Publications by authors named "Yanjun Zhang"

606 Publications

An IoT-Based Breeding Egg Identification and Coding System for Selection of High-Quality Breeding Geese.

Animals (Basel) 2022 Jun 14;12(12). Epub 2022 Jun 14.

College of Mechanical Engineering, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225127, China.

The selection of breeding geese requires the recording of egg production information to correspond to the identity of the breeding geese. However, due to the special physiological characteristics of breeding geese, manual recording in practice can affect the egg-laying performance of breeding geese and can also lead to problems of missing and confusing individual breeding goose data with the number of eggs laid by the geese. For contactless recording of breeding goose identity and egg production information for high-quality breeding, this paper proposes an Internet of things (IoT)-based breeding egg identification and coding method for the selection of high-quality breeding geese. At the sensing level, we deployed a radiofrequency identification (RFID)-based sensor. Each breeding goose wore a foot ring RFID tag on its leg, and the individual information was read by foot ring RFID readers placed at the bottom of the devices. Individual information was uploaded to the cloud server for database management through structured query language (MySQL). The target detection modules were mounted on top of the devices, and the breeding geese and eggs were detected in the delivery rooms by an improved single-shot multi-box detector (SSD) target detection algorithm. The egg body limit transmission device and contactless coding device were activated only in the case of breeding eggs, and the breeding goose information was printed on the egg bodies in the form of quick response codes (QR codes), which enabled the breeding egg information to correspond with the breeding goose information. An evaluative experiment was performed using a system for the selection of high-quality breeding geese, with web cameras and a cloud monitoring platform. The breeding geese were allowed 14 days to become accustomed to the experimental environment before monitoring began. The evaluative experiment results showed that the pass rate of egg body coding reached 98.25%, the improved SSD algorithm was 8.65% more accurate and 62.6 ms faster than traditional SSD, and the accuracy rate corresponding to the individual information of the breeding geese and the surface information of the goose eggs was 97.8%. The experimental results met the requirements of accurate marking of individual information of breeding geese, which can provide technical support for the selection of high-quality breeding geese.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani12121545DOI Listing
June 2022

Associations of serum cystatin C and its change with new-onset cardiovascular disease in Chinese general population.

Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 2022 May 29. Epub 2022 May 29.

Division of Nephrology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, National Clinical Research Center for Kidney Disease, State Key Laboratory of Organ Failure Research, Guangdong Provincial Institute of Nephrology, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Renal Failure Research, Guangzhou Regenerative Medicine and Health Guangdong Laboratory, Guangzhou 510515, China. Electronic address:

Background And Aims: The relation of serum cystatin C with new-onset cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains uncertain. We aimed to evaluate the prospective associations of serum cystatin C and its change with new-onset CVD in Chinese general population.

Methods And Results: A total of 7064 participants free of CVD at baseline were enrolled from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study. The change in serum cystatin C was calculated as cystatin C concentration at 2015 wave minus that at baseline (2011 wave). The primary outcome was new-onset CVD, defined as self-reported physician-diagnosed heart disease, stroke, or both during follow-up. The secondary outcomes were new-onset heart disease, and new-onset stroke. During a median follow-up duration of 7.0 years, a total of 1116 (15.8%) subjects developed new-onset CVD. Overall, after the adjustments for eGFR and other important covariates, there was a positive association between serum cystatin C and new-onset CVD (per SD mg/L increment; adjusted HR, 1.13; 95%CI: 1.08,1.18). When cystatin C was assessed as quintiles, the adjusted HRs for participants in the second, third, fourth and fifth quintiles were 1.15 (95%CI: 0.93, 1.41), 1.37 (95%CI: 1.11, 1.68), 1.47 (95%CI: 1.19, 1.81), and 2.03 (95%CI: 1.60, 2.56), respectively, compared with those in quintile 1 (P for trend<0.001). Furthermore, there was a positive association between the increase in cystatin C concentration and the subsequent new-onset CVD (per SD mg/L increment; adjusted HR, 1.14; 95%CI: 1.02,1.27).

Conclusion: Both serum cystatin C and its increase were positively associated with new-onset CVD among Chinese general population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.numecd.2022.05.016DOI Listing
May 2022

HPLC-PDA-Guided isolation of glucosyloxybenzyl 2-isobutylmalates from the pseudobulbs of Bletilla striata with neuroprotective and antimicrobial activities.

Phytochemistry 2022 Jun 17;201:113287. Epub 2022 Jun 17.

Key Laboratory of Plant Germplasm Enhancement and Specialty Agriculture, Wuhan Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, 430074, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Twelve undescribed glucosyloxybenzyl 2-isobutylmalates, bletistrosides A-L were obtained from the pseudobulbs of Bletilla striata under the guidance of HPLC-PDA. Their structures and absolute configurations were determined by the spectroscopic analyses, along with acidic hydrolysis and alkaline hydrolysis experiments. The neuroprotective effects and the antimicrobial activities of selective compounds were evaluated. Bletistroside G exhibited potential neuroprotective effect against glutamate-induced PC12 cell injury, with improving cell viabilities by 11.24% compared to the model group at 10 μM. Bletistrosides A, B, G, and L showed weak antimicrobial activities against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, however, bletistroside G showed obviously selective inhibition against P. aeruginosa.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phytochem.2022.113287DOI Listing
June 2022

Ultrasound-guided erector spinae plane block improve opioid-sparing perioperative analgesia in pediatric patients undergoing thoracoscopic lung lesion resection: a prospective randomized controlled trial.

Transl Pediatr 2022 May;11(5):706-714

Department of Anesthesiology, Tianjin Children's Hospital, Tianjin, China.

Background: Pediatric patients often experience severe pain after thoracic surgery, especially in the early postoperative period. Recently, the focus has been on regional analgesia with the introduction of ultrasound-guided erector spinae plane blocks. We assumed that preoperative erector spinae plane block (ESPB) in children undergoing video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) would reduce the consumption of perioperative opioids.

Methods: This randomized, double-blind study enrolled 60 children aged 1-3 years who underwent thoracoscopic lung lesion resection. The patients were enrolled in the study and randomly divided into two groups. The general anesthesia (GA) group received GA alone, and the GA + ESPB group received ESPB. The consumptions of remifentanil and sufentanil were recorded, and the children's face, legs, activity, cry, consolability (FLACC) scores were assessed after awakening. The time to first rescue analgesia, length of hospital stay, parental satisfaction and adverse events were also recorded.

Results: The consumptions of remifentanil and sufentanil in the GA + ESPB group were significantly lower than those in the GA group, mean difference [95% confidence interval (CI)]: -26.57 (-31.98 to -21.17) and -0.21 (-0.27 to -0.17), respectively, (both P<0.001); while the time to first rescue analgesia and parental satisfaction scores were significantly longer and higher, respectively, in the GA + ESPB group than those in the GA group, mean difference (95% CI): 2.37 (1.77 to 2.97) and 2.47 (1.79 to 3.15), respectively, (both P<0.001). The FLACC scores in the GA + ESPB group were significantly lower than those in the GA group 1 to 24 hours postoperatively (P=0.023 at 1 h, and P<0.001 at 3 h, 6 h, 12 h, 18 h, 24 h), but not at immediate admission to the post-anesthesia care unit (PACU) (P=0.189 at 0 h). The GA + ESPB group had significantly lower incidence rates of postoperative nausea and vomiting (P=0.037 and P=0.020).

Conclusions: In pediatric Thoracoscopic surgery, the results of this study confirm our hypothesis that ESPB decreases the consumptions of intraoperative remifentanil and postoperative sufentanil in 24 hours and demonstrates better postoperative analgesia compared with a control group.

Trial Registration: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry ChiCTR2200056166.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/tp-22-118DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9173882PMC
May 2022

Identification of the Key Genes Associated with Different Hair Types in the Inner Mongolia Cashmere Goat.

Animals (Basel) 2022 Jun 4;12(11). Epub 2022 Jun 4.

College of Animal Science, Inner Mongolia Agricultural University, Hohhot 010018, China.

The Inner Mongolia cashmere goat is an excellent local breed in China. According to the characteristics of wool quilts, the Inner Mongolia cashmere goat can be divided into three types: a long-hair type (hair length of >22 cm), a short-hair type (hair length of ≤13 cm), and an intermediate type (hair length of >13 cm and ≤22 cm). It is found that hair length has a certain reference value for the indirect selection of other important economic traits of cashmere. In order to explore the molecular mechanisms and related regulatory genes of the different hair types, a weighted gene coexpression network analysis (WGCNA) was carried out on the gene expression data and phenotypic data of 12-month-old Inner Mongolia cashmere goats with a long-hair type (LHG) and a short-hair type (SHG) to explore the coexpression modules related to different coat types and nine candidate genes, and detect the relative expression of key candidate genes. The results showed that the WGCNA divided these genes into 19 coexpression modules and found that there was a strong correlation between one module and different hair types. The expression trends of this module's genes were different in the two hair types, with high expression in the LHG and low expression in the SHG. GO functions are mainly concentrated in cellular components, including intermediate filaments (GO:0005882), intermediate filament cytoskeletons (GO:0045111), and cytoskeletal parts (GO:0044430). The KEGG pathway is mainly enriched in arginine as well as proline metabolism (chx00330) and the MAPK signaling pathway (chx04010). The candidate genes of the different hair types, including the , , , , , , , , and genes, were screened. Through qRT-PCR, it was found that there were significant differences in these candidate genes between the two hair types, and most of them had a significant positive correlation with hair length. It was preliminarily inferred that these candidate genes could regulate the different hair types of cashmere goats and provide molecular markers for hair growth.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani12111456DOI Listing
June 2022

SMYD5 catalyzes histone H3 lysine 36 trimethylation at promoters.

Nat Commun 2022 Jun 9;13(1):3190. Epub 2022 Jun 9.

Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory for Cancer Molecular Cell Biology, Life Sciences Institute, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, 310058, China.

Histone marks, carriers of epigenetic information, regulate gene expression. In mammalian cells, H3K36me3 is mainly catalyzed by SETD2 at gene body regions. Here, we find that in addition to gene body regions, H3K36me3 is enriched at promoters in primary cells. Through screening, we identify SMYD5, which is recruited to chromatin by RNA polymerase II, as a methyltransferase catalyzing H3K36me3 at promoters. The enzymatic activity of SMYD5 is dependent on its C-terminal glutamic acid-rich domain. Overexpression of full-length Smyd5, but not the C-terminal domain-truncated Smyd5, restores H3K36me3 at promoters in Smyd5 knockout cells. Furthermore, elevated Smyd5 expression contributes to tumorigenesis in liver hepatocellular carcinoma. Together, our findings identify SMYD5 as the H3K36me3 methyltransferase at promoters that regulates gene expression, providing insights into the localization and function of H3K36me3.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-022-30940-1DOI Listing
June 2022

Efficient removal of Cs(I) from water using a novel Prussian blue and graphene oxide modified PVDF membrane: Preparation, characterization, and mechanism.

Sci Total Environ 2022 Sep 6;838(Pt 4):156530. Epub 2022 Jun 6.

State Key Laboratory of Water Environment Simulation, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, No.19, Xinjiekouwai Street, Haidian District, Beijing 100875, PR China. Electronic address:

The Prussian blue (PB) blending membranes are promising candidates for the removal of trace radionuclide Cs. Constructing a membrane with high flux and selectivity are challenging in its practical application. Here, a novel polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF)-PB-graphene oxide (GO) modified membrane was fabricated via phase inversion for trace radionuclide cesium (Cs) removal from water. Attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to analyze chemical composition and morphology of the membrane, and the properties in terms of water flux and Cs removal were studied under different PB dosage, pH and co-existing ions conditions. It was observed that the addition of GO improved the dispersion of PB, and the PVDF-PB-GO membrane presented the highest Cs removal efficiency (99.6 %) and water flux (1638.2 LMH/bar) at pH = 7 with 0.1 wt% GO and 5 wt% PB. In addition, Langmuir and pseudo-second-order kinetics models fitted well for Cs adsorption by the PVDF-PB-GO membrane, illustrating that the Cs was removed via chemical adsorption dominated by Fe(CN) defect sites of PB and the oxygen groups of GO. Furthermore, the membrane showed a significant selectivity and reusability towards trace radioactive cesium, even in the presence of excess co-existing ions and in real water, which strongly verified that the modified membrane had application potential.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2022.156530DOI Listing
September 2022

Herb Formula (GCis) Prevents Pulmonary Infection Secondary to Intracerebral Hemorrhage by Enhancing Peripheral Immunity and Intestinal Mucosal Immune Barrier.

Front Pharmacol 2022 23;13:888684. Epub 2022 May 23.

Tianjin State Key Laboratory of Modern Chinese Medicine, Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tianjin, China.

Lung infection is a common complication induced by stroke and seriously affects the prognosis and life quality of patients. However, effective therapeutic strategies are still lacking. In the present study, the herb formula GCis was confirmed to prevent pulmonary infection induced by intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). The animal model of lung infection induced by ICH, GCis (Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma, Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata, and Cistanches Herba) was orally administrated every day for 7 days. Lung microbial biomass and pathological results showed that the GCis formula pretreatment significantly reduced lung bacterial biomass and alleviated pathological abnormalities. These results indicated that the GCis formula has a clear pharmacological effect on preventing lung infection induced by ICH. Immunosuppression induced by ICH seemed to be the main mechanism of lung infection. Our results showed that the spleen and thymus indexes, WBC, and LY% contents were significantly increased in the GCis formula group. Moreover, bone marrow cells were further analyzed by transcriptome sequencing, and GO and KEGG enrichment analysis results showed that immune function was the main pathway enriched by differential genes after GCis formula intervention. More importantly, our results showed that GCis pretreatment had no significant effect on the mRNA expression of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α in the brain. These results indicated that the GCis formula could enhance immunity after ICH. The intestinal barrier function was further investigated in the present study, considering the origin of the source of infection. Our results showed that the mRNA expressions of intestinal ZO-1, SIgA, and MUC2 were significantly increased, villi structure was intact, inflammatory cell infiltration was reduced, and goblet cell number was increased after GCis formula treatment. These results suggest that the GCis formula can enhance the intestinal mucosal immune barrier. This study provides a herb formula (GCis) that could enhance peripheral immunity and intestinal mucosal immune barrier to prevent pulmonary infection induced by ICH. It would be beneficial in the prevention of severe clinical infections.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2022.888684DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9168277PMC
May 2022

Untying Moral Efficacy and Meaningfulness in Promoting Students' Social Entrepreneurial Intentions: The Mediating Role of Positive Reciprocity.

Front Psychol 2022 9;13:915725. Epub 2022 May 9.

College of Chinese Language and Culture, Jinan University, Guangzhou, China.

This study chooses to describe social entrepreneurship as a social mission that enables business students to identify opportunities to launch start-ups and social enterprises by understanding the nature of social responsibility and fostering a reciprocal attitude to solve social issues. We collected data on students from different business schools in mainland China through a structured questionnaire ( = 326) and analyzed them through structural equation modeling (SEM). The results show that moral efficacy and meaningfulness are positively related to positive reciprocity, which leads to students' social entrepreneurial intentions. The study concluded that potential social entrepreneurs should take ethical courses as part of their training to help them develop a responsible mentality and social entrepreneurial aspirations. On this basis, the practical and theoretical significance of this study is proposed, and its limitations and future development directions are pointed out.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2022.915725DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9125317PMC
May 2022

Bidirectional relations between depression symptoms and chronic kidney disease.

J Affect Disord 2022 08 21;311:224-230. Epub 2022 May 21.

Division of Nephrology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University; National Clinical Research Center for Kidney Disease; State Key Laboratory of Organ Failure Research; Guangdong Provincial Institute of Nephrology; Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Renal Failure Research, Guangzhou 510515, China. Electronic address:

Background: Depression and chronic kidney disease (CKD) often coexist. However, both the relations of depression with CKD development and CKD with depression risk were still elusive. We aimed to investigate the bidirectional relations between renal function and depression in a cohort of young and middle-aged adults.

Methods: Using data from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study, the analysis of depressive symptoms and incident CKD (analysis 1) was performed in 3,731 participants without CKD, and the analysis of renal function and incident depression (analysis 2) was performed in 2,994 participants without depression. Depressive symptoms were measured using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (-CES-D), and depression was defined as CES-D scores ≥16 or self-reported history of depression or antidepressant medication use. CKD was defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 ml/min/1.73 m or urinary albumin to creatinine ratio ≥30 mg/g.

Results: In analysis 1, 485 participants developed incident CKD during 61,202 person-years of follow-up, and CES-D scores (≥16 vs. <16; adjusted HR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.04 to 1.59) were significant positive associated with incident CKD. In analysis 2, 1,029 participants developed incident depression during 42,927 person-years of follow-up, and CKD was significantly associated with a 36% increased risk of incident depression compared to non-CKD (HR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.05 to 1.76).

Limitations: Depressive symptoms were only assessed using CES-D score, which is not the gold standard for the clinical diagnosis of depression.

Conclusions: This prospective cohort study monitored over 20 years indicated a bidirectional association between depression and CKD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2022.05.104DOI Listing
August 2022

Influence of Underground Mining Direction Based on Particle Flow on Deformation and Failure of Loess Gully Area.

Comput Intell Neurosci 2022 13;2022:1698220. Epub 2022 May 13.

China Energy Engineering Group Shanxi Electric Power Engineering Co., Ltd., Taiyuan 030024, China.

Due to unique landform and lithological features of the loess gully area, the geological disasters caused by coal mining have become more complex. Moreover, the advancing direction of the working face has an important influence on the deformation of the slope on both sides of the gully. In this paper, combined with the specific conditions of a coal mine working face in western China, we use the method of particle flow numerical simulation and theoretical analysis to examine and observe the deformation, as well as characteristics of failures in the loess gully area under different mining directions of the working face. The deformation process of the gully area can be obtained by combining the numerical simulation results. According to different mining directions of the working face, the failure mode of mining in the loess gully area was divided into the back slope and along slope advancing failure modes. Through empirical evaluation, our investigation demonstrates that the bottom of the gully was damaged seriously by both along slope mining and back slope mining. Albeit the influence of coal seam excavation on the slope surface was relatively small; however, it is greater on the flat ground of the upper slope. Under the same mining conditions, the advancing direction of the working face affected the horizontal movement of the loess gully area but had less effect on the subsidence. Furthermore, we observed that the failure mode of the mining slope is highly correlated with the mining direction and relative position of the working face. The results obtained from this research can provide useful information for deformation and failure prediction, working face mining method, and geological disaster assessment in the loess gully area.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2022/1698220DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9122680PMC
May 2022

The complete chloroplast genome of (Berberidaceae).

Mitochondrial DNA B Resour 2022 16;7(5):870-872. Epub 2022 May 16.

Key Laboratory of Plant Germplasm Enhancement and Specialty Agriculture, Wuhan Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, People's Republic of China.

S. Z. He & Y. Y. Wang 2017, one of the rare unifoliolate species in the genus of Berberidaceae, is distributed in the Guizhou province of China. In present research, we sequenced the complete chloroplast genome of with Illumina sequencing technology. The whole genome was 157,264 bp in length, which consisted of a large single-copy region (LSC, 88,588 bp), a small single-copy region (SSC, 17,036 bp), and a pair of inverted repeat regions (IRa and IRb, 25,820 bp). A total of 112 unique genes were successfully annotated, consisting of 78 protein-encoding genes, 30 rRNA, and four tRNA. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that is closely related to .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23802359.2022.2071650DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9116252PMC
May 2022

Field Detection of Highly Oxygenated Organic Molecules in Shanghai by Chemical Ionization-Orbitrap.

Environ Sci Technol 2022 May 20. Epub 2022 May 20.

Univ. Lyon, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, CNRS, IRCELYON, 69626 Villeurbanne, France.

Secondary organic aerosol, formed through atmospheric oxidation processes, plays an important role in affecting climate and human health. In this study, we conducted a comprehensive campaign in the megacity of Shanghai during the 2019 International Import Expo (EXPO), with the first deployment of a chemical ionization─Orbitrap mass spectrometer for ambient measurements. With the ultrahigh mass resolving power of the Orbitrap mass analyzer (up to 140,000 Th/Th) and capability in dealing with massive spectral data sets by positive matrix factorization, we were able to identify the major gas-phase oxidation processes leading to the formation of oxygenated organic molecules (OOM) in Shanghai. Nine main factors from three independent sub-range analysis were identified. More than 90% of OOM are of anthropogenic origin and >60% are nitrogen-containing molecules, mainly dominated by the RO + NO and/or NO chemistry. The emission control during the EXPO showed that even though the restriction was effectual in significantly lowering the primary pollutants (20-70% decrease), the secondary oxidation products responded less effectively (14% decrease), or even increased (50 to >200%) due to the enhancement of ozone and the lowered condensation sink, indicating the importance of a stricter multi-pollutant coordinated strategy in primary and secondary pollution mitigation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.1c08346DOI Listing
May 2022

Domestic physical activity and new-onset hypertension: A nationwide cohort study in China.

Am J Med 2022 May 15. Epub 2022 May 15.

Division of Nephrology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University; National Clinical Research Center for Kidney Disease; State Key Laboratory of Organ Failure Research; Guangdong Provincial Institute of Nephrology, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Renal Failure Research, Guangzhou Regenerative Medicine and Health Guangdong Laboratory; Guangdong Provincial Clinical Research Center for Kidney Disease, Guangzhou, China; Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui, China; Institute of Biomedicine, Anhui Medical University, Hefei 230032, China. Electronic address:

Background: The association between domestic physical activity and the risk of hypertension remains uncertain. We aimed to evaluate the prospective relation of domestic physical activity and new-onset hypertension among Chinese males and females.

Methods: A total of 9254 adults who were free of hypertension at baseline were enrolled from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS). Data on domestic physical activity were obtained by using self-reported questionnaires, and calculated as metabolic equivalent task (MET)-hours/week. MET-hours/week may account for both intensity and time spent on activities. The study outcome was new-onset hypertension, defined as systolic blood pressure ≥140mmHg or diastolic blood pressure ≥90mmHg or diagnosed by physician or under antihypertensive treatment during the follow-up.

Results: During a median of 8.0 years (81,996 person-years) of follow-up, a total of 2892 participants developed hypertension. Overall, there were reversed J-shaped associations between the domestic physical activity and new-onset hypertension in both males and females (both P values for nonlinearity<0.001). Consistently, when domestic physical activity was assessed as categories (<10, 10-<20, 20-<30, 30-<40, 40-<50, 50-<60, 60-<70, 70-<80, 80-<90, 90-<100, ≥100 MET-hours/week), compared with those with domestic physical activity <10 MET-hours/week, the lower and similar risks of new-onset hypertension were found in participants with domestic physical activity 30-<90 MET-hours/week in both males and females.

Conclusion: Moderate domestic physical activity was associated with a lower risk of new-onset hypertension among both males and females.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjmed.2022.04.023DOI Listing
May 2022

Analysis of the Protective Efficacy of Approved COVID-19 Vaccines Against Various Mutants.

Front Immunol 2022 28;13:804945. Epub 2022 Apr 28.

Shulan International Medical College, Zhejiang Shuren University, Hangzhou, China.

The outbreak of COVID-19 (caused by SARS-CoV-2) has posed a significant threat to global public health security because of its high pathogenicity and infectivity. To date, the pathogenic mechanism of this novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) is still unclear, and there is no effective treatment. As one of the most effective strategies to prevent viral infection, vaccines have become a research hotspot. Based on the current understanding of SARS-CoV-2, the research and development of its vaccines cover almost all forms of current vaccine research, including inactivated vaccines, recombinant protein vaccines, viral vector vaccines, and nucleic acid vaccines. Moreover, with the spread of the new mutant virus, it is necessary to evaluate the protection rate of previous administered vaccines. This article reviews the candidate targets, vaccine types, research and development status, progress of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines, and the effectiveness of neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 mutants (B.1.1.7, B.1.351, P.1, B.1.617.2, and B.1.1.529) induced by these vaccines, to provide a reference for follow-up research and prevention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2022.804945DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9095899PMC
May 2022

Riluzole Promotes Neurite Growth in Rats after Spinal Cord Injury through the GSK-3β/CRMP-2 Pathway.

Biol Pharm Bull 2022 ;45(5):569-575

Department of Orthopedics, Beijing Luhe Hospital, Capital Medical University.

Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a disastrous event that often leads to permanent neurological deficits involving motor, sensory, and autonomic dysfunctions in patients. Accumulating research has demonstrated that riluzole may play crucial roles in the process of spinal tissue repair, but the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. This study verified the effectiveness of riluzole and speculated that a riluzole-afforded protection mechanism may be associated with the glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta (GSK-3β)/collapsin response mediator protein-2 (CRMP-2) pathway in rats after spinal cord injury. Here, a modified Allen's weight dropping model was generated and riluzole at 4 mg/kg was injected intraperitoneally after surgery and twice a day for 7 consecutive days. At 6 weeks after SCI, we found that riluzole treatment reduced the central cavity size of the spinal cord and improved neurological functions. Meanwhile, riluzole-treated rats exhibited shorter latency and larger amplitude in motor evoked potentials and somatosensory evoked potentials, compared with vehicle-treated rats. Furthermore, Western blotting and immunofluorescence data revealed that the expression levels of GSK-3β and phosphorylated-GSK-3β were lower in riluzole-treated SCI rats compared with vehicle-treated rats. We next detected the expression CRMP-2 and phosphorylated CRMP-2 and found that the expression of CRMP-2 showed no difference between the riluzole-treated and vehicle-treated groups; however, administration of riluzole downregulated phosphorylated CRMP-2 expression. The current findings suggest that after SCI, administration of riluzole promotes neurological functional restoration, which may be associated, in part, with its activation of the GSK-3β/CRMP-2 signaling pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1248/bpb.b21-00693DOI Listing
May 2022

Screening of microRNA and mRNA related to secondary hair follicle morphogenesis and development and functional analysis in cashmere goats.

Funct Integr Genomics 2022 Apr 29. Epub 2022 Apr 29.

College of Animal Science, Inner Mongolia Agricultural University, Hohhot, Inner Mongolia, 010018, China.

microRNA (miRNA) is a type of endogenous short-chain non-coding RNA with regulatory function found in eukaryotes, which is involved in the regulation of a variety of cellular and biological processes. However, the research on the development of cashmere goat secondary hair follicles is still relatively scarce. In this study, small RNA libraries and mRNA libraries of 45 days, 55 days, 65 days, and 75 days of fetal skin of cashmere goats were constructed, and the constructed libraries were sequenced using Illumina Hiseq4000, and the expression profiles of miRNA and mRNA in cashmere goat fetal skin were obtained. The differentially expressed miRNAs and mRNAs in six control groups were identified and the qRT-PCR experiment shows that the sequencing results are accurate. Sixty-six miRNAs related to secondary hair follicle development were screened, and used TargetScan and miRanda to predict 33 highly expressed miRNA target genes. At the same time, 664 mRNAs related to the development of secondary hair follicles were screened, and GO enrichment and KEGG pathway analysis were performed. It was found that some miRNA target genes were consistent with the screening results of mRNAs related to secondary hair follicle development and were enriched in Notch signaling pathway, TGF-β signaling pathway. Therefore, miR-145-5p-DLL4, miR-27b-3p-DLL4, miR-30e-5p-DLL4, miR-193b-3p-TGF-β1, miR-181b-5p-NOTCH2, and miR-103-3p-NOTCH2 regulatory network related to the development of secondary hair follicles were constructed and the results of dual-luciferase reporter gene assay indicated that there is a targeted relationship between chi-miR-30e-5p and DLL4, which will provide a basis for molecular mechanism of miRNA-mRNA in the development of the hair follicles in cashmere goats.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10142-022-00842-yDOI Listing
April 2022

Folate intake and incident chronic kidney disease: a 30-y follow-up study from young adulthood to midlife.

Am J Clin Nutr 2022 Apr 23. Epub 2022 Apr 23.

Division of Nephrology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University; National Clinical Research Center for Kidney Disease; State Key Laboratory of Organ Failure Research; Guangdong Provincial Institute of Nephrology, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Renal Failure Research, Guangzhou Regenerative Medicine and Health Guangdong Laboratory, Guangzhou 510515, China.

Background: The relation of long-term dietary folate intake with incident chronic kidney disease (CKD) remains uncertain.

Objective: We aimed to investigate the association between dietary folate intake and incident CKD in a 30-y follow-up study from young adulthood to midlife.

Methods: A total of 4038 American adults aged 18-30 years and without reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) were enrolled in 1985-1986 and monitored until 2015-2016 in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study. Diet was assessed by a validated dietary-history questionnaire at baseline, in 1992-1993, and in 2005-2006. The primary outcome was incident CKD, defined as an eGFR <60mL/min per 1.73 m2 or urinary albumin to creatinine ratio (ACR) ≥30mg/g. The secondary outcomes included: (1) incident decreased eGFR, defined as an eGFR <60mL/min/1.73 m2, and (2) incident albuminuria, defined as an ACR ≥30mg/g.

Results: During the follow-up, 642 (15.9%) participants developed CKD. Overall, there was a significant L-shaped relation of dietary folate with incident CKD after adjustment for potential confounders. Compared with the lowest quintile of total folate intake, the multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (95%CI) in quintile 2-5 were 0.69(0.56, 0.85), 0.35(0.27, 0.45), 0.34(0.26, 0.45), and 0.39(0.30, 0.51), respectively. Similar results were found for the secondary outcomes. Moreover, the L-shaped association was confirmed in a subset of the cohort (n=1462) with serum folate measured at baseline, and in 1992 and 2000.

Conclusions: Higher folate intake in young adulthood was longitudinally associated with a lower incidence of CKD later in life. Additional studies are warranted to establish the causal inference.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqac109DOI Listing
April 2022

Progress on SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro Inhibitors: Inspiration from SARS-CoV 3CLpro Peptidomimetics and Small-Molecule Anti-Inflammatory Compounds.

Drug Des Devel Ther 2022 8;16:1067-1082. Epub 2022 Apr 8.

Shulan International Medical College, Zhejiang Shuren University, Hangzhou, People's Republic of China.

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) currently poses a threat to human health. 3C-like proteinase (3CLpro) plays an important role in the viral life cycle. Hence, it is considered an attractive antiviral target protein. Whole-genome sequencing showed that the sequence homology between SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro and SARS-CoV 3CLpro is 96.08%, with high similarity in the substrate-binding region. Thus, assessing peptidomimetic inhibitors of SARS-CoV 3CLpro could accelerate the development of peptidomimetic inhibitors for SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro. Accordingly, we herein discuss progress on SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro peptidomimetic inhibitors. Inflammation plays a major role in the pathophysiological process of COVID-19. Small-molecule compounds targeting 3CLpro with both antiviral and anti-inflammatory effects are also briefly discussed in this paper.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/DDDT.S359009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9015912PMC
April 2022

Spectrum Analysis for Fully Connected Neural Networks.

IEEE Trans Neural Netw Learn Syst 2022 Apr 18;PP. Epub 2022 Apr 18.

This article studies the meaning of parameters of fully connected neural networks with single hidden layer from the perspective of spectrum. Under the constraints of numerical range, the corresponding relationship between parameters and the spectrum of network function can be established by the Fourier series coefficients of the activation function, which is truncated and periodically extended. This work is substantiated on the Mixed National Institute of Standards and Technology (MNIST) handwritten dataset and two illustrative examples with certain spectra. The simulations complete the conversion between spectrum and parameters with high precision and give the significance of hidden nodes to the spectrum of network function. Some algorithms derived from these properties, such as the parameter initialization method using spectrum and the pruning method by sorting amplification weights, are also presented to introduce how spectrum analysis affects neural network decision-making. Thus, spectrum analysis has great potential in network interpretation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TNNLS.2022.3164875DOI Listing
April 2022

Octenyl Succinic Acid Starch-Stabilized Vanilla Essential Oil Pickering Emulsion: Preparation, Characterization, Antioxidant Activity, and Storage Stability.

Foods 2022 Mar 29;11(7). Epub 2022 Mar 29.

Spice and Beverage Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Tropical Agricultural Sciences, Wanning 571533, China.

Applications for vanilla essential oil extracted from vanilla pods have been limited since the effective components of vanilla could be easily influenced by environmental factors, such as temperature, light, and oxygen, which hinder their effectiveness. In this study, vanilla essential oil was encapsulated in a Pickering emulsion with octenyl succinic acid starch (OSA-starch). The optimal process conditions for emulsion preparation were determined as 5% vanilla essential oil phase with 2.5% OSA-starch when they were ultrusonicated for 3 min at 470 W. Under these conditions, the minimum particle size was 0.456 μm, the oil droplets were completely encased by starch, and no new chemical bonds were formed. The smallest particle size was produced at a pH of 4 and 500 mM ion concentration. The antioxidant activity of the emulsion was greater than that of the pure vanilla oil at the same oil content. After 24 h storage, the antioxidant activity of the emulsion was enhanced, and the vanilla essential oil was slowly released in the emulsion. These results indicated that the vanilla essential oil encapsulated in a Pickering emulsion with octenyl succinic acid starch showed its tremendous potential for use in the food industry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods11070987DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8998072PMC
March 2022

Disruption of the primary salicylic acid hydroxylases in rice enhances broad-spectrum resistance against pathogens.

Plant Cell Environ 2022 07 18;45(7):2211-2225. Epub 2022 Apr 18.

Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Biotechnology on Specialty Economic Plants, College of Chemistry and Life Sciences, Zhejiang Normal University, Jinhua, Zhejiang, China.

Salicylic acid (SA) is a crucial hormone involved in plant immunity. Rice (Oryza sativa) maintains high SA levels that are not induced by pathogens. However, the roles of SA in rice immunity and yield remain largely unknown. Here, we identified SA 5-hydroxylases 1 (OsS5H1) and 2 (OsS5H2) as the primary enzymes engaged in catalysing SA to 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (2,5-DHBA) in rice. SA levels were significantly increased in the oss5h mutants, while they were dramatically decreased in the OsS5H1 and OsS5H2 overexpression lines. The mutants were resistant, whereas the overexpression lines were susceptible to Pyricularia oryzae and Xanthomonas oryzae pv. Oryzae. Moreover, the pathogen-associated molecular patterns-triggered immunity responses, including reactive oxygen species burst and callose deposition, were enhanced in all the mutants and compromised in the overexpression lines. Quantification of the agronomic traits of the oss5h mutants grown in the paddy fields demonstrated that the grain number per panicle was decreased as the SA levels increased; however, the tiller number and grain size were enhanced, resulting in no significant yield penalty. Collectively, we reveal that mildly increasing SA content in rice can confer broad-spectrum resistance without yield penalty and put new insights into the roles of SA in immunity and growth.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/pce.14328DOI Listing
July 2022

Accuracy of Genomic Selection for Important Economic Traits of Cashmere and Meat Goats Assessed by Simulation Study.

Front Vet Sci 2022 16;9:770539. Epub 2022 Mar 16.

College of Animal Science, Inner Mongolia Agricultural University, Hohhot, China.

Genomic selection in plants and animals has become a standard tool for breeding because of the advantages of high accuracy and short generation intervals. Implementation of this technology is hindered by the high cost of genotyping and other factors. The aim of this study was to determine an optional marker density panel and reference population size for using genomic selection of goats, with speculation on the number of QTLs that affect the important economic traits of goats. In addition, the effect of buck population size in the reference population on the accuracy of genomic estimated breeding value (GEBV) was discussed. Based on the previous genetic evaluation results of Inner Mongolia White Cashmere Goats, live body weight (LBW, = 0.11) and fiber diameter (FD, = 0.34) were chosen to perform genomic selection in this study. Reasonable genome parameters and generation transmission processes were set, and phenotypic and genotype data of the two traits were simulated. Then, different sizes of the reference population and validation population were selected from progeny. The GEBVs were obtained by six methods, including GBLUP (Genomic Best Linear Unbiased Prediction), ssGBLUP (Single Step Genomic Best Linear Unbiased Prediction), BayesA, BayesB, Bayesian ridge regression, and Bayesian LASSO. The correlation coefficient between the predicted and realized phenotypes from simulation was calculated and used as a measure of the accuracy of GEBV in each trait. The results showed that the medium marker density Panel (45 K) could be used for genomic selection in goats, which can ensure the accuracy of the GEBV. The reference population size of 1,500 can achieve greater genetic progress in genomic selection for fiber diameter and live body weight in goats by comparing with the population size below this level. The accuracy of the GEBV for live body weight and fiber diameter was better when the number of QTLs was 100 and 50, respectively. Additionally, the accuracy of GEBV was discovered to be good when the buck population size was up to 200. Meanwhile, the accuracy of the GEBV for medium heritability traits (FDs) was found to be higher than the accuracy of the GEBV for low heritability traits (LBWs). These findings will provide theoretical guidance for genomic selection in goats by using real data.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2022.770539DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8966406PMC
March 2022

Mechanism of Lycopodii herba for RA-ILD using integrated metabolomics and network pharmacology.

Anal Biochem 2022 07 31;648:114679. Epub 2022 Mar 31.

Tianjin State Key Laboratory of Modern Chinese Medicine, Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tianjin, 301617, China. Electronic address:

Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is the most common complication of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), which highly increases the morbidity and mortality of RA. Lycopodii herba (SJC) has been used as a widespread traditional Chinese medicine to treat RA and the related complications for more than 500 years. However, its therapeutic effect on RA-ILD and related mechanisms are not clear. The purpose of this work was to confirm the efficacy of SJC for RA-ILD and clarify its mechanism. In this study, we first determined the efficacy of SJC on RA-ILD. Then, 15 potential biomarkers of SJC were identified by metabolomics in rat serum, which were mainly associated with ether lipid metabolism and arachidonic acid metabolism. 21 pathways were related to SJC by network pharmacology. Combined with the results of metabolomics and network pharmacology and real-time PCR (RT-PCR) validation, the mechanism of SJC for RA-ILD may be related to the Ras signaling pathway and PI3K-Akt signaling pathway by regulating the expression of PLA2G1B and PI3KCA. This work preliminary confirmed the preventive and therapeutic effects of SJC on RA-ILD and elucidated the mechanism from the metabolic perspective.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ab.2022.114679DOI Listing
July 2022

Phenotype correlation analysis and excellent germplasm screening of herb Bletilla Rchb. f. based on comprehensive evaluation from thirty-three geographic populations.

BMC Plant Biol 2022 Mar 29;22(1):154. Epub 2022 Mar 29.

Key Laboratory of Plant Germplasm Enhancement and Specialty Agriculture, Wuhan Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, 430074, China.

Background: The Bletilla genus of Orchidaceae includes plants with great economic value, among which B. striata is the main traditional medicinal plant, and its pseudobulb, known as BaiJi, was first recorded in Shennong's Classic of Materia Medica. However, there has been little systemic evaluation of the germplasm quality of Bletilla plants in China. In order to comprehensive evaluate the Bletilla resources in China and screen out the candidate phenotypic traits determining yield and/or quality of Bletilla, the variation of phenotypic indicators (pseudobulb, leaf, stem, inflorescence, flower) and active ingredients contents (polysaccharide, total phenolics and militarine) in different populations of B. striata and B. ochracea were investigated through 4 years' common-garden experiment.

Results: There were abundant phenotypic variations and significant differences among different populations in the morphological phenotypes, pseudobulb weight and main active ingredient contents. AHBZ, HBLT and HBSN populations showed good prospects for industrial development, presenting higher quality in terms of yield and main active ingredient content. Pseudobulb yield, polysaccharide and total phenol content are positively correlated with phenotypic traits. Militarine content is negatively correlated with almost all indexes. Plant height, leaf width and stem diameter may be important indicators of potential excellent germplasms.

Conclusions: Bletilla is not strictly geoauthentic medicinal plants. B. ochracea could be accepted as an alternative resource to B. striata. The best harvest period of Bletilla is the third year after cultivation. Plant height, leaf width and stem diameter may be important indicators of potential excellent germplasms. These results provide important information required for the efficient screening and utilization of Bletilla germplasm resources.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12870-022-03540-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8966332PMC
March 2022

Screening and identification of biomarkers associated with the immune infiltration of intracerebral hemorrhage.

J Clin Lab Anal 2022 May 22;36(5):e24361. Epub 2022 Mar 22.

The First Central Clinical School, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, China.

Background: Recent studies showed that inflammation and immunity might play essential roles in the progression of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). However, the underlying mechanisms for changes at the cellular and molecular levels after ICH remain unclear.

Methods: We downloaded the microarray dataset of ICH from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. The differential expression gene analysis was obtained by weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA). We got the hub genes and performed the biological functions and signaling pathways of these genes by Metascape. GSVA algorithm was used to evaluate the potential physical function of time-varying ICH samples. We used single-sample gene set enrichment analysis (ssGSEA) to assess the immune signatures infiltration and analyzed the correlation between hub genes and immune signatures.

Results: The data sets of all 22 ICH samples in GSE125512 were examined by the WGCNA R package. We finally screened five hub genes (GAPDH, PF4, SELP, APP, and PPBP) in the royal blue module. Metascape analysis displayed the biological processes related to inflammation and immunology. Cell adhesion molecule binding, myeloid leukocyte activation, CXCR chemokine receptor binding, and regulation of cytokine production were the most enriched pathophysiological process. The immune signatures infiltration analyses showed that ICH patients' early and late samples had different activity and abundance of immune-related cells and types.

Conclusions: GAPDH, PF4, SELP, APP, and PPBP are identified as potential biomarkers for predicting the progression of ICH. This study may help us better understand the immunologic mechanism and shed new light on the promising approaches of immunotherapy for ICH patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcla.24361DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9102626PMC
May 2022

Effect of type 2 diabetes mellitus and periodontitis on the Th1/Th2 and Th17/Treg paradigm.

Am J Dent 2022 Feb;35(1):55-60

Department of Stomatology, The People's Hospital of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, Urumqi, Xinjiang, China,

Purpose: To investigate the effect of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and periodontitis on the Th1/Th2/Th17/Treg paradigm.

Methods: A total of 107 volunteers (aged 18-78 years) were recruited. Peripheral blood samples from patients with periodontitis and T2DM (n= 43), patients with periodontitis only (n= 20), patients with T2DM only (n= 23), and healthy controls (n= 21) were collected. Blood pressure, glycated hemoglobin, fasting plasma glucose, probing depth, gingival index, and clinical attachment loss were measured. The circulating proportions of Th1, Th2, Th17, and Treg cells were estimated by flow cytometry. The data were analyzed by a 2x2 factorial ANOVA.

Results: We observed higher ratios of Th1/Th2 and Th17/Treg cells among patients with T2DM (P< 0.05) than among healthy controls. The proportion of Th17 cells in patients with periodontitis and T2DM was higher than that in other groups (P< 0.05). T2DM exhibited a predominant effect on the proportion of Th1 cells (F= 18.127, P= 0.000) and the Th17/Treg ratio (F= 45.384, P= 0.000). A significant "T2DM x periodontitis" interaction effect on the proportion of Th2, Th17, Treg cells, and the Th1/Th2 ratio (P< 0.05) was also noticed. The area under curve of Th17 was 0.711 (95% CI= 0.584 to 0.803, P< 0.01) in the receiver operating characteristic curve analysis.

Clinical Significance: The results suggest that the proportion of Th2, Th17, Treg cells and the Th1/Th2 ratio is indicative of immune activation and inflammation, which are evident in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and periodontitis. The data indicate that the high expression of Th17 cells may be a relevant biological factor that can be associated with an increased risk of developing chronic periodontitis in patients with T2DM.
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February 2022

Development of SSR and SNP markers for identifying opium poppy.

Int J Legal Med 2022 Mar 22. Epub 2022 Mar 22.

Key Laboratory of Plant Germplasm Enhancement and Specialty Agriculture, Wuhan Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, 430074, People's Republic of China.

Papaver somniferum L. (opium poppy) is the original plant of heroin, which is a major narcotic drug, and this plant has brought great harm to human health. However, the ban on opium poppy cultivation and trafficking is facing great challenges because of abnormal profits. Therefore, rapid and accurate identification is important to address the abovementioned problems. In this study, eleven simple sequence repeats (SSR) markers and two single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers were mined to distinguish opium poppy from other six Papaver species. These molecular markers were further verified through a large number of plant materials of these seven Papaver species. An excellent multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) system that simultaneously amplifies the three of eleven SSR markers was developed, which effectively improves the efficiency and speed of identification. The present research is of great implication for identifying and investigating the illegal cultivation and trafficking of opium poppy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00414-022-02810-4DOI Listing
March 2022

/ Electrochemical Detection of Pt(II) Species.

Anal Chem 2022 03 14;94(12):4901-4905. Epub 2022 Mar 14.

National University of Science and Technology (MISIS), Leninskiy prospect 4, Moscow 119049, Russia.

The biodistribution of chemotherapy compounds within tumor tissue is one of the main challenges in the development of antineoplastic drugs, and techniques for simple, inexpensive, sensitive, and selective detection of various analytes in tumors are of great importance. In this paper we propose the use of platinized carbon nanoelectrodes (PtNEs) for the electrochemical detection of platinum-based drugs in various biological models, including single cells and tumor spheroids and inside solid tumors . We have demonstrated the quantitative direct detection of Pt(II) in breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7 cells treated with cisplatin and a cisplatin-based DNP prodrug. To realize the potential of this technique in advanced tumor models, we measured Pt(II) in 3D tumor spheroids and in tumor-bearing mice . The concentration gradient of Pt(II) species correlated with the distance from the sample surface in MCF-7 tumor spheroids. We then performed the detection of Pt(II) species in tumor-bearing mice treated intravenously with cisplatin and DNP. We found that there was deeper penetration of DNP in comparison to cisplatin. This research demonstrates a minimally invasive, real-time electrochemical technique for the study of platinum-based drugs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.analchem.2c00136DOI Listing
March 2022

Physicochemical, structural, and functional properties of protein fractions and protein isolate from jackfruit seeds.

J Food Sci 2022 Apr 12;87(4):1540-1551. Epub 2022 Mar 12.

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Nanchang University, Nanchang, Jiangxi, China.

The physicochemical, structural, and functional properties of albumin, globulin, glutelin, and protein isolate (JSPI) extracted from jackfruit seeds were investigated. Protein fractions and JSPI were rich in amino acids, which can be comparable to soy protein. Other essential amino acids except histidine met the FAO/WHO/UNO-recommended intake for infants and adults. Jackfruit seed proteins were mainly composed of 17-26 kDa polypeptides, β-sheet, and random coil were the main secondary structures. Glutelin (572.55) and JSPI (246.14) have higher H under neutral conditions, consistent with the solubility and emulsification properties results. Albumin and globulin had good solubility and were mostly soluble under neutral or weak alkaline conditions. In general, protein fractions and JSPI exhibited good foaming and emulsification properties. Therefore, jackfruit seed proteins have the potential to be nutritious functional ingredients in the food industry. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Jackfruit seed proteins had high essential amino acids content and good functional properties. They can be used as a new type of functional ingredients in the food industry, which can not only reduce the environment pollution of discarded seeds but also improve use of plant protein.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1750-3841.16104DOI Listing
April 2022
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