Publications by authors named "Yanhong Yan"

36 Publications

Effects of ODC on polyamine metabolism, hormone levels, cell proliferation and apoptosis in goose ovarian granulosa cells.

Poult Sci 2021 Aug 28;100(8):101226. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

College of Animal Science and Technology, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, P. R. China. Electronic address:

Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) plays an indispensable role in the process of polyamine biosynthesis. Polyamines are a pivotal part of living cells and have diverse roles in the regulation of cell proliferation and apoptosis, aging and reproduction. However, to date, there have been no reports about ODC regulating follicular development in goose ovaries. Here, we constructed ODC siRNA and overexpression plasmids and transfected them into goose primary granulosa cells (GCs) to elucidate the effects of ODC interference and overexpression on the polyamine metabolism, hormone levels, cell apoptosis and proliferation of granulosa cells. After interfering with ODC in GCs, the mRNA and protein levels of ODC and the content of putrescine were greatly decreased (P < 0.05). When ODC was overexpressed, ODC mRNA and protein levels and putrescine content were greatly increased (P < 0.05). The polyamine-metabolizing enzyme genes ornithine decarboxylase antizyme 1 (OAZ1) and spermidine / spermine-N1-acetyltransferase (SSAT) were significantly increased, and spermidine synthase (SPDS) was significantly decreased when ODC was downregulated (P < 0.05). OAZ1, SPDS and SSAT were significantly increased when ODC was upregulated (P < 0.05). In addition, after interference with ODC, progesterone (P4) levels in the culture medium of GCs increased greatly (P < 0.05), while the overexpression of ODC caused the P4 level to decrease significantly (P < 0.05). After ODC downregulation, granulosa cell activity was significantly reduced, the apoptosis rate was significantly increased, and the BCL-2 / BAX ratio was downregulated (P < 0.05). Under ODC overexpression, the activity of GCs was notably increased, the apoptosis rate was significantly reduced, and the BCL-2 / BAX protein ratio was upregulated (P < 0.05). Our study successfully induced ODC interference and overexpression in goose ovarian GCs, and ODC regulated mainly putrescine content in GCs with a slight influence on spermidine and spermine. Moreover, ODC participated in the adjustment of P4 levels in the culture medium of GCs, promoted granulosa cell proliferation and inhibited granulosa cell apoptosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psj.2021.101226DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8254008PMC
August 2021

Potential apply of hydrogel-carried chlorhexidine and metronidazole in root canal disinfection.

Dent Mater J 2021 Jul 22;40(4):986-993. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of Pediatric Dentistry, School & Hospital of Stomatology, Tongji University, Shanghai Engineering Research Center of Tooth Restoration and Regeneration.

Microorganisms may persist in the root canal system after root canal therapy (RCT). The purpose of this study was to explore the metronidazole (MTR)- and chlorhexidine (CHX)-loaded hydrogels as the potential application in intracanal medicaments for root canal disinfection. Ultraviolet cross-linked hydrogels (gGels) were synthesized by GelMA solution and photoinitiator, which were loaded with MTR ([email protected]) and CHX ([email protected]). gGels, [email protected] and [email protected] were characterized by scanning electron microscopy. The antimicrobial activity against E. faecalis, S. mutans and P. intermedia was assessed. Meanwhile, the biocompatibility of human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) was evaluated. DCT, CCK-8, CFU and live/dead-stained biofilm results showed that the viability of E. faecalis, S. mutans and P. intermedia was significantly reduced in [email protected] and [email protected] in vitro. CCK-8 results showed considerable biocompatibility with hDPSCs. The filling and clearance of gGels in root canals were demonstrated in vivo. Therefore, MTR- and CHX-loaded hydrogels may be a potential application in intracanal medicaments for root canal disinfection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4012/dmj.2020-299DOI Listing
July 2021

Spermidine at supraphysiological doses induces oxidative stress and granulosa cell apoptosis in mouse ovaries.

Theriogenology 2021 Jul 3;168:25-32. Epub 2021 Apr 3.

College of Animal Science and Technology, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, 611130, China. Electronic address:

Given that spermidine is associated with aging-related diseases and it is a potential target for delaying aging, functional studies on supraphysiological levels of spermidine are required. Our previous studies showed that the granulosa layer arranged irregular and the follicular oocytes were shrunk in female mice injected intraperitoneally with spermidine at 150 mg/kg (Body weight) after 24 h. It indicated that supraphysiological levels of spermidine induced ovarian damage in female mice. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of acute administration of supraphysiological spermidine on the ovary and granulosa cells in mice. The results showed that treatment with spermidine at 150 mg/kg (intraperitoneal) significantly increased the levels of both HO and malondialdehyde and reduced total antioxidant capacity and the activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase in mouse ovaries. The contents of putrescine and spermine increased significantly in the ovaries of mice treated with spermidine. Treatment with spermidine at 150 mg/kg increased the apoptotic rate and reactive oxygen species levels of granulosa cells in mouse ovaries. Furthermore, the protein expression of P53, CASPASE 8 (Cleaved/Pro), CASPASE 9 (Cleaved/Pro) and CASPASE 3 (Cleaved/Pro) in granulosa cells of mice treated with spermidine were significantly upregulated, while BCL2 expression was significantly downregulated. In summary, our study demonstrates for the first time that spermidine at supraphysiological doses causes ovarian oxidative stress and induces granulosa cell apoptosis via the P53 and/or BCL2-CASPASEs pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.theriogenology.2021.03.026DOI Listing
July 2021

Transcriptome analysis revealed the regulation of gibberellin and the establishment of photosynthetic system promote rapid seed germination and early growth of seedling in pearl millet.

Biotechnol Biofuels 2021 Apr 11;14(1):94. Epub 2021 Apr 11.

College of Grassland Science and Technology, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, 6111130, China.

Background: Seed germination is the most important stage for the formation of a new plant. This process starts when the dry seed begins to absorb water and ends when the radicle protrudes. The germination rate of seed from different species varies. The rapid germination of seed from species that grow on marginal land allows seedlings to compete with surrounding species, which is also the guarantee of normal plant development and high yield. Pearl millet is an important cereal crop that is used worldwide, and it can also be used to extract bioethanol. Previous germination experiments have shown that pearl millet has a fast seed germination rate, but the molecular mechanisms behind pearl millet are unclear. Therefore, this study explored the expression patterns of genes involved in pearl millet growth from the germination of dry seed to the early growth stages.

Results: Through the germination test and the measurement of the seedling radicle length, we found that pearl millet seed germinated after 24 h of swelling of the dry seed. Using transcriptome sequencing, we characterized the gene expression patterns of dry seed, water imbibed seed, germ and radicle, and found more differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in radicle than germ. Further analysis showed that different genome clusters function specifically at different tissues and time periods. Weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment analysis showed that many genes that positively regulate plant growth and development are highly enriched and expressed, especially the gibberellin signaling pathway, which can promote seed germination. We speculated that the activation of these key genes promotes the germination of pearl millet seed and the growth of seedlings. To verify this, we measured the content of gibberellin and found that the gibberellin content after seed imbibition rose sharply and remained at a high level.

Conclusions: In this study, we identified the key genes that participated in the regulation of seed germination and seedling growth. The activation of key genes in these pathways may contribute to the rapid germination and growth of seed and seedlings in pearl millet. These results provided new insight into accelerating the germination rate and seedling growth of species with slow germination.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13068-021-01946-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8040237PMC
April 2021

Resource islands of Salix cupularis facilitating seedling emergence of the companion herbs in the restoration process of desertified alpine meadow, the Tibetan Plateau.

J Environ Manage 2021 Jul 31;289:112434. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

College of Grassland Science and Technology, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, 611130, Sichuan, PR China. Electronic address:

Salix cupularis is a common shrub for ecological restoration of the desertified alpine meadow on the Tibetan Plateau. However, the effect of S. cupularis on spatial heterogeneity of soil resources (i.e., resource islands effect) has not been systematically evaluated, and the influence of shrub patches on the rehabilitation of understory herbs has also been unknown. In this study, we randomly selected S. cupularis individuals in the early restoration stage of desertified alpine meadow, where the three native forages (Elymus nutans, Elymus sibiricus and Festuca sinensis) were sown at different microsites around S. cupularis to explore the effects of S. cupularis on soil resources and emergence rates of the native forages. The results showed that S. cupularis significantly increased SWC (soil water content), C (carbon) and N (nitrogen) nutrients (p < 0.01) and enzyme activities (p < 0.05) under canopy compared with the bare land, and the improvement performed better in the topsoil (0-5 cm) than in the subtop-soil (5-15 cm). Moreover, the soil properties were affected significantly by microsites around S. cupularis, resulting in regular changes of SWC, nutrients and enzyme activities in different microsites (Shrub center > Middle of canopy radius > Bare land). In addition, there are significant regression relationships between emergence rates and enriching soil water, C and N nutrients, so the emergence rates of native forages under canopy may be improved significantly with the enriched soil resources, especially for E. nutans. As a result, S. cupularis is a suitable pioneer shrub for the vegetation restoration of desertified alpine meadow on the Tibetan Plateau, because it could not only shape the enrichment of soil resources under canopy, but also facilitate emergence of companion forages in the process of vegetation restoration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2021.112434DOI Listing
July 2021

Realization of strong coupling between 2D excitons and cavity photons at room temperature.

Opt Lett 2020 Dec;45(24):6571-6574

Two-dimensional (2D) semiconductors of graphene, as well as transition-metal dichalcogenides, have performed strong interaction with light. Here the strong light-matter interaction between monolayer tungsten disulphide () excitons and microcavity photons at room temperature is well studied by the introduction of a gain material embedded dielectric optical microcavity structure. A Rabi splitting of about 36 meV is observed in angle-resolved reflectance spectra at room temperature, which agrees well with the theoretical results simulated by using the transfer matrix method. Since the cavity structures and 2D semiconductors can be prepared, the cavity and the gain materials, respectively, can be optimized separately in this platform. An all-dielectric Fabry-Pérot microcavity provides a simple but effective way to study the room temperature strong coupling between cavity photons and 2D excitons.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OL.401330DOI Listing
December 2020

Evaluation of Carotid Plaque Rupture and Neovascularization by Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound Imaging: an Exploratory Study Based on Histopathology.

Transl Stroke Res 2021 02 29;12(1):49-56. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Department of Stroke Center, The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, 188 Shizi Street, Suzhou, 215006, China.

A significant portion of ischemic stroke is on account of emboli caused by fibrous cap rupture of vulnerable plaque with intraplaque neovascularization as a significant triggering factor to plaque vulnerability. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) could offer detailed information on plaque surface and intraplaque microvascular. This study aims to comprehensively assess the value of CEUS for the detection of plaque rupture and neovascularization in histologically verified plaques that had been removed from the patients who had undergone carotid endarterectomy (CEA). Fifty-one consecutive subjects (mean age, 67.0 ± 6.5 years; 43 [84.3%] men) scheduled for CEA were recruited. Standard ultrasound and CEUS were performed prior to surgery. Based on the direction of the contrast agents that diffuse within the plaques, plaques were divided as "inside-out" direction (contrast agents diffuse from the artery lumen towards the inside of the plaque) and non-inside-out direction. Plaque enhancement was assessed by using a semi-quantitative grading scale (grade 1: no enhancement; grade 2: moderate enhancement; grade 3: extensive enhancement). Plaques were evaluated for histopathologic characteristics according to Oxford Plaque Study (OPS) standard postoperative. Intraplaque neovascularization as manifested by the appearance of CD34-positive microvessels was characterized in terms of microvessel density (MVD), microvessel area (MVA), and microvessel shape (MVS). In 51 plaques, the sensitivity, specificity, positive, and negative predictive values of contrast agent inside-out direction diffusion for the detection of plaque fibrous cap rupture were 87.5%, 92.6%, 91.3%, and 89.3%, respectively. The incidence of cap rupture was significantly higher in contrast agent inside-out direction diffusion than non-inside-out direction diffusion (73.9% vs 25.0%, p < 0.001), and inside-out direction diffusion did exhibit higher frequency of vulnerable plaques (OPS grades 3-4) (95.7% vs 53.6%, p = 0.001). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed the contrast agent inside-out direction diffusion as an independent correlate to plaque rupture (OR 8.5, 95% CI 2.4-30.1, p = 0.001). With increasing plaque enhancement, plaque MVD (p < 0.001), plaque MVA (p = 0.012), and percentage of highly irregular-shaped microvessels increased (p < 0.001). Contrast agent inside-out direction diffusion could indicate plaque rupture. The increase in plaque enhancement paralleled increased, larger, and more irregular-shaped microvessels, which may suggest an increased risk of plaque vulnerability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12975-020-00825-wDOI Listing
February 2021

Dynamic microbial diversity and fermentation quality of the mixed silage of corn and soybean grown in strip intercropping system.

Bioresour Technol 2020 Oct 9;313:123655. Epub 2020 Jun 9.

Animal Science and Technology College, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 610000, China. Electronic address:

This study assessed the fermentation quality and microbial community of corn (Zea mays L.) and soybean (Glycine max Merr.) (CS) mixed silage in strip intercropping system. CS mixed silage increased lactic acid content and decreased ammonia-N content compared to 100% soybean (S) silage, while it decreased ammonia-N content compared to 100% corn (C) silage. The largest number of epiphytic lactic acid bacteria was detected in CS fresh materials. During ensiling, Weissella and Lactobacillus dominated silage, the relative abundance of Lactobacillus in mixed silage was higher than that in S silage with the same S variety. After aerobic exposure (AE), synergistic effect existed in low relative abundance bacteria correlating with ammonia-N content and pH at ensiling 60 days and AE 7 days. In conclusion, CS mixed silage modified microbial community and improved fermentation quality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2020.123655DOI Listing
October 2020

Microbial Community and FermentationDynamics of Corn Silage Prepared withHeat-Resistant Lactic Acid Bacteria in a HotEnvironment.

Microorganisms 2020 May 12;8(5). Epub 2020 May 12.

College of Animal Science and Technology, Sichuan Agricultural University,Chengdu 6111130, China.

To develop a silage fermentation technique to adapt to global climate changes, the microbiome and fermentation dynamics of corn silage inoculated with heat-resistant lactic acid bacteria (LAB) under high-temperature conditions were studied. Corn was ensiled in laboratory silo, with and without two selected strains, LS358 and LR753, two type strains ATCC 11741and ATCC 7469. The ensiling temperatures were designed at 30 °C and 45 °C, and the sampling took place after 0, 3, 7, 14, and 60 days of fermentation. The higher pH and dry matter losses were observed in the silages stored at 45 °C compared to those stored at 30 °C. Silages inoculated with strains LS358 and LR753 at 30 °C had a lower ratio of lactic acid/acetic acid. The dominant bacterial genera gradually changed from and to in silages during ensiling at 30 °C, while the bacterial community became more complex and fragmented after 7 d of ensiling at 45 °C. The high temperatures significantly led to a transformation of the LAB population from homo-fermentation to hetero-fermentation. This study is the first to describe microbial population dynamics response to high temperature during corn ensiling, and the results indicate that 753 shows potential ability to improve silage fermentation in tropics and subtropics. bacteria community; fermentation dynamics; high temperature; lactic acidbacteria; corn silage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8050719DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7285033PMC
May 2020

Effect of sodium and calcium on polysaccharide production and the activities of enzymes involved in the polysaccharide synthesis of Lentinus edodes.

AMB Express 2020 Mar 14;10(1):47. Epub 2020 Mar 14.

College of Animal Science and Technology, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, 611130, Sichuan, People's Republic of China.

Lentinan is a Lentinus edodes secondary metabolite that can regulate human immune function, but yields are low. Here, the effects of Ca and Na on L. edodes lentinan content were investigated. Metal ion concentrations and induction times were optimized according to mycelial biomass, and intracellular polysaccharide (IPS), extracellular polysaccharide (EPS), and total polysaccharide (TPS) content. The activities and gene expression of phospho-glucose isomerase (PGI), phosphoglucomutase (PGM), and UDP-glcpyrophosphorylase (UGP) were also measured. Ca and Na concentration and induction time affected biomass, IPS, and EPS concentrations. Na increased EPS, IPS and TPS, while Ca increased biomass, IPS, and TPS. During fermentation, mycelial biomass varied greatly under Ca induction, while IPS, EPS and TPS varied greatly under Na induction. PGM and UGP activities increased in the presence of Na, while PGI increased with Ca. Compared to control samples, pgi and pgm expression under Na was greater at days 45 and 60, respectively, while under Ca, ugp expression was greater at day 45. IPS content correlated significantly with enzyme activity, while EPS correlated with PGM activity. Our data contributes to better understanding how Na and Ca affect mycelial growth and secondary metabolite production, and of polysaccharide biosynthesis mechanisms of L. edodes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13568-020-00985-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7070116PMC
March 2020

Effect of common bean seed exudates on growth, lipopolysaccharide production, and lipopolysaccharide transport gene expression of .

Can J Microbiol 2020 Mar 21;66(3):186-193. Epub 2019 Nov 21.

College of Animal Science and Technology, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, Sichuan 611130, P.R. China.

Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is essential for successful nodulation during the symbiosis of rhizobia and legumes. However, the detailed mechanism of the LPS in this process has not yet been clearly elucidated. In this study, the effects of common bean seed exudates on the growth, lipopolysaccharide production, and lipopolysaccharide transport genes expression () of were investigated. exposed to exudates showed changes in LPS electrophoretic profiles and content, whereby the LPS band was wider and the LPS content was higher in treated with seed exudates. Exudates enhanced cell growth of in a concentration-dependent manner; exposed to higher doses of the exudate showed faster growth. Seven genes of were amplified and sequenced. Sequences of six genes, except for , were the same as those found in previously analyzed strains, while shared low sequence similarity with other strains. Exposure to the exudates strongly stimulated the expression of all genes. Approximately 6.7- () to 301-fold () increases in the transcriptional levels were observed after only 15 min of exposure to exudates. These results indicate that seed exudates affect the LPS by making the cell wall structure more conducive to symbiotic nodulation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/cjm-2019-0413DOI Listing
March 2020

Genetic variability evaluation and cultivar identification of tetraploid annual ryegrass using SSR markers.

PeerJ 2019 20;7:e7742. Epub 2019 Sep 20.

Department of Grassland Science, College of Animal Science and Technology, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, China.

Annual ryegrass () is a widely used cool-season turf and forage grass with high productivity and ornamental characteristics. However, the abundant intra-cultivar genetic variability usually hampers the application of conventional techniques for cultivar identification. The objectives of this study were to: (1) describe an efficient strategy for identification of six tetraploid annual ryegrass cultivars and (2) investigate the genetic diversity based on SSR markers. A total of 242 reliable bands were obtained from 29 SSR primer pairs with an average of 8.3 bands for each primer pair and the average value of polymorphic information content (PIC) was 0.304. The result of analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed that 81.99% of the genetic variation occurred in within-cultivars and 18.01% among-cultivars. The principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) showed that the first two principal axes explain 8.57% (PC1) and 6.05% (PC2) of total variation, respectively. By using multi-bulk strategy based on different filtering thresholds, the results suggested that bands frequency of 40% could be used as a reliable standard for cultivar identification in annual ryegrass. Under this threshold, 12 SSR primer pairs (00-04A, 02-06G, 02-08C, 03-05A, 04-05B, 10-09E, 12-01A, 13-02H, 13-12D, 14-06F, 15-01C and 17-10D) were detected for direct identification of six tetraploid annual ryegrass cultivars, which could be incorporated into conservation schemes to protect the intellectual property of breeders, ensure purity for consumers, as well as guarantee effective use of cultivars in future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7717/peerj.7742DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6756138PMC
September 2019

Microbial community and fermentation characteristic of Italian ryegrass silage prepared with corn stover and lactic acid bacteria.

Bioresour Technol 2019 May 26;279:166-173. Epub 2019 Jan 26.

Animal Science and Technology College, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 610000, China. Electronic address:

The bacterial community determined via PacBio single molecule, real-time sequencing technology (SMRT) and the fermentation characteristics of Italian ryegrass (IR, 82% moisture) silage prepared with corn stover (CS) were investigated. A selected strain of Lactobacillus plantarum (L694) and a commercial inoculant stain of Lactobacillus plantarum (LP) were used as additives. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) effectively improved silage quality. After fermentation, Lactobacillus plantarum was the dominant species in IR + LP and IR + L694 treatments, which led to higher (P < 0.05) lactic acid and lower (P < 0.05) butyric acid production. Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus hammesii, Lactobacillus brevis, and Lactobacillus coryniformis were abundantly present in IR + CS + LP and IR + CS + L694 treatments, and acetic acid contents of these were higher (P < 0.05) than those of other silages. This study demonstrated that addition of CS and LAB can change the microbial community and influence the silage fermentation of IR, and PacBio SMRT reveals more specific microbial information.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2019.01.107DOI Listing
May 2019

[A light stimulation device and optical control experiment method for carp robots].

Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue Za Zhi 2018 10;35(5):720-726

Department of Biomedical Engineering, College of Electrical Engineering, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao, Hebei 066004, P.R.China.

In order to solve the problems that the injury, hemorrhage, infection and edema of the brain tissue caused by brain electrodes implantation for aquatic animal robots, a light stimulation device and an optical control experiment method for carp robots are proposed in this paper. According to the shape of the carp skull, the device is a structure of Chinese character "" cut by a printed circuit board which can provide three groups of A, B and C bridge platforms for the light stimulation source. The two ends of a bridge in every group are welded with a jumper board, and the light emitting diodes (LED) are inserted into the jumper boards as the light stimulation source, and all negative poles of the jumper boards are connected to the console by the wire. A LED light can be replaced by another LED light according to the need of the wavelength of the LED light, and various combinations of the light stimulation modes can be also selected. This device was mounted on the carp robot's head, the carp robot was placed in a water maze, and the optical control experiment method was observed to control the forward movement and steering movement of the carp robots ( = 10) under the dark light condition. The results showed that the success rates of the three groups of red light control experiments were 53%-87%, and the success rates of the three groups of blue light control experiments were 50%-80%. This study shows that the apparatus and the method are feasible.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7507/1001-5515.201801076DOI Listing
October 2018

[A water maze for testing the motion of aquatic animal robots].

Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue Za Zhi 2018 06;35(3):429-434

Department of Biomedical Engineering, College of Electrical Engineering, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao, Hebei 066004, P.R.China.

The existing mazes are mainly used to study the learning and memory of animals. However, there is still a lack of corresponding maze and method in the aspect of the observation and test of aquatic animal robots. For this purpose, the authors have developed a three-dimensional water maze combined with bilayer multi-channel which equips with stratified lines and tick marks. This device is a rectangular structure composed of one square bottom and four rectangular side walls, and the channels of every side wall are composed of one upper channel and two lower channels. The center of the upper channels is in the vertical center line of every side wall, and the two uper channels of adjacent side walls are at 90° degrees with each other, and the two lower channels of adjacent side walls are at 45° degrees with each other. There are stratified lines and tick marks on the side wall to test the spatial location and movement trajectories of aquatic animals. The carp robot was put into the water maze for the underwater experimental detection. The success rates of left and right steering at 135, 90 and 45 degrees as well as forward motion of the carp robots ( = 10) were over 60%. This study showed that the device could be used to observe and test the motion of the carp robot.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7507/1001-5515.201712082DOI Listing
June 2018

Microbial communities and natural fermentation of corn silages prepared with farm bunker-silo in Southwest China.

Bioresour Technol 2018 Oct 8;265:282-290. Epub 2018 Jun 8.

Animal Science and Technology College, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, China. Electronic address:

This study analyzed the variation of microbial communities, their achieved fermentation quality, and the association between microbial diversity and environmental factors after ensiling of 96 samples prepared with bunker-silo in Southwest China. Most of natural corn silages achieved good fermentation, e.g., low pH value (<4.2) and high levels of lactic acid (36.26-79.83 mg/g DM). Weissella species were the dominant epiphytic bacteria in raw material, while Lactobacillus and Acetobacter species were prevalent in silages. Natural Lactobacillus and Pediococcus species produced more lactic acid during ensiling, while the production of acetic acid was highly positively correlated with both Acetobacter and Bradyrhizobium species. Rainfall and humidity affected community of epiphytic bacteria on the corn material, and the temperature affected richness of bacterial species during ensiling. The results confirmed that microbial community of silages in hot and humid area is unique and climatic factors ultimately affect the fermentation quality through influencing microbial community.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2018.06.018DOI Listing
October 2018

Indole-3-acetic acid modulates phytohormones and polyamines metabolism associated with the tolerance to water stress in white clover.

Plant Physiol Biochem 2018 Aug 9;129:251-263. Epub 2018 Jun 9.

Department of Grassland Science, College of Animal Science and Technology, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, China.

Endogenous hormones and polyamines (PAs) could interact to regulate growth and tolerance to water stress in white clover. The objective of this study was to investigate whether the alteration of endogenous indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) level affected other hormones level and PAs metabolism contributing to the regulation of tolerance to water stress in white clover. Plants were pretreated with IAA or L-2-aminooxy-3-phenylpropionic acid (L-AOPP, the inhibitor of IAA biosynthesis) for 3 days and then subjected to water-sufficient condition and water stress induced by 15% polyethylene glycol 6000 for 8 days in growth chambers. Exogenous application of IAA significantly increased endogenous IAA, gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), and polyamine (PAs) levels, but had no effect on cytokinin content under water stress. The increase in endogenous IAA level enhanced PAs anabolism via the improvement of enzyme activities and transcript level of genes including arginine decarboxylase, ornithine decarboxylase, and S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase. Exogenous application of IAA also affected PAs catabolism, as manifested by an increase in diamine oxidase and a decrease in polyamine oxidase activities and genes expression. More importantly, the IAA deficiency in white clover decreased endogenous hormone levels (GA, ABA, and PAs) and PAs anabolism along with decline in antioxidant defense and osmotic adjustment (OA). On the contrary, exogenous IAA effectively alleviated stress-induced oxidative damage, growth inhibition, water deficit, and leaf senescence through the maintenance of higher chlorophyll content, OA, and antioxidant defense as well as lower transcript levels of senescence marker genes SAG101 and SAG102 in leaves under water stress. These results indicate that IAA-induced the crosstalk between endogenous hormones and PAs could be involved in the improvement of antioxidant defense and OA conferring tolerance to water stress in white clover.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plaphy.2018.06.009DOI Listing
August 2018

Superficial and multiple calcifications and ulceration associate with intraplaque hemorrhage in the carotid atherosclerotic plaque.

Eur Radiol 2018 Dec 6;28(12):4968-4977. Epub 2018 Jun 6.

Department of Stroke Center, The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, 188 Shizi Street, Suzhou, 215006, China.

Objective: Intraplaque hemorrhage (IPH) and ulceration of carotid atherosclerotic plaques have been associated with vulnerability while calcification has been conventionally thought protective. However, studies suggested calcification size and location may increase plaque vulnerability. This study explored the association between calcium configurations and ulceration with IPH.

Methods: One hundred thirty-seven consecutive symptomatic patients scheduled for carotid endarterectomy were recruited. CTA and CTP were performed prior to surgery. Plaque samples were collected for histology. According to the location, calcifications were categorized into superficial, deep and mixed types; according to the size and number, calcifications were classified as thick and thin, multiple and single.

Results: Seventy-one plaques had IPH (51.8%) and 83 had ulceration (60.6%). The appearance of IPH and ulceration was correlated (r = 0.49; p < 0.001). The incidence of multiple, superficial and thin calcifications was significantly higher in lesions with IPH and ulceration compared with those without. After adjusting factors including age, stenosis and ulceration, the presence of calcification [OR (95% CI), 3.0 (1.1-8.2), p = 0.035], multiple calcification [3.9 (1.4-10.9), p = 0.009] and superficial calcification [3.4 (1.1-10.8), p = 0.001] were all associated with IPH. ROC analysis showed that the AUC of superficial and multiple calcifications in detecting IPH was 0.63 and 0.66, respectively (p < 0.05). When the ulceration was combined, AUC increased significantly to 0.82 and 0.83, respectively. Results also showed that patients with lesions of both ulceration and IPH have significantly reduced brain perfusion in the area ipsilateral to the infarction.

Conclusions: Superficial and multiple calcifications and ulceration were associated with carotid IPH, and they may be a surrogate for higher risk lesions.

Key Points: • CTA-defined superficial and multiple calcifications in carotid atherosclerotic plaques are independently associated with the presence of intraplaque hemorrhage. • The combination of superficial and multiple calcifications and ulceration is highly predictive of carotid intraplaque hemorrhage. • Patients with lesions of both ulceration and intraplaque hemorrhage have significantly reduced brain perfusion in the area ipsilateral to the infarction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00330-018-5535-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6223859PMC
December 2018

Effect of CRABP2 on the proliferation and odontoblastic differentiation of hDPSCs.

Braz Oral Res 2017 Dec 18;31:e112. Epub 2017 Dec 18.

Tongji University, Shanghai Engineering Research Center of Tooth Restoration and Regeneration, Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Shanghai, China.

Cellular retinoic acid-binding protein 2 (CRABP2) has been detected in several organs during embryonic development. Recent studies have demonstrated that CRABP2 plays important roles in the retinoic acid, β-catenin and Notch signaling pathways, as well as in the interaction between epithelial and mesenchymal cells, which are important for human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) and tooth development. In the present study, the expression of CRABP2 during mouse molar development and the role of CRABP2 in hDPSC odontoblastic differentiation were evaluated. CRABP2 was gradually decreased during the development of the first maxillary molar, which exhibited the same trend as the expression of CRABP2 during the odontoblastic induction of hDPSCs. CRABP2 knockdown inhibited the proliferative ability of hDPSCs, while it enhanced odontoblastic differentiation via promoting mineralization nodule formation and upregulating the activity of alkaline phosphatase and the expression of mineralization-related genes. The present study uncovered a novel function of CRABP2 in hDPSCs. Our data suggest that CRABP2 may act as a regulator during the proliferation and differentiation of hDPSCs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1807-3107bor-2017.vol31.0112DOI Listing
December 2017

Role of protein delta homolog 1 in the proliferation and differentiation of ameloblasts.

Mol Med Rep 2018 Mar 18;17(3):3537-3544. Epub 2017 Dec 18.

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial‑Head and Neck Oncology, and Faculty of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Ninth People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200011, P.R. China.

Protein delta homolog 1 (DLK1) regulates the odontoblastic differentiation of human dental pulp stem cells. It was hypothesized that DLK1 may exert regulatory effects on epithelial‑mesenchymal interactions in tooth development. The present study investigated the expression of DLK1 during the development of mouse enamel and its role in the proliferation and differentiation of ameloblast‑lineage cells (ALCs). DLK1 expression was upregulated in ameloblasts in the first mandibular molar during the entire process of enamel development. The mRNA and protein levels of DLK1 were significantly upregulated following ameloblastic induction in ALCs. In addition, overexpression of DLK1 promoted the proliferation of ALCs, inhibited ameloblastic differentiation, upregulated the expression of amelogenin and enamelin, and downregulated the expression of odontogenic ameloblast‑associated protein and kallikrein 4. The results of the present study suggested that DLK1 may be a potent regulator of ameloblast proliferation and differentiation, and may regulate enamel formation during tooth development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/mmr.2017.8290DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5802151PMC
March 2018

The inhibition of polyamine biosynthesis weakens the drought tolerance in white clover (Trifolium repens) associated with the alteration of extensive proteins.

Protoplasma 2018 May 28;255(3):803-817. Epub 2017 Nov 28.

Department of Grassland Science, College of Animal Science and Technology, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China.

Changes of endogenous polyamine (PA) levels could be a key adaptive response to drought in plants. White clover pretreated with or without dicyclohexylamine (DCHA), an inhibitor of PA biosynthesis, was subjected to drought stress induced by 18% polyethylene glycol 6000 for 8 days in controlled growth chambers. Results showed that drought stress significantly increased endogenous PA content, whereas DCHA significantly decreased PA accumulation under drought stress. The attenuate PA biosynthesis was unfavorable for plant growth and drought tolerance, as reflected by significantly lower relative water content, relative growth rate, instantaneous water use efficiency, and cell membrane stability in leaves in response to drought. On the basis of proteomic analysis, the inhibition of PA synthesis decreased the accumulation of many key differentially expressed proteins including (1) ribosomal structure and biogenesis: elongation factor, ribosomal protein S10E, and 30S ribosomal protein; (2) amino acid transport and metabolism: cysteine synthase, delta-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase, and glutamate decarboxylase; (3) carbohydrate metabolism and energy production: photosystem apoprotein, sucrose-phosphate synthase, phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, sucrose-phosphatase, NADH oxidoreductase, and ATP synthase; (4) antioxidant metabolism: catalase, peroxidase I, ascorbate peroxidase, and glutathione S-transferase; and (5) other biological processes: heat shock protein 70, heat shock protein 90, and calcium-dependent protein kinase associated with the decreased drought tolerance in white clover. These findings indicate that PAs play a critical role in the regulation of growth, ribosome, amino acid and energy metabolism, and antioxidant reactions in white clover under drought stress. Drought-induced increases in endogenous PAs could be one of key adaptive responses against drought stress in white clover.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00709-017-1186-9DOI Listing
May 2018

The efficacy and safety of sugammadex for reversing postoperative residual neuromuscular blockade in pediatric patients: A systematic review.

Sci Rep 2017 07 18;7(1):5724. Epub 2017 Jul 18.

Department of Anesthesiology, Xuan Wu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, 100053, China.

The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of sugammadex for reversing neuromuscular blockade in pediatric patients. MEDLINE and other three Databases were searched. Randomized clinical trials were included if they compared sugammadex with neostigmine or placebo in pediatric patients undergoing surgery involving the use of rocuronium or vecuronium. The primary outcome was the time interval from administration of reversal agents to train-of-four ratio (TOFr, T4/T1) > 0.9. Incidences of any drug-related adverse events were secondary outcomes. Trial inclusion, data extraction, and risk of bias assessment were performed independently. Mean difference and relative risk were used as summary statistics with random effects models. Statistical heterogeneity was assessed by the I statistic. Funnel plot was used to detect publication bias. Ten studies with 580 participants were included. Although considerable heterogeneity (I = 98.5%) was detected in primary outcome, the results suggested that, compared with placebo or neostigmine, sugammadex can reverse rocuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade more rapidly with lower incidence of bradycardia. No significant differences were found in the incidences of other adverse events. Compared with neostigmine or placebo, sugammadex may reverse rocuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade in pediatric patients rapidly and safely.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-06159-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5515941PMC
July 2017

Metabolic Pathways Regulated by Chitosan Contributing to Drought Resistance in White Clover.

J Proteome Res 2017 08 25;16(8):3039-3052. Epub 2017 Jul 25.

Department of Grassland Science, College of Animal Science and Technology, Sichuan Agricultural University , Chengdu 611130, China.

Increased endogenous chitosan (CTS) could be associated with improved drought resistance in white clover (Trifolium repens). Plants were pretreated with or without 1 mg/mL CTS and then were subjected to optimal or water-limited condition in controlled growth chambers for 6 days. Phenotypic and physiological results indicated that exogenous CTS significantly improved drought resistance of white clover. Metabolome results showed that exogenous CTS induced a significant increase in endogenous CTS content during dehydration accompanied by the maintenance of greater accumulation of sugars, sugar alcohols, amino acids, organic acids, and other metabolites (ascorbate, glutathione, flavonoids, putrescine, and spermidine). These compounds are associated with osmotic adjustment, antioxidant defense, stress signaling, and energy metabolism under stress condition. Similarly, transcriptome revealed that many genes in relation to amino acid and carbohydrate metabolism, energy production and conversion, and ascorbate-glutathione and flavonoid metabolism were significantly up-regulated by CTS in response to dehydration stress. CTS-induced drought resistance was associated with the accumulation of stress protective metabolites, the enhancement of ascorbate-glutathione and tricarboxylic acid cycle, and increases in the γ-aminobutyric acid shunt, polyamine synthesis, and flavonoids metabolism contributing to improved osmotic adjustment, antioxidant capacity, stress signaling, and energy production for stress defense, thereby maintaining metabolic homeostasis under dehydration stress.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jproteome.7b00334DOI Listing
August 2017

Genome-wide survey of switchgrass NACs family provides new insights into motif and structure arrangements and reveals stress-related and tissue-specific NACs.

Sci Rep 2017 06 8;7(1):3056. Epub 2017 Jun 8.

Department of Grassland Science, Animal Science and Technology College, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, 611130, China.

NAC proteins comprise of a plant-specific transcription factor (TF) family and play important roles in plant development and stress responses. Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) is the prime candidate and model bioenergy grass across the world. Excavating agronomically valuable genes is important for switchgrass molecular breeding. In this study, a total of 251 switchgrass NAC (PvNACs) family genes clustered into 19 subgroups were analyzed, and those potentially involved in stress response or tissue-specific expression patterns were pinpointed. Specifically, 27 PvNACs were considered as abiotic stress-related including four membrane-associated ones. Among 40 tissue-specific PvNACs expression patterns eight factors were identified that might be relevant for lignin biosynthesis and/or secondary cell wall formation. Conserved functional domains and motifs were also identified among the PvNACs and potential association between these motifs and their predicted functions were proposed, that might encourage experimental studies to use PvNACs as possible targets to improve biomass production and abiotic stress tolerance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-03435-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5465074PMC
June 2017

AFLP assessment of genetic variability and relationships in an Asian wild germplasm collection of Dactylis glomerata L.

C R Biol 2017 Mar 16;340(3):145-155. Epub 2017 Feb 16.

Department of Grassland Science, Animal Science and Technology College, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, Sichuan 611130, China. Electronic address:

Orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.), an excellent perennial and cool season forage species distributed in most temperate regions, has been cultivated widely in Western China. Amplified fragment length polymorphism markers were employed to determine the genetic variability and population structure among 41 indigenous orchardgrass accessions from Central Asia and Western China. On the basis of 531 polymorphic fragments resulted from eight primer combinations, polymorphic information content (PIC), marker index (MI) and resolving power (RP) averaged 0.252, 16.34 and 25.27 per primer combination, respectively, demonstrating the high efficiency and reliability of the markers used. We found relatively low differentiation (Fst=0.135) for three geographical groups, where Central Asia (CA) and Southwest China (SWC) group exhibited higher intra-population diversity (He=0.20 and 0.21) than that of the Xinjiang (XJ) group (He=0.14). We also did not detect a clear pattern of isolation by distance with a low value of r=0.301 in the Mantel test. STRUCTURE, FLOCK, UPGMA clustering and PCoA analyses showed that CA group is more related to the SWC Group rather than to the XJ Group. In addition, this study strongly suggests that geographical and ecological environmental factors together could better explain the genetic differentiation between different geographical regions than geographic isolation alone, especially for Xinjiang accessions. The present study also could support that Southwest China might be the internal diversity center of D. glomerata in China. The knowledge about the genetic variability of the Asian accessions examined contributes to rapid characterization, defining gene pools of wild accessions, and selecting appropriate germplasms for plant improvement.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.crvi.2016.12.003DOI Listing
March 2017

The effect of delta-like 1 homologue on the proliferation and odontoblastic differentiation in human dental pulp stem cells.

Cell Prolif 2017 Jun 15;50(3). Epub 2017 Feb 15.

Department of Stomatology, Shanghai Tenth People's Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Introduction: This study aimed to investigate the functions of delta-like homologue 1 (DLK1) in the proliferation and differentiation of human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs).

Methods: Immunohistochemical analysis was used to determine the expression of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP), DLK1, NOTCH1 and p-ERK1/2 in the mouse first maxillary molar. Recombinant lentivirus was constructed to overexpress DLK1 stably in hDPSCs. The cell viability and proliferation of hDPSCs were examined by CCK8 and EdU incorporation assay respectively. The odontoblastic differentiation of hDPSCs was determined by detection of ALPase activity assay, ALP and alizarin red staining and the expression of mineralization-related genes including ALP, DSPP and dental matrix protein. The mRNA and protein levels of DLK1 and p-ERK1/2 protein expression were detected. ERK inhibitor was used to test the differentiation effect of DLK1 on hDPSCs.

Results: Delta-like homologue 1 was highly expressed on the odontoblasts and dental pulp cells on the first maxillary molar; the expression of p-ERK1/2 is similar with the DLK1 in the same process. The expression level of DLK1 increased significantly after the odontoblastic induction of hDPSCs. DLK1 overexpression increased the proliferation ability of hDPSCs and inhibited odontoblastic differentiation of hDPSCs. The protein level of p-ERK1/2 significantly increased in hDPSCs/dlk1-oe group. ERK signalling pathway inhibitor reversed the odontoblastic differentiation effects of DLK1 on hDPSCs.

Conclusions: The proliferation of hDPSCs was promoted after DLK1 overexpression. DLK1 inhibited the odontoblastic differentiation of hDPSCs, which maybe through ERK signalling pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cpr.12335DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6529117PMC
June 2017

Physiological and iTRAQ-Based Proteomic Analyses Reveal the Function of Spermidine on Improving Drought Tolerance in White Clover.

J Proteome Res 2016 05 8;15(5):1563-79. Epub 2016 Apr 8.

Department of Grassland Science, College of Animal Science and Technology, Sichuan Agricultural University , Chengdu 611130, China.

Endogenous spermidine interacting with phytohormones may be involved in the regulation of differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) associated with drought tolerance in white clover. Plants treated with or without spermidine (50 μM) were subjected to 20% PEG 6000 nutrient solution to induce drought stress (50% leaf-relative water content). The results showed that increased endogenous spermidine induced by exogenous spermidine altered endogenous phytohormones in association with improved drought tolerance, as demonstrated by the delay in water-deficit development, improved photosynthesis and water use efficiency, and lower oxidative damage. As compared to untreated plants, Spd-treated plants maintained a higher abundance of DEPs under drought stress involved in (1) protein biosynthesis (ribosomal and chaperone proteins); (2) amino acids synthesis; (3) the carbon and energy metabolism; (4) antioxidant and stress defense (ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione peroxidase, and dehydrins); and (5) GA and ABA signaling pathways (gibberellin receptor GID1, ABA-responsive protein 17, and ABA stress ripening protein). Thus, the findings of proteome could explain the Spd-induced physiological effects associated with drought tolerance. The analysis of functional protein-protein networks further proved that the alteration of endogenous spermidine and phytohormones induced the interaction among ribosome, photosynthesis, carbon metabolism, and amino acid biosynthesis. These differences could contribute to improved drought tolerance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jproteome.6b00027DOI Listing
May 2016

Corrigendum: Polyamine regulates tolerance to water stress in leaves of white clover associated with antioxidant defense and dehydrin genes via involvement in calcium messenger system and hydrogen peroxide signaling.

Front Physiol 2016 15;7:52. Epub 2016 Feb 15.

Department of Grassland Science, College of Animal Science and Technology, Sichuan Agricultural University Chengdu, China.

[This corrects the article on p. 280 in vol. 6, PMID: 26528187.].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2016.00052DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4753327PMC
February 2016

Genetic Diversity and Association of EST-SSR and SCoT Markers with Rust Traits in Orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.).

Molecules 2016 Jan 8;21(1):66. Epub 2016 Jan 8.

Department of Grassland Science, Animal Science and Technology College, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, China.

Orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.), is a well-known perennial forage species; however, rust diseases have caused a noticeable reduction in the quality and production of orchardgrass. In this study, genetic diversity was assessed and the marker-trait associations for rust were examined using 18 EST-SSR and 21 SCoT markers in 75 orchardgrass accessions. A high level of genetic diversity was detected in orchardgrass with an average genetic diversity index of 0.369. For the EST-SSR and SCoT markers, 164 and 289 total bands were obtained, of which 148 (90.24%) and 272 (94.12%) were polymorphic, respectively. Results from an AMOVA analysis showed that more genetic variance existed within populations (87.57%) than among populations (12.43%). Using a parameter marker index, the efficiencies of the EST-SSR and SCoT markers were compared to show that SCoTs have higher marker efficiency (8.07) than EST-SSRs (4.82). The results of a UPGMA cluster analysis and a STRUCTURE analysis were both correlated with the geographic distribution of the orchardgrass accessions. Linkage disequilibrium analysis revealed an average r² of 0.1627 across all band pairs, indicating a high extent of linkage disequilibrium in the material. An association analysis between the rust trait and 410 bands from the EST-SSR and SCoT markers using TASSEL software revealed 20 band panels were associated with the rust trait in both 2011 and 2012. The 20 bands obtained from association analysis could be used in breeding programs for lineage selection to prevent great losses of orchardgrass caused by rust, and provide valuable information for further association mapping using this collection of orchardgrass.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules21010066DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6273750PMC
January 2016

Clones of FeSOD, MDHAR, DHAR Genes from White Clover and Gene Expression Analysis of ROS-Scavenging Enzymes during Abiotic Stress and Hormone Treatments.

Molecules 2015 Nov 24;20(11):20939-54. Epub 2015 Nov 24.

College of Animal Science and Technology, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, China.

Increased transcriptional levels of genes encoding antioxidant enzymes play important protective roles in coping with excessive accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in plants exposed to various abiotic stresses. To fully elucidate different evolutions and functions of ROS-scavenging enzymatic genes, we isolated iron superoxide dismutase (FeSOD), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR) and monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR) from white clover for the first time and subsequently tested dynamic expression profiles of these genes together with previously identified other antioxidant enzyme genes including copper zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu/ZnSOD), manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), glutathione reductase (GR), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) in response to cold, drought, salinity, cadmium stress and exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) or spermidine (Spd) treatment. The cloned fragments of FeSOD, DHAR and MDHAR genes were 630, 471 and 669 bp nucleotide sequences encoding 210, 157 and 223 amino acids, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that both amino acid and nucleotide sequences of these three genes are highly conservative. In addition, the analysis of genes expression showed the transcription of GR, POD, MDHAR, DHAR and Cu/ZnSOD were rapidly activated with relatively high abundance during cold stress. Differently, CAT, APX, FeSOD, Cu/ZnSOD and MnSOD exhibited more abundant transcripts compared to others under drought stress. Under salt stress, CAT was induced preferentially (3-12 h) compared to GR which was induced later (12-72 h). Cadmium stress mainly up-regulated Cu/ZnSOD, DHAR and MDHAR. Interestingly, most of genes expression induced by ABA or Spd happened prior to various abiotic stresses. The particular expression patterns and different response time of these genes indicated that white clover differentially activates genes encoding antioxidant enzymes to mitigate the damage of ROS during various environmental stresses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules201119741DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6332117PMC
November 2015
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