Publications by authors named "Yangyang Liu"

287 Publications

Remarkable Phytochemical Characteristics of Chi-Nan Agarwood Induced from New-Found Chi-Nan Germplasm of Compared with Ordinary Agarwood.

Int J Anal Chem 2021 10;2021:5593730. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Key Laboratory of Bioactive Substances and Resources Utilization of Chinese Herbal Medicine, Ministry of Education & National Engineering Laboratory for Breeding of Endangered Medicinal Materials, Institute of Medicinal Plant Development, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100193, China.

Wild Chi-Nan agarwood is regarded as the highest quality agarwood from spp. However, the comprehensive research on chemical composition of wild Chi-Nan agarwood is limited. An integrated strategy using SHS-GC-MS and UPLC-Q/Tof-MS was applied to explore the phytochemical characteristics of a kind of agarwood induced from a newly identified germplasm of Chi-Nan Progenesis QI and MS-Dial were used to preprocess the UPLC-Q/Tof-MS and GC-MS raw data, respectively. Principle component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal partial least squares to latent structure-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) models were built to discriminate Chi-Nan agarwood from ordinary agarwood and to screen potential distinguishing components between them. In this study, we clarified the distinguishing differences between Chi-Nan agarwood and ordinary agarwood. The difference is mainly manifested in the average contents of 2-(2-phenylethyl)chromone and 2-[2-(4'-methoxybenzene)ethyl]chromone, which are 170 and 420 times higher in Chi-Nan agarwood than in ordinary agarwood, respectively, while the contents of 5,6,7,8-diepoxy-2-(2-phenylethyl)chromones(DEPECs), 5,6-epoxy-2-(2-phenylethyl)chromones(EPECs), and 5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-2-(2-phenylethyl)chromones(THPECs) such as agarotetrol are extremely low. The content of the main sesquiterpenes in Chi-Nan agarwood was higher than that in ordinary agarwood, especially in regard to guaiane and eudesmane derivatives. In addition, there were significant differences in the contents of low-molecular-weight aromatic compounds such as 2-methyl-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one, 4-methoxybenzaldehyde, and 2-hydroxybenzaldehyde between Chi-Nan agarwood and ordinary agarwood. All the mentioned main chemical characteristics of this new Chi-Nan agarwood were coincident with those of the rare wild Chi-Nan agarwood from , , and . We reported differences in 2-(2-phenylethyl)chromones, sesquiterpenes, and low-molecular-weight aromatic compounds between Chi-Nan agarwood and ordinary agarwood from for the first time; it is necessary to evaluate the agarwood from the new-found Chi-Nan germplasm.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/5593730DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8053051PMC
April 2021

Culturally Responsive Practices: Insights from a High-Quality Math Afterschool Program Serving Underprivileged Latinx Youth.

Am J Community Psychol 2021 Apr 26. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

School of Education, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA, USA.

High-quality afterschool programs (ASPs) are opportunities to diversify the ways that Latinx youth from economically underprivileged communities experience STEM learning. Utilizing qualitative methods, based on the experiences and perspectives of low-income Latinx middle school participants of a math enrichment ASP in Southern California, we identified four culturally responsive practices: (1) the promotion of an inclusive, safe, and respectful program climate, (2) engaging in personal conversations, (3) facilitating opportunities for mutual and math learning across diverse cultures and perspectives, and (4) the promotion of math and a range of social-emotional skills across contexts. These practices helped youth feel more connected to the program, their peers, and program staff (college mentors); provided a platform for youth voice and contribution to the processes of teaching and learning; facilitated opportunities for skill development and practice across the different contexts of youth's lives; interrelated with Latinx cultural values; and helped to promote youth's engagement and math learning. Importantly, youth's relationships with their mentors was a significant aspect of their experiences and perceptions of these practices. We argue that culturally responsive practices are necessary to achieve high-quality programs and provide specific implications for how ASPs can implement them in the design and implementation of their programs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajcp.12518DOI Listing
April 2021

[Detection method of nonlinear magnetized harmonic signal of medical magnetic nanoparticles].

Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue Za Zhi 2021 Feb;38(1):56-64

School of Electrical Engineering, Shenyang University of Technology, Shenyang 110870, P.R.China.

Medical magnetic nanoparticles are nano-medical materials with superparamagnetism, which can be collected in the tumor tissue through blood circulation, and magnetic particle imaging technology can be used to visualize the concentration of magnetic nanoparticles in the living body to achieve the purpose of tumor imaging. Based on the nonlinear magnetization characteristics of magnetic particles and the frequency characteristics of their magnetization, a differential detection method for the third harmonic of magnetic particle detection signals is proposed. It was modeled and analyzed, to study the nonlinear magnetization response characteristics of magnetic particles under alternating field, and the spectral characteristics of magnetic particle signals. At the same time, the relationship between each harmonic and the amount of medical magnetic nanoparticle samples was studied. On this basis, a signal detection experimental system was built to analyze the spectral characteristics and power spectral density of the detected signal, and to study the relationship between the signal and the excitation frequency. The signal detection experiment was carried out by the above method. The experimental results showed that under the alternating excitation field, the medical magnetic nanoparticles would generate a spike signal higher than the background sensing signal, and the magnetic particle signal existed in the odd harmonics of the detected signal spectrum. And the spectral energy was concentrated at the third harmonic, that is, the third harmonic magnetic particle signal detection that meets the medical detection requirement could be realized. In addition, the relationship between each harmonic and the particle sample volume had a positive growth relationship, and the detected medical magnetic nanoparticle sample volume could be determined according to the relationship. At the same time, the selection of the excitation frequency was limited by the sensitivity of the system, and the detection peak of the third harmonic of the detection signal was reached at the excitation frequency of 1 kHz. It provides theoretical and technical support for the detection of medical magnetic nanoparticle imaging signals in magnetic particle imaging research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7507/1001-5515.201911010DOI Listing
February 2021

Increased detection of circulating tumor DNA by short fragment enrichment.

Transl Lung Cancer Res 2021 Mar;10(3):1501-1511

Department of Laboratory Technology Development, Global Medical Product Center (GMPC), Beijing Novogene Bioinformatics Technology Co., Ltd., Beijing, China.

Background: Circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA) detection for non-invasive diagnosis requires higher sensitivity and accuracy due to the low circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) content. Many methods have been developed to improve detection of ctDNA, including ultra-deep sequencing or enrichment of shorter cfDNA fragments, such as those in the range of 90-150 bp.

Methods: Here, we developed a method for single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) library preparation with a large proportion of magnetic beads to enrich the shorter cfDNA fragments. We aimed to determine if this could increase the ctDNA content and thus improve the sensitivity of ctDNA detection by testing the method in blood samples from patients with advanced cancers (non-small cell lung cancers, esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, cholangiocarcinoma, colorectal cancer and liver cancer).

Results: This method was able to obtain shorter cfDNA both in commercial cfDNA references and real world clinical cfDNA samples. Plasmid simulation experiments showed that using a large proportion of magnetic beads to construct the library could obtain more ctDNA derived from shorter-fragment plasmids, which could significantly improve the detection of ctDNA especially in the low-variant allele frequency sample. In real-world clinical samples, this method may be able to increase the opportunity to obtain alteration reads from short fragments, which was important to low frequency detection.

Conclusions: The ssDNA library preparation with large proportion of magnetic beads could increase the opportunity to obtain alteration reads from short fragments, which is crucial for low variant allele frequency detection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/tlcr-21-180DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8044499PMC
March 2021

Highly Integrated Cell-Imprinted Biomimetic Interface for All-in-One Diagnosis of Heterogeneous Circulating Tumor Cells.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 May 21;13(17):19603-19612. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Frontiers Science Center for Transformative Molecules, the State Key Laboratory of Metal Matrix Composites, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China.

Single-cell capture and analysis of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in blood are of great significance for early cancer diagnosis, prognosis, and individualized treatment. However, designing an all-in-one platform that enables not only efficiently specific isolation of CTCs but also analysis of heterogeneity and drug screening is challenging. Here, a cell-imprinted alginate hydrogel (CIAH) interface with all-in-one functions was developed for the capture, analysis, and drug-response study at a single-cell level. Based on the equivalent morphology and "specific odor" left by template cells and supplemented by natural antibody, the CIAH interface exhibited outstanding performance in isolating CTCs from samples suffering from cancers. Beyond capture, the CIAH interface was also able to serve as a high-throughput platform for subpopulation analysis and drug response of heterogeneous CTCs. We demonstrated that the highly integrated multifunctional CIAH interface is a promising new tool for single-cell profiling of phenotypic heterogeneity and guiding of personalized anticancer therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c00577DOI Listing
May 2021

Investigation of the therapeutic effect of Yinchen Wuling Powder on CCl-induced hepatic fibrosis in rats by H NMR and MS-based metabolomics analysis.

J Pharm Biomed Anal 2021 Apr 16;200:114073. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

School of Life Science and Biopharmaceutics, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Wenhua Road 103, Shenyang, Liaoning, China. Electronic address:

Hepatic fibrosis (HF) is a typical consequence of various chronic liver diseases, and there is still no ideal drug for its treatment. Yinchen Wuling Powder (YCWLP), a famous traditional Chinese medicine prescription, is effective for the treatment of icteric hepatitis, hepatic fibrosis, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and other liver diseases in clinical practices, however, the underlying mechanisms of YCWLP on HF is still unclear. In this study, H NMR and MS-based metabolomics analysis along with body weight change, serum liver function indexes, serum liver fibrosis index and histopathological observations of liver were applied to evaluate the therapeutic effect of YCWLP on hepatic fibrosis and the mechanism associated with this. The results of the pharmacodynamics study show that YCWLP has a significant therapeutic effect on hepatic fibrosis. As for the metabolomics research, 7 metabolites in the plasma samples, 28 in the urine samples and 6 in the liver samples were significantly altered due to the protective effect of YCWLP on CCl-induced hepatic fibrosis. These endogenous metabolites are involved in amino acid metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism, glycerophospholipid metabolism and gut bacteria metabolism. These findings suggest that YCWLP could treat hepatic fibrosis by promoting urea circulation and reducing blood ammonia accumulation, improving carbohydrate metabolism and reducing oxidative stress, improving glycerophospholipid metabolism and protecting cell membrane, and regulating intestinal flora metabolism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpba.2021.114073DOI Listing
April 2021

Profiling of somatic mutations and fusion genes in acute myeloid leukemia patients with FLT3-ITD or FLT3-TKD mutation at diagnosis reveals distinct evolutionary patterns.

Exp Hematol Oncol 2021 Apr 9;10(1):27. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Hematology, Chinese PLA General Hospital, 28 Fuxing Road, Beijing, 100853, China.

Background: The receptor tyrosine kinase FLT3 with internal tandem duplications within the juxtamembrane domain (FLT3-ITD) is a poor prognostic factor; however, the prognostic significance of missense mutation in the tyrosine kinase domain (FLT3-TKD) is controversial. Furthermore, the accompanying mutations and fusion genes with FLT3 mutations are unclear in acute myeloid leukemia (AML).

Methods: We investigated FLT3 mutations and their correlation with other gene mutations and gene fusions through two RNA-seq based next-generation sequencing (NGS) method and prognostic impact in 207 de novo AML patients.

Results: FLT3-ITD mutations were positive in 58 patients (28%), and FLT3-TKD mutations were positive in 20 patients (9.7%). FLT3-ITD was associated with a higher white blood cell count (WBC, mean 72.9 × 10/L vs. 24.2 × 10/L, P = 0.000), higher bone marrow blasts (mean 65.9% vs. 56.0%, P = 0.024), and NK-AML (normal karyotype) (64.8% vs. 48.4%, P = 0.043). NPM1 and DNMT3A mutations were enriched in FLT3-ITD (53.5% vs. 15.3%, P = 0.000; 34.6% vs. 13%, P = 0.003). However, the mutations of CEBPA were excluded in FLT3-AML (3.8% vs. 0% vs. 19.8%, P = 0.005). Mutations of Ras and TP53 were unlikely associated with FLT3-ITD (1.9% vs. 20.6%, P = 0.006; 0% vs. 6.1%, P = 0.04). The common fusion genes (> 10%) in FLT3-ITD had MLL-rearrangement and NUP98-rearrangement, while the common fusion genes in FLT3-TKD had AML1-ETO and MLL-rearrangement. Two novel fusion genes PRDM16-SKI and EFAN2-ZNF238 were identified in FLT3-ITD patients. Gene fusions and NPM1 mutation were mutually excluded in FLT3-ITD and FLT3-TKD patients. Their patterns of mutual exclusivity and cooperation among mutated genes suggest that additional driver genetic alterations are required and reveal two evolutionary patterns of FLT3 pathogenesis. Patients with FLT3-ITD had a lower CR (complete remission) rate, lower 3-year OS (overall survival), DFS (disease-free survival), and EFS (event-free survival) compared to FLT3AML. NK-AML with FLT3-ITD had a lower 3-year OS, DFS, and EFS than those without, while FLT3-TKD did not influence the survival in whole cohort and NK-AML. Besides, we found that FLT3-ITD/TET2 bimutation defined a poor prognostic subgroup.

Conclusions: Our study offers deep insights into the molecular pathogenesis and biology of AML with FLT3-ITD and FLT3-TKD by providing the profiles of concurrent molecular alterations and the clinical impact of FLT3-ITD and FLT3-TKD on AML patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40164-021-00207-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8033687PMC
April 2021

Induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) line (ZZUNEUi009-A) from a healthy female individual.

Stem Cell Res 2021 Mar 3;53:102275. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Department of Cardiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450052, China; Henan Key Laboratory of Hereditary Cardiovascular Diseases, Zhengzhou 450052, China; Department of Cardiology, Beijing Anzhen Hospital, Capital Medical University, National Clinical Research Centre for Cardiovascular Diseases, No. 2 Beijing Anzhen Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100029, China. Electronic address:

Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) can be used to generate different types of somatic cells in vitro and are a useful tool for investigating drug and disease mechanisms. Here, we generated human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) line ZZUNEUi009-A from an apparently healthy 28-year-old female by reprogramming peripheral blood mononuclear cells with non-integrating vector. The generated iPSCs was pluripotent, maintained a stable karyotype, and could generate the three layers (ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm) in vitro.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scr.2021.102275DOI Listing
March 2021

Insight into the Critical Role of Exchange Current Density on Electrodeposition Behavior of Lithium Metal.

Adv Sci (Weinh) 2021 Mar 6;8(5):2003301. Epub 2021 Jan 6.

Department of Physics Chalmers University of Technology Göteborg SE-412 96 Sweden.

Due to an ultrahigh theoretical specific capacity of 3860 mAh g, lithium (Li) is regarded as the ultimate anode for high-energy-density batteries. However, the practical application of Li metal anode is hindered by safety concerns and low Coulombic efficiency both of which are resulted fromunavoidable dendrite growth during electrodeposition. This study focuses on a critical parameter for electrodeposition, the exchange current density, which has attracted only little attention in research on Li metal batteries. A phase-field model is presented to show the effect of exchange current density on electrodeposition behavior of Li. The results show that a uniform distribution of cathodic current density, hence uniform electrodeposition, on electrode is obtained with lower exchange current density. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that lower exchange current density contributes to form a larger critical radius of nucleation in the initial electrocrystallization that results in a dense deposition of Li, which is a foundation for improved Coulombic efficiency and dendrite-free morphology. The findings not only pave the way to practical rechargeable Li metal batteries but can also be translated to the design of stable metal anodes, e.g., for sodium (Na), magnesium (Mg), and zinc (Zn) batteries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/advs.202003301DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7927631PMC
March 2021

A historical perspective on porphyrin-based metal-organic frameworks and their applications.

Coord Chem Rev 2021 Feb 21;429. Epub 2020 Oct 21.

Department of Chemistry and International Institute for Nanotechnology, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208, United States.

Porphyrins are important molecules widely found in nature in the form of enzyme active sites and visible light absorption units. Recent interest in using these functional molecules as building blocks for the construction of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have rapidly increased due to the ease in which the locations of, and the distances between, the porphyrin units can be controlled in these porous crystalline materials. Porphyrin-based MOFs with atomically precise structures provide an ideal platform for the investigation of their structure-function relationships in the solid state without compromising accessibility to the inherent properties of the porphyrin building blocks. This review will provide a historical overview of the development and applications of porphyrin-based MOFs from early studies focused on design and structures, to recent efforts on their utilization in biomimetic catalysis, photocatalysis, electrocatalysis, sensing, and biomedical applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ccr.2020.213615DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7932473PMC
February 2021

Rapid, Biomimetic Degradation of a Nerve Agent Simulant by Incorporating Imidazole Bases into a Metal-Organic Framework.

ACS Catal 2021 Feb 14;11(3):1424-1429. Epub 2021 Jan 14.

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, California State University, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90032-8202, United States.

Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are excellent catalytic materials for the hydrolytic degradation of nerve agents and their simulants. However, most of the MOF-based hydrolysis catalysts to date are reliant on liquid water media buffered by a volatile liquid base. To overcome this practical limitation, we developed a simple and feasible strategy to synthesize MOF composites that structurally mimic phosphotriesterase's active site as well as its ligated histidine residues. By incorporating imidazole and its derivative into the pores of , the obtained MOF composites achieved rapid degradation of a nerve agent simulant (dimethyl-4-nitrophenyl phosphate, DMNP) in pure water as well as in a humid environment without liquid base. Remarkably, one of the composites displayed the highest catalytic activity for DMNP hydrolysis in unbuffered aqueous solutions among all reported MOF-based catalysts. Furthermore, solid-phase catalysis showed that can also rapidly hydrolyze DMNP under high-humidity conditions without bulk water or external bases. This work provides a viable solution toward the implementation of MOF materials into protective equipment for practical nerve agent detoxification.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acscatal.0c04565DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7889053PMC
February 2021

Identification of proteins related with pemetrexed resistance by iTRAQ and PRM-based comparative proteomic analysis and exploration of IGF2BP2 and FOLR1 functions in non-small cell lung cancer cells.

J Proteomics 2021 04 6;237:104122. Epub 2021 Feb 6.

Department of Oncology, Xinyang Central Hospital, Xinyang 464000, China.

Pemetrexed (PEM), a multi-target folate antagonist, has been extensively used for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, the therapeutic efficacy of PEM is limited by tumor resistance. In this project, iTRAQ and parallel reaction monitoring (PRM)-based LC-MS/MS comparative proteomic analysis was performed to identify protein determinants of PEM resistance in A549/PEM cells versus A549 parental cells. A total of 567 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) were identified by iTRAQ analysis. The function and classification of DEPs were analyzed through GO and KEGG Pathway databases. Moreover, PRM analysis further validated the expression changes of 14 DEPs identified by iTRAQ analysis. Moreover, insulin-like growth factor (IGF) 2 mRNA-binding protein 2 (IGF2BP2) or folate receptor alpha (FOLR1) knockdown weakened PEM resistance, reduced cell viability and promoted cell apoptosis in A549/PEM cells. IGF2BP2 depletion inhibited cell migration, invasion and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), while FOLR1 loss had no much effect on cell migration, invasion and EMT in A549/PEM cells. Our study can provide a deep insight into molecular mechanisms of PEM resistance in NSCLC and contribute to the development of more effective therapeutic schedules. SIGNIFICANCE: Our study can provide deeper insight into molecular mechanisms of PEM resistance in NSCLC and contribute to the development of more effective therapeutic schedules.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jprot.2021.104122DOI Listing
April 2021

Canidin-3-glucoside prevents nano-plastics induced toxicity via activating autophagy and promoting discharge.

Environ Pollut 2021 Apr 21;274:116524. Epub 2021 Jan 21.

Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310058, People's Republic of China; Zhejiang Key Laboratory for Agro-food Processing, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310058, People's Republic of China; Fuli Institute of Food Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310058, People's Republic of China; National Engineering Laboratory of Intelligent Food Technology and Equipment, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310058, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Increasing attention has been brought to microplastics pollution recently, while emerging evidences indicate that nano-plastics degraded from microplastics are more of research significance owing to stronger toxicity. However, there is little study focused on the prevention of nano-plastics induced toxicity until now. Canidin-3-glucoside (C3G), a natural anthocyanin proved to possess multiple functions like antioxidant and intestinal tissue protection. Thus, we proposed whether C3G could act as a molecular weapon against nano-plastics induced toxicity. In Caco2 cell and Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) models, we found that polystyrene (PS) nano-plastics exposure resulted in physiological toxicity and oxidative damage, which could be restored by C3G. More significantly in Caco2 cells, we observed that autophagy was activated via Sirt1-Foxo1 signaling pathway to attenuate PS induced toxicity after C3G intervention and further verified by adding autophagy inhibitor 3-Methyladenine (3-MA). Meanwhile, PS co-localization with lysosomes was observed, indicating the encapsulation and degradation of PS. In C. elegans, by detecting LGG-1/LC3 expression in GFP-targeted LGG-1 report gene (LGG-1:GFP) labeled transgenic DA2123 strain, the co-localization of LGG-1:GFP with PS was found as well, means that autophagy is involved in C3G's beneficial effects. Furthermore, we were surprised to find that C3G could promote the discharge of PS from N2 nematodes, which reduces PS toxicity more directly.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2021.116524DOI Listing
April 2021

The development of cooperation and self-control in middle childhood: Associations with earlier maternal and paternal parenting.

Dev Psychol 2021 Mar 4;57(3):397-409. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

Department of Psychology, University of South Carolina.

Developmental theories and previous research have emphasized the significance of cooperation and self-control in middle childhood. The present study extends previous research by examining (a) the growth of cooperation and self-control as well as the relations between them in middle childhood (third to sixth grade) and (b) the extent to which mothers' and fathers' parenting during early childhood (54 months and first grade) was associated with children's cooperation and self-control. The sample included 705 children (51% female, 86% White) and their mothers, fathers, and teachers in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (SECCYD). Children, on average, exhibited increases in self-control but not cooperation from third to sixth grade though the increases were smaller for children who had higher self-control or cooperation at third grade. Children who exhibited higher self-control at third grade tended to exhibit higher cooperation at third grade; similar positive associations emerged for the changes in self-control and cooperation over time. In addition, if a child exhibited higher self-control at one time point relative to their typical average level, they tended to also exhibit higher cooperation at the same time point relative to their typical average level. However, these relative deviations within person were not associated over time. Lastly, maternal and paternal sensitive and stimulating parenting in early childhood was positively associated with children's cooperation and self-control in middle childhood. Overall, our findings shed light on the growth of and the relations between cooperation and self-control in middle childhood and highlight the role of maternal and paternal parenting in early childhood. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/dev0001151DOI Listing
March 2021

Behavior of fast and slow phosphorus release from sewage sludge-derived biochar amended with CaO.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Feb 3. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

College of Sciences, Shanghai University, No. 99 Shangda Rd, Shanghai, 200444, China.

The pyrolyzation of sewage sludge (SS) could efficiently transform inherent phosphorus (P) into bioavailable phosphate forms, which endows SS-derived biochar (SSB) the potential as a soil fertilizer. However, the details about the release behavior of P in SSB have not been systematically investigated. This study evaluated the fast and slow P releasing behaviors from SSB and CaO-amended SSB prepared under different pyrolysis temperature. The higher pyrolysis temperature and CaO addition could enhance the conversion of non-apatite inorganic phosphorus (NAIP) into more bioavailable apatite inorganic phosphorous (AP). Acidic and alkaline conditions were favorable for the fast release of P from SSB. Higher ionic strength condition gave greater releasing amounts of TP and the SO facilitating a rapid release of TP than those for Cl and NO. SSBs with CaO addition showed a much slower TP release than those without CaO both in fast release (24 h, with CaO: 0.05~0.4 mg TP g SSB, e.g., without CaO 0.5~5 mg TP g SSB) and slow release tests (21 days, with CaO: 1.2~4.1 mg TP g SSB, e.g., without CaO 1.8~5.7 mg TP g SSB). Ortho-P release was more remarkable for the SSB amended with CaO (~54% of TP), which was likely due to the formation of orthophosphate. The results of this study suggested that SSB prepared by high pyrolysis temperature and CaO addition had high potential as a slow P-releasing fertilizer for the soil.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-12725-zDOI Listing
February 2021

The Role of Neuroglial Crosstalk and Synaptic Plasticity-Mediated Central Sensitization in Acupuncture Analgesia.

Neural Plast 2021 18;2021:8881557. Epub 2021 Jan 18.

Research Center of Experimental Acupuncture Science, Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tianjin 301617, China.

Although pain is regarded as a global public health priority, analgesic therapy remains a significant challenge. Pain is a hypersensitivity state caused by peripheral and central sensitization, with the latter considered the culprit for chronic pain. This study summarizes the pathogenesis of central sensitization from the perspective of neuroglial crosstalk and synaptic plasticity and underlines the related analgesic mechanisms of acupuncture. Central sensitization is modulated by the neurotransmitters and neuropeptides involved in the ascending excitatory pathway and the descending pain modulatory system. Acupuncture analgesia is associated with downregulating glutamate in the ascending excitatory pathway and upregulating opioids, 𝛾-aminobutyric acid, norepinephrine, and 5-hydroxytryptamine in the descending pain modulatory system. Furthermore, it is increasingly appreciated that neurotransmitters, cytokines, and chemokines are implicated in neuroglial crosstalk and associated plasticity, thus contributing to central sensitization. Acupuncture produces its analgesic action by inhibiting cytokines, such as interleukin-1, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-, and upregulating interleukin-10, as well as modulating chemokines and their receptors such as CX3CL1/CX3CR1, CXCL12/CXCR4, CCL2/CCR2, and CXCL1/CXCR2. These factors are regulated by acupuncture through the activation of multiple signaling pathways, including mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling (e.g., the p38, extracellular signal-regulated kinases, and c-Jun-N-terminal kinase pathways), which contribute to the activation of nociceptive neurons. However, the responses of chemokines to acupuncture vary among the types of pain models, acupuncture methods, and stimulation parameters. Thus, the exact mechanisms require future clarification. Taken together, inhibition of central sensitization modulated by neuroglial plasticity is central in acupuncture analgesia, providing a novel insight for the clinical application of acupuncture analgesia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/8881557DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7834789PMC
January 2021

Health literacy of college freshmen in jiangsu, China: A 3-year longitudinal survey.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Jan;100(4):e24057

Key Laboratory of Environmental Medicine Engineering, Ministry of Education. Department of Epidemiology and Health Statistics, School of Public Health, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China.

Abstract: Health literacy (HL) has become an important public health issue and received growing attention in recent years. However, knowledge about the HL of adolescents and young adults is limited.[1] This study aimed to investigate the awareness rate of HL and its related factors among college freshmen in Jiangsu, China. And the results were used to support the promotion intervention to improve the HL of at-risk groups among this population.A total of 25,272 freshmen were surveyed through multi-stage stratified random sampling from 20 colleges and universities in Jiangsu province between 2016 to 2018. Data were obtained using the "Chinese Citizen Health Literacy Questionnaire" (2013 edition). Multiple logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine the factors influencing HL levels.The awareness rate of HL of college freshmen in Jiangsu province was 26.6% among the 25,272 subjects. The awareness rate of HL tended to increase from 2016 to 2018, which was 17.9%, 21.5%, and 39.6%, respectively (P < 0.001). Specifically, except for chronic diseases, knowledge and attitudes, knowledge and attitudes toward health-related behavior and lifestyle, health-related skill and scientific views of health, infection diseases, safety and first aid, medical care, health information awareness rate all have improved to a certain degree (P < .001). The independent factors associated with HL awareness rate were sex (odds ratio [OR] = 1.099, (1.039 -1.164)), residence (urban: OR = 1.141, (1.056∼1.234)), educational system (OR = 2.133, (1.975-2.305)), only child or not (OR = 1.087, (1.018-1.161)), family structure (OR = 1.192, (1.078-1.319)) and maternal education level (high school: OR = 1.183 (1.067-1.313); university and more: OR = 1.481 (1.324-1.658)).Awareness rate of HL of college freshmen is associated with multi-complex factors, further works are recommended to improve the HL levels of college freshmen, especially for the aspect of chronic diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000024057DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7850702PMC
January 2021

An induced pluripotent stem cells line (ZZUNEUi022-A) derived from urine cells of healthy male human.

Stem Cell Res 2021 Mar 22;51:102191. Epub 2021 Jan 22.

Department of Cardiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450052, China; Henan Key Laboratory of Hereditary Cardiovascular Diseases, Zhengzhou 450052, China; Cardiovascular Institute of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450052, China; Department of Cardiology, Beijing Anzhen Hospital, Capital Medical University, National Clinical Research Centre for Cardiovascular Diseases, No. 2 Beijing Anzhen Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100029, China. Electronic address:

Urine cells (or renal tubular cells) can be isolated from human urine samples efficiently. This noninvasive and cost-effective method to collect biological sample provide us favorable access to donor cells from human. In the present study, we generate ZZUNEUi022-A, a urine cells-derived induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) line, from a 29-year-old healthy male via Sendai virus delivery system. ZZUNEUi022-A showed stable karyotype, and could differentiate into three germ layers (ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm) readily in an embryoid body formation model.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scr.2021.102191DOI Listing
March 2021

Green Synthesis of Zr-Based Metal-Organic Framework Hydrogel Composites and Their Enhanced Adsorptive Properties.

Inorg Chem Front 2020 Dec 25;7(24):4813-4821. Epub 2020 Sep 25.

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, California State University Los Angeles, 5151 State University Dr, Los Angeles, CA 90032, United States.

Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have emerged as promising candidates for a wide range of applications due to their high surface area and customizable structures, however, the minimal external hydrophilicity of MOFs has limited their biomedical implementations. Structuring of MOFs within polymer frameworks is an approach used to create hybrid materials that retain many of the MOF characteristics (e.g. high adsorption capacity) but expand the range of mechanical and surface properties as well as form factors accessible. Using this approach, hybridizing MOFs with hydrophilic hydrogels can give rise to materials with improved hydrophilicity and biocompatibility. Here, we describe the synthesis of the first Zr-based MOF-hydrogel hybrid material (composite ) using a green chemistry approach, in which only water was used as the solvent and relatively low temperature (50 °C) was applied. Using methylene blue (MB) as a probe molecule, composite exhibited greater adsorption capacity than the MOF or the hydrogel alone in aqueous solution at most tested pH values (all except pH 13). At an initial MB concentration of 0.0096 mg/mL (30.014uM) and neutral pH conditions, this new hybrid presented the highest loading of MB among similar materials (MB adsorbed = 4.361 ± 0.092 mg MB/g Zr, partition coefficient = 0.172 ± 0.004 mg/g/uM) and largely retained its adsorption capacity under varied conditions (pH 1-13 and 0.2-1.0M NaCl), rendering possible applications in drug delivery and the removal of tumor contrast agent/dye with minimal leakage due to its broad chemical stability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0qi00840kDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7839982PMC
December 2020

A heterozygous MYH7 (c. 2156G > A) mutant human induced pluripotent stem cell line (ZZUNEUi020-A) generated from a patient with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

Stem Cell Res 2021 Mar 8;51:102158. Epub 2021 Jan 8.

Department of Cardiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450052, China; Henan Key Laboratory of Hereditary Cardiovascular Diseases, Zhengzhou 450052, China. Electronic address:

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a heterogeneous myocardial disease often caused by sarcomeric gene mutations. MYH7 is one of the most common genes associated with HCM. In this study, we generated a human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) line ZZUNEUi020-A from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of a female HCM patient with the p. R719Q (c. 2156G > A) mutation in MYH7. This cell line expressed pluripotency markers, showed normal female karyotype and could differentiate into all three germ layers in vitro.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scr.2021.102158DOI Listing
March 2021

Generation of a hiPSC line ZZUNEUi012-A from a healthy female individual.

Stem Cell Res 2020 Dec 26;50:102143. Epub 2020 Dec 26.

Department of Cardiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450052, China; Cardiovascular Institute of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450052, China; Department of Cardiology, Beijing Anzhen Hospital, Capital Medical University, National Clinical Research Centre for Cardiovascular Diseases, No. 2 Beijing Anzhen Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100029, China. Electronic address:

Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have differentiation potential into different somatic cell types in vitro and are a useful tool to investigate pathomechanistic and cellular processes. In this study, we generated human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) ZZUNEUi012-A from an apparently healthy female individual using an integration-free reprogramming method. The generated hiPSC line was pluripotent and had normal karyotype, showed robust expression of pluripotency markers and could differentiate into all three germ layers in vitro.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scr.2020.102143DOI Listing
December 2020

Formononetin ameliorates muscle atrophy by regulating myostatin-mediated PI3K/Akt/FoxO3a pathway and satellite cell function in chronic kidney disease.

J Cell Mol Med 2021 Feb 6;25(3):1493-1506. Epub 2021 Jan 6.

Shenzhen Hospital, Southern Medical University, Shenzhen, China.

Muscle atrophy is a common complication in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Inflammation and myostatin play important roles in CKD muscle atrophy. Formononetin (FMN), which is a major bioactive isoflavone compound in Astragalus membranaceus, exerts anti-inflammatory effects and the promotion of myogenic differentiation. Our study is based on myostatin to explore the effects and mechanisms of FMN in relation to CKD muscle atrophy. In this study, CKD rats and tumour necrosis factor α (TNF-α)-induced C2C12 myotubes were used for in vivo and in vitro models of muscle atrophy. The results showed that FMN significantly improved the renal function, nutritional status and inflammatory markers in CKD rats. Values for bodyweight, weight of tibialis anterior and gastrocnemius muscles, and cross-sectional area (CSA) of skeletal muscles were significantly larger in the FMN treatment rats. Furthermore, FMN significantly suppressed the expressions of MuRF-1, MAFbx and myostatin in the muscles of CKD rats and the TNF-α-induced C2C12 myotubes. Importantly, FMN significantly increased the phosphorylation of PI3K, Akt, and FoxO3a and the expressions of the myogenic proliferation and differentiation markers, myogenic differentiation factor D (MyoD) and myogenin in muscles of CKD rats and the C2C12 myotubes. Similar results were observed in TNF-α-induced C2C12 myotubes transfected with myostatin-small interfering RNA (si-myostatin). Notably, myostatin overexpression plasmid (myostatin OE) abolished the effect of FMN on the phosphorylation of the PI3K/Akt/FoxO3a pathway and the expressions of MyoD and myogenin. Our findings suggest that FMN ameliorates muscle atrophy related to myostatin-mediated PI3K/Akt/FoxO3a pathway and satellite cell function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jcmm.16238DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7875933PMC
February 2021

Generation of an IPSC line from a patient with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy carrying a mutation in MYH6 gene.

Stem Cell Res 2020 Dec 24;50:102138. Epub 2020 Dec 24.

Department of Cardiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450052, China; Henan Key Laboratory of Hereditary Cardiovascular Diseases, Zhengzhou 450052, China; Department of Cardiology, Beijing Anzhen Hospital, Capital Medical University, National Clinical Research Centre for Cardiovascular Diseases, No. 2 Beijing Anzhen Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100029, China. Electronic address:

An induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) line was generated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of a 41-year-old male patient with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy who carries a G3755A heterozygote mutation in the MYH6 gene. The generated iPSC line expressed pluripotency markers, exhibited a normal karyotype, presented the specific mutation, and demonstrated differentiation potential into three germ layers in vitro.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scr.2020.102138DOI Listing
December 2020

Induced pluripotent stem cell line (ZZUNEUi011-A) derived from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of a healthy 27-year-old female individual.

Stem Cell Res 2020 Dec 24;50:102139. Epub 2020 Dec 24.

Department of Cardiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450052, China; Cardiovascular Institute of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450052, China; Department of Cardiology, Beijing Anzhen Hospital, Capital Medical University, National Clinical Research Centre for Cardiovascular Diseases, No. 2 Beijing Anzhen Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100029, China. Electronic address:

In this study, we report a human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) line from a healthy 27-year-old female individual using non-integrative Sendai viral reprogramming technology. The cell line expresses stemness markers, exhibits a normal female karyotype, and can differentiate into three germ layers in vivo. This iPSC line from a healthy individual provides a control group for studying disease mechanisms, drug screening, and toxicity testing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scr.2020.102139DOI Listing
December 2020

Simultaneous Detection of Ascorbic Acid, Dopamine, and Uric Acid Using a Novel Electrochemical Sensor Based on Palladium Nanoparticles/Reduced Graphene Oxide Nanocomposite.

Int J Anal Chem 2020 16;2020:8812443. Epub 2020 Dec 16.

Research Center of Experimental Acupuncture Science, College of Acumox and Tuina, Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tianjin 301617, China.

A fresh strategy based on two-step electrochemical reduction for the fabrication of palladium nanoparticles/reduced oxide nanocomposite-modified glass carbon electrode (PdNPs/rGO/GCE) was established in this study. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) images showed that spherical PdNPs were evenly distributed on the surface of rGO-modified electrode (rGO/GCE), and the introduction of PdNPs has no effect on the morphology of rGO. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) studies revealed that the conductivity of PdNPs/rGO/GCE was higher than that of rGO/GCE and bare GCE. The electrochemical performances of PdNPs/rGO/GCE sensor were investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV), differential pulse voltammetry (DPV), and chronoamperometry using ascorbic acid (AA), dopamine (DA), and uric acid (UA) as analytes. At the optimized conditions, wide linear ranges of 0.5-3.5 mM ( = 0.99), 3-15 M ( = 0.99) and 15-42 M ( = 0.99), and 0.3-1.4 mM ( = 0.99) towards AA, DA, and UA in ternary mixture were observed, respectively. In addition to superior anti-interference capability, fast response (≤5 s), excellent reproducibility, and good long-term stability were also given by this sensor. These results suggested that PdNPs/rGO/GCE is promising for the simultaneous detection of AA, DA, and UA in practical application.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/8812443DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7759412PMC
December 2020

Stigma, depression, and post-traumatic growth among Chinese stroke survivors: A longitudinal study examining patterns and correlations.

Top Stroke Rehabil 2020 Dec 28:1-14. Epub 2020 Dec 28.

Department of Nursing, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University , Guangzhou, Guangdong, China.

: With the development of positive psychology, several studies show that positive and negative emotions are not always opposing. Understanding how positive and negative emotions correlate and the factors contributing to resilience in stroke survivors requires further research. : To identify the patterns and correlations of stigma, depression, and posttraumatic growth (PTG) among stroke survivors. : Stroke-related stigma, depression, PTG, and neurological status were evaluated at 1-month and 3 months post-stroke using the Stroke Stigma Scale (SSS), Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), Chinese version of the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory (C-PTGI), modified Rankin Scale (mRS), and Social Support Rating Scale (SSRS). The paired -test, nonparametric test, and Spearman's correlation test were used to analyze differences and relationships between results at the two time points. : At 3 months compared to 1-month post-stroke, we found significant reductions in mRS and stigma scores, and an increase in PTGI scores, while the PHQ-9 scores reduced non-significantly. SSS, PHQ-9, and mRS scores were positively correlated with each other at time1 (all < .01), and all showed no significant relationships with PTGI scores (all > .05). Social support scores were negatively correlated with stigma ( < .01), PHQ-9 ( < .01), and PTGI scores ( > .05) at 3 months. : Stroke-related stigma is strongly associated with depression while neither of them has significant relationships with PTG during the early stage of survivors' rehabilitation in our study. Neurological impairment is a risk factor for negative emotions and increasing individualized support may reduce stigma, depression, and promote PTG in the long term.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10749357.2020.1864965DOI Listing
December 2020

Capsular Polysaccharide From Protects Against Ulcerative Colitis in an Undegraded Form.

Front Pharmacol 2020 7;11:570476. Epub 2020 Dec 7.

Department of Gastroenterology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China.

The prominent human symbiont protects animals from intestinal diseases, such as ulcerative colitis, and its capsular polysaccharide plays a key role in reducing inflammation. strain ZY-312 was isolated from the feces of a healthy breast-fed infant, and the zwitterionic capsular polysaccharide zwitterionic polysaccharide, TP2, was extracted. In rats with 2,4-dinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (DNBS)-induced enteritis, TP2 at an optimal dose of 2.5 mg/kg could significantly alleviate enteritis and reduced the degree of intestinal adhesions, the intestinal ulcer area, and the incidence of ulcers in rats. To understand the underlying mechanism, TP2 was labeled with Fluorescein isothiocyanate and orally administered at a dose of 2.5 mg/kg in rats. TP2 was mainly distributed in the cecum and colorectum, but it was not detected in the blood and other organs except that a compound with a molecular weight greater than that of TP2-FITC was found in liver tissue. During the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion, TP2 was indigestible. These results were further confirmed by investigation in the simulated gastric, intestinal fluid, and colonic fluid with fecal microbiota , where TP2 remained unaltered at different time points. Furthermore, flora composition was analyzed in simulated colonic fluid with TP2 added and it was found that TP2 increased the abundance of , , and , whereas the abundance of the phylum Proteobacteria represented by , , and was decreased. However, the amount of short-chain fatty acids in the simulated colonic fluid was not changed by intestinal flora post-TP2 addition. In conclusion, these findings confirmed that TP2, a capsular polysaccharide of , protects against ulcerative colitis in an undegraded form.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2020.570476DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7751226PMC
December 2020

A Review on Metabolites from Onchidium Genus: Chemistry and Bioactivity.

Chem Biodivers 2021 Feb 26;18(2):e2000580. Epub 2021 Jan 26.

Key Laboratory of Tropical Translational Medicine of the Ministry of Education, Hainan Key Laboratory for Research and Development of Tropical Herbs, School of Pharmacy, Hainan Medical University, Haikou, 571199, P. R. China.

The Onchidium genus (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Systellommatophora, Onchidiidae family) is used as the important economical shellfish, due to the high nutritional value and medicinal value. Research over the previous decades indicated that Onchidium sp. mainly contains polypropionates, depsipeptides, terpenoids and other chemical components. Many biological activities of Onchidium (e. g., cytotoxic activities against tumor cells, anti-viral and anti-bacterial activities) have been reported. This review reports a total of 60 compounds, synthetic work and biological studies on Onchidium genus, covering the literature from 1978 to date, with a view to providing a reference and helping for the in-depth research of this genus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cbdv.202000580DOI Listing
February 2021

Photochemical Oxidation of Water-Soluble Organic Carbon (WSOC) on Mineral Dust and Enhanced Organic Ammonium Formation.

Environ Sci Technol 2020 12 19;54(24):15631-15642. Epub 2020 Nov 19.

Shanghai Key Laboratory of Atmospheric Particle Pollution and Prevention, Department of Environmental Science & Engineering, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433, People's Republic of China.

Water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC), which is closely related to biogenic emissions, is of great importance in the atmosphere for its ubiquitous existence and rich abundance. Levoglucosan, a typical WSOC, is usually considered to be stable and thus used as a tracer of biomass burning. However, we found that levoglucosan can be photo-oxidized on mineral dust, with formic acid, oxalic acid, glyoxylic acid, 2,3-dioxopropanoic acid, dicarbonic acid, performic acid, mesoxalaldehyde, 2-hydroxymalonaldehyde, carbonic formic anhydride, and 1,3-dioxolane-2,4-dione detected as main products. Further, we observed the heterogeneous uptake of NH promoted by the carboxylic acids stemming from the photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) of levoglucosan. The mineral-dust-initiated PCO of levoglucosan and enhanced heterogeneous uptake of NH, which are highly influenced by irradiation and moisture conditions, were for the first time revealed. The reaction mechanisms and pathways were studied in detail by diffuse reflection infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS), high-pressure photon ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPPI-ToF-MS) and flow reactor systems. Diverse WSOC constituents were studied as well, and the reactivity toward NH is related to the number of hydroxyl groups of the WSOC molecules. This work reveals a new precursor of secondary organic aerosols and provides experimental evidence of the existence of organic ammonium salts in atmospheric particles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.0c04616DOI Listing
December 2020