ages, occupation, and educational level. Serum selenium in male were significantly higher than in female in both 20-29 years old group and 30-39 years old group, but there were no significant differences in groups older than 40. In 30-39 years old group, male had the highest serum selenium, but female occurred just the opposite. There was a decrease of serum selenium in male older than 40, but a great increase in female.

Conclusion: The serum selenium level of adults in this area was adequate, but compared with progressed areas in the world, it could be categorized as low-middle level, serum selenium in male of 20-40 years old was significantly higher than in female, but the differences turn to be narrow in people older than 40 years old.
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March 2010

Epsilon wave in arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia/cardiomyopathy.

Pacing Clin Electrophysiol 2009 Jan;32(1):59-63

Department of Cardiology, Guangdong General Hospital, Guangdong Cardiovascular Institute, Guangdong, China.

Background: Epsilon wave is a major criteria for arrhythmogenic right ventricular (RV) dysplasia/cardiomyopathy (ARVD/C). We sought to study systematically characteristics of Epsilon wave in ARVD/C patients from the southern Chinese population.

Methods: The population included 49 patients with ARVD/C meeting the diagnostic criteria. They were analyzed for the value of different electrocardiogram (ECG) criteria including Epsilon wave, the ones of 24-hour Holter recording, signal-averaged ECG, and echocardiography to learn the correlation between Epsilon wave and other variability with the use of nonparametric test. A probability value of < or =0.05 was considered significantly different.

Results: It shown that the detection rate of Epsilon wave was significantly higher in probands (65%) than involved family members (22%), P = 0.03. In the conventional as well as Fontaine leads, its detection rate were 18 (37%) and 28 (57%), respectively. The prevalence of diffuse right ventricle involvement, T-wave inversion and signal-averaged ECG are significantly different between the ARVD/C patients with Epsilon wave and without Epsilon wave.

Conclusion: It is significantly correlated between Epsilon wave and the progressive ARVD/C.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-8159.2009.02176.xDOI Listing
January 2009

APRIL (TNFSF13) regulates collagen-induced arthritis, IL-17 production and Th2 response.

Eur J Immunol 2008 Dec;38(12):3450-8

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Miami, Leonard Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL 33136, USA.

A proliferation-inducing ligand (APRIL or TNFSF13) shares receptors with B-cell activation factor of the TNF family (BAFF) on B and T cells. Although much is known about the function of APRIL in B cells, its role in T cells remains unclear. Blocking both BAFF and APRIL suggested that BAFF and/or APRIL contributed to collagen-induced arthritis (CIA); however, the role of APRIL alone in CIA remained unresolved. We show here that, in vitro, our newly generated APRIL(-/-) mice exhibited increased T-cell proliferation, enhanced Th2 cytokine production under non-polarizing conditions, and augmented IL-13 and IL-17 production under Th2 polarizing conditions. Upon immunization with OVA and aluminum potassium sulfate, APRIL(-/-) mice responded with an increased antigen-specific IgG1 response. We also show that in APRIL(-/-) mice, the incidence of CIA was significantly reduced compared with WT mice in parallel with diminished levels of antigen-specific IgG2a autoantibody and IL-17 production. Our data indicate that APRIL plays an important role in the regulation of cytokine production and that APRIL-triggered signals contribute to arthritis. Blockade of APRIL thus may be a valuable adjunct in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/eji.200838640DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2755626PMC
December 2008

Expression of green fluorescent protein under the regulation of human locus control region elements HS2 and HS3 in transgenic mice.

Int J Hematol 2008 Jul 30;88(1):36-42. Epub 2008 May 30.

Institute of Medical Genetics, Shanghai Jiaotong University, 24/1400 West Beijing Road, 200040, Shanghai, China.

Human beta-globin locus control region (LCR) is composed of five DNase I hypersensitive sites (HSs). We previously demonstrated that when HS2 and HS3 were constructed together in one vector and integrated into one position in transgenic mice, the two cis-elements showed a marked synergy in regulating the spatial and temporal expression of beta-globin transgene. This study is to investigate whether these two elements still show a synergy or superposition when they are not located in one construct. HS2/GFP and HS3/GFP transgenic mice, with the transgene encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP) driven by beta-globin promoter and under the control of HS2 (HS2/GFP mice) and HS3 (HS3/GFP mice), were mated to generate double-heterozygotes (HS2/GFP + HS3/GFP mice). The expression and integration status of GFP genes in transgenic mice were analyzed. Our data showed that there was no difference in the percentages of GFP positive cells in peripheral blood between double-heterozygotes and their corresponding founders (HS2/GFP or HS3/GFP). Interestingly, it was observed that exogenous GFP genes were highly expressed in another transgenic mouse pedigree with HS2 element integrated twice into the same chromosome at two different loci. However, when one site was lost in some offspring because of recombination, the percentages of GFP positive cells in peripheral blood as well as in some erythroid tissues were decreased obviously. These results demonstrated that HS2 and HS3 elements would not show any synergy or superposition if they were located on different chromosomes in transgenic mice, and that HS2 element containing the core and flanking sequences might not be able to overcome the position effects and control position dependent expression of linked genes in transgenic mice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12185-008-0089-0DOI Listing
July 2008

Aluminium recycling and environmental issues of salt slag treatment.

J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng 2005 ;40(10):1861-75

Resources Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Mijnbouwstraat 120, 2628 RX Delft, The Netherlands.

Environmental friendly recycling is the trend toward total recycling of aluminium metal. In the secondary aluminium industry, due to the complexity of compositions and contaminants in the various types of aluminium scraps, an understanding of the behavior of different scraps during melting is crucial in the recycling process. Salt slags are the byproducts of the secondary aluminium industry, which should be recycled and processed in a proper way by taking the environmental impact into consideration. This article provides qualitative assessment on 10 different commercial aluminium scraps for their relative recyclability via well-designed and controlled laboratory experiments. It confirms that more nonmetallic contaminants, smaller size, and higher ratio of surface area to body volume generally lead to a lower metal recovery. Recycling the scraps with lower recyclability normally generates more salt slags. High slag viscosity leads to more fine aluminum metal entrapped in the salt slag and thus increases the load of salt slag recycling. It was found that viscosity of the salt flux is increased with the amount of entrapped nonmetallic components, which affect the settling of heavier materials. In addition, the slag samples from the melting tests were leached and analyzed to evaluate the behavior of carbon containing scrap. The elevated carbon content in the scrap resulted in more carbide formation in salt slags and thus more methane generation in salt slag recycling with a higher environmental impact.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10934520500183824DOI Listing
December 2005

Identification and characterization of engrafted human cells in human/goat xenogeneic transplantation chimerism.

DNA Cell Biol 2005 Jul;24(7):403-9

Shanghai Institute of Medical Genetics, Shanghai Children's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, People's Republic of China.

We have injected human CD34+lin- cells derived from cord blood (CB) into the goat fetuses via in utero at 45-55 days gestation under guidance of B-scan ultrasonograph. Sixty out of 68 fetuses injected survived to full term. The long-term survival of the human cells in transplant goat has been tested by various experimental methods, including FACS analysis, real-time PCR, RT-PCR, Southern-blot hybridization, FISH, as well as immunohistochemical assays. All the 60 transplant goats demonstrated engrafted human cells, including myeloid, B-lymphoid, and erythroid lineages. The yield of the human CD34+ cells varied, but was not linked with sex and age. High numbers of human cells could be detected for at least 16 months after birth. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed that the human cells were present not only in blood but also in other tissues, such as liver, of the transplant goats. In addition, a human-specific serum albumin and the hepatocyte nuclear factor (hHNF-3beta) mRNAs specific to human hepato-antigen could be readily detected in the livers of the transplant goats. Our results demonstrate that this in utero xenograft model should be useful for expansion of human HSC and possibly for the evaluating the effectiveness of prenatal treatment of human genetic diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/dna.2005.24.403DOI Listing
July 2005

Screening for DMD/BMD deletion carriers by fluorescence in situ hybridization.

Genet Test 2003 ;7(3):195-201

Shanghai Institute of Planned Parenthood Research, 2140 Xie Tu Road, Shanghai 200032, People's Republic of China.

Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) serves as an excellent alternative for direct detection of heterozygous deletions. Using a set of exon-specific cosmid DNA probes representing 18 exons, one-color FISH on metaphase and interphase preparations was performed to identify Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophy (DMD/BMD) deletion carriers. The peripheral blood samples from 9 normal male or female controls and 5 females of independent DMD/BMD families, as well as 2 amniotic fluid specimens and 2 chorionic villus samples (CVS) from normal pregnant females, were analyzed. Expected signals were displayed in 72-100% of peripheral blood lymphocyte metaphases or interphases, 60-70% of amniocyte interphases, and 95-99% of chorionic villus cell interphases. One suspected female was identified as a deletion carrier and two were excluded. The results indicated that metaphase and interphase FISH were both useful for detection of heterozygous deletions. FISH, in combination with other available techniques, allowed efficient screening of DMD/BMD deletion carriers. The study also offered preliminary results in support of an approach to prenatal diagnosis of potential fetal carriers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/109065703322537205DOI Listing
June 2004

[Detection of human/goat xenogeneic models by interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization].

Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi 2003 Apr;20(2):147-50

Shanghai Institute of Medical Genetics, Shanghai Children's Hospital, Shanghai, 200040 P. R. China.

Objective: To establish a high sensitive and specific method of interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (IFISH) to detect the low-frequency human cells in human/goat xenogeneic models.

Methods: Human-specific Y-chromosome satellite DNA CEPY and 17-chromosome satellite DNA p17H8 were used as probes for IFISH. The peripheral blood samples from 2 goats transplanted with human male hematopoietic stem cells (HSC), 1 normal negative goat and 1 normal man were analyzed. The actual FISH efficiency was confirmed by serial dilutions (1/100, 1/500 and 1/1000) of the cell mixture of normal man and normal negative goat. A set of signal scoring criteria was determined to guarantee the stability and reliability of the method.

Results: Positive cell (human cell) frequencies were consistent with the established frequencies for the human/goat cell mixture. The average frequencies of positive cells were 98.60% (CEPY) and 100% (p17H8) for normal man, 0 for normal negative goat, 0.23% (CEPY) and 0.11% (p17H8) for human/goat xenogeneic models. The results demonstrated that low-frequency human cells (male cells confirmed by Y-chromosome probe) existed in human/goat xenogeneic models.

Conclusion: The IFISH developed in this study is of high sensitivity and specificity and can identify the actual frequency of human cells, which offers a direct, sensitive and specific approach to the detection of low-frequency human cells in human/goat xenogeneic models.
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April 2003

[Molecular identification of human/goat xenogeneic model].

Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi 2002 Dec;23(12):634-7

Shanghai Institute of Medical Genetics, Shanghai Children Hospital, Shanghai 200040, China.

Objective: To identify the human hematopoietic stem cells from the human/goat xenogeneic model with molecular techniques.

Methods: DNA and total RNA were extracted from 11 transplanted goat peripheral blood cells. Human CD(34), GPA and SRY genes were amplified with PCR in these samples, and CD(34), GPA mRNA transcripts were detected using RT-PCR in 5 and 6 goat peripheral blood cells, respectively. Southern blot analysis was performed in 8 goat DNAs to detect the human specific alpha-satellite sequence. Meanwhile FISH was also performed to detect the human cells in goat blood with a probe of human Y chromosome.

Results: Human CD(34) and GPA genes could be detected with PCR in all the 11 goats, and SRY gene did in 5 goats transplanted with hematopoietic stem cells derived from male human babies. Southern blot showed that human specific alpha-satellite sequence was present in 8 goats. By RT-PCR, human CD(34) mRNA was detected in 5 experimental goats, GPA mRNA was found in the other 6 experimental goats and FISH assay showed that some peripheral blood cells of the human/goat xenogeneic model were positive.

Conclusion: Existence of human cells in the recipient goats was identified by molecular detection, which was feasible for the examination of human/goat xenogeneic models.
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December 2002