Publications by authors named "Yannik Terhorst"

19 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Quality of Physical Activity Apps: Systematic Search in App Stores and Content Analysis.

JMIR Mhealth Uhealth 2021 Jun 9;9(6):e22587. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, Institute of Psychology and Education, Ulm University, Ulm, Germany.

Background: Physical inactivity is a major contributor to the development and persistence of chronic diseases. Mobile health apps that foster physical activity have the potential to assist in behavior change. However, the quality of the mobile health apps available in app stores is hard to assess for making informed decisions by end users and health care providers.

Objective: This study aimed at systematically reviewing and analyzing the content and quality of physical activity apps available in the 2 major app stores (Google Play and App Store) by using the German version of the Mobile App Rating Scale (MARS-G). Moreover, the privacy and security measures were assessed.

Methods: A web crawler was used to systematically search for apps promoting physical activity in the Google Play store and App Store. Two independent raters used the MARS-G to assess app quality. Further, app characteristics, content and functions, and privacy and security measures were assessed. The correlation between user star ratings and MARS was calculated. Exploratory regression analysis was conducted to determine relevant predictors for the overall quality of physical activity apps.

Results: Of the 2231 identified apps, 312 met the inclusion criteria. The results indicated that the overall quality was moderate (mean 3.60 [SD 0.59], range 1-4.75). The scores of the subscales, that is, information (mean 3.24 [SD 0.56], range 1.17-4.4), engagement (mean 3.19 [SD 0.82], range 1.2-5), aesthetics (mean 3.65 [SD 0.79], range 1-5), and functionality (mean 4.35 [SD 0.58], range 1.88-5) were obtained. An efficacy study could not be identified for any of the included apps. The features of data security and privacy were mainly not applied. Average user ratings showed significant small correlations with the MARS ratings (r=0.22, 95% CI 0.08-0.35; P<.001). The amount of content and number of functions were predictive of the overall quality of these physical activity apps, whereas app store and price were not.

Conclusions: Apps for physical activity showed a broad range of quality ratings, with moderate overall quality ratings. Given the present privacy, security, and evidence concerns inherent to most rated apps, their medical use is questionable. There is a need for open-source databases of expert quality ratings to foster informed health care decisions by users and health care providers.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/22587DOI Listing
June 2021

Clinical and Cost-Effectiveness of PSYCHOnlineTHERAPY: Study Protocol of a Multicenter Blended Outpatient Psychotherapy Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial for Patients With Depressive and Anxiety Disorders.

Front Psychiatry 2021 14;12:660534. Epub 2021 May 14.

Department of Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, Friedrich-Alexander University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen, Germany.

Internet- and mobile-based interventions (IMIs) and their integration into routine psychotherapy (i.e., blended therapy) can offer a means of complementing psychotherapy in a flexible and resource optimized way. The present study will evaluate the non-inferiority, cost-effectiveness, and safety of two versions of integrated blended psychotherapy for depression and anxiety compared to standard cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). A three-armed multicenter cluster-randomized controlled non-inferiority trial will be conducted comparing two implementations of blended psychotherapy (PSYCHOnlineTHERAPY) compared to CBT. Seventy-five outpatient psychotherapists with a CBT-license will be randomized in a 1:1:1 ratio. Each of them is asked to include 12 patients on average with depressive or anxiety disorders resulting in a total sample size of = 900. All patients receive up to a maximum of 16 psychotherapy sessions, either as routine CBT or alternating with Online self-help sessions (fix: 8/8; flex: 0-16). Assessments will be conducted at patient study inclusion (pre-treatment) and 6, 12, 18, and 24 weeks and 12 months post-inclusion. The primary outcome is depression and anxiety severity at 18 weeks post-inclusion (post-treatment) using the Patient Health Questionnaire Anxiety and Depression Scale. Secondary outcomes are depression and anxiety remission, treatment response, health-related quality of life, patient satisfaction, working alliance, psychotherapy adherence, and patient safety. Additionally, several potential moderators and mediators including patient characteristics and attitudes toward the interventions will be examined, complemented by ecological day-to-day digital behavior variables via passive smartphone sensing as part of an integrated smart-sensing sub-study. Data-analysis will be performed on an intention-to-treat basis with additional per-protocol analyses. In addition, cost-effectiveness and cost-utility analyses will be conducted from a societal and a public health care perspective. Additionally, qualitative interviews on acceptance, feasibility, and optimization potential will be conducted and analyzed. PSYCHOnlineTHERAPY will provide evidence on blended psychotherapy in one of the largest ever conducted psychotherapy trials. If shown to be non-inferior and cost-effective, PSYCHOnlineTHERAPY has the potential to innovate psychotherapy in the near future by extending the ways of conducting psychotherapy. The rigorous health care services approach will facilitate a timely implementation of blended psychotherapy into standard care. The trial is registered in the German Clinical Trials Register (DRKS00023973; date of registration: December 28th 2020).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2021.660534DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8160118PMC
May 2021

Sample size, sample size planning, and the impact of study context: systematic review and recommendations by the example of psychological depression treatment.

Psychol Med 2021 Apr 21;51(6):902-908. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Psychology, University of Salzburg, Austria.

Background: Sample size planning (SSP) is vital for efficient studies that yield reliable outcomes. Hence, guidelines, emphasize the importance of SSP. The present study investigates the practice of SSP in current trials for depression.

Methods: Seventy-eight randomized controlled trials published between 2013 and 2017 were examined. Impact of study design (e.g. number of randomized conditions) and study context (e.g. funding) on sample size was analyzed using multiple regression.

Results: Overall, sample size during pre-registration, during SSP, and in published articles was highly correlated (r's ≥ 0.887). Simultaneously, only 7-18% of explained variance related to study design (p = 0.055-0.155). This proportion increased to 30-42% by adding study context (p = 0.002-0.005). The median sample size was N = 106, with higher numbers for internet interventions (N = 181; p = 0.021) compared to face-to-face therapy. In total, 59% of studies included SSP, with 28% providing basic determinants and 8-10% providing information for comprehensible SSP. Expected effect sizes exhibited a sharp peak at d = 0.5. Depending on the definition, 10.2-20.4% implemented intense assessment to improve statistical power.

Conclusions: Findings suggest that investigators achieve their determined sample size and pre-registration rates are increasing. During study planning, however, study context appears more important than study design. Study context, therefore, needs to be emphasized in the present discussion, as it can help understand the relatively stable trial numbers of the past decades. Acknowledging this situation, indications exist that digital psychiatry (e.g. Internet interventions or intense assessment) can help to mitigate the challenge of underpowered studies. The article includes a short guide for efficient study planning.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S003329172100129XDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8161431PMC
April 2021

Systematic evaluation of content and quality of English and German pain apps in European app stores.

Internet Interv 2021 Apr 24;24:100376. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Department of Rehabilitation Psychology and Psychotherapy, Institute of Psychology, Albert-Ludwigs-University Freiburg, Engelberger Str. 41, 79106 Freiburg im Breisgau, Germany.

Background And Objective: Pain spans a broad spectrum of diseases and types that are highly prevalent and cause substantial disease burden for individuals and society. Up to 40% of people affected by pain receive no or inadequate treatment. Providing a scalable, time-, and location-independent way for pain diagnostic, management, prevention and treatment mobile health applications (MHA) might be a promising approach to improve health care for pain. However, the commercial app market is rapidly growing and unregulated, resulting in an opaque market. Studies investigating the content, privacy and security features, quality and scientific evidence of the available apps are highly needed, to guide patients and clinicians to high quality MHA.Contributing to this challenge, the present study investigates the content, quality, and privacy features of pain apps available in the European app stores.

Methods: An automated search engine was used to identify pain apps in the European Google Play and Apple App store. Pain apps were screened and checked for systematic criteria (pain-relatedness, functionality, availability, independent usability, English or German). Content, quality and privacy features were assessed by two independent reviewers using the German Mobile Application Rating Scale (MARS-G). The MARS-G assesses quality on four objectives (engagement, functionality, aesthetics, information quality) and two subjective scales (perceived impact, subjective quality).

Results: Out of 1034 identified pain apps 218 were included. Pain apps covered eight different pain types. Content included basic information, advice, assessment and tracking, and stand-alone interventions. The overall quality of the pain apps was average M = 3.13 (SD = 0.56, min = 1, max = 4.69). The effectiveness of less than 1% of the included pain apps was evaluated in a randomized controlled trial. Major problems with data privacy were present: 59% provided no imprint, 70% had no visible privacy policy.

Conclusion: A multitude of pain apps is available. Most MHA lack scientific evaluation and have serious privacy issues, posing a potential threat to users. Further research on evidence and improvements privacy and security are needed. Overall, the potential of pain apps is not exploited.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.invent.2021.100376DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7933737PMC
April 2021

Mobile Apps for Older Adults: Systematic Search and Evaluation Within Online Stores.

JMIR Aging 2021 Feb 19;4(1):e23313. Epub 2021 Feb 19.

Department of Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, Institute of Psychology and Education, University of Ulm, Ulm, Germany.

Background: Through the increasingly aging population, the health care system is confronted with various challenges such as expanding health care costs. To manage these challenges, mobile apps may represent a cost-effective and low-threshold approach to support older adults.

Objective: This systematic review aimed to evaluate the quality, characteristics, as well as privacy and security measures of mobile apps for older adults in the European commercial app stores.

Methods: In the European Google Play and App Store, a web crawler systematically searched for mobile apps for older adults. The identified mobile apps were evaluated by two independent reviewers using the German version of the Mobile Application Rating Scale. A correlation between the user star rating and overall rating was calculated. An exploratory regression analysis was conducted to determine whether the obligation to pay fees predicted overall quality.

Results: In total, 83 of 1217 identified mobile apps were included in the analysis. Generally, the mobile apps for older adults were of moderate quality (mean 3.22 [SD 0.68]). Four mobile apps (5%) were evidence-based; 49% (41/83) had no security measures. The user star rating correlated significantly positively with the overall rating (r=.30, P=.01). Obligation to pay fees could not predict overall quality.

Conclusions: There is an extensive quality range within mobile apps for older adults, indicating deficits in terms of information quality, data protection, and security precautions, as well as a lack of evidence-based approaches. Central databases are needed to identify high-quality mobile apps.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/23313DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8081158PMC
February 2021

Predicting Symptoms of Depression and Anxiety Using Smartphone and Wearable Data.

Front Psychiatry 2021 28;12:625247. Epub 2021 Jan 28.

Department of Psychology and Logopedics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.

Depression and anxiety are leading causes of disability worldwide but often remain undetected and untreated. Smartphone and wearable devices may offer a unique source of data to detect moment by moment changes in risk factors associated with mental disorders that overcome many of the limitations of traditional screening methods. The current study aimed to explore the extent to which data from smartphone and wearable devices could predict symptoms of depression and anxiety. A total of = 60 adults (ages 24-68) who owned an Apple iPhone and Oura Ring were recruited online over a 2-week period. At the beginning of the study, participants installed the data acquisition app on their smartphone. The app continuously monitored participants' location (using GPS) and smartphone usage behavior (total usage time and frequency of use). The Oura Ring provided measures related to activity (step count and metabolic equivalent for task), sleep (total sleep time, sleep onset latency, wake after sleep onset and time in bed) and heart rate variability (HRV). In addition, participants were prompted to report their daily mood (valence and arousal). Participants completed self-reported assessments of depression, anxiety and stress (DASS-21) at baseline, midpoint and the end of the study. Multilevel models demonstrated a significant negative association between the variability of locations visited and symptoms of depression (beta = -0.21, = 0.037) and significant positive associations between total sleep time and depression (beta = 0.24, = 0.023), time in bed and depression (beta = 0.26, = 0.020), wake after sleep onset and anxiety (beta = 0.23, = 0.035) and HRV and anxiety (beta = 0.26, = 0.035). A combined model of smartphone and wearable features and self-reported mood provided the strongest prediction of depression. The current findings demonstrate that wearable devices may provide valuable sources of data in predicting symptoms of depression and anxiety, most notably data related to common measures of sleep.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2021.625247DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7876288PMC
January 2021

Effectiveness of a Guided Internet- and Mobile-Based Intervention for Patients with Chronic Back Pain and Depression (WARD-BP): A Multicenter, Pragmatic Randomized Controlled Trial.

Psychother Psychosom 2020 Dec 15:1-14. Epub 2020 Dec 15.

Department of Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, Friedrich-Alexander University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen, Germany.

Introduction: There is neither strong evidence on effective treatments for patients with chronic back pain (CBP) and depressive disorder nor sufficiently available mental health care offers.

Objective: The aim is to assess the effectiveness of internet- and mobile-based interventions (IMI) as a scalable approach for treating depression in a routine care setting.

Methods: This is an observer-masked, multicenter, pragmatic randomized controlled trial with a randomization ratio of 1:1.Patients with CBP and diagnosed depressive disorder (mild to moderate severity) were recruited from 82 orthopedic rehabilitation clinics across Germany. The intervention group (IG) received a guided depression IMI tailored to CBP next to treatment-as-usual (TAU; including medication), while the control group (CG) received TAU. The primary outcome was observer-masked clinician-rated Hamilton depression severity (9-week follow-up). The secondary outcomes were: further depression outcomes, pain-related outcomes, health-related quality of life, and work capacity. Biostatistician blinded analyses using regression models were conducted by intention-to-treat and per protocol analysis.

Results: Between October 2015 and July 2017, we randomly assigned 210 participants (IG, n = 105; CG, n = 105), mostly with only a mild pain intensity but substantial pain disability. No statistically significant difference in depression severity between IG and CG was observed at the 9-week follow-up (β = -0.19, 95% CI -0.43 to 0.05). Explorative secondary depression (4/9) and pain-related (4/6) outcomes were in part significant (p < 0.05). Health-related quality of life was significantly higher in the IG. No differences were found in work capacity.

Conclusion: The results indicate that an IMI for patients with CBP and depression in a routine care setting has limited impact on depression. Benefits in pain and health-related outcomes suggest that an IMI might still be a useful measure to improve routine care.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000511881DOI Listing
December 2020

Stay Present with Your Phone: A Systematic Review and Standardized Rating of Mindfulness Apps in European App Stores.

Int J Behav Med 2020 Nov 20. Epub 2020 Nov 20.

Institute of Psychology, Department of Rehabilitation Psychology and Psychotherapy, Albert-Ludwigs-University of Freiburg, Engelbersger Str. 41, 79085, Freiburg, Germany.

Background: Mindfulness-based interventions show positive effects on physical and mental health. For a better integration of mindfulness techniques in daily life, the use of apps may be promising. However, only a few studies have examined the quality of mindfulness apps using a validated standardized instrument. This review aims to evaluate the content, quality, and privacy features of mindfulness-focused apps from European commercial app stores.

Methods: An automated search engine (webcrawler) was used to identify mindfulness-focused apps in the European Apple App- and Google Play store. Content, quality, and privacy features were evaluated by two independent reviewers using the Mobile Application Rating Scale (MARS). The MARS assesses the subscales engagement, functionality, aesthetics, and information quality.

Results: Out of 605 identified apps, 192 met the inclusion criteria. The overall quality was moderate (M = 3.66, SD = 0.48). Seven apps were tested in a randomized controlled trial (RCT). Most of the apps showed a lack of data security and no privacy policy. The five apps with the highest ratings are from a credible source, include a privacy policy, and are also based on standardized mindfulness and behavior change techniques.

Conclusions: The plethora of often low-quality apps in commercial app stores makes it difficult for users to identify a suitable app. Above that, the lack of scientific verification of effectiveness and shortcomings in privacy protection and security poses potential risks. So far, the potential of mindfulness-focused apps is not exploited in commercial app stores.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12529-020-09944-yDOI Listing
November 2020

Validation of the Mobile Application Rating Scale (MARS).

PLoS One 2020 2;15(11):e0241480. Epub 2020 Nov 2.

Department of Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, Institute of Psychology and Education, University Ulm, Ulm, Germany.

Background: Mobile health apps (MHA) have the potential to improve health care. The commercial MHA market is rapidly growing, but the content and quality of available MHA are unknown. Instruments for the assessment of the quality and content of MHA are highly needed. The Mobile Application Rating Scale (MARS) is one of the most widely used tools to evaluate the quality of MHA. Only few validation studies investigated its metric quality. No study has evaluated the construct validity and concurrent validity.

Objective: This study evaluates the construct validity, concurrent validity, reliability, and objectivity, of the MARS.

Methods: Data was pooled from 15 international app quality reviews to evaluate the metric properties of the MARS. The MARS measures app quality across four dimensions: engagement, functionality, aesthetics and information quality. Construct validity was evaluated by assessing related competing confirmatory models by confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Non-centrality (RMSEA), incremental (CFI, TLI) and residual (SRMR) fit indices were used to evaluate the goodness of fit. As a measure of concurrent validity, the correlations to another quality assessment tool (ENLIGHT) were investigated. Reliability was determined using Omega. Objectivity was assessed by intra-class correlation.

Results: In total, MARS ratings from 1,299 MHA covering 15 different health domains were included. Confirmatory factor analysis confirmed a bifactor model with a general factor and a factor for each dimension (RMSEA = 0.074, TLI = 0.922, CFI = 0.940, SRMR = 0.059). Reliability was good to excellent (Omega 0.79 to 0.93). Objectivity was high (ICC = 0.82). MARS correlated with ENLIGHT (ps<.05).

Conclusion: The metric evaluation of the MARS demonstrated its suitability for the quality assessment. As such, the MARS could be used to make the quality of MHA transparent to health care stakeholders and patients. Future studies could extend the present findings by investigating the re-test reliability and predictive validity of the MARS.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0241480PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7605637PMC
December 2020

Effectiveness of guided internet-based interventions in the indicated prevention of depression in green professions (PROD-A): Results of a pragmatic randomized controlled trial.

J Affect Disord 2021 01 15;278:658-671. Epub 2020 Sep 15.

Department of Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, Institute of Psychology and Education, University of Ulm, Ulm, Germany.

Background: Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) has a major impact on public health. Reduction of depression burden in general population is of greatest importance and might be achieved by implementation of depression prevention measures into routine care. We evaluate an online prevention measure as part of a national project aiming to reduce depression in the occupational group of green professions.

Methods: This two-armed pragmatic RCT (n = 360) evaluates the effectiveness of a tailored internet-based intervention (IMI) program compared to enhanced treatment as usual. The IMI program entailed access to one of six guided IMIs each focusing on different symptom areas (depressive mood with optional comorbid diabetes, perceived stress, insomnia, panic and agoraphobia and harmful alcohol consumption). Eligible were entrepreneurs, spouses, family members and pensioners in green professions with adequate insurance status and at least subthreshold depression (PHQ≥5). Primary outcome was depressive symptom severity (QIDS-SR16) at 9-weeks post-treatment (T1). Various secondary outcomes were assessed at T1.

Results: A small effect of depression reduction (d=-0.28, 95%-CI: -0.50 to -0.07) was found at T1 favouring the IMI program (β=-0.22, 95%-CI: -0.41 to -0.02, p=.033). Categorical analysis indicated a reduced risk of potential MDD with NNTB=28.11. Adherence to the IMI program at T1 was exceptionally low.

Limitations: Results are limited to green professions and representativeness might be restricted by self-selection of participants.

Conclusion: Depression burden in green professions can be reduced by this online prevention measure. Yet, short-term effectiveness is restricted by low adherence rates.

Trial Registration: German Clinical Trial Registration: DRKS00014000. Registered: 09 April 2018.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2020.09.066DOI Listing
January 2021

Clinical and cost-effectiveness of a guided internet-based Acceptance and Commitment Therapy to improve chronic pain-related disability in green professions (PACT-A): study protocol of a pragmatic randomised controlled trial.

BMJ Open 2020 09 3;10(9):e034271. Epub 2020 Sep 3.

Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, Ulm University, Ulm, Baden-Württemberg, Germany.

Introduction: Chronic pain is highly prevalent, associated with substantial personal and economic burdens, and increased risk for mental disorders. Individuals in green professions (agriculturists, horticulturists, foresters) show increased prevalence of chronic pain and other risk factors for mental disorders. Available healthcare services in rural areas are limited. Acceptance towards face-to-face therapy is low. Internet and mobile-based interventions (IMIs) based on Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) might be a promising alternative for this population and may enable effective treatment of chronic pain. The present study aims to evaluate the clinical and cost-effectiveness of an ACT-based IMI for chronic pain in green professions in comparison with enhanced treatment as usual (TAU+).

Methods And Analysis: A two-armed pragmatic randomised controlled trial will be conducted. Two hundred eighty-six participants will be randomised and allocated to either an intervention or TAU+ group. Entrepreneurs in green professions, collaborating spouses, family members and pensioners with chronic pain are eligible for inclusion. The intervention group receives an internet-based intervention based on ACT (7 modules, over 7 weeks) guided by a trained e-coach to support adherence (eg, by positive reinforcement). Primary outcome is pain interference (Multidimensional Pain Interference scale; MPI) at 9 weeks post-randomisation. Secondary outcomes are depression severity (Quick Inventory Depressive Symptomology; QIDS-SR16), incidence of major depressive disorder, quality of life (Assessment of Quality of Life; AQoL-8D) and possible side effects associated with the treatment (Inventory for the Assessment of Negative Effects of Psychotherapy; INEP). Psychological flexibility (Chronic Pain Acceptance Questionnaire, Committed Action Questionnaire, Cognitive Fusion Questionnaire) will be evaluated as a potential mediator of the treatment effect. Furthermore, mediation, moderation and health-economic analyses from a societal perspective will be performed. Outcomes will be measured using online self-report questionnaires at baseline, 9-week, 6-month, 12-month, 24-month and 36-month follow-ups.

Ethics And Dissemination: This study was approved by the Ethics Committee of the University of Ulm, Germany (file no. 453/17-FSt/Sta; 22 February 2018). Results will be submitted for publication in peer-reviewed journals and presented at conferences.

Trial Registration Number: German Clinical Trial Registration: DRKS00014619. Registered on 16 April 2018.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2019-034271DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7473633PMC
September 2020

Impact of an acceptance facilitating intervention on psychotherapists' acceptance of blended therapy.

PLoS One 2020 12;15(8):e0236995. Epub 2020 Aug 12.

Faculty of Behavioural and Movement Sciences, Clinical, Neuro- & Developmental Psychology, VU Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Blended therapy is a new approach combining advantages of face-to-face psychotherapy and Internet- and mobile-based interventions. Acceptance is a fundamental precondition for its implementation. The aim of this study was to assess 1) the acceptance of psychotherapists towards blended therapy, 2) the effectiveness of an acceptance facilitating intervention (AFI) on psychotherapists' acceptance towards blended therapy and 3) to identify potential effect moderators. Psychotherapists (N = 284) were randomly assigned to a control (CG) or an intervention group (IG). The IG received a short video showing an example of blended therapy, the CG an attention placebo video. Both groups received a reliable online questionnaire assessing acceptance, effort expectancy, performance expectancy, facilitating conditions, social influence and internet anxiety. Between group differences were examined using t-tests and Mann-Whitney tests. Exploratory analysis was conducted to identify moderators. Psychotherapists in CG showed mixed baseline acceptance towards blended therapy (low = 40%, moderate = 33%, high = 27%). IG showed significantly higher acceptance compared to CG (d = .27, pone-sided = .029; low = 24%, moderate = 47%, high = 30%). Bootstrapped confidence intervals were overlapping. Performance expectancy (d = .35), effort expectancy (d = .44) and facilitating conditions (d = .28) were significantly increased (p < .05). No effects on social influence and internet anxiety were found (p>.05). Exploratory analysis indicated psychodynamic oriented psychotherapists profiting particularly from the AFI. Blended therapy is a promising approach to improve healthcare. Psychotherapists show mixed acceptance, which might be improvable by AFIs, particularly in subpopulations of initially rather skeptical psychotherapists. Forthcoming studies should extend the present study by shifting focus from attitudes to the impact of different forms of AFIs on uptake.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0236995PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7423074PMC
October 2020

Further development in the assessment of psychological flexibility: validation of the German committed action questionnaire.

Health Qual Life Outcomes 2020 Aug 3;18(1):260. Epub 2020 Aug 3.

Institute of Sport and Sport Science, University Freiburg, Schwarzwaldstraße 175, 79117, Freiburg, Germany.

Background: Psychological flexibility is considered a fundamental aspect of health. It includes six interrelated facets: 1) cognitive defusion, 2) acceptance, 3) contact with the present moment, 4) self-as-context, 5) values, and 6) committed action. To gain further insight into psychological flexibility and its effects on health, reliable and valid instruments to assess all facets are needed. Committed action is one facet that is understudied. A long and short version of a validated measure (CAQ and CAQ-8) have been developed in English. Currently, there are no German versions of the CAQ. Aim of this study is to validate German-language versions of these in a chronic pain population.

Methods: The CAQ instructions and items were translated and evaluated in a chronic pain population (N = 181). Confirmatory factor analysis and Mokken scale analysis were conducted to evaluate the German questionnaires. Correlations with health outcomes, including quality of life (SF-12), physical and emotional functioning (MPI, BPI, PHQ-9, GAD-7), pain intensity, and with other facets of psychological flexibility (CPAQ, FAH-II) were investigated for convergent validity purposes. Scale reliability was assessed by the alpha, MS, lambda-2, LCRC, and omega coefficient.

Results: A bifactor model consisting of one general factor and two methodological factors emerged from the analysis. Criteria for reliability and validity were met. Medium to strong correlations to health outcomes and other facets of psychological flexibility were found. Results were similar to the original English version.

Conclusions: The present study presents a valid and reliable instrument to investigate committed action in German populations. Future studies could expand the present findings by evaluating the German CAQ versions in non-pain populations. The role of committed action and the wider psychological flexibility model in pain and other conditions deserves further investigation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12955-020-01497-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7397648PMC
August 2020

Effectiveness of a Guided Web-Based Self-help Intervention to Prevent Depression in Patients With Persistent Back Pain: The PROD-BP Randomized Clinical Trial.

JAMA Psychiatry 2020 10;77(10):1001-1011

Institute of Psychology and Education, Department of Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, University of Ulm, Ulm, Germany.

Importance: Depression is a frequent comorbid condition in patients with persistent back pain and is associated with substantial adverse consequences, including the risk of developing opioid use disorders. Shifting the focus from depression treatment to preventing depression might be a viable way to reduce the disease burden.

Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of a web-based self-help intervention to reduce the incidence of major depressive episode (MDE) in patients with persistent back pain.

Design, Setting, And Participants: Prevention of Depression in Back Pain Patients (PROD-BP) was a pragmatic, observer-blinded randomized clinical trial with a parallel design conducted in Germany. Eligible adults with a diagnosis of persistent back pain and subclinical depressive symptoms, but who were depression free, were recruited either on-site or after discharge from 82 orthopedic clinics between October 1, 2015, and July 31, 2017. All analyses were conducted according to the intention-to-treat principle from October 31, 2018, to April 30, 2019.

Interventions: The intervention group received an e-coach-guided, web-based self-help intervention that was based on cognitive behavioral therapy and tailored to the needs of patients with persistent back pain. The intervention included 6 obligatory modules and 3 optional modules to be completed by participants as well as feedback from e-coaches. Both the intervention and control groups had unrestricted access to treatment as usual.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Primary outcome was time to onset of an MDE over a 12-month period as assessed by blinded diagnostic raters using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-5. Secondary outcomes included depression severity, quality of life, pain intensity, pain-related disability, pain self-efficacy, work capacity, and user satisfaction assessed with a variety of instruments.

Results: A total of 295 participants (mean [SD] age, 52.8 [7.7] years; 184 women [62.4%]) were recruited and randomized to either the intervention group (n = 149) or control group (n = 146). The intervention reduced the risk of MDE onset by 52% (hazard ratio, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.28-0.81; P < .001). Twenty-one participants (14.1%) in the intervention group and 41 participants (28.1%) in the control group experienced an MDE over the 12-month period. The number needed to treat to prevent 1 new case of MDE was 2.84 (95% CI, 1.79-9.44).

Conclusions And Relevance: Results of this trial showed that among patients with persistent back pain, depression can be prevented by a guided web-based self-help intervention in addition to treatment as usual. This finding suggests that using a scalable digital approach to integrate psychological treatment into routine pain management is feasible.

Trial Registration: German Clinical Trials Register Identifier: DRKS00007960.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2020.1021DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7254449PMC
October 2020

Effectiveness of a Guided Web-Based Self-help Intervention to Prevent Depression in Patients With Persistent Back Pain: The PROD-BP Randomized Clinical Trial.

JAMA Psychiatry 2020 10;77(10):1001-1011

Institute of Psychology and Education, Department of Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, University of Ulm, Ulm, Germany.

Importance: Depression is a frequent comorbid condition in patients with persistent back pain and is associated with substantial adverse consequences, including the risk of developing opioid use disorders. Shifting the focus from depression treatment to preventing depression might be a viable way to reduce the disease burden.

Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of a web-based self-help intervention to reduce the incidence of major depressive episode (MDE) in patients with persistent back pain.

Design, Setting, And Participants: Prevention of Depression in Back Pain Patients (PROD-BP) was a pragmatic, observer-blinded randomized clinical trial with a parallel design conducted in Germany. Eligible adults with a diagnosis of persistent back pain and subclinical depressive symptoms, but who were depression free, were recruited either on-site or after discharge from 82 orthopedic clinics between October 1, 2015, and July 31, 2017. All analyses were conducted according to the intention-to-treat principle from October 31, 2018, to April 30, 2019.

Interventions: The intervention group received an e-coach-guided, web-based self-help intervention that was based on cognitive behavioral therapy and tailored to the needs of patients with persistent back pain. The intervention included 6 obligatory modules and 3 optional modules to be completed by participants as well as feedback from e-coaches. Both the intervention and control groups had unrestricted access to treatment as usual.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Primary outcome was time to onset of an MDE over a 12-month period as assessed by blinded diagnostic raters using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-5. Secondary outcomes included depression severity, quality of life, pain intensity, pain-related disability, pain self-efficacy, work capacity, and user satisfaction assessed with a variety of instruments.

Results: A total of 295 participants (mean [SD] age, 52.8 [7.7] years; 184 women [62.4%]) were recruited and randomized to either the intervention group (n = 149) or control group (n = 146). The intervention reduced the risk of MDE onset by 52% (hazard ratio, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.28-0.81; P < .001). Twenty-one participants (14.1%) in the intervention group and 41 participants (28.1%) in the control group experienced an MDE over the 12-month period. The number needed to treat to prevent 1 new case of MDE was 2.84 (95% CI, 1.79-9.44).

Conclusions And Relevance: Results of this trial showed that among patients with persistent back pain, depression can be prevented by a guided web-based self-help intervention in addition to treatment as usual. This finding suggests that using a scalable digital approach to integrate psychological treatment into routine pain management is feasible.

Trial Registration: German Clinical Trials Register Identifier: DRKS00007960.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2020.1021DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7254449PMC
October 2020

The German Version of the Mobile App Rating Scale (MARS-G): Development and Validation Study.

JMIR Mhealth Uhealth 2020 03 27;8(3):e14479. Epub 2020 Mar 27.

Department for Psychotherapy and Biopsychosocial Health, Danube University Krems, Krems, Austria.

Background: The number of mobile health apps (MHAs), which are developed to promote healthy behaviors, prevent disease onset, manage and cure diseases, or assist with rehabilitation measures, has exploded. App store star ratings and descriptions usually provide insufficient or even false information about app quality, although they are popular among end users. A rigorous systematic approach to establish and evaluate the quality of MHAs is urgently needed. The Mobile App Rating Scale (MARS) is an assessment tool that facilitates the objective and systematic evaluation of the quality of MHAs. However, a German MARS is currently not available.

Objective: The aim of this study was to translate and validate a German version of the MARS (MARS-G).

Methods: The original 19-item MARS was forward and backward translated twice, and the MARS-G was created. App description items were extended, and 104 MHAs were rated twice by eight independent bilingual researchers, using the MARS-G and MARS. The internal consistency, validity, and reliability of both scales were assessed. Mokken scale analysis was used to investigate the scalability of the overall scores.

Results: The retranslated scale showed excellent alignment with the original MARS. Additionally, the properties of the MARS-G were comparable to those of the original MARS. The internal consistency was good for all subscales (ie, omega ranged from 0.72 to 0.91). The correlation coefficients (r) between the dimensions of the MARS-G and MARS ranged from 0.93 to 0.98. The scalability of the MARS (H=0.50) and MARS-G (H=0.48) were good.

Conclusions: The MARS-G is a reliable and valid tool for experts and stakeholders to assess the quality of health apps in German-speaking populations. The overall score is a reliable quality indicator. However, further studies are needed to assess the factorial structure of the MARS and MARS-G.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/14479DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7148545PMC
March 2020

Three Decades of Internet- and Computer-Based Interventions for the Treatment of Depression: Protocol for a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

JMIR Res Protoc 2020 Mar 24;9(3):e14860. Epub 2020 Mar 24.

Department of Rehabilitation Psychology and Psychotherapy, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany.

Background: Depression is one of the leading causes of disability worldwide. Internet- and computer-based interventions (IBIs) have been shown to provide effective, scalable forms of treatment. More than 100 controlled trials and a growing number of meta-analyses published over the past 30 years have demonstrated the efficacy of IBIs in reducing symptoms in the short and long term. Despite the large body of research, no comprehensive review or meta-analysis has been conducted to date that evaluates how the effectiveness of IBIs has evolved over time.

Objective: This systematic review and meta-analysis aims to evaluate whether there has been a change in the effectiveness of IBIs on the treatment of depression over the past 30 years and to identify potential variables moderating the effect size.

Methods: A sensitive search strategy will be executed across the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PsycINFO. Data extraction and evaluation will be conducted by two independent researchers. Risk of bias will be assessed. A multilevel meta-regression model will be used to analyze the data and estimate effect size.

Results: The search was completed in mid-2019. We expect the results to be submitted for publication in early 2020.

Conclusions: The year 2020 will mark 30 years since the first paper was published on the use of IBIs for the treatment of depression. Despite the large and rapidly growing body of research in the field, evaluations of effectiveness to date are missing the temporal dimension. This review will address that gap and provide valuable analysis of how the effectiveness of interventions has evolved over the past three decades; which participant-, intervention-, and study-related variables moderate changes in effectiveness; and where research in the field may benefit from increased focus.

Trial Registration: PROSPERO CRD42019136554; https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/display_record.php?RecordID=136554.

International Registered Report Identifier (irrid): PRR1-10.2196/14860.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/14860DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7139420PMC
March 2020

'Help for trauma from the app stores?' A systematic review and standardised rating of apps for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD).

Eur J Psychotraumatol 2020 9;11(1):1701788. Epub 2020 Jan 9.

Institute of Psychology and Education, Department of Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, Ulm University, Ulm, Germany.

: Mobile health applications (apps) are considered to complement traditional psychological treatments for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). However, the use for clinical practice and quality of available apps is unknown. : To assess the general characteristics, therapeutic background, content, and quality of apps for PTSD and to examine their concordance with established PTSD treatment and self-help methods. : A web crawler systematically searched for apps targeting PTSD in the British Google Play and Apple iTunes stores. Two independent researchers rated the apps using the Mobile App Rating Scale (MARS). The content of high-quality apps was checked for concordance with psychological treatment and self-help methods extracted from current literature on PTSD treatment. : Out of 555 identified apps, 69 met the inclusion criteria. The overall app quality based on the MARS was medium (M = 3.36, SD = 0.65). Most apps (50.7%) were based on cognitive behavioural therapy and offered a wide range of content, including established psychological PTSD treatment methods such as processing of trauma-related emotions and beliefs, relaxation exercises, and psychoeducation. Notably, data protection and privacy standards were poor in most apps and only one app (1.4%) was scientifically evaluated in a randomized controlled trial. : High-quality apps based on established psychological treatment techniques for PTSD are available in commercial app stores. However, users are confronted with great difficulties in identifying useful high-quality apps and most apps lack an evidence-base. Commercial distribution channels do not exploit the potential of apps to complement the psychological treatment of PTSD.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/20008198.2019.1701788DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6968629PMC
January 2020

Clinical and cost-effectiveness of guided internet-based interventions in the indicated prevention of depression in green professions (PROD-A): study protocol of a 36-month follow-up pragmatic randomized controlled trial.

BMC Psychiatry 2019 09 9;19(1):278. Epub 2019 Sep 9.

Department of Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, Institute of Psychology and Education, University of Ulm, Ulm, Germany.

Background: People in green professions are exposed to a variety of risk factors, which could possibly enhance the development of depression. Amongst possible prevention approaches, internet- and mobile-based interventions (IMIs) have been shown to be effective and scalable. However, little is known about the effectiveness in green professions. The aim of the present study is to examine the (cost-)effectiveness of a tailored IMI program for reducing depressive symptoms and preventing the onset of clinical depression compared to enhanced treatment as usual (TAU+).

Methods: A pragmatic randomized controlled trial (RCT) will be conducted to evaluate a tailored and therapeutically guided preventive IMI program in comparison to TAU+ with follow-ups at post-treatment (9 weeks), 6-, 12-, 24-, and 36-months. Entrepreneurs in green professions, collaborating spouses, family members and pensioners (N = 360) with sufficient insurance status and at least subthreshold depression (PHQ-9 ≥ 5) are eligible for inclusion. Primary outcome is depressive symptom severity (QIDS-SR16). Secondary outcomes include incidence of depression (QIDS-SR16), quality of life (AQoL-8D) and negative treatment effects (INEP). A health-economic evaluation will be conducted from a societal perspective. The IMI program is provided by psychologists of an external service company and consists of six guided IMIs (6-8 modules, duration: 6-8 weeks) targeting different symptoms (depressive mood, depressive mood with comorbid diabetes, perceived stress, insomnia, panic and agoraphobic symptoms or harmful alcohol use). Intervention choice depends on a screening of participants' symptoms and individual preferences. The intervention phase is followed by a 12-months consolidating phase with monthly contact to the e-coach.

Discussion: This is the first pragmatic RCT investigating long-term effectiveness of a tailored guided IMI program for depression prevention in green professions. The present trial builds on a large-scale strategy for depression prevention in green professions. The intended implementation of the IMI program with a nationwide rollout has the potential to reduce overall depression burden and associated health care costs in case of given effectiveness.

Trial Registration: German Clinical Trial Registration: DRKS00014000 . Registered on 09 April 2018.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12888-019-2244-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6734248PMC
September 2019