Publications by authors named "Yanhong Dong"

134 Publications

Cerebral small vessel disease mediates the association between homocysteine and cognitive function.

Front Aging Neurosci 2022 15;14:868777. Epub 2022 Jul 15.

Department of Neurology, Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, China.

Objective: To investigate the relations of serum total homocysteine (tHcy) with cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) and cognitive function and evaluate whether CSVD mediates the effect of serum tHcy on cognitive function.

Methods: A total of 1,033 consecutive eligible participants who received serum tHcy, brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and neuropsychological assessment were included in this retrospective study. White matter hyperintensity, lacune, cerebral microbleed, and enlarged perivascular space were evaluated based on brain MRI. We used multivariate binary logistic regression analysis, multivariate ordinal logistic regression analysis, and mediation analyses to assess the relations of serum tHcy with CSVD and cognitive function.

Results: Serum tHcy levels were higher in patients with cognitive impairment than those with no cognitive impairment. Logistic regression analyses showed elevated serum tHcy was associated with cognitive impairment [odds ratio (OR): 10.475; 95% confidence interval (CI): 4.522 to 24.264; < 0.001] and a higher CSVD burden score (OR: 17.151; 95% CI: 8.785 to 33.921; < 0.001) after adjusting potential confounders. Compared with the lowest tHcy quartile, the multivariable-adjusted OR of the highest quartile was 4.851 (95% CI: 3.152 to 7.466; for the trend < 0.001) for cognitive impairment, 3.862 (95% CI: 2.467 to 6.047; for the trend < 0.001) for a severe CSVD burden score. Mediation analyses showed significant moderating effects (9.3-23.6%) by different imaging markers of CSVD on the association between higher serum tHcy levels and cognitive impairment.

Conclusion: Elevated serum tHcy is associated with cognitive impairment and the development of CSVD. A proportion of the association between elevated serum tHcy and cognitive impairment may be attributed to the presence of different imaging markers of CSVD, especially the severe CSVD burden score.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnagi.2022.868777DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9335204PMC
July 2022

The Utility of Cognitive Screening in Asian Patients With Heart Failure: A Systematic Review.

Front Psychiatry 2022 14;13:930121. Epub 2022 Jul 14.

School of Nursing, Shandong First Medical University & Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Taian, China.

Background: The prevalence of undiagnosed cognitive impairment in patients with heart failure is alarmingly high in Asia. There is still no consensus on cognitive screening tools to detect cognitive impairment in the Asian heart failure population. The clinical implications based on our systematic review may help to improve cognitive screening practice for patients with heart failure in Asia.

Methods: This review is registered in the PROSPERO (CRD42021264288). Using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) approach, we searched PubMed, Embase, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Scopus, the Web of Science, PsycINFO, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and Wanfang Data in English and Chinese literatures concerning heart failure and cognitive impairment.

Results: The search yielded 21 eligible studies. Only in five studies, cognitive brief tests, including the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), and the Mini-Cog, were used as cognitive screening tools for Asian patients with heart failure. In the rest 16 studies, brief cognitive tests were used as screening tools for global cognition. Only one study validated screening tests against a gold standard formal neuropsychological assessment test battery. Among these studies, patients with heart failure tended to perform worse than patients without heart failure. The presence of cognitive impairment in patients with heart failure is associated with poorer self-care, quality of life, and hospital readmission.

Conclusion: Brief cognitive tests have been used in Asian patients with heart failure and these tests are frequently used as a measure of global cognitive function for cognitive screening. However, validating brief cognitive tests against a gold standard formal neuropsychological assessment in Asian patients with heart failure is lacking. Future studies need to address methodological issues to validate cognitive screening measures in a larger population of Asian patients with heart failure. https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2022.930121DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9329604PMC
July 2022

Cerebral Small Vessel Disease is Associated with Mild Cognitive Impairment in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes 2022 2;15:1985-1994. Epub 2022 Jul 2.

Department of Neurology, Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, Hebei Province, People's Republic of China.

Objective: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with cognitive impairment, but the underlying cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD)-related structural brain correlates are unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between various imaging markers of CSVD and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in patients with T2DM.

Methods: A total of 228 eligible participants with T2DM who were divided into MCI group and normal cognitive group based on neuropsychological assessment were enrolled in this retrospective study. White matter hyperintensity (WMH), lacunes, cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) and enlarged perivascular spaces (EPVS) were evaluated based on brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The total CSVD burden score was calculated by combining the above four markers of CSVD. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the relationship between different imaging markers of CSVD and MCI in patients with T2DM. Kruskal-Wallis test and Jonckheere-Terpstra test were used to compare mean MoCA scores among individuals with varying CSVD markers.

Results: In the multivariate binary logistic regression analyses, moderate or severe total CSVD burden (OR: 3.29, 95% CI: 1.63-7.38, =0.004; OR: 10.97, 95% CI: 4.94-24.34, <0.001, respectively), moderate dWMH (OR: 3.26, 95% CI: 1.43-7.41, =0.005), extensive lacunes (OR: 4.97, 95% CI: 1.79-13.81, =0.002), and moderate BG-EPVS (OR: 3.84, 95% CI: 1.81-8.13, <0.001) were associated with MCI in patients with T2DM related to MCI after adjusting for potential confounders. There was a trend for significant decrease in MoCA scores with increase severity of dWMH, pWMH, lacunes, BG-EPVS, deep CMBs, or total CSVD burden ( for trend <0.05).

Conclusion: Different imaging markers of CSVD, particularly total CSVD burden, were associated with an increased risk of MCI and decline in MoCA scores in patients with T2DM. These findings may provide clues for future studies to explore early diagnostic imaging markers of cognitive impairment in relation to T2DM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/DMSO.S368725DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9259063PMC
July 2022

Risk factors for decline in Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) scores in patients with acute transient ischemic attack and minor stroke.

J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich) 2022 Jul 7;24(7):851-857. Epub 2022 Jun 7.

Department of Neurology, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Cognitive impairment after stroke/transient ischemic attack (TIA) has a high prevalence. The authors aimed to explore the risk factors for declined cognitive function with Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA)-Beijing in patients with stroke/TIA at acute phase. Total 2283 patients with acute stroke/TIA without a history of dementia were assessed at 2 weeks of onset. Patients were assessed by MoCA-Beijing on day 14 and at 3 months follow-ups. Cognitive impairment was defined as MoCA-Beijing ≤22. Patients' cognitive status was considered as declined if there were a reduction of ≥2 points in MoCA-Beijing score and patients were considered to have improved if there were an increase of ≥2 points. The score of MoCA-Beijing was considered to be stable if there were an increase or decrease of 1 point. Most patients were in 60 s (60.96 ± 10.75 years old) with a median (interquartile range) National Institute of Health Stroke Scale score of 3.00 (4.00) and greater than primary school level of education, and 1657 participants (72.58%) were male. Cognitive evaluation was conducted in 2283 of 2625 patients (82.70%) with MoCA-Beijing at baseline. Total 292 (12.79%) patients have a cognitive decline at 3 months, 786 (34.42%) patients were stable and 1205 (52.78%) patients were improved. In the logistic regression, a history of hypertension was associated with cognitive deterioration from baseline to 3-month. Patients with a history of hypertension have a higher risk for cognitive deterioration from baseline to 3-month after stroke/TIA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jch.14453DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9278567PMC
July 2022

Non-native plant invasion can accelerate global climate change by increasing wetland methane and terrestrial nitrous oxide emissions.

Glob Chang Biol 2022 Jun 4. Epub 2022 Jun 4.

State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing, China.

Approximately 17% of the land worldwide is considered highly vulnerable to non-native plant invasion, which can dramatically alter nutrient cycles and influence greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in terrestrial and wetland ecosystems. However, a systematic investigation of the impact of non-native plant invasion on GHG dynamics at a global scale has not yet been conducted, making it impossible to predict the exact biological feedback of non-native plant invasion to global climate change. Here, we compiled 273 paired observational cases from 94 peer-reviewed articles to evaluate the effects of plant invasion on GHG emissions and to identify the associated key drivers. Non-native plant invasion significantly increased methane (CH ) emissions from 129 kg CH ha  year in natural wetlands to 217 kg CH ha  year in invaded wetlands. Plant invasion showed a significant tendency to increase CH uptakes from 2.95 to 3.64 kg CH ha  year in terrestrial ecosystems. Invasive plant species also significantly increased nitrous oxide (N O) emissions in grasslands from an average of 0.76 kg N O ha  year in native sites to 1.35 kg N O ha  year but did not affect N O emissions in forests or wetlands. Soil organic carbon, mean annual air temperature (MAT), and nitrogenous deposition (N_DEP) were the key factors responsible for the changes in wetland CH emissions due to plant invasion. The responses of terrestrial CH uptake rates to plant invasion were mainly driven by MAT, soil NH , and soil moisture. Soil NO , mean annual precipitation, and N_DEP affected terrestrial N O emissions in response to plant invasion. Our meta-analysis not only sheds light on the stimulatory effects of plant invasion on GHG emissions from wetland and terrestrial ecosystems but also improves our current understanding of the mechanisms underlying the responses of GHG emissions to plant invasion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/gcb.16290DOI Listing
June 2022

Investigating Psychological Differences Between Nurses and Other Health Care Workers From the Asia-Pacific Region During the Early Phase of COVID-19: Machine Learning Approach.

JMIR Nurs 2022 Jun 1;5(1):e32647. Epub 2022 Jun 1.

Division of Neurology, National University Hospital, Singapore, Singapore.

Background: As the COVID-19 pandemic evolves, challenges in frontline work continue to impose a significant psychological impact on nurses. However, there is a lack of data on how nurses fared compared to other health care workers in the Asia-Pacific region.

Objective: This study aims to investigate (1) the psychological outcome characteristics of nurses in different Asia-Pacific countries and (2) psychological differences between nurses, doctors, and nonmedical health care workers.

Methods: Exploratory data analysis and visualization were conducted on the data collected through surveys. A machine learning modeling approach was adopted to further discern the key psychological characteristics differentiating nurses from other health care workers. Decision tree-based machine learning models (Light Gradient Boosting Machine, GradientBoost, and RandomForest) were built to predict whether a set of psychological distress characteristics (ie, depression, anxiety, stress, intrusion, avoidance, and hyperarousal) belong to a nurse. Shapley Additive Explanation (SHAP) values were extracted to identify the prominent characteristics of each of these models. The common prominent characteristic among these models is akin to the most distinctive psychological characteristic that differentiates nurses from other health care workers.

Results: Nurses had relatively higher percentages of having normal or unchanged psychological distress symptoms relative to other health care workers (n=233-260 [86.0%-95.9%] vs n=187-199 [74.8%-91.7%]). Among those without psychological symptoms, nurses constituted a higher proportion than doctors and nonmedical health care workers (n=194 [40.2%], n=142 [29.5%], and n=146 [30.3%], respectively). Nurses in Vietnam showed the highest level of depression, stress, intrusion, avoidance, and hyperarousal symptoms compared to those in Singapore, Malaysia, and Indonesia. Nurses in Singapore had the highest level of anxiety. In addition, nurses had the lowest level of stress, which is the most distinctive psychological outcome characteristic derived from machine learning models, compared to other health care workers. Data for India were excluded from the analysis due to the differing psychological response pattern observed in nurses in India. A large number of female nurses emigrating from South India could not have psychologically coped well without the support from family members while living alone in other states.

Conclusions: Nurses were least psychologically affected compared to doctors and other health care workers. Different contexts, cultures, and points in the pandemic curve may have contributed to differing patterns of psychological outcomes amongst nurses in various Asia-Pacific countries. It is important that all health care workers practice self-care and render peer support to bolster psychological resilience for effective coping. In addition, this study also demonstrated the potential use of decision tree-based machine learning models and SHAP value plots in identifying contributing factors of sophisticated problems in the health care industry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/32647DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9162133PMC
June 2022

Genetics of Fusarium head blight resistance in soft red winter wheat using a genome-wide association study.

Plant Genome 2022 May 28:e20222. Epub 2022 May 28.

Dep. of Plant Pathology, Univ. of Georgia, Griffin Campus, Griffin, GA, 30223, USA.

Host resistance is an effective and sustainable approach to manage the negative impact of Fusarium head blight (FHB) on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grain yield and quality. The objective of this study was to characterize the phenotypic responses and identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) conditioning different FHB resistance types using a panel of 236 elite soft red winter wheat (SRWW) lines in a genome-wide association study (GWAS). The panel was phenotyped for five FHB and three morphological traits under two field and two greenhouse environments in 2018-2019 and 2019-2020. We identified 160 significant marker-trait associations (MTAs) for FHB traits and 11 MTAs for plant height. Eleven QTL showed major effects and explained >10% phenotypic variation (PV) for FHB resistance. Among these major loci, three QTL were stable and five QTL exhibited a pleiotropic effect. The QTL QFhb-3BL, QFhb-5AS, QFhb-5BL, QFhb-7AS.1, QFhb-7AS.2, and QFhb-7BS are presumed to be novel. Pyramiding multiple resistance alleles from all the major-effect QTL resulted in a significant reduction in FHB incidence, severity, index, deoxynivalenol (DON), and Fusarium-damaged kernel (FDK) by 17, 43, 45, 55, and 25%, respectively. Further validation of these QTL could potentially facilitate successful introgression of these resistance loci in new cultivars for improved FHB resistance in breeding programs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/tpg2.20222DOI Listing
May 2022

Genetic architecture of fusarium head blight disease resistance and associated traits in Nordic spring wheat.

Theor Appl Genet 2022 Jul 21;135(7):2247-2263. Epub 2022 May 21.

Department of Plant Sciences, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, 1432, Ås, Norway.

Key Message: This study identified a significant number of QTL that are associated with FHB disease resistance in NMBU spring wheat panel by conducting genome-wide association study. Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a widely known devastating disease of wheat caused by Fusarium graminearum and other Fusarium species. FHB resistance is quantitative, highly complex and divided into several resistance types. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) that are effective against several of the resistance types give valuable contributions to resistance breeding. A spring wheat panel of 300 cultivars and breeding lines of Nordic and exotic origins was tested in artificially inoculated field trials and subjected to visual FHB assessment in the years 2013-2015, 2019 and 2020. Deoxynivalenol (DON) content was measured on harvested grain samples, and anther extrusion (AE) was assessed in separate trials. Principal component analysis based on 35 and 25 K SNP arrays revealed the existence of two subgroups, dividing the panel into European and exotic lines. We employed a genome-wide association study to detect QTL associated with FHB traits and identify marker-trait associations that consistently influenced FHB resistance. A total of thirteen QTL were identified showing consistent effects across FHB resistance traits and environments. Haplotype analysis revealed a highly significant QTL on 7A, Qfhb.nmbu.7A.2, which was further validated on an independent set of breeding lines. Breeder-friendly KASP markers were developed for this QTL that can be used in marker-assisted selection. The lines in the wheat panel harbored from zero to five resistance alleles, and allele stacking showed that resistance can be significantly increased by combining several of these resistance alleles. This information enhances breeders´ possibilities for genomic prediction and to breed cultivars with improved FHB resistance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00122-022-04109-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9271104PMC
July 2022

Migraine, Cognitive Decline, and Dementia in Older Adults: A Population-Based Study.

J Alzheimers Dis 2022 ;88(1):263-271

Aging Research Center and Center for Alzheimer Research, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet-Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.

Background: The potential impact of migraine on cognitive aging among older adults remains controversial.

Objective: To examine the relationship of migraine and subtypes with cognitive decline and dementia in an older Swedish population.

Methods: This population-based study included 3,069 participants (age ≥ 60 years) from the Swedish National study on Aging and Care in Kungsholmen, Stockholm. Baseline examination was conducted in 2001-2004, and participants were followed every 3 or 6 years until 2013-2016. Data were collected through face-to-face interviews, clinical examinations, laboratory tests, and linkage with registers. Global cognitive function was measured with the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Dementia was diagnosed according to the DSM-IV criteria. Migraine and subtypes were defined following the international classification system. Data were analyzed using logistic regression, Cox regression, and linear mixed-effects models.

Results: At baseline, 305 participants were defined with non-migraine headache and 352 with migraine. The cross-sectional analysis showed that the multivariable-adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of prevalent dementia was 0.49 (0.20-1.21) for migraine and 0.66 (0.26-1.66) for migraine without aura. The longitudinal analysis showed that the multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios of incident dementia associated with migraine and subtypes ranged 0.68-0.89 (p > 0.05). Furthermore, migraine and subtypes were not significantly associated with either baseline MMSE score or MMSE changes during follow-ups (p > 0.05). The nonsignificant associations did not vary substantially by age, APOEɛ4 allele, cerebrovascular disease, and antimigraine treatment (p for interactions > 0.05).

Conclusion: This study shows no evidence supporting the associations of migraine and its subtypes with cognitive decline and dementia among older adults.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/JAD-220013DOI Listing
January 2022

Edaravone dexborneol protects cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury through activating Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway in mice.

Fundam Clin Pharmacol 2022 Apr 25. Epub 2022 Apr 25.

Hebei North University, Zhangjiakou, China.

Stroke is the leading cause of disability and death. When blood flow is restored after prolonged ischemia and hypoxia, it leads to excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), increased local inflammation, and apoptosis, which are the cause of most cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury (CIRI), leading to secondary brain tissue damage. Edaravone dexborneol is a novel neuroprotective agent consisting of edaravone and borneol. Studies have shown that it has synergistic antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. However, whether Edaravone dexborneol stimulates the Nrf2/HO-1 pathway to regulate NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2) remains unclear. In this study, wild-type (WT) mice and Nrf2 knockout (KO) mice were used to investigate the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic effects of Edaravone dexborneol on CIRI and its mechanism. The cognitive function of mice was evaluated with the Morris water maze (MWM), test and the cell structures of hippocampus were observed by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining. Nrf2, HO-1, and NOX2 proteins and apoptosis-related proteins Bcl-2, Bax, and Caspase 3 were detected by western blotting. Nrf2, HO-1, NOX2, and inflammatory factors TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-4, and IL-10 were detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction. The results showed that Edaravone dexborneol treatment improved learning and memory performance, neuronal damage, and enhanced antioxidant, inflammation, and apoptosis in CIRI mice. In addition, Edaravone dexborneol induced the activation Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway activation while inhibiting NOX2 expression. Overall, these results indicate that Edaravone dexborneol ameliorates CIRI-induced memory impairments by activating Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway and inhibiting NOX2.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/fcp.12782DOI Listing
April 2022

Rational Design, Synthesis, and Biological Investigations of -Methylcarbamoylguanidinyl Azamacrolides as a Novel Chitinase Inhibitor.

J Agric Food Chem 2022 Apr 13;70(16):4889-4898. Epub 2022 Apr 13.

Department of Applied Chemistry, College of Science, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, People's Republic of China.

Chitinase is one of the most important glycoside hydrolyases, widely existing in bacteria, fungi, insects, and plants. It is involved in fungal cell wall remodeling and insect molting. Chitinase inhibitors are an effective means of controlling pathogens and pests. Natural product argifin is a 17-membered pentapeptide that exhibits efficient chitinase inhibitory activity. However, the complexity of the synthetic process results in a lot of restrictions for wide range of applications. In this work, we designed a series of azamacrolide chitinase inhibitors based on the structural features of argifin that have high inhibitory activities against bacterial and insectile chitinase. The most potent chitinase inhibitor compound exhibited IC values of 56 nM and 110 nM against Chi-h and ChiB, respectively. The molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulations revealed that all inhibitors were bound to the -1 subsite of chitinases via -methylcarbamoylguanidinyl as well as argifin. Finally, a bioactivity assay against pests was carried out. Compound showed 80% mortality for at a concentration of 50 mg/L. Besides, insecticides and exhibited high mortality against (76 and 73% mortalities at 50 mg/L, respectively).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.2c00016DOI Listing
April 2022

Development of a Community-Based e-Health Program for Older Adults With Chronic Diseases: Pilot Pre-Post Study.

JMIR Aging 2022 Jan 17;5(1):e33118. Epub 2022 Jan 17.

Alice Lee Centre for Nursing Studies, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore.

Background: Chronic diseases may impact older adults' health outcomes, health care costs, and quality of life. Self-management is expected to encourage individuals to make autonomous decisions, adhere to treatment plans, deal with emotional and social consequences, and provide choices for healthy lifestyle. New eHealth solutions significantly increase the health literacy and empower patients in self-management of chronic conditions.

Objective: This study aims to develop a Community-Based e-Health Program (CeHP) for older adults with chronic diseases and conduct a pilot evaluation.

Methods: A pilot study with a 2-group pre- and posttest repeated measures design was adopted. Community-dwelling older adults with chronic diseases were recruited from senior activity centers in Singapore. A systematic 3-step process of developing CeHP was coupled with a smart-device application. The development of the CeHP intervention consists of theoretical framework, client-centric participatory action research process, content validity assessment, and pilot testing. Self-reported survey questionnaires and health outcomes were measured before and after the CeHP. The instruments used were the Self-care of Chronic Illness Inventory (SCCII), Healthy Aging Instrument (HAI), Short-Form Health Literacy Scale, 12 Items (HLS-SF 12), Patient Empowerment Scale (PES), and Social Support Questionnaire, 6 items. The following health outcomes were measured: Montreal Cognitive Assessment, Symbol Digit Modalities Test, total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoproteins, low-density lipoproteins/very-low-density lipoproteins (LDL/VLDL), fasting glucose, glycated hemoglobin (HbA), and BMI.

Results: The CeHP consists of health education, monitoring, and an advisory system for older adults to manage their chronic conditions. It is an 8-week intensive program, including face-to-face and eHealth (Care4Senior App) sessions. Care4Senior App covers health education topics focusing on the management of hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes, brain health, healthy diet, lifestyle modification, medication adherence, exercise, and mindfulness practice. Content validity assessment indicated that the content of the CeHP is valid, with a content validity index (CVI) ranging 0.86-1 and a scale-CVI of 1. Eight participants in the CeHP group and 4 in the control group completed both baseline and post intervention assessments. Participants in the CeHP group showed improvements in fasting glucose, HbA, TC, LDL/VLDL, BMI, SCCII indices (Maintenance, Monitoring, and Management), HAI, and PES scores post intervention, although these changes were not significant. For the participants in the control group, the scores for SCCII (management and confidence) and HLS-SF 12 decreased post intervention.

Conclusions: The CeHP is feasible, and it engages and empowers community-dwelling older adults to manage their chronic conditions. The rigorous process of program development and pilot evaluation provided valid evidence to expand the CeHP to a larger-scale implementation to encourage self-management, reduce debilitating complications of poorly controlled chronic diseases, promote healthy longevity and social support, and reduce health care costs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/33118DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8804958PMC
January 2022

Bilateral fornix infarction presented with acute amnesia: case report.

Neurocase 2022 02 17;28(1):63-65. Epub 2022 Jan 17.

Department of Neurology, Hebei General Hospital, Shijiazhuang, China.

Acute episodes of amnestic syndrome can be a challenging diagnostic problem. Except for nonvascular etiology, thalamic strokes or infarction involving several temporal lobe structures has been reported in earlier cases. The authors report a patient who suddenly developed memory loss without any other focal neurologic deficits. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) performed 1 day after onset revealed acute infarction involving the bilateral fornix column and the genu of corpus callosum. Because simple fornix infarcts often have no obvious positive neurological signs, most of the related manifestations were provided by family members, are easy to be diagnosed falsely, and missed in clinical areas, we suggest that bilateral fornix infarction should be considered in the diagnosis of an acute onset amnestic syndrome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13554794.2021.2024857DOI Listing
February 2022

DL-3-n-butylphthalide imparts neuroprotection via Nrf2/SIRT3 pathway in a mouse model of vascular dementia.

Brain Res 2022 03 13;1779:147785. Epub 2022 Jan 13.

Department of Neurology, Hebei General Hospital, No. 348 Heping West Road, Xinhua District, Shijiazhuang 050051, Hebei Province, China. Electronic address:

The goal of this study was to explore the mechanism of action of DL-3-n-butylphthalidein (NBP) the treatment of vascular dementia (VD) in mice. A vascular dementia mouse model was established with repeated cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R), followed by administration of two different doses of NBP for 28 days. A Morris water maze was used to detect any changes in spatial cognition, while H&E staining was used to observe any histopathological changes in the hippocampus. The number of Caspase-3 and Caspase-9 positive neurons in the hippocampal CA1 region were also assessed using immunohistochemistry. The expression of Nrf2, Sirt3, and autophagy-related factors LC3 II/I and p62 in the hippocampus were detected by Western blotting. The results indicated that NBP treatment ameliorated learning and memory deficits, attenuated pathological damage in the CA1 regions, and reduced autophagy and apoptosis via the Nrf2/SIRT3 pathway after repeated cerebral I/R. Therefore, NBP treatment can improve the learning and cognitive memory of VD mice, possibly through the inhibition of autophagy and apoptosis mediated by the Nrf2/SIRT3 signaling pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2022.147785DOI Listing
March 2022

Synthesis of silyl iron dinitrogen complexes for activation of dihydrogen and catalytic silylation of dinitrogen.

Dalton Trans 2021 Dec 7;50(47):17594-17602. Epub 2021 Dec 7.

Institut für Nanotechnologie (INT) und Karlsruher Nano-Micro-Facility (KNMF), Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen, Germany.

Three novel iron dinitrogen hydrides, [FeH(Pr-PSiP)(N)(PMe)] (1), [FeH(Pr-PSiP)(N)(PMe)] (2), and [FeH(Pr-PSi)(N)(PMe)] (3), supported by a silyl ligand are synthesized for the first time by changing the electronic effect and steric hindrance of the ligands through the reaction of ligands L1-L3 with Fe(PMe) in a nitrogen atmosphere. The ligands containing an electron-donating group with large steric hindrance on the phosphorus atom are beneficial for the formation of dinitrogen complexes. A penta-coordinate iron hydride [FeH(Pr-PSi)(PMe)] (4) was formed through the reaction of ligand L3 with Fe(PMe) in an argon atmosphere under the same conditions. The reactions between complexes 1-3 with an atmospheric pressure of dihydrogen gas resulted in Fe(II) dihydrides, [(Pr-PSi(μ-H)P)Fe(H)(PMe)] (5), [(Pr-PSi(μ-H)P)Fe(H)(PMe)] (6) and [(iPr-PSi(μ-H))Fe(H)(PMe)] (7), with an η-(Si-H) coordination. The isolation of dihydrides 5-7 demonstrates the ability of the dinitrogen complexes 1-3 to realize the activation of dihydrogen under ambient temperature and pressure. The molecular structures of complexes 1-7 were elucidated by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The iron dinitrogen hydrides 1-3 are effective catalysts for the silylation of dinitrogen under ambient conditions and among them 3 is the best catalyst.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1dt02832dDOI Listing
December 2021

Long-Term Use of Metformin Is Associated With Reduced Risk of Cognitive Impairment With Alleviation of Cerebral Small Vessel Disease Burden in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes.

Front Aging Neurosci 2021 29;13:773797. Epub 2021 Oct 29.

Department of Neurology, Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, China.

Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a risk factor for cognitive impairment and cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD). The relation of metformin use and cognitive impairment or CSVD is not clear. The objective of this study was to investigate the cross-sectional effects of long-term use of metformin on total CSVD burden and cognitive function in patients with T2D. A total of 234 participants with T2D from the memory clinic in Hebei General Hospital were enrolled in this retrospective study. Duration of metformin use and dosage were recorded. Along with cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) was also performed to assess their cognitive status. We determined the validated total CSVD score (ranging from 0-4) by combining four markers of CSVD that were visually rated. We used binary logistic regression analysis, ordinal logistic regression analysis and mediation analysis to assess the relation of long-term use of metformin with CSVD burden and cognitive function. Binary logistic regression analysis showed long-term use of metformin was associated with reducing the risk of cognitive impairment (OR: 0.446; 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 0.249 to 0.800; = 0.007), after adjustment of potential confounders, such as total CSVD burden score, age, HbA1c, hypertension, history of stroke, homocysteine, body mass index, TG and HDL-C. Ordinal logistic regression analysis suggested that long-term use of metformin was associated with alleviation of total CSVD burden score (OR: 0.583; 95% CI: 0.359 to 0.943; = 0.027), after adjusting for age, HbA1c, hypertension, history of stroke, homocysteine, body mass index, TG and HDL-C. Mediation analysis showed significant mediation by the presence of severe CSVD burden score for long-term use of metformin in relation to cognitive impairment. Long-term use of metformin was associated with lower rates of cognitive impairment and lower total CSVD burden score in patients with T2D. A proportion of the relation between long-term use of metformin and cognitive impairment may be attributable to alleviation of CSVD burden.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnagi.2021.773797DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8589019PMC
October 2021

Metal pollution in the Pearl River Estuary and implications for estuary management: The influence of hydrological connectivity associated with estuarine mixing.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 Dec 3;225:112747. Epub 2021 Sep 3.

School of Marine Engineering and Technology, Sun Yat-sen University (Guangzhou)/Southern Laboratory of Ocean Science and Engineering (Zhuhai), China; Institute of Estuarine and Coastal Research, Guangdong Provincial Engineering Research Center of Coasts, Islands and Reefs, Guangzhou, China.

Understanding the metal pollution can help governments and estuary management groups manage metal inputs. Here, we comprehensively analyzed the behaviors of seven metals Cd, Zn, Cu, As, Pb, Cr, and Hg in water and the responses of these metals to hydrological connectivity in the Pearl River Estuary. The analyses were based on the field measurements of August-2016 in the estuary and January-2016 in the upper river mouth. We also assessed the ecosystem health of these metals. Overall, this estuary had an overall moderate pollution level, with occasional severe perturbations. The mean concentration of individual metal was in the order of Zn > As > Cu > Cr > Pb > Cd > Hg. The eastern estuary was more heavily polluted by metals (notably, Zn, Cd, and Cu) than the western estuary; this condition was attributable to sewage and industrial effluent discharges from the eastern urban cities of Dongguan and Shenzhen. Longitudinally, high levels of Cd and Zn appeared in the upper estuary, while elevated levels of Cu, As, Pb, Cr, and Hg were found in the middle and lower estuaries. The riverine inputs and estuarine mixing significantly influenced the distribution and movement of trace metals in the estuary, and have contributed to phytoplankton productivity (chlorophyll-a > 10 μg/L). River inflow inhibited the vertical diffusion of metals, and tidal currents facilitated surface-to-bottom mixing. Cu and Cd posed ecological risks. We determined the source contributions and transport routes of the metals using principal component analysis combining with multiple linear regression. The results of this study suggest that the source apportionment of metals can help to manage the source input entering into the estuary. Further, identified hydrological connectivity of metals can inform water quality managers in the highly anthropogenically influenced estuary.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2021.112747DOI Listing
December 2021

Genetic dissection of a pericentromeric region of barley chromosome 6H associated with Fusarium head blight resistance, grain protein content and agronomic traits.

Theor Appl Genet 2021 Dec 28;134(12):3963-3981. Epub 2021 Aug 28.

Department of Agronomy and Plant Genetics, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN, 55108, USA.

Key Message: Fine mapping of barley 6H pericentromeric region identified FHB QTL with opposite effects, and high grain protein content was associated with increased FHB severity. Resistance to Fusarium head blight (FHB), kernel discoloration (KD), deoxynivalenol (DON) accumulation and grain protein content (GPC) are important traits for breeding malting barley varieties. Previous work mapped a Chevron-derived FHB QTL to the pericentromeric region of 6H, coinciding with QTL for KD resistance and GPC. The Chevron allele reduced FHB and KD, but unfavorably increased GPC. To determine whether the correlations are caused by linkage or pleiotropy, a fine mapping approach was used to dissect the QTL underlying these quality and disease traits. Two populations, referred to as Gen10 and Gen10/Lacey, derived from a recombinant near-isogenic line (rNIL) were developed. Recombinants were phenotyped for FHB, KD, DON, GPC and other agronomic traits. Three FHB, two DON and two KD QTLs were identified. One of the three FHB QTLs, one DON QTL and one KD QTL were coincident with the GPC QTL, which contains the Hv-NAM1 locus affecting grain protein accumulation. The Chevron allele at the GPC QTL increased GPC and FHB and decreased DON and KD. The other two FHB QTL and the other DON and KD QTL were identified in the regions flanking the Hv-NAM1 locus, and the Chevron alleles decreased FHB, DON and KD. Our results suggested that the QTL associated with FHB, KD, DON and GPC in the pericentromeric region of 6H was controlled by both pleiotropy and tightly linked loci. The rNILs identified in this study with low FHB severity and moderate GPC may be used for breeding malting barley cultivars.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00122-021-03941-9DOI Listing
December 2021

Screening of an Ethyl Methane Sulfonate Mutagenized Population of a Wheat Cultivar Susceptible to Fusarium Head Blight Identifies Resistant Variants.

Plant Dis 2021 Nov 18;105(11):3669-3676. Epub 2021 Nov 18.

Department of Plant Science and Landscape Architecture, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742.

Fusarium head blight (FHB) primarily caused by is a key disease of small grains. Diseased spikes show symptoms of premature bleaching shortly after infection and have aborted or shriveled seeds, resulting in reduced yields. The fungus also deteriorates quality and safety of the grain because of production of mycotoxins, especially deoxynivalenol (DON), which can result in grain being docked or rejected at the point of sale. Genetic host resistance to FHB is quantitative, and no complete genetic resistance against this devastating disease is available. Alternative approaches to develop new sources of FHB resistance are needed. In this study, we performed extensive forward genetic screening of the M generation of an ethyl methane sulfonate-induced mutagenized population of cultivar Jagger to isolate variants with FHB resistance. In field testing, 74 mutant lines were found to have resistance against FHB spread, and 30 of these lines also had low DON content. Subsequent testing over 2 years in controlled greenhouse conditions revealed 10 M lines showing significantly lower FHB spread. Seven and 6 of those 10 lines also had reduced DON content and fewer -damaged kernels, respectively. Future endeavors will include identification of the mutations that led to resistance in these variants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-03-21-0670-REDOI Listing
November 2021

The assessment of cognitive and behavioural disturbances in vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) - recommendations of an expert working group.

Neurol Neurochir Pol 2021 7;55(4):333-345. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia.

With newer research-based classification systems, the term Vascular Cognitive Impairment (VCI) is now preferred to vascular dementia. VCI is an umbrella term that includes all forms of cognitive deficits ranging from mild cognitive impairment of vascular origin (VaMCI) to vascular dementia (VaD). The new VCI construct takes into account the fact that in addition to single strategic infarcts, multiple infarcts, and leukoaraiosis, there are other mechanisms of cerebrovascular disease such as chronic hypoperfusion that might account for the pattern of cognitive deficits associated with vascular dementia. The key to defining the spectrum of VCI is neuropsychological testing, bedside or office-based clinical examination, and neuroimaging. The lack of specific cognitive tools that are sufficiently sensitive to detect subtle deficits makes the assessment of cognitive impairment difficult. Prospective cross-sectional and longitudinal studies of VCI from different settings are therefore required. Although there have been few published reports, behavioural and psychological symptoms (BPS) are inherently present in VCI from the onset and during the course of the disease. Besides the type of population (i.e. clinical, community or nursing-home settings), the definition of VCI/VaD and the instruments used, and differences in the prevalence and pattern of BPS between various studies, could be due to other, often unconsidered, factors such as gender, age, education, use of medication and VCI/VaD severity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5603/PJNNS.a2021.0035DOI Listing
September 2021

Progress in the preparation and characterization of silylene iron, cobalt and nickel complexes.

Dalton Trans 2021 May;50(20):6766-6772

School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Key Laboratory of Special Functional Aggregated Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Shanda Nanlu 27, Jinan 250100, China.

The synthesis and characterization of Fe, Co and Ni complexes supported by silylene ligands in the past ten years are summarized. Due to the decrease of the electron cloud density on the Si atom after coordination, the downfield shift of the 29Si chemical shift is accompanied by the coordination between the free silylene ligand and metal. The strong electron-donating ability of silylene makes the metal center more electron-rich, which is conducive to the oxidative addition reaction in the metal center. In some cases, the coordination ability of silylene is stronger than those of phosphine and carbene ligands. Therefore, silylene transition metal complexes have better catalytic activity. The further challenges in this field are to develop new polydentate silylene ligands, synthesize chelate silylene-phosphine and silylene-carbene ligands, and design new silylene transition metal complexes for more catalytic research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1dt00523eDOI Listing
May 2021

Discovery of a susceptibility factor for Fusarium head blight on chromosome 7A of wheat.

Theor Appl Genet 2021 Jul 8;134(7):2273-2289. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Plant Science and Landscape Architecture, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, 20742, USA.

Key Message: Discovery and mapping of a susceptibility factor located on the short arm of wheat chromosome 7A whose deletion makes plants resistant to Fusarium head blight. Fusarium head blight (FHB) disease of wheat caused by Fusarium spp. deteriorates both quantity and quality of the crop. Manipulation of susceptibility factors, the plant genes facilitating disease development, offers a novel and alternative strategy for enhancing FHB resistance in plants. In this study, a major effect susceptibility gene for FHB was identified on the short arm of chromosome 7A (7AS). Nullisomic-tetrasomic lines for homoeologous group-7 of wheat revealed dosage effect of the gene, with tetrasomic 7A being more susceptible than control Chinese Spring wheat, qualifying it as a genuine susceptibility factor. Five chromosome 7A inter-varietal substitution lines and a tetraploid Triticum dicoccoides 7A substitution line showed similar susceptibility as that of Chinese Spring, indicating toward the commonality of the susceptibility factor among these diverse genotypes. The susceptibility factor was named as Sf-Fhb-7AS and mapped on chromosome 7AS to a 48.5-50.5 Mb peri-centromeric region between del7AS-3 and del7AS-8. Our results showed that deletion of Sf-Fhb-7AS imparts 50-60% type 2 FHB resistance and its manipulation can be used to enhance resistance against FHB in wheat.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00122-021-03825-yDOI Listing
July 2021

"Train Your Brain" Cognitive Intervention Group Program for Singaporean Older Adult Patients With Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Pilot Feasibility Study.

J Geriatr Psychiatry Neurol 2022 05 18;35(3):442-449. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Alice Lee Centre for Nursing Studies, 63751Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore.

The "Train Your Brain" (TYB) cognitive intervention group program was developed based on previous research with the goal of remediating cognitive impairments for elderly Singaporean people with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). This study reports a pilot evaluation of feasibility (defined as participant attendance, retention rate, satisfaction and usefulness) and preliminary efficacy of the TYB program. Nineteen participants with MCI aged ≥ 50 years were recruited from a memory clinic in Singapore, with 14 receiving the TYB intervention. Participants were allocated in order of recruitment into consecutive identical groups for a 9-session program on brain health and cognitive training. Participants received pre- and post-intervention measures of cognition and completed feedback forms reporting on satisfaction with, and utility of, the TYB program. TYB was well attended (85% attendance for the first 6 sessions; 83% for the full 9-session TYB program). Participant satisfaction was high, with positive participant feedback reporting that TYB offered useful cognitive strategies which participants could implement in their daily life. Despite the small sample size and absence of control group, repeated-measures -tests revealed significant pre- to post-intervention intra-individual improvement in global cognition measured by the Montreal Cognitive Assessment, and in executive function on the Brixton Spatial Anticipation Test. This pilot study provides supportive preliminary evidence for feasibility of TYB, with suggestions of efficacy of this program as a culturally and linguistically appropriate intervention for English-speaking older adults with MCI in Singapore.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/08919887211002661DOI Listing
May 2022

Selectivity Reverse of Hydrosilylation of Aryl Alkenes Realized by Pyridine N-Oxide with [PSiP] Pincer Cobalt(III) Hydride as Catalyst.

Inorg Chem 2021 Apr 7;60(7):4551-4562. Epub 2021 Mar 7.

Institut für Nanotechnologie (INT) und Karlsruher Nano-Micro-Facility (KNMF), Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen, Germany.

Six silyl cobalt(III) hydrides - with [PSiP] pincer ligands having different substituents at the P and Si atoms ([(2-PhPCH)MeSiCo(H)(Cl)(PMe)] (), [(2-PhPCH)HSiCo(H)(Cl)(PMe)] (), [(2-PhPCH)PhSiCo(H)(Cl)(PMe)] (), [(2-PrPCH)HSiCo(H)(Cl)(PMe)] (), [(2-PrPCH)MeSiCo(H)(Cl)(PMe)] (), and [(2-PrPCH)PhSiCo(H)(Cl)(PMe)] ()) were synthesized through the reactions of the ligands (-) with CoCl(PMe) via Si-H bond cleavage. Compounds - have catalytic activity for alkene hydrosilylation, and among them, complex is the best catalyst with excellent -Markovnikov regioselectivity. A silyl dihydrido cobalt(III) complex from the reaction of with PhSiH was isolated, and its catalytic activity is equivalent to that of complex . Complex and its derivatives - could also be obtained through the reactions of complexes , , , and with NaBHEt. The molecular structure of was indirectly verified by the structures of -. To our delight, the addition of pyridine N-oxide reversed the selectivity of the reaction, from -Markovnikov to Markovnikov addition. At the same time, the reaction temperature was reduced from 70 to 30 °C on the premise of high yield and excellent selectivity. However, this catalytic system is only applicable to aromatic alkenes. On the basis of the experimental information, two reaction mechanisms are proposed. The molecular structures of cobalt(III) complexes - and - were determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.inorgchem.0c03483DOI Listing
April 2021

Genome-Wide Association Studies for Fusarium Head Blight Resistance and Its Trade-Off With Grain Yield in Soft Red Winter Wheat.

Plant Dis 2021 Sep 21;105(9):2435-2444. Epub 2021 Oct 21.

Agronomy Department, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907.

Identification of quantitative trait loci for Fusarium head blight (FHB) resistance from different sources and pyramiding them into cultivars could provide effective protection against FHB. The objective of this study was to characterize a soft red winter wheat (SRWW) breeding population that has been subjected to intense germplasm introduction and alien introgression for FHB resistance in the past. The population was evaluated under misted FHB nurseries inoculated with -infested corn spawn for two years. Phenotypic data included disease incidence (INC), disease severity (SEV), Fusarium damaged kernels (FDK), FHB index (FHBdx), and deoxynivalenol concentration (DON). Genome-wide association studies using 13,784 SNP markers identified 25 genomic regions at ≥ 4.0 that were associated with five FHB-related traits. Of these 25, the marker trait associations that explained more than 5% phenotypic variation were localized on chromosomes 1A, 2B, 3B, 5A, 7A, 7B, and 7D, and from diverse sources including adapted SRWW lines such as Truman and Bess, and unadapted common wheat lines such as Ning7840 and Fundulea 201R. Furthermore, individuals with favorable alleles at the four loci , (), , and showed better FDK and DON scores (but not INC, SEV, and FHBdx) compared with other allelic combinations. Our data also showed while pyramiding multiple loci provides protection against FHB disease, it has a significant trade-off with grain yield.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-06-20-1361-REDOI Listing
September 2021

Synthesis of α-Deuterated Primary Amines Reductive Deuteration of Oximes Using DO as a Deuterium Source.

J Org Chem 2021 02 25;86(3):2907-2916. Epub 2021 Jan 25.

Department of Nutrition and Health, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China.

Selective introduction of the deuterium atom into the α-position of amines is important for the development of all types of novel deuterated drugs and agrochemicals due to the pervasive presence of amines. In this study, we report the first general single-electron-transfer reductive deuteration of both ketoximes and aldoximes using SmI as an electron donor and DO as a deuterium source for the synthesis of α-deuterated primary amines with excellent levels of deuterium incorporations (>95% [D]). This protocol exhibits excellent chemoselectivity and tolerates a variety of functional groups. The potential application of this new method was showcased in the synthesis of deuterated drugs, such as rimantadine-, the tebufenpyrad analogue, derivatives of nabumetone and pregnenolone, and a series of building blocks for the rapid and general assembly of deuterated drugs and pesticides.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.joc.0c02829DOI Listing
February 2021

Design, synthesis biological activity, and docking of novel fluopyram derivatives containing guanidine group.

Bioorg Med Chem 2021 01 8;29:115846. Epub 2020 Nov 8.

Innovation Center of Pesticide Research, Department of Applied Chemistry, College of Science, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, P.R. China. Electronic address:

Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), a crucial bridge enzyme between the respiratory electron transfer chain and tricarboxylic acid (or Krebs) cycle, has been identified as an ideal target for the development of effective fungicide. In this study, a series of 24 novel SDH inhibitors (SDHIs) were designed, synthesized, and characterized by H NMR, C NMR, and HRMS. In vitro fungicidal activity experiments, most of the compounds exhibited broad-spectrum antifungal activities against five plant pathogenic fungi. Compounds 9j and 9k showed excellent activities against Pythium aphanidermatum with EC values of 9.93 mg/L and 10.50 mg/L, respectively, which were superior to the lead compound Fluopyram with an EC value of 19.10 mg/L. Furthermore, the toxicity of these compounds was also tested against Meloidogyne incognita J2 nematodes. The results indicated that compound 9x exhibited moderate nematicidal activity (LC/48 h = 71.02 mg/L). Molecular docking showed that novel guanidine amide of 9j formed hydrogen bonds with crucial residues, which was crucial to the binding of an inhibitor and SDH. This present work indicates that these derivatives may serve as novel potential fungicides targeting SDH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bmc.2020.115846DOI Listing
January 2021

Traditional Chinese Medicine as a complementary therapy in combat with COVID-19-A review of evidence-based research and clinical practice.

J Adv Nurs 2021 Apr 29;77(4):1635-1644. Epub 2020 Nov 29.

Alice Lee Centre for Nursing Studies, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore.

Aim: To examine the literature on Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) used in the treatment, prevention and supportive care in patients with COVID-19.

Design: A narrative review was performed.

Data Sources: A systematic and comprehensive search was conducted on both Chinese and English electronic databases: China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang Data, CINAHL, Embase, Cochrane, PubMed, PsycINFO. Articles published from 1 December 2019 -1 April 2020 were included in this review.

Review Methods: Studies reporting on the treatment and prevention of COVID-19 using TCM regardless of study designs were included. In addition, grey literatures, including media reports on Chinese government websites or official media websites and treatment guidelines were searched for TCM treatment and prevention on COVID-19.

Results: Limited research has been published on the use of TCM for COVID-19. We qualitatively described and synthesized the published research and current clinical practice on the use of TCM for COVID-19, and focused on the following areas: TCM treatment used in SARS, MERS, H1N1; TCM treatment plan for COVID-19; TCM in Prevention and Treatment at Early Stage of COVID-19; TCM emotional therapy; and personalized TCM treatment plan.

Conclusion: The combination of western medicine and TCM in treatment, and treatment based on the local condition, isolation, personal protective measures are of great significance for the prevention and treatment of COVID-19. Relevant laboratory research and clinical evaluation should be continued to collect scientific evidences on the efficacy of TCM.

Impact: TCM has been used in the treatment and prevention of COVID-19 in China, and the clinical evidences indicated that TCM regulates immunity and exerts anti-viral effect simultaneously. This review provides practical recommendation for the policymakers in the selection process of the treatment and preventive measures for the global pandemic of COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jan.14673DOI Listing
April 2021

Hyperspectral imaging and improved feature variable selection for automated determination of deoxynivalenol in various genetic lines of barley kernels for resistance screening.

Food Chem 2021 May 31;343:128507. Epub 2020 Oct 31.

Department of Plant Pathology, University of Minnesota, Saint Paul, MN 55108, USA.

Fusarium head blight (FHB), a fungus disease of small grain cereal crops, results in reduced yields and diminished value of harvested grain due to the presence of deoxynivalenol (DON), a mycotoxin produced by the causal pathogen Fusarium graminearum. DON and other tricothecene mycotoxins pose serious health risks to both humans and livestock, especially swine. Due to these health concerns, barley used for malting, food or feed is routinely assayed for DON levels. Various methods are available for assaying DON levels in grain samples including enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). ELISA and GC-MS are very accurate; however, assaying grain samples by these techniques are laborious, expensive and destructive. In this study, we explored the feasibility of using hyperspectral imaging (382-1030 nm) to develop a rapid and non-destructive protocol for assaying DON in barley kernels. Samples of 888 and 116 from various genetic lines were selected for calibration and prediction. Full-wavelength locally weighted partial least squares regression (LWPLSR) achieved high accuracy with the coefficient of determination in prediction (R) of 0.728 and root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) of 3.802. Competitive adaptive reweighted sampling (CARS) was used to choose potential feature wavelengths, and these selected variables were further optimized using the iterative selection of successive projections algorithm (ISSPA). The CARS-ISSPA-LWPLSR model developed using 7 feature variables yielded R of 0.680 and RMSEP of 4.213 in DON content prediction. Based on the 7 wavelengths selected by CARS-ISSPA, partial least square discriminant analysis (PLSDA) discriminated barley kernels having lower DON (less than1.25 mg/kg) levels from those with higher levels (including 1.25-3 mg/kg, 3-5 mg/kg, and 5-10 mg/kg), with Matthews correlation coefficient in cross-validation (M-R) of as high as 0.931. The results demonstrate that hyperspectral imaging have potential for accelerating non-destructive DON assays of barley samples.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2020.128507DOI Listing
May 2021

Past Exposure to Cigarette Smoke Aggravates Cognitive Impairment in a Rat Model of Vascular Dementia via Neuroinflammation.

Cell Mol Neurobiol 2022 May 6;42(4):1021-1034. Epub 2020 Nov 6.

Department of Neurology, Hebei Medical University, No. 361 Zhongshan East Road, Changan District, Shijiazhuang, 050017, Hebei Province, People's Republic of China.

Smoking is a risk factor for dementia. Cognitive function can be partially restored after quitting smoking, but still lower than never smoked group. The underlying mechanisms still remain unclear. The effects of smoking cessation combined with cerebral chronic hypoperfusion (CCH) on cognitive function have never been described. Here, we established a cigarette smoking cessation model, a CCH model, and a cigarette smoking cessation plus CCH model. We investigated cognitive function in these models and the mechanisms of the neuroinflammation, nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor family pyrin domain-containing 3(NLRP3)/cysteine aspartate-specific proteinase (caspase-1)/interleukin- 1β (IL-1β) pathway, and eucaryotic initiation factor 2α (eIF2α) /autophagy pathway. We used morris water maze (MWM) and novel object recognition (NOR) test to evaluate cognitive function in rats. Nissl staining was performed to observe cell morphology in the hippocampal CA1 area. A neuroinflammatory marker (glial fibrillary acidic protein, GFAP) was assessed by Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry staining. IL-1β levels were detected by ELISA. The protein levels of NLRP3/caspase-1/ IL-1β and eIF2α/autophagy pathway were evaluated by Western blot analysis. LC3 was assessed by immunofluorescence staining. CCH can affect cognitive function by influencing neuroinflammation, NLRP3/caspase-1/IL-1β pathway, and eIF2α/autophagy pathway. Past exposure to cigarette smoke can also affect cognitive function by influencing neuroinflammation and NLRP3/caspase-1/IL-1β pathway, which may be induced by smoking and may not be alleviated after smoking cessation. Past exposure to cigarette smoke does not influence autophagy, which may be increased by smoking and then decrease to normal levels after smoking cessation. Past exposure to smoking can further aggravate cognitive impairment and neuroinflammation in VaD animals: cognitive impairment induced by CCH via neuroinflammation, NLRP3/caspase-1/IL-1β, and eIF2α/autophagy pathway and cognitive impairment induced by past exposure to cigarette smoke via neuroinflammation and NLRP3/caspase-1/IL-1β pathway. The combined group had the worst cognitive impairment because of harmful reasons.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10571-020-00992-2DOI Listing
May 2022
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