Publications by authors named "Yang Zhang"

4,273 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Surgical Outcomes of Modified CO Laser-assisted Sclerectomy for Uveitic Glaucoma.

Ocul Immunol Inflamm 2021 May 13:1-8. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Ophthalmology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China.

: To evaluate the clinical safety and efficacy of modified CO laser-assisted sclerectomy surgery (CLASS) in patients with uveitic glaucoma (UG) using primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) patients for a comparison.: This retrospective study included UG and POAG patients from the modified CLASS Study Group database. Intraocular pressure (IOP) and the number of glaucoma medications were compared between groups by the Wilcoxon test. The Kaplan-Meier method was used for survival analysis; complete success was defined as 5≤ IOP≤18 mmHg and a ≥ 20% reduction in IOP from baseline without medication.: Twenty-three and 25 eyes in UG and POAG groups were included. At the 12-month visit in both groups, the mean IOP and mean number of IOP-lowering medications were significantly reduced compared to baseline, with complete success rates of 60.9% and 64.0% in the UG and POAG groups ( = .859).: Modified CLASS yields similar outcomes for patients with UG and POAG.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09273948.2021.1924385DOI Listing
May 2021

Glycosylation of Anti-Thyroglobulin IgG1 and IgG4 Subclasses in Thyroid Diseases.

Eur Thyroid J 2021 Apr 27;10(2):114-124. Epub 2020 Aug 27.

Department of Endocrinology, Peking University First Hospital, Beijing, China.

Objective: Thyroglobulin antibodies (TgAb), principally comprising immunoglobulin G (IgG), are frequently found in healthy individuals. Previously, we showed that the glycosylation levels of TgAb IgG differed across various thyroid diseases, suggesting an important role of glycosylation on antibodies in the pathogenesis of thyroid diseases. Since IgG1 and IgG4 are the primary TgAb IgG subclasses, this study aimed to investigate the glycosylation of TgAb IgG1 and IgG4 subclasses in thyroid diseases.

Methods: TgAb IgG was purified by affinity chromatography from the serum of patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) ( = 16), Graves' disease (GD) ( = 8), papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) ( = 6), and PTC with histological lymphocytic thyroiditis (PTC-T) ( = 9) as well as healthy donors ( = 10). TgAb IgG1 and IgG4 concentrations were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and a lectin microassay was used to assess TgAb IgG1 and IgG4 glycosylation.

Results: Significantly elevated mannose, sialic acid, and galactose levels on TgAb IgG1 were found in HT and PTC patients compared to GD patients and healthy controls (all < 0.05). The mannose, sialic acid, and core fucose levels on TgAb IgG1 in PTC-T patients were higher than in healthy controls (all < 0.05). Additionally, TgAb IgG1 from PTC-T patients exhibited lower sialylation than that from patients with PTC and higher fucosylation than that from patients with HT (both < 0.05). However, TgAb IgG4 glycosylation did not differ among the five groups ( < 0.05).

Conclusion: Our study describes different distributions of TgAb IgG1 glycosylation in various thyroid diseases. The aberrantly increased glycosylation levels of TgAb IgG1 observed in HT, PTC, and PTC-T might be indicative of immune disorders and participate in the pathogenesis of these diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000507699DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8077608PMC
April 2021

Molecule-Specific Terahertz Biosensors Based on an Aptamer Hydrogel-Functionalized Metamaterial for Sensitive Assays in Aqueous Environments.

ACS Sens 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Laboratory Medicine, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University (Army Medical University), Chongqing 400038, China.

Metamaterial-inspired terahertz (THz) biosensors are devoted to developing high-sensitivity and label-free biosensing strategies. However, most meaningful molecular signals are obscured by the strong THz absorption of solvent water. Most reported THz biosensors require the tested samples to be tediously dried or replaced with a low-absorption medium, which impairs the original bioactivity and the distribution homogeneity of targets. As described in this proposed strategy, a molecule-specific THz biosensor was fabricated from an aptamer hydrogel-functionalized THz metamaterial. Benefitting from the strong interaction with the localized electric field of the metamaterial, trace thrombin-induced variations in the hydration state of the hydrogel can be sensitively probed, which was investigated experimentally and theoretically. The optimized THz biosensor exhibited remarkable specificity for actual serum sample assays and excellent sensitivity, with a relatively low detection limit of 0.40 pM in the human serum matrix. The proposed strategy could serve as a model system to develop various molecule-specific THz biosensors for aqueous molecule sensing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acssensors.1c00174DOI Listing
May 2021

Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Laparoscopic Common Bile Duct Exploration in Patients With Previous Failed Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography.

Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of General Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang, Jiangxi, China.

Background: The aim was to compare the outcomes of laparoscopic common bile duct exploration (LCBDE) after failed endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (group A) versus primary LCBDE (group B) for the management of gallbladder and common bile duct stones.

Materials And Methods: A comprehensive and systematic literature search was performed in several databases, including PubMed, Ovid, and Cochrane Library. Meta-analysis of operative outcomes, postoperative outcomes, and gallstone clearance rates was conducted using random-effect models.

Results: Six studies including 642 patients (239 in group A and 403 in group B) were included. The operative time was longer in group A (P=0.02). The overall complication, bile leakage, conversion, postoperative hospital stay, and reoperation were comparable in group A and group B. Similarly, no significant difference was present concerning the incidence of stone clearance, residual stone, and recurrent stone (P>0.05).

Conclusion: LCBDE is an alternative acceptable procedure when removal of common bile duct stones by endoscopic therapy fails.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SLE.0000000000000949DOI Listing
May 2021

The genome of Nautilus pompilius illuminates eye evolution and biomineralization.

Nat Ecol Evol 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Key Laboratory of Tropical Marine Bio-resources and Ecology and Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Applied Marine Biology, South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou, China.

Nautilus is the sole surviving externally shelled cephalopod from the Palaeozoic. It is unique within cephalopod genealogy and critical to understanding the evolutionary novelties of cephalopods. Here, we present a complete Nautilus pompilius genome as a fundamental genomic reference on cephalopod innovations, such as the pinhole eye and biomineralization. Nautilus shows a compact, minimalist genome with few encoding genes and slow evolutionary rates in both non-coding and coding regions among known cephalopods. Importantly, multiple genomic innovations including gene losses, independent contraction and expansion of specific gene families and their associated regulatory networks likely moulded the evolution of the nautilus pinhole eye. The conserved molluscan biomineralization toolkit and lineage-specific repetitive low-complexity domains are essential to the construction of the nautilus shell. The nautilus genome constitutes a valuable resource for reconstructing the evolutionary scenarios and genomic innovations that shape the extant cephalopods.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41559-021-01448-6DOI Listing
May 2021

Apatinib as second-line or later therapy in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (AHELP): a multicentre, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial.

Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Intervention, Fujian Cancer Hospital, Fuzhou, China.

Background: Inhibition of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) has shown antitumour activity in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma, but few studies of VEGFR inhibitors have been done in populations with a high prevalence of hepatitis B virus infection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of apatinib in patients with pretreated advanced hepatocellular carcinoma.

Methods: AHELP was a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial done at 31 hospitals in China, in patients (aged ≥18 years) with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma who had previously been refractory or intolerant to at least one line of systemic chemotherapy or targeted therapy. Patients were randomly assigned (2:1) to receive apatinib 750 mg or placebo orally once daily in 28-day treatment cycles. Group allocation was done with a central randomisation system, with a block size of six, and was stratified by Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status, previous sorafenib treatment, and presence of vascular invasion or extrahepatic metastasis. The primary endpoint was overall survival, which was defined as time from randomisation to death from any cause, and was analysed in patients who were randomly assigned and received at least one dose of the study drug. Safety analyses were done in patients who received at least one dose of the study treatment and had post-dose safety assessments. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02329860.

Findings: Between April 1, 2014, and May 3, 2017, 400 eligible patients were randomly assigned to receive apatinib (n=267) or placebo (n=133). Seven patients (six in the apatinib group and one in the placebo group) did not receive study treatment and were excluded from efficacy analyses. Overall survival was significantly improved in the apatinib group compared with the placebo group (median 8·7 months [95% CI 7·5‒9·8] vs 6·8 months [5·7‒9·1]; hazard ratio 0·785 [95% CI 0·617‒0·998], p=0·048). 387 patients (257 in the apatinib group and 130 in the placebo group) had a safety assessment after study treatment and were included in safety analyses. The most common treatment-related adverse events of grade 3 or 4 were hypertension (71 [28%] patients in the apatinib group vs three [2%] in the placebo group), hand-foot syndrome (46 [18%] vs none), and decreased platelet count (34 [13%] vs one [1%]). 24 (9%) patients in the apatinib group and 13 (10%) in the placebo group died due to adverse events, but none of these deaths were deemed to be related to treatment by investigators.

Interpretation: Apatinib significantly improved overall survival in patients with pretreated advanced hepatocellular carcinoma compared with placebo, with a manageable safety profile.

Funding: Jiangsu Hengrui Medicine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2468-1253(21)00109-6DOI Listing
May 2021

Isolated IgG2 Deficiency is an Independent Risk Factor for Exacerbations in Bronchiectasis.

QJM 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Centre for Inflammation Research at the University of Edinburgh, Queen's Medical Research Institute, Edinburgh BioQuarter, Edinburgh, EH16 4TJ, Scotland.

Background: Immunoglobulin G (IgG) subclass 2 deficiency is the most frequent IgG subclass deficiency identified in patients with bronchiectasis, but its clinical significance is not known.

Aim: To analyse if bronchiectasis patients with isolated IgG2 deficiency at risk of recurrent exacerbations and/or hospitalisation? Do patients with IgG2 deficiency have worse disease progression?

Design And Methods: This is a retrospective study (2015-2020) exploring independent risk factors for recurrent exacerbations (three or more per year) and/or hospitalisation with bronchiectasis exacerbations using multivariable models using binary logistic regression. There was no patient with IgG deficiency, IgG 1, 3 or 4 deficiency, or IgA or IgM deficiency included. In this model, the authors included: serum IgG2 level; lung function; body mass index; MRC breathlessness scale; age; sex; number of bronchiectatic lobes; bacterial colonisation; comorbidities; the use of long-term immunosuppressant drugs or antibiotics for more than 28 days. Analysing two-year longitudinal data, one-way ANOVA and Mann-Whitney U test were used to compare bronchiectasis severity between patients with different IgG2 levels.

Results: Serum IgG2 levels (<2.68 g/L, 2.68-3.53 g/L, 3.54-4.45 g/L); hospital admission in the preceding two years; bacterial colonisation with potentially pathogenic organisms and asthma were independent predictors for three or more bronchiectasis exacerbations. Those with low IgG2 levels (<2.68 g/L and 2.68-3.53 g/L), had worsening progression of their bronchiectasis, using the Bronchiectasis Severity Index, over one year compared with those who were IgG2 replete (>4.45 g/L))(p = 0.003, 0.013).

Conclusion: Reduced IgG2 levels was an independent predictor for bronchiectasis exacerbations and have increased disease progression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/qjmed/hcab129DOI Listing
May 2021

Evidence of a Putative Glycosaminoglycan Binding Site on the Glycosylated SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein N-terminal domain.

Comput Struct Biotechnol J 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

QUT, Centre for Genomics and Personalised Health, Cancer and Ageing Research Program, School of Chemistry and Physics, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, 2 George Street, Brisbane, QLD 4000, Australia.

SARS-CoV-2 has rapidly spread throughout the world's population since its initial discovery in 2019. The virus infects cells via a glycosylated spike protein located on its surface. The protein primarily binds to the angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2) receptor, using glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) as co-receptors. Here, we performed bioinformatics and molecular dynamics simulations of the spike protein to investigate the existence of additional GAG binding sites on the receptor-binding domain (RBD), separate from previously reported heparin-binding sites. A putative GAG binding site in the N-terminal domain (NTD) of the protein was identified, encompassing residues 245-246. We hypothesized that GAGs of a sufficient length might bridge the gap between this site and the PRRARS furin cleavage site, including the mutation S247R. Docking studies using GlycoTorch Vina and subsequent MD simulations of the spike trimer in the presence of dodecasaccharides of the GAGs heparin and heparan sulfate supported this possibility. The heparan sulfate chain bridged the gap, binding the furin cleavage site and S247R. In contrast, the heparin chain bound the furin cleavage site and surrounding glycosylation structures, but not S247R. These findings identify a site in the spike protein that favors heparan sulfate binding that may be particularly pertinent for a better understanding of the recent UK and South African strains. This will also assist in future targeted therapy programs that could include repurposing clinical heparan sulfate mimetics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.csbj.2021.05.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8093007PMC
May 2021

Characterization of a High Hierarchical Regulator, , Functioning in Differentially Regulating Secondary Wall Component Biosynthesis in .

Front Plant Sci 2021 21;12:657787. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Research Center of Saline and Alkali Land of State Forestry and Grassland Administration, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Beijing, China.

In plants, GATA transcription factors () have been reported to play vital roles in to a wide range of biological processes. To date, there is still no report about the involvement and functions of woody plant GATA in wood formation. In this study, we described the functional characterization of a GATA TF, , which encodes a nuclear-localized transcriptional activator predominantly expressing in developing xylem tissues. Overexpression of not only inhibited growths of most phenotypic traits and biomass accumulation, but also altered the expressions of some master and pathway genes involved in secondary cell wall (SCW) and programmed cell death, leading to alternated SCW components and breaking forces of stems of transgenic lines. The significant changes occurred in the contents of hemicellulose and lignin and SCW thicknesses of fiber and vessel that increased by 13.5 and 10.8%, and 20.83 and 11.83%, respectively. Furthermore, PtrGATA12 bound directly to the promoters of a battery of and pathway genes and activated them; the binding sites include two -acting elements that were specifically enriched in their promoter regions. Taken together, our results suggest , as a higher hierarchical on the top of , , , and , exert a coordinated regulation of SCW components biosynthesis pathways through directly and indirectly controlling master TFs, middle-level , and further downstream pathway genes of the currently known hierarchical transcription network that governs SCW formation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2021.657787DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8096934PMC
April 2021

Differences and Similarities in the Contributions of Phonological Awareness, Orthographic Knowledge and Semantic Competence to Reading Fluency in Chinese School-Age Children With and Without Hearing Loss.

Front Psychol 2021 12;12:649375. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

State Key Laboratory of Cognitive Neuroscience and Learning and IDG/McGovern Institute for Brain Research, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, China.

Compared with the large number of studies on reading of children with hearing loss (HL) in alphabetic languages, there are only a very limited number of studies on reading of Chinese-speaking children with HL. It remains unclear how phonological, orthographic, and semantic skills contribute to reading fluency of Chinese school-age children with HL. The present study explored this issue by examining the performances of children with HL on reading fluency and three linguistic skills compared with matched controls with normal hearing (NH). Specifically, twenty-eight children with HL and 28 chronological-age-matched children with NH were tested on word/sentence reading fluency (WRF/SRF), phonological awareness (PA) which was composed of onset/vowel/lexical tone awareness, orthographic knowledge (OK), and semantic competence (SC) which comprised animal word identification, pseudo-homophone detection, and word segmentation. Results showed that children with HL lagged behind their peers with NH in WRF/SRF and most of the phonological, orthographic, and semantic subskills except onset awareness and pseudo-homophone detection. Furthermore, the significant contributors to WRF differed between the two groups with PA being the significant contributor in the children with NH while OK being the significant contributor in the children with HL. However, the significant contributor to SRF did not differ between the two groups with SC being the only significant contributor. These results revealed not only between-group differences but also similarities in the relative contributions of PA, OK, and SC to reading fluency at both word and sentence levels, which has practical implications for developing better training programs to improve reading for children with HL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.649375DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8100657PMC
April 2021

Engineering oleaginous yeast Rhodotorula toruloides for overproduction of fatty acid ethyl esters.

Biotechnol Biofuels 2021 May 8;14(1):115. Epub 2021 May 8.

Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Soft Matter Science and Engineering, College of Life Science and Technology, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing, 100029, China.

Background: Production of biofuels and green chemicals by microbes is currently of great interest due to the increasingly limited reserves of fossil fuels. Biodiesel, especially fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs), is considered as an attractive alternative because of its similarity with petrodiesel and compatibility with existing infrastructures. Cost-efficient bio-production of FAEEs requires a highly lipogenic production host that is suitable for large-scale fermentation. As a non-model oleaginous yeast that can be cultured to an extremely high cell density and accumulate over 70% cell mass as lipids, Rhodotorula toruloides represents an attractive host for FAEEs production.

Results: We first constructed the FAEE biosynthetic pathways in R. toruloides by introducing various wax ester synthase genes from different sources, and the bifunctional wax ester synthase/acyl-CoA-diacyglycerol acyltransferase (WS/DGAT) gene from Acinetobacter baylyi was successfully expressed, leading to a production of 826 mg/L FAEEs through shake-flask cultivation. We then mutated this bifunctional enzyme to abolish the DGAT activity, and further improved the titer to 1.02 g/L. Finally, to elevate the performance of Δku70-AbWS* in a bioreactor, both batch and fed-batch cultivation strategies were performed. The FAEEs titer, productivity and yield were 4.03 g/L, 69.5 mg/L/h and 57.9 mg/g (mg FAEEs/g glucose) under batch cultivation, and 9.97 g/L, 90.6 mg/L/h, and 86.1 mg/g under fed-batch cultivation. It is worth mentioning that most of the produced FAEEs were secreted out of the cell, which should greatly reduce the cost of downstream processing.

Conclusion: We achieved the highest FAEEs production in yeast with a final titer of 9.97 g/L and demonstrated that the engineered R. toruloides has the potential to serve as a platform strain for efficient production of fatty acid-derived molecules.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13068-021-01965-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8106135PMC
May 2021

Plumbagin Inhibits Proliferation, Migration, and Invasion of Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells Induced by FGF-2.

Tissue Cell 2021 Apr 28;72:101547. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of Ophthalmology, The second Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, 05000, China. Electronic address:

Proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) is a serious ophthalmic disease and characterized by the formation of proliferative membranes by retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells. In PVR, the contraction and traction of the fibrocellular membranes cause retinal detachment, which can cause reduction surgery for retinal detachment to fail. Fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) causes RPE cells to form extracellular matrix (ECM), promotes chemotaxis, mitosis, and positively promotes the disease process of PVR. Plumbagin (PLB) is a plant small molecule naphthoquinone compound. It has the functions in anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, inhibit proliferation. We tried to investigate the possible effects of PLB on the biological behavior of ARPE-19 cells induced by FGF-2 and its underlying mechanisms. Our study confirmed that proliferation, migration, and invasion of ARPE-19 cells induced by FGF-2 (10 ng/ml) were significantly inhibited by PLB. PLB also significantly inhibits the expression of MMP-2/-9, collagen I Alpha 1 (Col1A1), collagen IV Alpha 1 (Col4A1), collagen VI Alpha 1 (Col6A1), and the phosphorylation of FGF receptor (FGFR)-1, FGFR-2, ERK, p38, JNK of FGF-2-induced ARPE-19 cells. In summary, PLB inhibits FGF-2-stimulated proliferation, migration, and invasion of ARPE-19 cells, which may take place through inhibiting the expression of MMP-2/-9, Col1A1, Col4A1, Col6A1, and the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. PLB may have a preventive effect on proliferation, migration, and invasion of FGF-2-induced ARPE-19 cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tice.2021.101547DOI Listing
April 2021

The enantioselective study of the toxicity effects of chiral acetochlor in HepG2 cells.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 May 5;218:112261. Epub 2021 May 5.

Shanghai Key Laboratory of Chemical Biology, School of Pharmacy, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237, China. Electronic address:

Acetochlor is one of the most widely used chiral herbicides in the world, and it is usually produced and used as racemic form (Rac). The potential effects of acetochlor in human body are mainly induced by its residue in agriculture food. The direct target exposed is the liver in human body. However, the potential toxic and mechanism threat to human liver cells caused by chiral acetochlor has been rarely reported. The purpose of this study is to explore the potential mechanism of the toxicity caused by chiral acetochlor in HepG2 cells. The results revealed that acetochlor and its enantiomers could inhibit cell activity and cause DNA damage in HepG2 cells. The toxicity of Rac was higher than that of the two enantiomers, mainly derived from S configuration. The mechanism is through inducing decreased membrane potential (△Ψ), up-regulated Bax/BcL-2 expression, caused a cascade reaction, activated casepase-3 and casepase-9 and cleaved PARP, which maybe lead to cell death through apoptotic-signaling pathway in the end. These results illuminate that the genotoxic and cytotoxic risks of chiral acetochlor are major coming from S configuration. It provides a theoretical basis for the production of single pesticide to reduce the effects of human health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2021.112261DOI Listing
May 2021

Gram-Scale Synthesis of Highly Efficient Rare-Earth Element-Free Red/Green/Blue Solid-State Bandgap Fluorescent Carbon Quantum Rings for White Light-Emitting Diodes.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Beijing Normal University, Dept. of Chemistry, Xin Jiekou Waidajie, NO. 19, 100875, Beijing, CHINA.

Rare-earth element (REE)-based materials are commonly used in phosphor-converted white light-emitting diodes (LEDs). However, the negative impact of their use on the environment, human health, supply risks, and high cost prompts the need for REE-free materials. Here, we report the gram-scale synthesis of red/green/blue solid-state bandgap fluorescent carbon quantum rings (R/G/B-SBF-CQRs) with high quantum yields up to 30-46%. This was achieved using cyano-group-bearing p-phenyldiacetonitrile and aldehyde-group-bearing terephthalaldehyde as precursors and forming carbon quantum rings of different diameters through the linkage of curved carbon quantum ribbons of different lengths. The results show the role of cyano groups in the curvature of carbon quantum ribbons for CQR formation and emission of stable solid-state bandgap fluorescence. R/G/B-SBF-CQR-phosphor-based LEDs emitted warm white light with low correlated color temperature (3576 K), high color rendering index (96.6), and high luminous efficiency (48.7 lm W -1 ), comparable to REE-phosphor-based LEDs. This work facilitates the development of high-performance low-cost REE-free phosphors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.202103361DOI Listing
May 2021

Influences of oxidation ability on precision in nitrogen isotope measurements of organic reference materials by EA-IRMS.

Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 2021 May 5:e9122. Epub 2021 May 5.

Frontiers Science Center for Deep Ocean Multispheres and Earth System, Key Lab of MarineChemistry Theory and Technology, MOE and College of Marine Geosciences, Ocean University of China, Qingdao, 266100, China.

Rationale: The precision of reference materials (RMs) standard measurements is critical to normalize the raw δ N values of samples to the international scale. Since the measurement configuration is requested to moderate the properties of both RMs and samples for obtaining an ideal measurement precision, therefore it is of importance to determine the appropriate measurement configurations of RMs to achieve accurate nitrogen isotope compositions of samples. Therefore, it is urgent to systematically examine RMs for optimizing the configurations and further improve the measurement precision.

Methods: Gas source isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) coupled with an online elemental analyzer (EA) equipped with a single quartz reactor was performed to analyze the nitrogen isotope compositions. Some adjustments were executed as follows: (1) as the in-house working standard, urea was used to investigate the influences of the combustion through moderating the different oxygen injections (0~20 mL) and sample delay times (10~12 s), and optimize the combustion conditions in order to enhance the oxidation ability; (2) CO from the sample gas stream was removed to prevent interferences between CO and N ; (3) international RMs including USGS40 (L-glutamic), IAEA600 (caffeine), and soil standard (B2153) with a low organic content, were systematically analyzed under the optimized configurations, and their precisions of the δ N values were furthermore examined.

Results: Our results showed that sufficient oxygen should be injected to improve the sample combustion when analyzing δ N in natural samples such as soil or marine sediment with low organic content. In addition, the measurement precision of δ N was affected by the tailing of the CO peak from the GC column into the subsequent sample measurement if the EA is equipped with a single quartz reactor column. Our adjustments can produce an optimized repeatability and accuracy of the δ N value, especially for RMs with low organic content, and the uncertainty of the measurements is improved better than 0.1‰ under optimized configurations.

Conclusions: The analytical conditions such as the oxygen flow rate and injection time or sample introduction time into EA, need to be adjusted depending on the combustion conditions of the RMs and samples to obtain a reliable accuracy of measurement. We recommend that when analyzing δ N of natural samples such as soil or marine sediment samples with low organic content, more oxygen should be injected to improve the combustion of the samples. In addition, CO should be removed from the sample gas stream before introducing into the IRMS when EA is equipped with a single quartz reactor.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/rcm.9122DOI Listing
May 2021

Primary Tumor Resection Improves Survival for EGFR-TKI-Treated Patients With Occult M1a Lung Adenocarcinoma.

Front Oncol 2021 19;11:622723. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Thoracic Surgery and State Key Laboratory of Genetic Engineering, Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, Shanghai, China.

Background: The role of primary tumor resection in occult M1a lung adenocarcinoma remains unclear, especially for patients receiving targeted therapy. The purpose of this study is to assess the effect of primary tumor resection on overall survival (OS) in lung adenocarcinoma patients with occult pleural disseminations receiving targeted therapy.

Methods: Lung adenocarcinoma patients with intraoperatively-confirmed occult pleural dissemination (M1a), who hospitalized in the Department of Thoracic Surgery in Fudan Shanghai Cancer Center from May 2008 to December 2017 and received EGFR-TKIs therapy, were enrolled. Log-rank tests were used to compare the survival differences between groups.

Results: 34 patients receiving EGFR-TKIs were enrolled. The majority of them were never smokers (29/34, 85.3%). Among the enrolled patients, 20 (58.8%) patients underwent primary tumor resection, while 14 (41.2%) patients not. There was no distributional difference of baselines between patients undergoing and not undergoing primary tumor resection. Further analyses demonstrated that the patients undergoing primary tumor resection had a prolonged OS compared with those not (log-rank = 0.042). The 2-year and 5-year OS for patients receiving primary tumor resection and EGFR-TKIs was 90.0% and 60.1%.

Conclusions: Primary tumor resection was associated with improved survival in patients with occult intraoperatively-confirmed M1a adenocarcinoma receiving EGFR-TKIs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.622723DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8092396PMC
April 2021

Proteomic analysis of human frontal and temporal cortex using iTRAQ-based 2D LC-MS/MS.

Chin Neurosurg J 2021 May 5;7(1):27. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Neurosurgery, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, No. 119 West Road, South Fourth Ring Road, Beijing, 100070, China.

Background: The human brain is the most complex organ in the body, and it is important to have a better understanding of how the protein composition in the brain regions contributes to the pathogenesis of associated neurological disorders.

Methods: In this study, a comparative analysis of the frontal and temporal cortex proteomes was conducted by isobaric tags of relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) labeling and two-dimensional liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (2D LC-MS/MS). Brain protein was taken from relatively normal tissue that could not be avoided of damage during emergent surgery of the TBI (traumatic brain injury) patients admitted in Beijing Tiantan Hospital from 2014 to 2017. Eight cases were included. Four frontal lobes and 4 temporal lobes proteome were analyzed and the proteins were quantitated. Gene Ontology (GO), Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA), and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis were used to analyze the biological function of identified proteins, unchanged proteins, and differentially expressed proteins (DEPs).

Results: A total number of 2127 protein groups were identified in the frontal and temporal lobe proteomes. A total of 1709 proteins could be quantitated in both the frontal and temporal cortex. Among 90 DEPs, 14 proteins were screened highly expressed in the temporal cortex, including MAPT, SNCG, ATP5IF1, GAP43, HSPE1, STMN1, NDUFS6, LDHB, SNCB, NDUFA7, MRPS36, EPDR1, CISD1, and RALA. In addition, compared to proteins expressed in the frontal cortex, 14 proteins including EDC4, NIT2, VWF, ASTN1, TGM2, SSB, CLU, HBA1, STOM, CRP, LRG1, SAA2, S100A4, and VTN were a low expression in the temporal cortex. The biological process enrichment showed that unchanged proteins between the frontal and temporal cortex mainly take part in regulated exocytosis, axon guidance, and vesicle-mediated transport. The KEGG pathway analysis showed that unchanged proteins between the frontal and temporal cortex mainly take part in oxidative phosphorylation, carbon metabolism, Huntington's disease, and Parkinson's disease.

Conclusions: The majority of proteins are unchanged between the frontal and temporal cortex, and unchanged proteins are closely related to its function. Among DEPs, MATP (tau) is upregulated in the temporal cortex, closely related to Alzheimer's disease (AD), and is one of the targets for the treatment of AD. CLU is downregulated in the temporal cortex which functions as an extracellular chaperone that prevents aggregation of non-native proteins. It was suggested that the temporal lobe may not be the "functional dumb area" of the traditional view, but could be involved in important neural metabolic circuits.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s41016-021-00241-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8101246PMC
May 2021

Effects of integrated rice-duck farming system on duck carcass traits, meat quality, amino acid, and fatty acid composition.

Poult Sci 2021 Mar 12;100(6):101107. Epub 2021 Mar 12.

Key Laboratory of Animal Genetics and Breeding and Molecular Design of Jiangsu Province, College of Animal Science and Technology, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225009, China; Joint International Research Laboratory of Agriculture and Agri-Product Safety, the Ministry of Education of China, Yangzhou University, Jiangsu Yangzhou 225009, China. Electronic address:

Integrated rice-duck farming (RD) system, which aims to improve the welfare of ducks, has gained popularity in Asian countries. However, the effects of RD system on the carcass and quality traits of duck meat have not been evaluated. Here, a paddy field experiment was conducted to examine the effects of RD system on the carcass and quality traits of duck meat. A total of 180 Jinding ducklings (7 days old) were randomly divided into 2 rearing systems of floor pen rearing (FPR) system and RD system. After 11 weeks, 12 ducks from each rearing system (6 males and females each) were used for carcass traits, meat quality, amino acid, and fatty acid analyses. The results showed that ducks reared in the RD system had higher carcass yield and intramuscular fat content (P < 0.05) than those reared in the FPR system; however, ducks reared in the RD system had lower protein and moisture content (P < 0.05). Additionally, the concentration of essential amino acids, including Tyr, Val, Met, Phe, His, Ala, Arg, and Pro, was higher in the breast muscle of ducks reared in the RD system than those reared in the FPR system. Furthermore, higher saturated fatty acid (C12:0, C14:0, C16:0, C18:0, and C21:0), monounsaturated fatty acid (C16:1, C18:1, and C18:1T), and polyunsaturated fatty acid (C22:2, C18:2n-6, and C22:6n3) content was recorded in the breast muscle of ducks reared in the RD system than those reared in the FPR system (P < 0.05). Taken together, our results indicated that the RD system improved the carcass traits, intramuscular fat, essential amino acids, and polyunsaturated fatty acids profiles of the ducks. These findings suggest that the RD system is an effective strategy to improve the welfare and meat quality of ducks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psj.2021.101107DOI Listing
March 2021

Structural variants selected during yak domestication inferred from long-read whole-genome sequencing.

Mol Biol Evol 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

State Key Laboratory of Grassland and Agro-ecosystem, Institute of Innovation Ecology and School of Life Science, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, 730000, China.

Structural variants (SVs) represent an important genetic resource for both natural and artificial selection. Here we present a chromosome-scale reference genome for domestic yak (Bos grunniens) that has longer contigs and scaffolds (N50 44.72Mb and 114.39 Mb, respectively) than reported for any other ruminant genome. We further obtained long-read resequencing data for 6 wild and 23 domestic yaks and constructed a genetic SV map of 37,220 SVs that covers the geographic range of the yaks. The majority of the SVs contains repetitive sequences and several are in or near genes. By comparing SVs in domestic and wild yaks, we identified genes that are predominantly related to the nervous system, behavior, immunity and reproduction and may have been targeted by artificial selection during yak domestication. These findings provide new insights in the domestication of animals living at high altitude and highlight the importance of SVs in animal domestication.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/molbev/msab134DOI Listing
May 2021

Application of UV-vis absorption spectrum to test the membrane integrity of Membrane bioreactor (MBR).

Water Res 2021 Apr 13;198:117153. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

School of Textile Science and Engineering, Tiangong University, Tianjin 300387, P. R. China.

In this work, UV-vis absorption spectrum of the membrane integrity analysis based on slopes of log-transformed absorbance spectra, differential absorbance spectroscopy (DAS), and absorption coefficient α(254) were studied at different number of breakage fibers and filtration times. Moreover, we analyze the influence of Fe and Caconcentration on UV spectrum detection results. Cluster analysis and the change ratio R were used to determine the dissolved organic matter (DOM) leakage stages. As a result, the correlation coefficient between slope value and the number of breakage fibers is 0.901. Seven gaussian bands were successfully model from the DAS, and A4 (312 nm), A5 (339 nm), A6 (367 nm) were chosen to indicate the extent of breakage fiber. Peak 4(A4) is minimally affected by ions concentration. The α(254) could be used as a good indicator for detecting industrial wastewater treatment process which correlation coefficient between the number of breakage fibers is 0.955. The DOM leakage process was divided into three stages which were bulk leakage stage, development stage and stabilization stage. The UV-vis absorption spectrum can effectively detect the membrane integrity more sensitive than particle counter and three analyse methods are suitable for different substance in feed water.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2021.117153DOI Listing
April 2021

Time-varying effect of sex on prognosis of lung adenocarcinoma surgical patients in China.

Thorac Cancer 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Cancer Prevention, Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, Shanghai, China.

Background: Little is known about the prognostic advantage of sex for pulmonary adenocarcinoma among Chinese patients. In this study, we aimed to investigate the true sex differences in prognosis by adjusting for confounders and to explore whether the differences were time-varying.

Methods: We identified 4438 lung adenocarcinoma patients who underwent surgery at a regional Cancer Center of China from 2008 to 2016, retrospectively. Sex, age group, smoking history, year of diagnosis and pathological stage were collected. Time-dependent Cox regression models with inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) based on propensity score were used to assess the effect of sex and account for confounders. Landmark analyses were conducted to assess survival before, and after, five years.

Results: Of these patients, 1761 (39.7%) were men and 2677 (60.3%) were women. Median follow-up time was 52.6 months. After IPTW adjustment, women were found to have significantly better survival than men varying with time in both crude and IPTW models (hazard ratio [HR] [t] = 0.453*1.015 , where t is the length of time from treatment and its unit is month, p < 0.001). Women had significantly better survival than men within 0-5 years after surgery (HR = 0.763, 95% CI: 0.649-0.897, p = 0.001), whereas there was no difference after five years (HR = 1.135, 95% CI: 0.803-1.605, p = 0.472). In subgroup analysis, women in the 61-71+ age group, in the more than 20 year packs group, pathological stage 0-IB group, and 2013-2016 diagnosis period group revealed the same prognostic pattern.

Conclusions: Compared with men, women had better survival after surgical resection of lung adenocarcinoma, especially those who were older and nonsmokers or heavy-smokers and were pathological stage 0-IB in early years, while the advantage for women diminished with time.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1759-7714.13959DOI Listing
May 2021

Long non-coding RNA CYTOR regulates proliferation and metastasis of colon cancer cells through regulating miRNA-105/PTEN axis.

Int J Clin Exp Pathol 2021 15;14(4):434-443. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of General Surgery, General Hospital of Central Theater Command of PLA Wuhan 430071, Hubei, China.

Colon cancer is a common malignancy, and its incidence and mortality have been increasing in recent years. This study aims to explore the regulation of long non-coding RNA CYTOR on proliferation and metastasis of colon cancer cells through miRNA-105/PTEN axis. Real-time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) disclosed that expression of CYTOR was significantly decreased in colon cancer tissues, compared with that of adjacent normal tissues, while miRNA-105 was significantly increased. Correlation study found that CYTOR was negatively correlated with miR-105. The proliferation, migration, and invasion rates of the LoVo cells with highly expressed CYTOR were significantly slower. miR-105 mimic could suppress the decrease in proliferation, migration, and invasion rates of colon cancer cells caused by overexpression of CYTOR. Additionally, the proliferation, migration, and invasion rates of the LoVo cells in miR-105 inhibition group were significantly slower. The Starbase database predicted the targeting of miR-105 by CYTOR, and qRT-PCR and dual luciferase reporter gene method were used to verify the targeting relationship of CYTOR and miRNA-105/PTEN axis. In conclusion, CYTOR can inhibit the proliferation and metastasis of colon cancer cells through targeted inhibition of the miR-105/PTEN axis.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8085819PMC
April 2021

Neuromodulation Effect of Very Low Intensity Transcranial Ultrasound Stimulation on Multiple Nuclei in Rat Brain.

Front Aging Neurosci 2021 15;13:656430. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, NY, United States.

Objective: Low-intensity transcranial ultrasound stimulation (TUS) is a non-invasive neuromodulation technique with high spatial resolution and feasible penetration depth. To date, the mechanisms of TUS modulated neural oscillations are not fully understood. This study designed a very low acoustic intensity (AI) TUS system that produces considerably reduced AI Ultrasound pulses ( < 0.5 W/cm2) when compared to previous methods used to measure regional neural oscillation patterns under different TUS parameters.

Methods: We recorded the local field potential (LFP) of five brain nuclei under TUS with three groups of simulating parameters. Spectrum estimation, time-frequency analysis (TFA), and relative power analysis methods have been applied to investigate neural oscillation patterns under different stimulation parameters.

Results: Under PRF, 500 Hz and 1 kHz TUS, high-amplitude LFP activity with the auto-rhythmic pattern appeared in selected nuclei when I exceeded 12 mW/cm. With TFA, high-frequency energy (slow gamma and high gamma) was significantly increased during the auto-rhythmic patterns. We observed an initial plateau in nuclei response when I reached 16.4 mW/cm for RPF 500 Hz and 20.8 mW/cm for RPF 1 kHz. The number of responding nuclei started decreasing while I continued increasing. Under 1.5 kHz TUS, no auto-rhythmic patterns have been observed, but slow frequency power was increased during TUS. TUS inhibited most of the frequency band and generated obvious slow waves (theta and delta band) when stimulated at RPF = 1.5 kHz, = 8.8 mW/cm.

Conclusion: These results demonstrate that very low intensity Transcranial Ultrasound Stimulation (VLTUS) exerts significant neuromodulator effects under specific parameters in rat models and may be a valid tool to study neuronal physiology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnagi.2021.656430DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8081960PMC
April 2021

First report of Colletotrichum fioriniae causing anthracnose on mu oil tree in China.

Plant Dis 2021 May 2. Epub 2021 May 2.

Jiangxi Agricultural University, NO. 1101, Fangzhimin Road, Nanchang Economic and Technology Development Area, Nanchang, 330045, P.R. China, Nanchang, China, 330045;

Mu oil tree (Vernicia montana) is an economically important woody oil plant, which is widely distributed in southern China. In mid-May 2020, a leaf spot disease was observed on the leaves of mu oil tree in Taihe County in Jiangxi Province, China (26°55'25.55″N, 114°49'5.85″E). The disease incidence was estimated to be above 40%. Initial symptoms were circular red-brown spots which were 1-2 mm in diameter, then enlarged with red-brown center. In later stages, the spots coalesced and formed large patches, and subsequently red-brown centers of lesions gradually dried and fell out, forming a "shot hole" appearance. To identify the pathogen, diseased leaves were collected from Taihe County. Leaf tissues (5 × 5 mm) were cut from the margins of typical symptomatic lesions, surface- sterilized in 75% ethanol for 30 seconds and 3% sodium hypochlorite for 60 seconds, then rinsed with sterile distilled water three times. Leaf pieces were placed on potato dextrose agar (PDA; 1.5%, Difco-BD Diagnostics) and incubated at 25 °C in the dark. Pure cultures were obtained from individual conidia by recovering single spores. On PDA, colonies were initially white and cottony. The mycelia then became pinkish to deep-pink with time at the center on the front side and pink on the reverse side. Colonies produced pale orange conidial masses after 9 days. Conidia were fusiform with acute ends, smooth-walled, hyaline, and measured 3.6-5.5 × 8.1-14.5 µm (4.5 ± 0.5 × 10.6 ± 1.0 µm, n = 100). The morphological characteristics of the isolate matched the descriptions of Colletotrichum acutatum complex (Damm et al. 2012). For molecular identification, the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), chitin synthase (CHS-1), beta-tubulin 2 (TUB2), and actin (ACT) were sequenced using the primers ITS1/ITS4, GDF/GDR, CHS-79F/CHS-345R, T1/Bt2b, ACT-512F/ACT-783R, respectively (Weir et al. 2012). The obtained sequences were deposited into the GenBank [accession nos. MW584317 (ITS); MW656269 (GAPDH); MW656270 (TUB2); MW656268 (CHS-1); MW656267 (ACT)]. All the sequences showed 94 to 100% similarity with those of C. fioriniae. A neighbor-joining phylogenetic tree was generated by combining all the sequenced loci using MEGA7.0 (Kumar et al. 2016). The isolate TH-M4 clustered with C. fioriniae, having 99% bootstrap support. Base on the morphology and multi-gene phylogeny, isolate TH-M4 was identified as C. fioriniae (Damm et al. 2012). To confirm pathogenicity, 20 healthy leaves of 10 mu oil trees (3-year-old) grown outdoors were inoculated with a drop of spore suspension (106 conidia per mL) of the isolate TH-M4 in September 2020. Another 10 plants were inoculated with sterile water as the control. The leaves were wounded with a sterile toothpick. All the inoculated leaves were covered with black plastic bags to maintain humidity for 2 days. The pathogenicity test was repeated twice. The resulting symptoms were similar to those on the original infected plants, whereas the control leaves remained asymptomatic. The same fungus was re-isolated from the lesions on the inoculated plant, fulfilling Koch's postulates. C. fioriniae has been recorded as anthracnose pathogen on Mahonia aquifolium (Garibaldi et al. 2020), Paeonia lactiflora (Park et al. 2020), Solanum melongena (Xu et al. 2020), and Juglans regia (Varjas et al. 2020). To our knowledge, this is the first report of C. fioriniae associated with leaf spot disease on mu oil tree in China. This study provided crucial information for epidemiologic studies and appropriate control strategies for this oil plant disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-03-21-0502-PDNDOI Listing
May 2021

Clinical outcomes of modified simple limbal epithelial transplantation for limbal stem cell deficiency in Chinese population: a retrospective case series.

Stem Cell Res Ther 2021 May 1;12(1):259. Epub 2021 May 1.

Beijing Institute of Ophthalmology, Beijing Tongren Eye Center, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Beijing Ophthalmology & Visual Sciences Key Laboratory, Capital Medical University, Beijing, 100730, China.

Objective: To report the clinical outcomes of a novel surgical technique, namely simple limbal epithelial transplantation (SLET), for the treatment of limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD).

Methods: Thirteen patients (13 eyes) with LSCD who underwent autologous (10 eyes) or allogeneic (3 eyes) modified SLET between 2018 and 2021 were enrolled in this study. Grades of symblepharon, corneal conjunctivalization, vascularization, opacification, and visual acuity (VA) were evaluated preoperatively and postoperatively. In 2 cases, in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM) and impression cytology (IC) were performed to assess the proliferation and degeneration of limbal tissue.

Results: At a postoperative follow-up of 6.5±5.3 (range, 2-20) months, 10 (10/13, 76.92%) eyes maintained a successful outcome. The grades of symblepharon, corneal conjunctivalization, vascularization, and opacification were significantly improved after SLET (P<0.05). Two-line improvement in VA was found in 6 (6/10, 60%) eyes of the successful cases. Recurrence of LSCD occurred in 3 (3/13, 23.08%) eyes, and conjunctival cyst occurred in 1 patient. After SLET, the morphology and structure of corneal epithelial cells and epithelial transition around the limbal tissue fragments were detected by IVCM and IC.

Conclusions: Our findings suggest that the SLET is a safe and effective technique for the treatment of LSCD. The corneal stroma and hAM can provide protection and nutrition for the limbal stem cells (LSCs) without negatively influencing the clinical outcomes. IVCM and IC after SLET can evaluate the effectiveness of surgery and the transition of LSCs and corneal epithelial cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13287-021-02345-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8088623PMC
May 2021

Persistent high PM pollution driven by unfavorable meteorological conditions during the COVID-19 lockdown period in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region, China.

Environ Res 2021 Apr 27:111186. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

College of Resources and Environment, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China.

Lockdown measures to curtail the COVID-19 pandemic in China halted most non-essential activities on January 23, 2020. Despite significant reductions in anthropogenic emissions, the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region still experienced high air pollution concentrations. Employing two emissions reduction scenarios, the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model was used to investigate the PM concentrations change in this region. The model using the scenario (C3) with greater traffic reductions performed better compared to the observed PM. Compared with the no reductions base-case (scenario C1), PM reductions with scenario C3 were 2.70, 2.53, 2.90, 2.98, 3.30, 2.81, 2.82, 2.98, 2.68, and 2.83 μg/m in Beijing, Tianjin, Shijiazhuang, Baoding, Cangzhou, Chengde, Handan, Hengshui, Tangshan, and Xingtai, respectively. During high-pollution days in scenario C3, the percentage reductions in PM concentrations in Beijing, Tianjin, Shijiazhuang, Baoding, Cangzhou, Chengde, Handan, Hengshui, Tangshan, and Xingtai were 3.76, 3.54, 3.28, 3.22, 3.57, 3.56, 3.47, 6.10, 3.61, and 3.67%, respectively. However, significant increases caused by unfavorable meteorological conditions counteracted the emissions reduction effects resulting in high air pollution in BTH region during the lockdown period. This study shows that effective air pollution control strategies incorporating these results are urgently required in BTH to avoid severe pollution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2021.111186DOI Listing
April 2021

Long-term tracing and staining of carbon nanoparticles for axillary lymph node in patients with local advanced breast cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy.

Asian J Surg 2021 Apr 26. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

The First Department of Breast Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang 110001, Liaoning Province, China. Electronic address:

Background: The regression of positive nodes in breast cancer after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) remains unknown. This study aimed to investigate this regression by injecting and tracing carbon nanoparticles (CNs) into the fusion node prior to NAC in patients with breast cancer.

Methods: Guided by ultrasound, 0.3 mL of CNs suspension was injected in the fusion node prior to NAC in 110 patients with local advanced breast cancer. Then the patients underwent breast surgery and total axillary lymph node dissection following 2-6 cycles of NAC. The distribution by intercostobrachial nerves (ICBN) of positive nodes and black-stained nodes was researched, and the relationship between the distribution and lymphovascular invasion were investigated by response to NAC.

Results: When patients were ranked by response to NAC (from sensitive to resistance), the number of positive nodes increased, as did the proportion of lymphovascular invasion, the number of black-stained nodes decreased. A significantly negative relationship was found between the number of positive nodes and the number of black-stained nodes (p < 0.001). The positive nodes in patients with sensitive consequence followed the rule from under the ICBN to above the ICBN. However, there was counter-example (skip metastasis) in the patients with resistance result.

Conclusion: The regression of positive nodes follows the rule from upper to under, inner to outer in the patients with sensitive consequence to NAC. Long-term staining and tracing by CNs might provide an acceptable and feasible technique to investigate the regression of positive nodes, and would be a potential method for NAC-treated patients by using of ICBN.

Trial Registration: NCT03355261. Retrospectively registered on November 28, 2017.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.asjsur.2021.03.020DOI Listing
April 2021

High Sensitivity Humidity Detection Based on Functional GO/MWCNTs Hybrid Nano-Materials Coated Titled Fiber Bragg Grating.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2021 Apr 27;11(5). Epub 2021 Apr 27.

School of Physics, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024, China.

A high performance humidity sensor using tilted fiber Bragg grating (TFBG) and functional graphene oxide (GO)/multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) hybrid nano-materials was proposed. The humidity-sensitive material with three-dimensional (3D) structure was synthesized by the MWCNTs and GOs. Comparing with traditional two dimensional (2D) GOs film, water molecules could be absorbed effectively due to the larger ripples and more holes in GO/MWCNTs layers. The water molecule will fill the entire space in the 3D structure instead of air, which further enhances the absorption efficiency of the hybrid nanomaterial. TFBG as a compact and robust surrounding complex dielectric constant sensing platform was utilized. The mode coupling coefficient or the amplitude of TFBG cladding mode will vary sharply with the imaginary part of permittivity of the hybrid nanomaterial, realizing the high performance RH sensing. In the experiments, we successfully demonstrated that this 3D structural nanomaterial composed by the MWCNTs and GOs has significant advantages for expanding the range of humidity detection (range from 30% to 90%) and enhancing the detection sensitivity (0.377 dB/% RH is twice more than humidity sensor with 2D GO film). The TFBG-based RH sensor also exhibits good repeatability and stability. Our proposed humidity sensor has potential application in environmental and healthy monitoring fields.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nano11051134DOI Listing
April 2021

Smart fibers for energy conversion and storage.

Chem Soc Rev 2021 Apr 29. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

State Key Laboratory for Modification of Chemical Fibers and Polymer Materials, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620, China.

Fibers have played a critical role in the long history of human development. They are the basic building blocks of textiles. Synthetic fibers not only make clothes stronger and more durable, but are also customizable and cheaper. The growth of miniature and wearable electronics has promoted the development of smart and multifunctional fibers. Particularly, the incorporation of functional semiconductors and electroactive materials in fibers has opened up the field of fiber electronics. The energy supply system is the key branch for fiber electronics. Herein, after a brief introduction on the history of smart and functional fibers, we review the current state of advanced functional fibers for their application in energy conversion and storage, focusing on nanogenerators, solar cells, supercapacitors and batteries. Subsequently, the importance of the integration of fiber-shaped energy conversion and storage devices via smart structure design is discussed. Finally, the challenges and future direction in this field are highlighted. Through this review, we hope to inspire scientists with different research backgrounds to enter this multi-disciplinary field to promote its prosperity and development and usher in a truly new era of smart fibers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0cs01603aDOI Listing
April 2021

Translating 2D Director Profile to 3D Topography in a Liquid Crystal Polymer.

Adv Sci (Weinh) 2021 Apr 24;8(8):2004749. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

SCNU-TUE Joint Lab of Device Integrated Responsive Materials (DIRM) National Center for International Research on Green Optoelectronics South China Normal University No 378, West Waihuan Road, Guangzhou Higher Education Mega Center Guangzhou 510006 China.

Morphological properties of surfaces play a key role in natural and man-made objects. The development of robust methods to fabricate micro/nano surface structures has been a long pursuit. Herein, an approach based on molecular self-assembling of liquid crystal polymers (LCPs) is presented to directly translate 2D molecular director profiles obtained by a photoalignment procedure into 3D topographies, without involving further multi-step lithographic processes. The principle of surface deformation from a flat morphology into complex topographies is based on the coupling between electrostatic interactions and the anisotropic flow in LCPs. When activated by an electric field, the LCP melts and is driven by electrohydrodynamic instabilities to connect the electrode plates of a capacitor, inducing topographies governed by the director profile of the LCP. Upon switching off the electric field, the formed structures vitrify as the temperature decreases below the glass transition. When heated, the process is reversible as the formed topographies disappear. By pre-programming the molecular director a variety of structures could be made with increasing complexity. The height, pitch, and the aspect ratio of the textures are further regulated by the conditions of the applied electric field. The proposed approach will open new opportunities for optical and electrical applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/advs.202004749DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8061370PMC
April 2021