Publications by authors named "Yanhong Ji"

92 Publications

Effective improvements to the live-attenuated Newcastle disease virus vaccine by polyethylenimine-based biomimetic silicification.

Vaccine 2022 Jan 3. Epub 2022 Jan 3.

State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology, Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Lanzhou 730046, PR China. Electronic address:

Live and killed vaccines impart a significant role in preventing of Newcastle disease (ND) in China. Vaccine efficacy could be ameliorated by improving vaccine-induced cellular immunity and antibody persistency. Previous studies substantiated the potency of silicon dioxide (SiO) in the control-release of drugs and as a vaccine adjuvant, and polyethylenimine (PEI) merits as a mucosal adjuvanticity with electro-positivity. The present study employed SiO and PEI to prepare biomimetic silicon mineralized nanoparticle [email protected] and microparticle (SiO + PEI)@G7M vaccines of G7M, a candidate for live attenuated vaccine of genotype VII Newcastle disease virus (NDV). The zeta potential experiment confirmed the significant increase in the average zeta potential of the nanoparticle [email protected] and microparticle (SiO + PEI)@G7M relative to G7M before mineralization. The results of RT-qPCR revealed more than 99% mineralization efficiency of the [email protected] and (SiO + PEI)@G7M. The morphology detected by transmission electron microscopy reported that the diameters of [email protected] were similar to those of G7M, while for (SiO + PEI)@G7M, it was about five times larger than that of G7M. Silicon was detected on the surface of both mineralization particles, except for G7M, as observed from the elemental distribution detected by elemental mapping and energy dispersive X-ray spectrogram. Indirect immunofluorescence assays validated that mineralization virus have replicated ability in BHK-21F cells. In vivo experiments revealed higher than 5.50 log of antibody in nanoparticles [email protected] group until 10-week post-vaccination, and significant proliferation of antigen-specific CD3CD4 in nanoparticles [email protected] immunized group corroborated improved cellular immune responses. Vaccines provided full protection to the immunized chickens, whereas all the chickens receiving mock immunizations succumbed to the disease. Overall, our study concluded the efficacy of biomimetic mineralization of live attenuated vaccine in nanoparticles to improve humoral and cellular immune responses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2021.12.054DOI Listing
January 2022

Correlation of plasma and urine Wnt5A with the disease activity and cutaneous lesion severity in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

Immunol Res 2021 Dec 3. Epub 2021 Dec 3.

Department of Pathogenic Biology and Immunology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Xi'an Jiaotong University Health Science Centre, No. 76 Yanta West Road, Xi'an, 710061, Shanxi, China.

Reliable noninvasive biomarkers are needed to accurately assess disease activity and prognosis in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical relevance of Wnt5A with disease activity and severity with cutaneous involvement in particular in SLE patients; its concentrations in plasma and urine were examined and analyzed. In the cross-sectional study, the clinical relevance of Wnt5A protein was evaluated in both plasma and urine of SLE patients and healthy cohorts using commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). Significantly, more abundances of Wnt5A protein were determined in both of plasmas and urines of SLE patients compared to healthy cohorts (p < 0.0001), which were even higher in active disease (AD) SLE patients relative to low disease activity (LDA) SLE patients (p < 0.0001). Meanwhile, the ROC curve analysis demonstrated that the plasma and urine Wnt5A were potential candidate biomarkers for identifying the disease activity and severity in SLE patients. The discriminant function analysis further revealed that the plasma and urine Wnt5A were separated and distinct for AD SLE patients and healthy controls. In consistence, the disease severity was correlated with the plasma and urine Wnt5A as ascertained by CLASI activity score and the prevalence of serositis in SLE patients. These results suggest that Wnt5A, as a summary measure for different inflammatory processes, could be a potential biomarker for accessing the disease activity, and a noninvasive biomarker for evaluating the disease severity in terms of cutaneous involvement in SLE patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12026-021-09253-wDOI Listing
December 2021

Association between serum lactate dehydrogenase and 60-day mortality in Chinese Hakka patients with acute myeloid leukemia: A cohort study.

J Clin Lab Anal 2021 Dec 28;35(12):e24049. Epub 2021 Oct 28.

Department of Immunology& Microbiology, School of Medicine, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an Shaanxi, China.

Background: There is evidence that a high level of serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is associated with poorer overall survival in acute myeloid leukemia (AML), but its link to 60-day mortality of AML remains unclear.

Methods: All patients newly diagnosed with AML were included in this cohort study. LDH was measured for the first time after admission. Multivariable logistic regression was used to explore the association between serum LDH and 60-day mortality. Interaction and stratified analyses were conducted including age, sex, albumin, glucose, myoglobin, and standard chemotherapy.

Results: Three hundred and seventy-one patients ≥15 years of age, who were newly diagnosed with AML, were consecutively selected. The total prevalence of 60-day mortality was 27.2% (101/371), while it was 32.1% (42/131) and higher than in the LDH ≥570U/L compared with the LDH<570U/L, with the prevalence of 24.6% (59/240); however, the difference was not statistically significant. In multivariate regression models, odd ratios and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for Log and twice limit of normal (ULN) of LDH were 1.46 (1.0, 2.14) and 2.76 (1.24, 6.16), respectively. Interaction analysis revealed no interactive role in the association between LDH concentration and 60-day mortality.

Conclusions: Serum LDH level was associated with 60-day mortality, especially for the patients with LDH ≥570U/L.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcla.24049DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8649362PMC
December 2021

lncRNA GAS5, as a ceRNA, inhibits the proliferation of diffuse large B‑cell lymphoma cells by regulating the miR‑18a‑5p/RUNX1 axis.

Int J Oncol 2021 Nov 26;59(5). Epub 2021 Oct 26.

Department of Pathogenic Biology and Immunology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Xi'an Jiaotong University Health Science Center, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710061, P.R. China.

Diffuse large B‑cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is a common and fatal malignant tumor caused by B‑lymphocytes. Long non‑coding RNA (lncRNA) GAS5 (growth arrest specific 5) has been reported to function as a tumor suppressor gene, and is differentially expressed in DLBCL. The present study aimed to explore the potential mechanisms of action of lncRNA GAS5 in the proliferation of DLBCL cells. The expression levels of GAS5, miR‑18a‑5p and Runt‑related transcription factor 1 (RUNX1) in DLBCL cell lines were detected using reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and their effects on cell proliferation, the cell cycle and apoptosis were determined using 5‑ethynyl‑2'‑deoxyuridine assay and flow cytometry. Dual‑luciferase reporter and RNA pull-down assays were used to evaluate the interaction between GAS5 and miR‑18a‑5p, or between miR‑18a‑5p and RUNX1. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay was used to identify the interaction between RUNX1 and BAX. The expression levels of GAS5 and RUNX1 were downregulated; however, miR‑18a‑5p expression was upregulated in the DLBCL cell lines compared with the normal controls. GAS5 directly interacted with miR‑18a‑5p by acting as a competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) and reversed the low expression of RUNX1 induced by miR‑18a‑5p. Additionally, the knockdown of RUNX1 reversed the inhibitory effects of GAS5 on the proliferation and cell cycle G1 arrest, and its promoting effects on the apoptosis of OCI‑Ly3 and TMD8 cells. Moreover, RUNX1 enhanced BAX expression by directly binding to the BAX promoter. On the whole, the present study demonstrates that GAS5 functions as a ceRNA, inhibiting DLBCL cell proliferation by sponging miR‑18a‑5p to upregulate RUNX1 expression. These findings may provide a potential therapeutic strategy for DLBCL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/ijo.2021.5274DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8562389PMC
November 2021

CircC6orf132 Facilitates Proliferation, Migration, Invasion, and Glycolysis of Gastric Cancer Cells Under Hypoxia by Acting on the miR-873-5p/PRKAA1 Axis.

Front Genet 2021 30;12:636392. Epub 2021 Sep 30.

Department of Pathogenic Biology and Immunology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Xi'an Jiaotong University Health Science Center, Xi'an, China.

Hypoxia is a crucial factor in the progression of various tumors, including gastric cancer (GC). Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are important regulators in GC, and this study focused on researching circC6orf132 in GC progression under hypoxia. experiments were performed in GC cells under hypoxia (1% O). CircC6orf132, microRNA-873-5p (miR-873-5p), and protein kinase AMP-activated alpha 1 catalytic subunit (PRKAA1) levels were examined by real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Colony formation assay and transwell assay were used for detecting cell proliferation and migration or invasion. Glycolytic metabolism was evaluated using lactate production, glucose uptake, and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) level and extracellular acidification rate (ECAR). Western blotting was performed for determining protein expression. The target interaction was analyzed by dual-luciferase reporter and RNA immunoprecipitation (RIP) assays. assay was conducted mouse xenograft model. The expression of circC6orf132 was significantly high in GC cells under hypoxia. Hypoxia-induced GC proliferation, migration, invasion, and glycolysis were reversed by silencing circC6orf132. CircC6orf132 targeted miR-873-5p; and the inhibition of circC6orf132 knockdown for the effects of hypoxia on GC cells was abrogated by miR-873-5p inhibitor. PRKAA1 was validated as a downstream gene of miR-873-5p, and miR-873-5p functioned as an anticancer molecule in GC cells under hypoxia by downregulating PRKAA1 level. CircC6orf132 could regulate PRKAA1 by sponging miR-873-5p. CircC6orf132/miR-873-5p/PRKAA1 axis could regulate GC progression under the hypoxic condition. CircC6orf132 downregulation reduced tumorigenesis through affecting the miR-873-5p/PRKAA1 axis. CircC6orf132 has been affirmed to promote proliferation, migration, invasion, and glycolysis in GC under hypoxia, partly by depending on the regulation of miR-873-5p/PRKAA1 axis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2021.636392DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8514671PMC
September 2021

Removing the influence of the angle of incidence in a dual rotating retarder Mueller matrix polarimeter.

Appl Opt 2021 Sep;60(27):8472-8479

Due to the sensitivity of wave plates to the angle of incidence (AOI) of light, the accuracy of a dual rotating retarder Mueller matrix polarimeter is also influenced by the AOI. Unlike other conventional systematic errors, the phase retardance error of wave plates caused by AOI is a periodic perturbation rather than a constant. We propose a new method to eliminate the influence of AOI based on a numerical calibration method. To verify the reliability of the proposed calibration method, we measured various types of samples in a transmission Mueller matrix measuring system, such as air, dichroic samples, and birefringent samples, with different AOI conditions. It is demonstrated that the new calibration method can effectively eliminate the influence of AOI. After calibration, the maximum measurement error can be reduced to less than 0.02.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.435283DOI Listing
September 2021

Choline-induced SLC5A7 impairs colorectal cancer growth by stabilizing p53 protein.

Cancer Lett 2022 01 22;525:55-66. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Cancer Center, West China Hospital, Sichuan University and Collaborative Innovation Center for Biotherapy, Chengdu, Sichuan, 610041, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

The members of the solute carrier (SLC) superfamily are vital membrane transporters in human cells. In the present study, we determine the expression and function of SLC5 family members in colorectal cancer (CRC). Expression analysis based on The Cancer Genome Atlas database and potential clinical relation analysis based on the Oncomine database indicate that SLC5A7 is downregulated and is predicted to correlate with the staging, and prognosis response of CRC. Additional results demonstrate that SLC5A7 is downregulated and correlates with good prognosis in patients with CRC. Ectopic expression of SLC5A7 either by overexpression, or uptake of choline efficiently inhibits CRC growth. Examination of the molecular mechanism reveals that SLC5A7 promotes p53 protein expression by directly interacting with and modifying p53 and disrupting the interaction between p53 and MDM2 in wild type p53 CRC cells. Our findings establish the clear correlation between SLC5A7 and tumour growth, providing a novel potential therapeutic target for CRC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.canlet.2021.09.027DOI Listing
January 2022

Imaging Sensor for the Detection of the Flow Battery Via Weak Value Amplification.

Anal Chem 2021 09 15;93(38):12914-12920. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Institute of Optical Imaging and Sensing, Shenzhen Key Laboratory for Minimal Invasive Medical Technologies, Tsinghua Shenzhen International Graduate School, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen 518055, People's Republic of China.

Flow battery electrodes are vital for performing redox reactions, and an in-depth understanding of reaction kinetics and spatial distribution differences in electrodes is very important for improving the efficiency of electrochemical reactions. In this study, a reflection-type phase-sensitive weak measurement imaging system was developed for the detection of flow batteries. The phase difference between two polarization components in total internal reflection caused by electrode redox processes was measured by weak value amplification. The resulting refractive index resolution of the imaging system was estimated to be 2.8-4.2 × 10 RIU. The real-time monitoring ability of the system was demonstrated by linear sweep voltammetry tests of vanadium redox batteries. Compared to traditional optical methods, the proposed weak measurement imaging sensor did not require coating, as it can be used in acid electrolytes of vanadium flow batteries. Meanwhile, the weak value amplification effect led to a higher resolution than the total internal reflection system shown in our previous work, thereby resulting in more accurate detection of electrochemical reactions. In sum, the proposed sensor looks very promising for the detection of electrochemical reactions in flow batteries, water splitting, electrochemical corrosion, and electrocatalysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.analchem.1c02189DOI Listing
September 2021

Specific detection of glucose by an optical weak measurement sensor.

Biomed Opt Express 2021 Aug 21;12(8):5128-5138. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Institute of Optical Imaging and Sensing, Shenzhen Key Laboratory for Minimal Invasive Medical Technologies, Tsinghua Shenzhen International Graduate School, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen 518055, China.

Diabetes is an important public health problem and finding quick testing methods with high accuracy, reliability, and convenience are important to control the blood glucose of diabetic patients. In this study, a sensor based on a weak measurement scheme was developed for the specific detection of glucose for the first time. The detection of glucose using the proposed method was completed by the high sensitivity and resolution of the weak measurement based on optical rotation detection, as well as the change in the optical rotation before and after the specific oxidation of glucose. The resolution of the as-obtained glucose sensor was around 2.71×10 g/L (1.50×10 mmol/L), and the detection range was 0-11 g/L (0-61 mmol/L).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/BOE.422199DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8407809PMC
August 2021

Effects of sub-lethal antimicrobial photodynamic therapy mediated by haematoporphyrin monomethyl ether on polymyxin-resistant Escherichia coli clinical isolate.

Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther 2021 Dec 29;36:102516. Epub 2021 Aug 29.

Department of Pathogenic Microbiology & Immunology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Xi'an Jiaotong University Health Science Center, 76 West Yanta Road, Xi'an, 710061, PR China. Electronic address:

Background And Aim: It is generally believed that bacteria can not develop resistance to antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT). This work employed a polymyxin-resistant Escherichia coli clinical isolate (E15017) to study whether it could become resistant to aPDT mediated by haematoporphyrin monomethyl ether (HMME) via consecutive photodynamic treatments at sub-lethal condition.

Methods: The sub-lethal and lethal photodynamic treatment conditions for E15017 were determined by colony forming units (CFU) assay. Bacterial cells of E15017 were treated with 20 cycles of repeated sub-lethal HMME-mediated aPDT, and subsequently subjected to aPDT at lethal condition. The antibiotic susceptibility, zeta-potential and membrane integrity of sub-lethal aPDT treated E15017 cells were also investigated.

Results: After 20 cycles of repeated HMME-mediated aPDT treatments at sub-lethal condition, E15017 cells didn't become more resistant to aPDT. Sub-lethal HMME-mediated aPDT decreased the MIC values of E15017 to ceftazidime and polymyxin E by 4 and 2-fold, respectively, and increased the electronegativity of bacterial surface and affected the bacterial membrane integrity.

Conclusions: The results obtained in this study confirmed that antibiotic-resistant bacteria could not develop resistance to aPDT, and HMME-mediated aPDT is an attractive potential treatment for MDR E. coli caused infections.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pdpdt.2021.102516DOI Listing
December 2021

Aloe-Emodin-Mediated Photodynamic Therapy Attenuates Sepsis-Associated Toxins in Selected Gram-Positive Bacteria In Vitro.

J Microbiol Biotechnol 2021 Sep;31(9):1200-1209

Department of Pathogenic Microbiology and Immunology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Xi'an Jiaotong University Health Science Center, 76 West Yanta Road, Xi'an 710061, P.R. China.

Sepsis is an acute inflammatory response that leads to life-threatening complications if not quickly and adequately treated. Cytolysin, hemolysin, and pneumolysin are toxins produced by gram-positive bacteria and are responsible for resistance to antimicrobial drugs, cause virulence and lead to sepsis. This work assessed the effects of aloe-emodin (AE) and photodynamic therapy (PDT) on sepsis-associated gram-positive bacterial toxins. Standard and antibiotic-resistant , , and bacterial strains were cultured in the dark with varying AE concentrations and later irradiated with 72 J/cm light. Colony and biofilm formation was determined. CCK-8, Griess reagent reaction, and ELISA assays were done on bacteria-infected RAW264.7 cells to determine the cell viability, NO, and IL-1β and IL-6 pro-inflammatory cytokines responses, respectively. Hemolysis and western blot assays were done to determine the effect of treatment on hemolysis activity and sepsis-associated toxins expressions. AE-mediated PDT reduced bacterial survival in a dose-dependent manner with 32 μg/ml of AE almost eliminating their survival. Cell proliferation, NO, IL-1β, and IL-6 cytokines production were also significantly downregulated. Further, the hemolytic activities and expressions of cytolysin, hemolysin, and pneumolysin were significantly reduced following AE-mediated PDT. In conclusion, combined use of AE and light (435 ± 10 nm) inactivates MRSA, (ATCC 29213), (ATCC 49619), MDR-, (ATCC 29212), and VRE (ATCC 51299) in an AE-dose dependent manner. AE and light are also effective in reducing biofilm formations, suppressing pro-inflammatory cytokines, hemolytic activities, and inhibiting the expressions of toxins that cause sepsis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4014/jmb.2105.05024DOI Listing
September 2021

RAG enhances BCR-ABL1-positive leukemic cell growth through its endonuclease activity in vitro and in vivo.

Cancer Sci 2021 Jul 18;112(7):2679-2691. Epub 2021 May 18.

Department of Pathogenic Biology and Immunology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Xi'an Jiaotong University Health Science Center, Xi'an, China.

BCR-ABL1 gene fusion associated with additional DNA lesions involves the pathogenesis of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) from a chronic phase (CP) to a blast crisis of B lymphoid (CML-LBC) lineage and BCR-ABL1 acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BCR-ABL1 ALL). The recombination-activating gene RAG1 and RAG2 (collectively, RAG) proteins that assemble a diverse set of antigen receptor genes during lymphocyte development are abnormally expressed in CML-LBC and BCR-ABL1 ALL. However, the direct involvement of dysregulated RAG in disease progression remains unclear. Here, we generate human wild-type (WT) RAG and catalytically inactive RAG-expressing BCR-ABL1 and BCR-ABL1 cell lines, respectively, and demonstrate that BCR-ABL1 specifically collaborates with RAG recombinase to promote cell survival in vitro and in xenograft mice models. WT RAG-expressing BCR-ABL1 cell lines and primary CD34 bone marrow cells from CML-LBC samples maintain more double-strand breaks (DSB) compared to catalytically inactive RAG-expressing BCR-ABL1 cell lines and RAG-deficient CML-CP samples, which are measured by γ-H2AX. WT RAG-expressing BCR-ABL1 cells are biased to repair RAG-mediated DSB by the alternative non-homologous end joining pathway (a-NHEJ), which could contribute genomic instability through increasing the expression of a-NHEJ-related MRE11 and RAD50 proteins. As a result, RAG-expressing BCR-ABL1 cells decrease sensitivity to tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) by activating BCR-ABL1 signaling but independent of the levels of BCR-ABL1 expression and mutations in the BCR-ABL1 tyrosine kinase domain. These findings identify a surprising and novel role of RAG in the functional specialization of disease progression in BCR-ABL1 leukemia through its endonuclease activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cas.14939DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8253288PMC
July 2021

Aloe-emodin-mediated antimicrobial photodynamic therapy against multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii: An in vivo study.

Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther 2021 Jun 27;34:102311. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Pathogenic Microbiology & Immunology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Xi'an Jiaotong University Health Science Center, 76 West Yanta Road, Xi'an, 710061, PR China. Electronic address:

Background And Aim: Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) has shown great potential for treatment of superficial or localized multidrug-resistant (MDR) Acinetobacter baumannii infections. The purpose of this study was to investigate the cytotoxicity and in vivo safety of aloe-emodin (AE), and its photodynamic treatment efficacy against MDR A. baumannii infections.

Methods: The cytotoxicity (dark toxicity) and phototoxicity of AE to human immortalized keratinocytes and mice fibroblasts were detected by CCK-8 kit. Low and high doses of AE were intravenously injected into mice to evaluate the safety of AE in vivo. Bioluminescent MDR A. baumannii strain was employed to establish the infection model on BALB/c mice after skin scald, and infection status and therapeutic effect of AE-mediated aPDT were assessed by animal imaging system. The peripheral blood of mice was analyzed by flow cytometer.

Results: AE had low cytotoxicity to human immortalized keratinocytes and mice fibroblasts, and had certain phototoxicity to these cells under light irradiation. The in vivo experiments demonstrated that AE caused no obvious effects on the weight and pathological changes of mice. AE-mediated aPDT was effective in the treatment of MDR A. baumannii caused infections in mice after skin scald.

Conclusions: AE has potential to be used in the photodynamic treatment of MDR A. baumannii caused superficial infections after scald.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pdpdt.2021.102311DOI Listing
June 2021

CircKRT1 drives tumor progression and immune evasion in oral squamous cell carcinoma by sponging miR-495-3p to regulate PDL1 expression.

Cell Biol Int 2021 Jul 14;45(7):1423-1435. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Pathogenic Biology and Immunology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Xi'an Jiaotong University Health Science Center, Xi'an, Shaanxi, China.

Regulatory functions of circRNAs by targeting the micro RNA (miRNA)/mRNA axis have been increasingly found in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). CircRNA keratin 1 (CircKRT1) and miR-495-3p were dysregulated in OSCC. Programmed death ligand 1 (PDL1) was an important immunotherapeutic molecule in OSCC. Our objective was to explore whether circKRT1 could regulate cancer progression and immune evasion in OSCC by affecting the miR-495-3p/PDL1 axis. RNA expression was examined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. All protein levels were detected by western blot. OSCC cell growth was assessed by CCK-8 and colony formation assays. Cell migratory and invasive abilities were evaluated by transwell assay. CD8 T-cell cytotoxicity was determined via lactate dehydrogenase assay. CD8 T-cell percentage and apoptosis were analyzed by flow cytometry. Target screening was performed by Veen Diagram and RNA pull-down assay. Target binding was verified using dual-luciferase reporter and RNA immunoprecipitation assays. A xenograft in mice was conducted for in vivo experiment. CircKRT1 and PDL1 were highly expressed in OSCC tissues and cells. CircKRT1 knockdown repressed OSCC cell growth, migration, invasion, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, and CD8 T-cell apoptosis, but enhanced CD8 T cytotoxicity and percentage. The inhibitory effects of circKRT1 downregulation on OSCC progression and immune evasion were related to PDL1 expression inhibition. CircKRT1 sponged miR-495-3p and miR-495-3p targeted PDL1. OSCC progression and immune evasion were regulated by circKRT1 via the miR-495-3p/PDL1 axis. CircKRT1 also facilitated OSCC progression in vivo by regulating miR-495-3p and PDL1. This study clarified that circKRT1 worked as a miR-495-3p sponge to regulate PDL1, consequently affecting cancer progression and immune evasion in OSCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cbin.11581DOI Listing
July 2021

Involvement of Blnk and Foxo1 in tumor suppression in BCR‑ABL1‑transformed pro‑B cells.

Oncol Rep 2021 02 8;45(2):693-705. Epub 2020 Dec 8.

Department of Pathogenic Biology and Immunology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Xi'an Jiaotong University Health Science Center, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710061, P.R. China.

Oncogenic Bcr‑Abl kinase mimics pre‑B cell receptor (pre‑BCR) survival signals in BCR‑ABL1‑positive B‑cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BCR‑ABL1+ B‑ALL), driving B‑cell progenitor malignant transformation; thus, defining a particularly unfavorable prognosis for patients. During B‑cell development, pre‑BCR differentiation signaling components terminate proliferative expansion and promote B‑cell maturation. To study whether pre‑BCR differentiation signaling components regulate the initiation and development of BCR‑ABL1+ B‑ALL, the tumor suppression mechanism of differentiation‑related signaling molecules in BCR‑ABL1‑transformed pro‑B cells were analyzed. The results demonstrated that Bcr‑Abl kinase activated the PI3K/Akt pathway, promoting cell growth, and upregulated Aid expression, increasing genomic instability in pro‑B cells. These findings suggest that Bcr‑Abl kinase mediates pro‑B cell malignant transformation. Furthermore, the present data revealed that BCR‑ABL1 oncogenic stress triggered enhanced expression of B‑cell differentiation components B‑cell linker (Blnk) and forkhead box protein O1 (Foxo1) in BCR‑ABL1 transformed pro‑B cells. Using the CRISPR/Cas9‑mediated Blnk or Foxo1 knockout BCR‑ABL1‑transformed pro‑B cells, it was identified that, in BCR‑ABL1‑transformed pro‑B cells, Blnk and Foxo1 reduced Bcr‑Abl kinase activity to induce cell cycle arrest and decrease genomic instability. In addition, Blnk suppressed the PI3K/Akt pathway to reduce Foxo1 phosphorylation and heighten the Foxo1 activity, indicating that, in BCR‑ABL1‑transformed pro‑B cells, Foxo1 participated in the regulation of Bcr‑Abl kinase by Blnk. The present data highlighted the antitumor mechanisms of Blnk and Foxo1 in the regulation of Bcr‑Abl kinase, and thus, may offer an alternative therapeutic strategy to Bcr‑Abl kinase regulation in BCR‑ABL1+ B‑ALL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/or.2020.7888DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7757083PMC
February 2021

CD19-targeting fusion protein combined with PD1 antibody enhances anti-tumor immunity in mouse models.

Oncoimmunology 2020 21;9(1):1747688. Epub 2020 Apr 21.

Department of Pathogenic Microbiology and Immunology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Xi'an Jiaotong University Health Science Center, Xi'an, China.

In our previous studies, using a B cell vaccine (scFv-Her2), the targeting of tumor-associated antigen Her2 (human epidermal growth factor receptor-2) to B cells via the anti-CD19 single chain variable fragment (scFv) was shown to augment tumor-specific immunity, which enhanced tumor control in the prophylactic and therapeutic setting. However, the fusion protein displayed limited activity against established tumors, and local relapses often occurred following scFv-Her2 treatment, indicating that scFv-Her2-induced responses are inadequate to maintain anti-tumor immunity. In this study, targeting the IV region (D4) of the extracellular region of Her2 to B cells via CD19 molecules (scFv-Her2) was found to enhance IFN-γ-producing-CD8 T cell infiltration in tumor tissues and reduced the number of tumor-infiltrating myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs). However, negative co-stimulatory molecules such as programmed cell death protein-1 (PD-1), CD160, and LAG-3 on T cells and programmed death protein ligand-1 (PD-L1) on tumor cells were upregulated in the tumor microenvironment after scFv-Her2 treatment. Further, anti-PD1 administration enhanced the efficacy of scFv-Her2 and anti-tumor immunity, as evidenced by the reversal of tumor-infiltrating CD8 T cell exhaustion and the reduction of MDSCs and Treg cells, which suppress T cells and alter the tumor immune microenvironment. Moreover, combining this with anti-PD1 antibodies promoted complete tumor rejection. Our data provide evidence of a close interaction among tumor vaccines, T cells, and the PD-L1/PD-1 axis and establish a basis for the rational design of combination therapy with immune modulators and tumor vaccine therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/2162402X.2020.1747688DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7185221PMC
July 2021

The effects of aloe emodin-mediated antimicrobial photodynamic therapy on drug-sensitive and resistant Candida albicans.

Photochem Photobiol Sci 2020 Apr;19(4):485-494

The First Affiliated Hospital of College of Medicine, Xi'an Jiaotong University, 277 West Yanta Road, Xi'an, 710061, China.

The extensive and repetitive use of antifungal drugs has led to the development of drug-resistant Candida albicans. Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) has received considerable attention as an emerging and promising approach to combat drug-resistant microbes. This study evaluated the photodynamic effects mediated by aloe emodin (AE), a natural compound isolated from Aloe vera and Rheum palmatum, on azole-sensitive and azole-resistant C. albicans in vitro. AE exhibited no significant dark toxicity, but in the presence of light, effectively inactivated C. albicans cells in a concentration-dependent manner. The uptake of AE by fungal cells was investigated by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), and the results showed that AE possessed stronger ability to enter into C. albicans cells following light irradiation. Transmission electron microscopy analysis suggested that AE-mediated aPDT could induce damage to the cell wall, cytoplasm, and nucleus. Damage to the surface of C. albicans was observed by scanning electron microscopy. These results suggest that AE is a potential PS for use in aPDT of drug-resistant C. albicans strains, and AE-mediated aPDT shows promise as an antifungal treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c9pp00352eDOI Listing
April 2020

Hydrogel-based microbeads for Raman-encoded suspension array using the reversed-phase suspension polymerization method and ultraviolet light curing.

Anal Bioanal Chem 2020 May 10;412(12):2731-2741. Epub 2020 Mar 10.

School of Physics and Telecommunication Engineering, South China Normal University, Guangzhou, 510006, Guangdong, China.

A one-step synthesis using the reversed-phase suspension polymerization method and ultraviolet light curing is proposed for preparing the Raman-encoded suspension array (SA). The encoded microcarriers are prepared by doping the Raman reporter molecules into an aqueous phase, and then dispersing the aqueous phase in an oil phase and curing by ultraviolet light irradiation. The multiplexed biomolecule detection and various concentration experiments confirm the qualitative and quantitative analysis capabilities of the Raman-encoded SA with a limit of detection of 52.68 pM. The narrow bandwidth of the Raman spectrum can achieve a large number of codes in the available spectral range and the independence between the encoding channel and the fluorescent label channel provides the encoding method with high accuracy. This preparation method is simple and easy to operate, low in cost, and high in efficiency. A large number of hydrogel-based encoding microbeads could be quickly obtained with good biocompatibility. Most importantly, concentrating plenty of Raman reporter molecules inside the microbeads increases the signal intensity and means the molecular assembly is not limited by the functional groups; thus, the types of materials available for Raman encoding method are expanded. Furthermore, the signal intensity-related encoding method is verified by doping different proportions of Raman reporter molecules with our proposed synthesis method, which further increases the detection throughput of Raman-encoded SA. Graphical Abstract.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00216-020-02528-5DOI Listing
May 2020

The evolution of zebrafish RAG2 protein is required for adapting to the elevated body temperature of the higher endothermic vertebrates.

Sci Rep 2020 03 5;10(1):4126. Epub 2020 Mar 5.

State Key Laboratory of Cell Biology, Shanghai Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Center for Excellence in Molecular Cell Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, 200031, China.

The recombination activating gene (RAG or RAG1/RAG2 complex)-mediated adaptive immune system is a hallmark of jawed vertebrates. It has been reported that RAG originated in invertebrates. However, whether RAG further evolved once it arose in jawed vertebrates remains largely unknown. Here, we found that zebrafish RAG (zRAG) had a lower activity than mouse RAG (mRAG). Intriguingly, the attenuated stability of zebrafish RAG2 (zRAG2), but not zebrafish RAG1, caused the reduced V(D)J recombination efficiency compared to mRAG at 37 °C which are the body temperature of most endotherms except birds. Importantly, the lower temperature 28 °C, which is the best temperature for zebrafish growth, made the recombination efficiency of zRAG similar to that of mRAG by improving the stability of zRAG2. Consistent with the prementioned observation, the V(D)J recombination of Rag2 mice, which zRAG2 was substituted for mRAG2, was also severely impaired. Unexpectedly, Rag2 mice developed cachexia syndromes accompanied by premature death. Taken together, our findings illustrate that the evolution of zebrafish RAG2 protein is required for adapting to the elevated body temperature of the higher endothermic vertebrates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-61019-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7057966PMC
March 2020

AID assists DNMT1 to attenuate BCL6 expression through DNA methylation in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma cell lines.

Neoplasia 2020 03 12;22(3):142-153. Epub 2020 Feb 12.

Department of Pathogenic Biology and Immunology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Xi'an Jiaotong University Health Science Centre, Xi'an, Shaanxi, China; Key Laboratory of Environment and Genes Related to Diseases (Xi'an Jiaotong University), Ministry of Education of China, Xi'an, Shaanxi, China. Electronic address:

The BCL6 proto-oncogene encodes a transcriptional repressor, which is required for germinal centers (GCs) formation and lymphomagenesis. Previous studies have been reported that the constitutive expression of BCL6 leads to diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) through activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) mediated chromosomal translocations and mutations. However, other DLBCLs (45%) without structural variants were characterized by abnormally high level of BCL6 expression through an unknown mechanism. Herein, we report that deficiency in AID or methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) triggers high level of BCL6 expression. AID-DNMT1 complex binds to -0.4 kb -0 kb region of BCL6 promoter and contributes to generate BCL6 methylation which results in inhibition of BCL6 expression. The proteasome pathway inhibitor MG132 induces accumulation of AID and DNMT1, causes decreased BCL6 expression, and leads to cell apoptosis and tumor growth inhibition in DLBCL cell xenograft mice. These findings propose mechanistic insight into an alternative cofactor role of AID in assisting DNMT1 to maintain BCL6 methylation, thus suppress BCL6 transcription in DLBCL. This novel mechanism will provide a new drug selection in the therapeutic approach to DLBCL in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neo.2020.01.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7021553PMC
March 2020

Weak measurement-based sensor for the rapid identification of L(+)-ascorbic acid and D(-)-isoascorbic acid.

Appl Opt 2019 Nov;58(31):8583-8588

The ability to identify L(+)-ascorbic acid from D(-)-isoascorbic acid in medicinal products is of practical interest. Based on the method of frequency domain weak measurement, a set of common optical path sensors for identification of L(+)-ascorbic acid and D(-)-isoascorbic acid is established. By quantificationally analyzing the magnitude and offset direction of the spectral central wavelength, a good identification of the concentration and the optically active forms of ascorbic acid has been achieved. The sensitivity and resolution of the sensor for optical rotation can reach 34.35 nm/° and ${5.53} \times {{10}^{ - 5}}^\circ $5.53×10 , respectively. The detection resolution for L(+)-ascorbic acid is ${2.00} \times {{10}^{ - 4}}\;{\rm mol}/{\rm mL}$2.00×10mol/mL, and that for D(-)-isoascorbic acid is ${2.73} \times {{10}^{ - 4}}\;{\rm mol}/{\rm mL}$2.73×10mol/mL. The potential of the sensor in the detection of transparent but optically inactive impurities has been verified by comparative experiments of sodium chloride solution. The sensor also has been applied to identify medicinal vitamin C tablets, which verified the feasibility of the method in optically active pharmaceutical solutions with water-insoluble, optically inactive impurities. Since the sensor has the advantages of high precision, real-time, high robustness, and being non-destructive, it has a great prospect in the field of drug detection containing chiral molecules.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.58.008583DOI Listing
November 2019

Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy against multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii clinical isolates mediated by aloe-emodin: An in vitro study.

Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther 2020 Mar 20;29:101632. Epub 2019 Dec 20.

Department of Pathogenic Microbiology & Immunology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Xi'an Jiaotong University Health Science Center, 76 West Yanta Road, Xi'an, 710061, PR China. Electronic address:

Background And Aim: Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) has received considerable attention as an emerging and promising approach for treating superficial infections. The aim of this study was to investigate aPDT mediated by aloe emodin (AE), a natural compound isolated from Aloe vera and Rheum palmatum, against multidrug-resistant (MDR) Acinetobacter baumannii clinical isolates in vitro.

Methods: The photodynamic inactivation (PDI) efficacies of AE on three MDR A. baumannii isolates were assessed by colony forming units (CFU) assay. The aPDT effects mediated by AE on the genomic DNA, membrane integrity, and cellular structure of MDR A. baumannii were also investigated.

Results: AE showed no obvious dark toxicity, but inactivated the MDR A. baumannii isolates in an AE concentration and light energy dose-dependent manner. Agarose gel electrophoresis and LIVE/DEAD BacLight Bacterial Viability kit assay indicated that the genomic DNA and membrane integrity of MDR A. baumannii were damaged after AE-mediated aPDT treatment. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images demonstrated that AE-mediated aPDT could induce rupture of bacterial cell wall and membrane, and condensation of ribosomes in the cytoplasm.

Conclusions: The results obtained in this study suggested that AE could serve as a potential antibacterial photosensitizer in the treatment of superficial infections caused by MDR A. baumannii.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pdpdt.2019.101632DOI Listing
March 2020

Optical Thickness-Encoded Suspension Array for High-Throughput Multiplexed Gene Detection.

Sensors (Basel) 2019 Dec 9;19(24). Epub 2019 Dec 9.

School of Physics and Telecommunication Engineering, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006, China.

We proposed a coding and decoding method of suspension array (SA) based on micro-quartz pieces (MQPs) with different optical thicknesses. The capture probes (cDNA) were grafted onto the surfaces of MQPs and specifically recognized and combined with the partial sequence of the target DNA (tDNA) to form a MQP-cDNA-tDNA complex. Quantum dot-labeled signal probes were then used to specifically recognize and bind another portion of the tDNA in the complex to form a double-probe sandwich structure. This optical thickness-encoded SA can be decoded and detected by a dual-wavelength digital holographic phase fluorescence microscope system. We conducted a series of DNA molecule detection experiments by using this encoding method. Control experiments confirmed the specificity of optical thickness-encoded SA in DNA detection. The concentration gradient experiments then demonstrated the response of the MQPs based SA to analyte concentration. Finally, we used the encoding method to detect three types of DNA in a single sample and confirmed the feasibility of the proposed optical thickness-encoded SA in multiplexed DNA detection. The detection results are stable, and the detection exhibits high specificity and good repeatability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s19245425DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6960763PMC
December 2019

Temporal DNA methylation pattern and targeted therapy in colitis-associated cancer.

Carcinogenesis 2020 04;41(2):235-244

State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Cancer Center, West China Hospital, Sichuan University and Collaborative Innovation Center for Biotherapy, Chengdu, Sichuan, P. R. China.

DNA methylation plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of various diseases, including colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the global and temporal DNA methylation pattern during initiation and progression of colitis-associated cancer (CAC) are still unknown, including the potential therapeutic strategy of targeting methylation for CAC. In the present study, the global DNA methylation pattern was determined at different time points during CAC using DNA methylation sequencing, followed by the Starburst plot integrating alterations and potential functional prediction analysis. After demonstrating the regulatory role of DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) on the expression of hub-genes in CRC cells, DNMT inhibitors were administered to treat CAC mice. Our results indicated that 811 genes were hypermethylated at different time points during initiation and progression of CAC. Genes that were downregulated and hypermethylated during CAC, including hub-genes BAD and inositol polyphosphate phosphatase-like 1 (INPPL1), were involved in MAPK signaling pathways, kit receptor signaling pathways, apoptosis and EGF/EGFR signaling pathways. Upregulated DNMTs (DNMT1, DNMT3A and DNMT3B) mediated downregulation and hypermethylation of BAD and INPPL1 in CAC and CRC cells. Low doses of DNMT inhibitors (decitabine (DAC) and azacitidine (AZA)) exerted efficient antitumor effects in CAC, accompanied with upregulation of BAD and INPPL1 expression, and apoptosis induction. In summary, the present study demonstrates the temporal DNA methylation pattern during CAC and provides a novel therapeutic strategy for treating this disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/carcin/bgz199DOI Listing
April 2020

Hypocrellin B-Mediated Photodynamic Inactivation of Gram-Positive Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria: An Study.

Photobiomodul Photomed Laser Surg 2020 Jan 21;38(1):36-42. Epub 2019 Oct 21.

Department of Pathogenic Microbiology and Immunology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Xi'an Jiaotong University Health Science Center, Xi'an, P.R. China.

The search for alternative therapeutics against antibiotic-resistant bacteria is highly desirable. A promising approach is photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy. This work evaluated the photodynamic inactivation (PDI) efficacy of hypocrellin B (HB) on Gram-positive antibiotic-resistant bacteria. PDI efficacy of HB on Gram-positive standard and antibiotic-resistant , , and and Gram-negative and was assessed. HB photoactivity on biofilms formed by the Gram-positive bacteria and its cytotoxicity on mammalian CT26 cells were also investigated. HB showed no obvious dark toxicity, but provided concentration-dependent inactivation of bacteria and mammalian cells. After irradiation with 72 J/cm light, 100 μM of HB achieved about 7 log reductions in bacterial survival of Gram-positive strains, but yielded only 2 log reductions in bacterial survival of Gram-negative strains. Gram-positive bacteria were as susceptible to PDI in biofilms as in planktonic suspensions, but the efficacy was attenuated. The results suggested that HB could serve as a potential antibacterial photosensitizer against Gram-positive antibiotic-resistant bacteria.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/photob.2019.4656DOI Listing
January 2020

miR-22 inhibits synovial fibroblasts proliferation and proinflammatory cytokine production in RASF via targeting SIRT1.

Gene 2020 Jan 17;724:144144. Epub 2019 Oct 17.

Department of Pathogenic Biology and Immunology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Xi'an Jiaotong University Health Science Center, Key Laboratory of Environment and Genes Related to Diseases (Xi'an Jiaotong University), Ministry of Education of China, No. 76 Yanta West Road, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710061, China. Electronic address:

Background/aims: Rheumatoid arthritis synovial fibroblasts (RASF) play an essential role in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). This study aimed to investigate the biological effects of miR-22 on RASFs.

Methods: RT-qPCR was used to detect the expressions of miR-22 and SIRT1 in RA synovial tissue. The results of miR-22 on the proliferation of RASF were examined by MTT assay. The effects of miR-22 on the secretion of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 in RASF were measured by ELISA. Target gene prediction and screening, and luciferase reporter assay were used to testify downstream target genes of miR-22. RT-qPCR and western blotting were used to detect the mRNA and protein expression of SIRT1.

Results: miR-22 was significantly decreased in RA synovial tissue, while SIRT1 was significantly increased in RA synovial tissue. Over-expression of miR-22 significantly inhibited the proliferation of RASFs and the secretions of inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6) in RASFs. SIRT1 was identified as a direct target of miR-22. Over-expression of miR-22 reduced the expression level of SIRT1 in RASFs. Over-expression of SIRT1 reversed the effect of miR-22 on the proliferation of RASFs and the secretion of inflammatory cytokines.

Conclusion: MIR-22 was significantly down-regulated in RASF cells, which affected the secretions of inflammatory cytokines and cell proliferation by regulating SIRT1.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gene.2019.144144DOI Listing
January 2020

The effects of photodynamic therapy on leukemia cells mediated by KillerRed, a genetically encoded fluorescent protein photosensitizer.

BMC Cancer 2019 Oct 7;19(1):934. Epub 2019 Oct 7.

Department of Pathogenic Microbiology & Immunology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Xi'an Jiaotong University Health Science Center, 76 West Yanta Road, Xi'an, 710061, People's Republic of China.

Background: Leukemia is a cancer of blood and bone marrow cells, causing about 300,000 deaths worldwide. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a promising alternative for the treatment of malignant tumors. KillerRed is a genetically encoded red fluorescent protein photosensitizer (PS). In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of KillerRed-mediated PDT on chronic myelogenous leukemia K562 cells, acute monocytic leukemia NB4 cells, and acute monocytic leukemia THP1 cells.

Methods: KillerRed was expressed in Escherichia coli cells, purified by Q-Sepharose column, and confirmed by western-blotting. The PDT effect on cell proliferation was evaluated by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8). Cell apoptosis was determined by PE Annexin V/7-AAD staining and flow cytometry. The distribution of KillerRed in leukemia cells was detected by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and western-blotting. The ROS generation was measured by flow cytometry.

Results: Pure KillerRed was obtained with a yield of about 37 mg per liter of bacterial cells. KillerRed photodynamic inactivated the leukemia cells in a concentration-dependent manner, but exhibited no obvious dark toxicity. PDT mediated by KillerRed could also induce apoptotic response (mainly early apoptosis) in the three cell lines. The CLSM imaging indicated that KillerRed was distributed within the cytoplasm and nuclei of leukemia cells, causing damages to the cytoplasm and leaving the nuclear envelope intact during light irradiation. KillerRed distributed both in the cytosol and nuclei was confirmed by western blotting, and ROS significantly increased in PDT treated cells compared to the cells treated with KillerRed alone.

Conclusions: Our studies demonstrated that KillerRed-mediated PDT could effectively inactivate K562, NB4, and THP1 leukemia cells and trigger cell apoptosis, and it has potential to be used individually or complementally, in the treatment of leukemia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12885-019-6124-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6781363PMC
October 2019

Down-regulation effects of IFN-α on p11, 5-htr1b and 5-HTR4 protein levels were affected by NHCL or MG132 treatment in SH-sy5y cells.

J Biosci 2019 Sep;44(4)

Department of Pathogenic Biology and Immunology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Xi'an Jiaotong University Health Science Centre, Xi'an 710061, People's Republic of China.

In previous studies, we found interferon-α (IFN-α) could reduce protein levels of p11, 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 1b (5-HT1b) and 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 4 (5-HT4), but does not influence their messenger RNA levels in SH-sy5y cells. Thus, we investigated the post-transcriptional modulation of these molecules by IFN-α. SH-sy5y cells were treated with IFN-α, NHCl or MG132 alone or in combination, and then the protein levels of p11, 5-HT1b and 5-HT4 were analyzed by western blots. The regulatory effects of p11 on 5-HT1b and 5-HT4 were also determined in p11 knock-down cells. NH4Cl but not MG132 could reverse the protein level of p11 in IFN-α-treated SH-sy5y cells. MG132 could recover the protein levels of 5-HT1b and 5-HT4 in p11 knock-down cells. The down-regulation effects of IFN-α on p11, 5-HT1b and 5-HT4 were associated with the lysosome and ubiquitin-proteasome-mediated pathways. p11 was identified as a potent regulator to modulate the ubiquitination of 5-HT1b and 5-HT4. Therefore, it could be potential target therapies in IFN-ainduced depression.
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September 2019

In vitro photodynamic inactivation effects of hypocrellin B on azole-sensitive and resistant Candida albicans.

Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther 2019 Sep 17;27:419-427. Epub 2019 Jul 17.

Department of Pathogenic Microbiology & Immunology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Xi'an Jiaotong University Health Science Center, 76 West Yanta Road, Xi'an, 710061, PR China. Electronic address:

Background And Aim: The extensive use of antifungal drugs has led to resistance from Candida albicans. The search for alternative treatment against drug-resistant C. albicans is highly desirable. Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) is an emerging and promising approach for treating localized and superficial C. albicans infections. The aim of this study was to investigate the photodynamic inactivation (PDI) effects of hypocrellin B (HB) on azole-sensitive and resistant C. albicans in vitro.

Methods: The PDI efficacies of HB on standard C. albicans strain (ATCC 10231), azole-sensitive clinical isolate of C. albicans, and azole-resistant clinical isolate of C. albicans were assessed. The uptake of HB in C. albicans cells was investigated by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The PDI effects on cellular structure and surface characteristics were investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

Results: HB exhibited no significant dark toxicity, but inactivated the azole-sensitive and resistant C. albicans in a light-dose and PS concentration-dependent manner. CLSM images indicated that PDI treated C. albicans cells showed stronger fluorescence compared to untreated cells. TEM images suggested that significant damage to the cell wall, membrane, and cytoplasm were induced by HB-mediated PDI. SEM analysis revealed that the surface of C. albicans cells became twisted and ruptured after PDI treatment.

Conclusions: Azole-sensitive and resistant C. albicans could be effectively inactivated by HB in the presence of light, and HB-mediated aPDT shows promise as an antifungal treatment for C. albicans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pdpdt.2019.07.014DOI Listing
September 2019
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