Publications by authors named "Yang Yang"

8,329 Publications

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Study on the biological mechanism of urolithin a on nasopharyngeal carcinoma .

Pharm Biol 2022 Dec;60(1):1566-1577

School of Basic Medical Sciences, Youjiang Medical University for Nationalities, Baise, PR China.

Context: Urolithin A (UroA) can inhibit the growth of many human cancer cells, but it has not be reported if UroA inhibits nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cells.

Objective: To explore the inhibitory effect of UroA on NPC and potential mechanism .

Materials And Methods: RNA-sequencing-based mechanistic prediction was conducted by comparing KEGG enrichment of 40 μM UroA-treated for 24 h with untreated CNE2 cells. The untreated cells were selected as control. After NPC cells were treated with 20-60 μM UroA, proliferation, migration and invasion of were measured by colony formation, wound healing and transwell experiments. Apoptosis, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), reactive oxygen species (ROS) were measured by flow cytometry, Hoechst 33342, Rhodamine 123, JC-1 staining and ROS assay methods, respectively. Gene and protein expression were measured by RT-qPCR and Western blotting assay.

Results: RNA-sequencing and KEGG enrichment revealed UroA mainly altered the ECM receptor interaction pathway. UroA inhibited cells proliferation, epithelial-mesenchymal-transition pathway, migration and invasion with IC values of 34.72 μM and 44.91 μM, induced apoptosis, MMP depolarization and increase ROS content at a concentration of 40 μM. UroA up-regulated E-cadherin, Bax/Bcl-2, c-caspase-3 and PARP proteins, while inhibiting COL4A1, MMP2, MMP9, N-cadherin, Vimentin and Snail proteins at 20-60 μM. Moreover, co-treatment of UroA (40 μM) and NAC (5 mM) could reverse the effect of UroA on apoptosis-related proteins.

Discussion And Conclusions: RNA-sequencing technology based on bioinformatic analyses may be applicable for studiying the mechanism of drugs for tumour treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13880209.2022.2106251DOI Listing
December 2022

Transverse Tibial Bone Transport Enhances Distraction Osteogenesis and Vascularization in the Treatment of Diabetic Foot.

Orthop Surg 2022 Aug 10. Epub 2022 Aug 10.

Department of Orthopaedics, Guangdong Second Provincial General Hospital, Guangzhou, China.

Objective: To investigate the effect of transverse tibial bone transport on the treatment of Wagner Stage 4 diabetic foot.

Methods: From January 2017 to October 2019, a total of 19 patients with Wagner Stage 4 diabetic foot ulcers were recruited. All patients were treated with transverse tibial bone transport. A detailed follow-up was carried out at 1 week, 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, and 1 year after surgery. The wound healing rate and the limb salvage rate at 1 year after the surgery were evaluated. Preoperative and 3-month postoperative digital subtraction angiography (DSA) were obtained. The level of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), epidermal growth factor (EGF) and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) before surgery and on 1st, 4th, 11th, 18th, 28 , and 35th days after surgery were measured. Operation time, intraoperative blood loss, postoperative complications, visual analog scale (VAS) pain score, skin temperature, Semmes-weinstein monofilament (SWM), and ankle brachial index (ABI) were also assessed.

Results: The wound healing rate and the limb salvage rate were both 94.74% in the patients at 1 year after the surgery. DSA showed the thickening of the calf and foot arteries, clear visualization, and a rich vascular network. The levels of VEGF, bFGF, and PDGF on the 11th, 18th, 28 , and 35th days after surgery were significantly higher than those before surgery (p < 0.05). The EGF level on the 18th, 28th, and 35th days after surgery was significantly higher than that before surgery (p < 0.05). Superficial wound complications occurred in one patient during the hospitalization. There was no movement area infection, skin flap necrosis, tibial fracture, loosening of the external fixator, or rupture in study.

Conclusion: Transverse tibial bone transport can improve the blood circulation of the affected limbs, promote the healing of diabetic foot wounds, and reduce the amputation rate of the affected limbs. Transverse tibial bone transport can promote the healing of Wagner Stage 4 diabetic foot.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/os.13416DOI Listing
August 2022

Fabrication of 2D/2D BiOBr/g-CN with efficient photocatalytic activity and clarification of its mechanism.

Phys Chem Chem Phys 2022 Aug 10. Epub 2022 Aug 10.

Key Laboratory of Green and Precise Synthetic Chemistry and applications, Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Huaibei Normal University, Huaibei, Anhui 235000, P. R. China.

Precise regulation of photoexcited charge carriers for separation and transportation is a core requirement for practical application in the photocatalysis field. Herein, a 2D/2D BiOBr/g-CN heterojunction is prepared by a self-assembly method and exhibits enhanced and stable activity for photocatalytic degradation of bisphenol A (BPA) and norfloxacin (NFA) under visible light. Compared to pure g-CN, the kinetic constants of BPA and NFA degradation over BiOBr/g-CN are enhanced by about 14.74 and 4.01 times, respectively. The separation and transportation mechanism for the photoexcited charge carriers is clarified by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy ( XPS), and theoretical calculations. The results show that BiOBr/g-CN exhibits the feature of a relative p-n junction, in which the charges photoexcited on BiOBr/g-CN with high redox potentials can be kept and spatially separated. Moreover, the built-in electric field with the direction of g-CN → BiOBr and the opportune band curvature provide the driving force for charge separation and transportation. Additionally, BPA and NFA degradation intermediates are also detected by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. It is of great significance to fabricate efficient photocatalysts for environmental purification and other targeted reactions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d2cp02381dDOI Listing
August 2022

A CRISPR-based ultrasensitive assay detects attomolar concentrations of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in clinical samples.

Nat Commun 2022 Aug 9;13(1):4667. Epub 2022 Aug 9.

Key Laboratory of Green Chemistry & Technology of Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry, Analytical & Testing Center, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, 610064, China.

CRISPR diagnostics are powerful tools for detecting nucleic acids but are generally not deployable for the detection of clinically important proteins. Here, we report an ultrasensitive CRISPR-based antibody detection (UCAD) assay that translates the detection of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies into CRISPR-based nucleic acid detection in a homogeneous solution and is 10,000 times more sensitive than the classic immunoassays. Clinical validation using serum samples collected from the general population (n = 197), demonstrates that UCAD has 100% sensitivity and 98.5% specificity. With ultrahigh sensitivity, UCAD enables the quantitative analysis of serum anti-SARS-CoV-2 levels in vaccinated kidney transplant recipients who are shown to produce "undetectable" anti-SARS-CoV-2 using standard immunoassay. Because of the high sensitivity and simplicity, we anticipate that, upon further clinical validation against large cohorts of clinical samples, UCAD will find wide applications for clinical uses in both centralized laboratories and point-of-care settings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-022-32371-4DOI Listing
August 2022

Widespread wildfires over the western United States in 2020 linked to emissions reductions during COVID-19.

Geophys Res Lett 2022 Jul 18:e2022GL099308. Epub 2022 Jul 18.

Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Atmospheric Environment Monitoring and Pollution Control Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center of Atmospheric Environment and Equipment Technology School of Environmental Science and Engineering Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology Nanjing Jiangsu China.

Widespread wildfires struck the western United States in 2020, damaging properties and threating human lives. Meanwhile, the COVID-19 pandemic spread across the globe, which disrupted human activities. Here, we investigate the effects of the emissions reductions during the pandemic on fire weather in 2020 over the western United States by using an earth system model together with observations. We show that reductions in aerosols dominate the increases in wildfire risks, whereas greenhouse gas decrease counteracts this influence. The aerosol emissions reductions increased surface air temperature and decreased precipitation and relative humidity due to a weakened moisture transport, which explains one-third of the observed increase in wildfire risks during August-November over the western United States in 2020. This study suggests that COVID-19-related emissions reductions have an unexpected influence on wildfires, highlighting a different but important role of human activities in affecting wildfire risks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2022GL099308DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9349500PMC
July 2022

Integrated multi-omics analyses reveal that BCAM is associated with epigenetic modification and tumor microenvironment subtypes of clear cell renal cell carcinoma.

Clin Epigenetics 2022 Aug 8;14(1):99. Epub 2022 Aug 8.

Department of Urology, Institute of Urology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, No.37 Guoxue Alley, Wuhou District, Chengdu City, 610041, Sichuan Province, People's Republic of China.

Background: Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is the most common and highly heterogeneous subtype of renal cell carcinoma. Dysregulated basal cell adhesion molecule (BCAM) gene is associated with poor prognosis in various cancers. However, the dysregulated functions and related multi-omics features of BCAM in ccRCC stay unclear.

Results: BCAM expression was aberrantly downregulated in ccRCC and correlated with adverse pathological parameters and poor prognosis. Low mRNA expression of BCAM was remarkably associated with its CpG methylation levels and BAP1 mutation status. Patients with lower-expressed BCAM concomitant with BAP1 mutation had a worse prognosis. Using RNA-seq data from The cancer genome atlas, we found that compared to the BCAM-high expression subgroup, ccRCC patients in the BCAM-low expression subgroup had significantly higher levels of immune infiltration, higher immune checkpoint expression levels and lower TIDE (tumor immune dysfunction and exclusion) score, indicating potential better response to immunotherapy. Data from the Clinical Proteomic Tumor Analysis Consortium further validated the association between low BCAM expression and CD8 + inflamed phenotype at protein level. Meanwhile, our results suggested that the angiogenesis-related pathways were enriched in the BCAM-high expression subgroup. More importantly, according to the data from the GDSC database, we revealed that the BCAM-high expression subgroup should be more sensitive to anti-angiogenetic therapies, including sorafenib, pazopanib and axitinib.

Conclusions: These results suggest that BCAM could serve as a biomarker distinguishing different tumor microenvironment phenotypes, predicting prognosis and helping therapeutic decision-making for patients with ccRCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13148-022-01319-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9361577PMC
August 2022

Clinical analysis of 99 children with Henoch-Schönlein purpura complicated with overt gastrointestinal bleeding.

Clin Rheumatol 2022 Aug 8. Epub 2022 Aug 8.

Department of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Beijing Children's Hospital, Capital Medical University, National Center for Children's Health, China, Beijing, 100045, China.

Objective: To analyze and summarize the clinical features, diagnosis, and treatment of children with Henoch-Schönlein purpura (HSP) complicated by overt gastrointestinal bleeding (GI bleeding) for achieving early identification, prevention, and treatment in terms of severe GI bleeding.

Methods: A retrospective analysis was conducted on children with HSP complicated by overt GI bleeding who were admitted to the Department of Traditional Chinese Medicine of Beijing Children's Hospital from January 2017 to December 2019. According to the severity of GI bleeding, the patients were divided into mild bleeding group (61 cases) and moderate and severe bleeding group (38 cases). Inflammatory parameters, coagulation function, GI ultrasound findings, and clinical features were compared. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the related variables affecting the severity of GI bleeding, and the ROC curve was used to determine the variable test efficacy.

Results: Onset in summer, wide distribution of skin rash with facial involvement, the elevation of D-dimer and high neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) had significant effects on the severity of GI bleeding. ROC curve analysis showed that the optimal cut-off points of NLR and D-dimer for predicting severe GI bleeding in children with HSP were 10.56 and 0.89 mg/L, respectively.

Conclusion: Facial rash may be a warning sign of GI bleeding. Enhanced monitoring of NLR and D-dimer is helpful for early recognition of GI bleeding as well as assessment of severity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10067-022-06323-8DOI Listing
August 2022

WDR36 Safeguards Self-Renewal and Pluripotency of Human Extended Pluripotent Stem Cells.

Front Genet 2022 22;13:905395. Epub 2022 Jul 22.

State Key Laboratory of Reproductive Medicine, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China.

Extended pluripotent stem cells (EPS cells) have unlimited self-renewal ability and the potential to differentiate into mesodermal, ectodermal, and endodermal cells. Notably, in addition to developing the embryonic (Em) lineages, it can also make an effective contribution to extraembryonic (ExEm) lineages both and . However, multiple mysteries still remain about the underlying molecular mechanism of EPS cells' maintenance and developmental potential. WDR36 (WD Repeat Domain 36), a protein of 105 kDa with 14 WD40 repeats, which may fold into two β-propellers, participates in 18sRNA synthesis and P53 stress response. Though WDR36 safeguards mouse early embryonic development, that is, homozygous knockout of WDR36 can result in embryonic lethality, what role does WDR36 plays in self-renewal and differentiation developmental potential of human EPS cells is still a subject of concern. Here, our findings suggested that the expression of WDR36 was downregulated during human hEPS cells lost self-renewal. Through constructing inducible knockdown or overexpressing WDR36-human EPS cell lines, we found that WDR36 knockdown disrupted self-renewal but promoted the mesodermal differentiation of human EPS cells; however, overexpressing of WDR36 had little effect. Additionally, P53 inhibition could reverse the effects of WDR36 knockdown, on both self-renewal maintenance and differentiation potential of human EPS cells. These data implied that WDR36 safeguards self-renewal and pluripotency of human EPS cells, which would extend our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of human EPS cells' self-renewal and differentiation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2022.905395DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9353684PMC
July 2022

3D-printed high-density polyethylene scaffolds with bioactive and antibacterial layer-by-layer modification for auricle reconstruction.

Mater Today Bio 2022 Dec 15;16:100361. Epub 2022 Jul 15.

Guangdong Engineering Research Center for Translation of Medical 3D Printing Application, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Medical Biomechanics, National Key Discipline of Human Anatomy, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, 510515, China.

High-density polyethylene (HDPE) is a promising material for the development of scaffold implants for auricle reconstruction. However, preparing a personalized HDPE auricle implant with favorable bioactive and antibacterial functions to promote skin tissue ingrowth is challenging. Herein, we present 3D-printed HDPE auricle scaffolds with satisfactory pore size and connectivity. The layer-by-layer (LBL) approach was applied to achieve the improved bioactive and antibacterial properties of these 3D printed scaffolds. The HDPE auricle scaffolds were fabricated using an extrusion 3D printing approach, and the individualized macrostructure and porous microstructure were both adjusted by the 3D printing parameters. The polydopamine (pDA) coating method was used to construct a multilayer ε-polylysine (EPL) and fibrin (FIB) modification on the surface of the 3D HDPE scaffold the LBL self-assembly approach, which provides the bioactive and antibacterial properties. The results of the experiments using an animal model showed that LBL-coated HDPE auricular scaffolds were able to significantly enhance skin tissue ingrowth and ameliorate the inflammatory response caused by local stress. The results of this study suggest that the combination of the 3D printing technique and surface modification provides a promising strategy for developing personalized implants with biofunctional coatings, which show great potential as a scaffold implant for auricle reconstruction applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mtbio.2022.100361DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9352972PMC
December 2022

A comparison study of monoexponential and fractional order calculus diffusion models and F-FDG PET in differentiating benign and malignant solitary pulmonary lesions and their pathological types.

Front Oncol 2022 21;12:907860. Epub 2022 Jul 21.

Department of Medical Imaging, Zhengzhou University People's Hospital & Henan Provincial People's Hospital, Zhengzhou, China.

Objective: To evaluate the application value of monoexponential, fractional order calculus (FROC) diffusion models and PET imaging to distinguish between benign and malignant solitary pulmonary lesions (SPLs) and malignant SPLs with different pathological types and explore the correlation between each parameter and Ki67 expression.

Methods: A total of 112 patients were enrolled in this study. Prior to treatment, all patients underwent a dedicated thoracic F-FDG PET/MR examination. Five parameters [including apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) derived from the monoexponential model; diffusion coefficient (D), a microstructural quantity (μ), and fractional order parameter (β) derived from the FROC model and maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) derived from PET] were compared between benign and malignant SPLs and different pathological types of malignant SPLs. Independent sample t test, Mann-Whitney U test, DeLong test and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis were used for statistical evaluation. Pearson correlation analysis was used to calculate the correlations between Ki-67 and ADC, D, μ, β, and SUVmax.

Results: The ADC and D values were significantly higher and the μ and SUVmax values were significantly lower in the benign group [1.57 (1.37, 2.05) μm/ms, 1.59 (1.52, 1.72) μm/ms, 5.06 (3.76, 5.66) μm, 5.15 ± 2.60] than in the malignant group [1.32 (1.03, 1.51) μm/ms, 1.43 (1.29, 1.52) μm/ms, 7.06 (5.87, 9.45) μm, 9.85 ± 4.95]. The ADC, D and β values were significantly lower and the μ and SUVmax values were significantly higher in the squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) group [1.29 (0.66, 1.42) μm/ms, 1.32 (1.02, 1.42) μm/ms, 0.63 ± 0.10, 9.40 (7.76, 15.38) μm, 11.70 ± 5.98] than in the adenocarcinoma (AC) group [1.40 (1.28, 1.67) μm/ms, 1.52 (1.44, 1.64) μm/ms, 0.70 ± 0.10, 5.99 (4.54, 6.87) μm, 8.76 ± 4.18]. ROC curve analysis showed that for a single parameter, μ exhibited the best AUC value in discriminating between benign and malignant SPLs groups and AC and SCC groups (AUC = 0.824 and 0.911, respectively). Importantly, the combination of monoexponential, FROC models and PET imaging can further improve diagnostic performance (AUC = 0.872 and 0.922, respectively). The Pearson correlation analysis showed that Ki67 was positively correlated with μ value and negatively correlated with ADC and D values (r = 0.402, -0.346, -0.450, respectively).

Conclusion: The parameters D and μ derived from the FROC model were superior to ADC and SUVmax in distinguishing benign from malignant SPLs and adenocarcinoma from squamous cell carcinoma, in addition, the combination of multiple parameters can further improve diagnostic performance. The non-Gaussian FROC diffusion model is expected to become a noninvasive quantitative imaging technique for identifying SPLs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2022.907860DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9351313PMC
July 2022

Artificial intelligence-based organizational human resource management and operation system.

Authors:
Yang Yang

Front Psychol 2022 22;13:962291. Epub 2022 Jul 22.

School of Management and Economics, North China University of Water Resources and Electric Power, Zhengzhou, China.

The trend of globalization, marketization, and informatization continues to strengthen, in today's development environment, how to seize the opportunity and obtain a competitive advantage in human resources is an important issue that needs to be explored. Human resource management refers to the effective use of relevant human resources inside and outside the organization through management forms under the guidance of economics and humanistic thinking. It is a general term for a series of activities that ensure the achievement of organizational goals and the maximization of member development. With the rapid development of society and economy, the competition between enterprises has intensified. If an enterprise wants to adapt to social development, it is necessary to strengthen the internal management of the organization. The internal management also needs to rely on human resource management. The purpose of this paper is to study an organization's human resource management and operation system based on artificial intelligence. It expects to use artificial intelligence technology to design the human resource management system and to improve the quality of employees to make the enterprise develop toward a more scientific and reasonable method. It uses artificial intelligence technology to mine the relevant data of enterprises, understand the situation of enterprises in a timely manner, and adjust unreasonable rules. This paper establishes a dynamic capability evaluation model and an early warning model for human resource management and further studies the improvement approach based on human resource management. This paper analyzes the application, feasibility, and practical significance of data mining technology in human resource management systems. It focuses on the commonly used algorithms in the field of data mining and proposes specific algorithm application scenarios and implementation ideas combined with the needs of human resource management practices. The experimental results of this paper show that the average working life of incumbent employees is 3.5 years, the average length of employees who leave the company is 5 years, and some employees are 5-6 years old. From this data, it can be seen that the average number of years of on-the-job employees is short, and the work experience has yet to be accumulated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2022.962291DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9355249PMC
July 2022

The interaction between the soluble programmed death ligand-1 (sPD-L1) and PD-1 regulator B cells mediates immunosuppression in triple-negative breast cancer.

Front Immunol 2022 22;13:830606. Epub 2022 Jul 22.

School of Biology & Basic Medical Sciences, Medical College of Soochow University, Suzhou, China.

Accumulating evidence suggests that regulatory B cells (Bregs) play important roles in inhibiting the immune response in tumors. Programmed death 1 (PD-1) and programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) are important molecules that maintain the balance of the immune response and immune tolerance. This study aims to evaluate the soluble form of PD-L1 and its function in inducing the differentiation of B lymphocytes, investigate the relationship between soluble PD-L1 (sPD-L1) and B-cell subsets, and explore the antitumor activity of T lymphocytes after PD-L1 blockade in coculture systems. In an effort to explore the role of sPD-L1 in human breast cancer etiology, we examined the levels of sPD-L1 and interleukin-10 (IL-10) in the serum of breast tumor patients and the proportions of B cells, PD-1 B cells, Bregs, and PD-1 Bregs in the peripheral blood of patients with breast tumors and assessed their relationship among sPD-L1, IL-10, and B-cell subsets. The levels of sPD-L1 and IL-10 in serum were found to be significantly higher in invasive breast cancer (IBCa) patients than in breast fibroadenoma (FIBma) patients. Meanwhile, the proportions and absolute numbers of Bregs and PD-1 Bregs in the peripheral blood of IBCa patients were significantly higher than those of FIBma patients. Notably, they were the highest in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) among other subtypes of IBCa. Positive correlations of sPD-L1 and IL-10, IL-10 and PD-1 Bregs, and also sPD-L1 and PD-1 Bregs were observed in IBCa. We further demonstrated that sPD-L1 could induce Breg differentiation, IL-10 secretion, and IL-10 mRNA expression in a dose-dependent manner . Finally, the induction of regulatory T cells (T) by Bregs was further shown to suppress the antitumor response and that PD-L1 blockade therapies could promote the apoptosis of tumor cells. Together, these results indicated that sPD-L1 could mediate the differentiation of Bregs, expand CD4 T and weaken the antitumor activity of CD4 T cells. PD-L1/PD-1 blockade therapies might be a powerful therapeutic strategy for IBCa patients, particularly for TNBC patients with high level of PD-1 Bregs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2022.830606DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9354578PMC
August 2022

Human Neutrophil Defensins Disrupt Liver Interendothelial Junctions and Aggravate Sepsis.

Mediators Inflamm 2022 29;2022:7659282. Epub 2022 Jul 29.

Department of Anesthesiology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou 310003, China.

Human neutrophil peptides 1-3 (HNP1-3), also known as human -defensins, are the most abundant neutrophil granule proteins. The genes that encode HNP1-3, , exhibit extensive copy number variations, which correlate well with their protein levels. Human and mouse studies have shown that increased copy numbers of worsen sepsis outcomes. Additionally, high concentrations of HNP1-3 in body fluids have been reported in patients with sepsis. However, direct evidence for the pathogenic role of HNP1-3 proteins during sepsis progression is lacking. In current study, sepsis was induced by means of cecal puncture and ligation. Various doses of HNP-1 (low dose with 0.5 mg/kg body weight and high dose with 10 mg/kg body weight) or phosphate buffer saline were intraperitoneally administered to mice at six hours after sepsis onset. Survival rate was monitored, and vascular permeability, endothelial cell pyroptosis, and immunofluorescence of endothelial adherens junction protein vascular endothelial-cadherin were evaluated. The administration of a high dose of HNP-1 after sepsis onset led to increased mortality, more severe liver injury, and increased vascular permeability in the liver and mesentery. The injection of high dose of HNP-1 did not directly induce liver endothelial cell death but destroyed interendothelial junctions in the liver. Moreover, genetic deficiency of nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor protein-3 or caspase-1 abrogated the high mortality and disrupted liver interendothelial junctions caused by high dose of HNP-1 during sepsis. This study directly demonstrates that neutrophil defensins play a key role in regulating endothelial stability during sepsis development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2022/7659282DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9355784PMC
August 2022

Human Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Micropatterned Ectoderm Allows Cell Sorting of Meso-Endoderm Lineages.

Front Bioeng Biotechnol 2022 22;10:907159. Epub 2022 Jul 22.

Department of Industrial Engineering (DII), University of Padova, Padova, Italy.

The human developmental processes during the early post-implantation stage instruct the specification and organization of the lineage progenitors into a body plan. These processes, which include patterning, cell sorting, and establishment of the three germ layers, have been classically studied in non-human model organisms and only recently, through micropatterning technology, in a human-specific context. Micropatterning technology has unveiled mechanisms during patterning and germ layer specification; however, cell sorting and their segregation in specific germ layer combinations have not been investigated yet in a human-specific system. Here, we developed an model of human ectodermal patterning, in which human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) self-organize to form a radially regionalized neural and non-central nervous system (CNS) ectoderm. We showed that by using micropatterning technology and by modulating BMP and WNT signals, we can regulate the appearance and spatial distribution of the different ectodermal populations. This pre-patterned ectoderm can be used to investigate the cell sorting behavior of hPSC-derived meso-endoderm cells, with an endoderm that segregates from the neural ectoderm. Thus, the combination of micro-technology with germ layer cross-mixing enables the study of cell sorting of different germ layers in a human context.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fbioe.2022.907159DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9354750PMC
July 2022

Manipulation of single cells via a Stereo Acoustic Streaming Tunnel (SteAST).

Microsyst Nanoeng 2022 4;8:88. Epub 2022 Aug 4.

State Key Laboratory of Precision Measuring Technology and Instruments, Tianjin University, Tianjin, 300072 China.

At the single-cell level, cellular parameters, gene expression and cellular function are assayed on an individual but not population-average basis. Essential to observing and analyzing the heterogeneity and behavior of these cells/clusters is the ability to prepare and manipulate individuals. Here, we demonstrate a versatile microsystem, a stereo acoustic streaming tunnel, which is triggered by ultrahigh-frequency bulk acoustic waves and highly confined by a microchannel. We thoroughly analyze the generation and features of stereo acoustic streaming to develop a virtual tunnel for observation, pretreatment and analysis of cells for different single-cell applications. 3D reconstruction, dissociation of clusters, selective trapping/release, in situ analysis and pairing of single cells with barcode gel beads were demonstrated. To further verify the reliability and robustness of this technology in complex biosamples, the separation of circulating tumor cells from undiluted blood based on properties of both physics and immunity was achieved. With the rich selection of handling modes, the platform has the potential to be a full-process microsystem, from pretreatment to analysis, and used in numerous fields, such as in vitro diagnosis, high-throughput single-cell sequencing and drug development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41378-022-00424-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9352906PMC
August 2022

Clinical Outcomes of Doxycycline, Azithromycin, and Chloramphenicol for the Treatment of Severe Patients with Scrub Typhus.

Int J Antimicrob Agents 2022 Aug 4:106647. Epub 2022 Aug 4.

State Key Laboratory of Pathogen and Biosecurity, Beijing Institute of Microbiology and Epidemiology, Beijing 100071, P. R. China; School of Public Health, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, China. Electronic address:

Background: Previous studies have evaluated the treatment efficacy of patients with mild to moderate scrub typhus (ST), however, the efficacy of treating severe ST with different antibiotics remained obscure.

Methods: A retrospective study was performed to include severe ST patients in China. The treatment efficacy of doxycycline, azithromycin, or chloramphenicol were compared by using treatment failure and the time to defervescence as primary outcomes.

Results: In total, 876 severe ST patients who initially received doxycycline, azithromycin, or chloramphenicol treatment were recruited. Treatment failure rate was not significantly different between those receiving doxycycline and azithromycin therapy (6.0% vs 11.4%, p=0.109). However, a higher rate of treatment failure was observed for chloramphenicol than doxycycline therapy (14.6% vs 6.0%, p=0.004). No significant difference was observed for the time to defervescence in those receiving doxycycline, azithromycin, and chloramphenicol treatment respectively. Further subgroup analysis revealed a higher risk of treatment failure related to chloramphenicol than doxycycline in patients with acute kidney injury (AKI), pneumonia, and shock; a higher risk of treatment failure related to azithromycin than doxycycline in patients with meningitis. Significant correlation between azithromycin resistance and meningitis (p=0.009), between chloramphenicol resistance and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) (p<0.001) were obsevered by cramer's V correlation coefficients. Multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed significant association between time to defervescence and presence of ARDS, shock, myocarditis, meningitis, and AKI.

Conclusion: Significant therapy effect of azithromycin and doxycycline was observed for severe patients, by contrast, a lower therapy effect was observed for chloramphenicol in treating severe patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2022.106647DOI Listing
August 2022

Clearance of multiple cutaneous warts by targeting a single lesion: a randomized comparative evaluation of mild local hyperthermia versus cryotherapy.

J Am Acad Dermatol 2022 Aug 4. Epub 2022 Aug 4.

Department of Dermatology, The First Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, China; Key Laboratory of Immunodermatology, Ministry of Education and NHC; National joint Engineering Research Center for Theranostics of Immunological Skin Diseases, Shenyang, China. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaad.2022.07.043DOI Listing
August 2022

Safety and efficacy of negative pressure wound therapy in treating deep surgical site infection after lumbar surgery.

Int Orthop 2022 Aug 6. Epub 2022 Aug 6.

Department of Orthopedics, 960Th Hospital of PLA, Shifan road, Tianqiao district, Jinan, 250031, China.

Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) for post-operative deep surgical site infection (SSI) after posterior instrumented spinal surgery.

Methods: We retrospectively compared the clinical outcomes of NPWT with standard debridement for deep SSI after posterior instrumented spinal surgery from 2012 to 2020 in our department. The primary outcomes were peri-operative characteristics including positive organism results, duration of fever, and visual analogue scale (VAS) pain scores three days after re-operation. The secondary outcomes were post-operative characteristics including implant infection recurrence, implant retention rate, duration of hospitalization, and VAS at discharge. Pearson's chi-squared analysis (categorical) and Student's t test (continuous) were used to determine the differences.

Results: Thirty-four patients were included, of which 19 underwent NPWT, and 15 underwent standard debridement. Patients in the NPWT group all significantly improved primary outcomes including duration of fever after re-operation (0.95 ± 1.13 vs 4.07 ± 5.35, P = 0.001), positive organism results (14 of 19 vs 2 of 15, P < 0.01), and VAS at 3 days after re-operation (2.58 ± 0.69 vs 3.40 ± 1.06, P < 0.05). Patients in NPWT group exhibited significant decrease in implant infection recurrence (0 of 19 vs 5 of 15, P < 0.01), implant retention rate (19 of 19 vs 10 of 15, P < 0.01), duration of hospitalization (27.74 ± 10.95 vs 37.67 ± 13.67, P < 0.01).

Conclusions: NPWT is a feasible and safe treatment option for deep SSI after posterior instrumented spinal surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00264-022-05531-wDOI Listing
August 2022

Summer ozone pollution in China affected by the intensity of Asian monsoon systems.

Sci Total Environ 2022 Aug 2:157785. Epub 2022 Aug 2.

Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Atmospheric Environment Monitoring and Pollution Control, Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center of Atmospheric Environment and Equipment Technology, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China.

Ozone in the troposphere is harmful to human health and ecosystems. It has become the most severe air pollutant in China. Here, based on global atmospheric chemistry model simulations during 1981-2019 and nation-wide surface observations, the impacts of interannual variations in Asian summer monsoon (ASM), including East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) and South Asian summer monsoon (SASM), on surface O concentrations during June-July-August (JJA) in China are investigated. EASM intensity has a significant positive correlation with the surface O concentration in south-central China (97.5°-117.5°E, 20°-35°N) with a correlation coefficient of 0.6. Relative to the weak EASM years, O concentrations in strong EASM years increased by up to 5 ppb (10 % relative to the average) due to the weakened transboundary transport of O resulting from the decrease in prevailing southwesterlies. SASM can be divided into two components. The one near East Asia has a similar relation with O in southern China (100°-117.5°E, 22°-32°N) as that of EASM. The other component of SASM is negatively correlated with surface O concentration in eastern China (110°-117.5°E, 22°-34°N) and the maximum difference in O concentrations exceeded 5 ppb (10 %) between the strong and weak monsoon years, which can be explained by the O divergence caused by the anomalous southerlies blowing pollutants away from the northern boundary of eastern China. This study shows that the ASM has an important impact on the O concentrations in China, primarily through changing transboundary transport related to the variability of large-scale circulations, which has great implications for air pollution prevention and mitigation in China. Future projections of ASM suggests that the sustainable and medium development scenarios are the perfect pathways that can help to mitigate O pollution, while high social vulnerability and radiative forcing scenarios could enhance future O pollution in China.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2022.157785DOI Listing
August 2022

Tip-concentrated microneedle patch delivering everolimus for therapy of multiple sclerosis.

Biomater Adv 2022 Apr 22;135:212729. Epub 2022 Apr 22.

Wuya Collage of Innovation, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Shenyang 110016, China. Electronic address:

Multiple sclerosis is a chronic progressive demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. At present, systemic drug therapy for multiple sclerosis has limited efficacy and serious side effects. Everolimus, as a new generation of mTOR inhibitors, can effectively alleviate the inflammatory reaction of the central nervous system and offers a promising choice for the treatment of multiple sclerosis. However, due to the low oral bioavailability and narrow response window of oral everolimus, a new delivery system is urgently needed to overcome the above problems. In this study, we constructed a tip-concentrated microneedle patch as a transdermal delivery system of everolimus for the treatment of multiple sclerosis. Here, the drug was concentrated in the needle tips by the rational design, making it delivered completely into the skin. The therapeutic effect of everolimus-loaded microneedles was evaluated using the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model and further verified with neurological function scores and the histopathological results of the spinal cord. These results indicated that the tip-concentrated microneedle patch provided an effective, safe and simple method for the transdermal delivery of everolimus, thus providing a new treatment for multiple sclerosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bioadv.2022.212729DOI Listing
April 2022

Case Report: Prenatal Diagnosis of Nemaline Myopathy.

Front Pediatr 2022 19;10:937668. Epub 2022 Jul 19.

Department of Ultrasound Diagnostic, The Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, China.

Nemaline myopathy (NM) is a rare, hereditary heterogeneous myopathy. Fetal NM has a more severe disease course and a poorer prognosis and is usually lethal during the first few months of life. Hence, early prenatal diagnosis is especially important for clinical interventions and patient counseling. We report the case of a fetus with NM due to gene variation leading to arthrogryposis multiplex congenita (AMC). The ultrasonography and histopathology results revealed an enhanced echo intensity and decreased muscle thickness, which may be novel features providing early clues for the prenatal diagnosis of NM. Moreover, to our knowledge, this article is the first report to describe a case of NM associated with complex congenital heart disease (CHD).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fped.2022.937668DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9343628PMC
July 2022

Protocols for protein-DNA binding analysis of a zinc finger transcription factor bound to its cognate promoter.

STAR Protoc 2022 Sep 31;3(3):101598. Epub 2022 Jul 31.

School of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia.

Here, we describe protocols to interrogate the binding of the zinc fingers of the transcription factor ZBTB7A to the fetal () promoter. We detail the steps for performing electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs), X-ray crystallography, and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) to explore this interaction. These techniques could readily be applied to the structural studies of other zinc finger transcription factors and cognate DNA sequences. For complete details on the use and execution of this protocol, please refer to Yang et al. (2021).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.xpro.2022.101598DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9344028PMC
September 2022

Fear memory-associated synaptic and mitochondrial changes revealed by deep learning-based processing of electron microscopy data.

Cell Rep 2022 Aug;40(5):111151

School of Life Science and Technology, ShanghaiTech University, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

Serial section electron microscopy (ssEM) can provide comprehensive 3D ultrastructural information of the brain with exceptional computational cost. Targeted reconstruction of subcellular structures from ssEM datasets is less computationally demanding but still highly informative. We thus developed a region-CNN-based deep learning method to identify, segment, and reconstruct synapses and mitochondria to explore the structural plasticity of synapses and mitochondria in the auditory cortex of mice subjected to fear conditioning. Upon reconstructing over 135,000 mitochondria and 160,000 synapses, we find that fear conditioning significantly increases the number of mitochondria but decreases their size and promotes formation of multi-contact synapses, comprising a single axonal bouton and multiple postsynaptic sites from different dendrites. Modeling indicates that such multi-contact configuration increases the information storage capacity of new synapses by over 50%. With high accuracy and speed in reconstruction, our method yields structural and functional insight into cellular plasticity associated with fear learning.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2022.111151DOI Listing
August 2022

Disruption of Functional Brain Networks Underlies the Handwriting Deficit in Children With Developmental Dyslexia.

Front Neurosci 2022 18;16:919440. Epub 2022 Jul 18.

CAS Key Laboratory of Behavioral Science, Center for Brain Science and Learning Difficulties, Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.

Developmental dyslexia (DD) is a neurological-based learning disorder that affects 5-17.5% of children. Handwriting difficulty is a prevailing symptom of dyslexia, but its neural mechanisms remain elusive. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), this study examined functional brain networks associated with handwriting in a copying task in Chinese children with DD ( = 17) and age-matched children ( = 36). We found that dyslexics showed reduced network connectivity between the sensory-motor network (SMN) and the visual network (VN), and between the default mode network (DMN) and the ventral attention network (VAN) during handwriting, but not during drawing geometric figures. Moreover, the connectivity strength of the networks showing group differences was correlated with handwriting speed, reading and working memory, suggesting that the handwriting deficit in DD is linked with disruption of a large-scale brain network supporting motoric, linguistic and executive control processes. Taken together, this study demonstrates the alternations of functional brain networks that underly the handwriting deficit in Chinese dyslexia, providing a new clue for the neural basis of DD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2022.919440DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9339653PMC
July 2022

Study on application of YAG laser-assisted ear correction model to Congenital Auricular Deformities.

Plast Reconstr Surg 2022 Jul 29. Epub 2022 Jul 29.

Xiangdong Qi, Ph.D. Department of Plastic Surgery, Zhujiang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou City, Guangdong Province, 510515, China.

Background: To compare the clinical effects of long-pulse-width 1064nm Nd:YAG laser assisted ear correction model and simple ear correction model in the treatment of congenital auricular deformities in over-aged ears.

Methods: 129 children (179 ears) with congenital auricular deformities aged more than 2 months were included in the study. Among them, 84 cases (observation group, 119 ears) were treated with the ear correction model after long-pulse-width 1064nm Nd:YAG laser irradiation, while 45 cases (60 ears) were treated with the ear correction model only. The affected ears of the two groups were measured, the correction time was calculated, and the family members of the patients filled in the satisfaction questionnaire before and after the treatment.

Results: The level of satisfaction of the two groups after the treatment improved. The level of satisfaction of the observation group was higher than that of the control group. The days of correction in the observation group was less than that in the control group ( P <0.05). The measurements of the affected ears in the two groups were significantly different after treatment. The difference after treatment of each measurement in the observation group was higher than that in the control group. The therapeutic effect of the observation group was significantly better than that of the control group, and the differences were statistically significant.

Conclusion: Long-pulse-width 1064nm Nd:YAG laser combined with the ear correction model can effectively improve the success rate of correction of congenital auricular deformities in over-aged ears.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PRS.0000000000009573DOI Listing
July 2022

The Protective Effect of Peel Polysaccharide on the Oxidative Damaged HepG2 and HUASMC Cells.

Genet Res (Camb) 2022 18;2022:1792977. Epub 2022 Jul 18.

Anhui Vocational College of Grain Engineering, Hefei, China.

Background: Oxidative stress is an important cause of liver disease and atherosclerosis. Natural substances with antioxidant activity are good drugs for treating liver disease and atherosclerosis. Peel Polysaccharide (TKPP) can remove DPPH (2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) free radicals and hydroxyl free radicals , which shows antioxidant activity. Therefore, it is speculated that it can protect human hepatoma cell line (HepG2) and umbilical artery smooth muscle cell (HUASMC) against oxidative damage by hydrogen peroxide (HO).

Methods: Oxidative damage cell models of HepG2 and HUASMC were induced by HO. HepG2 and HUASMC were divided into blank group, HO injury group, TKPP treatment group, and glutathione (GSH) positive control group. Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) was used to detect cell viability. The level of total GSH and the amount of Nitric oxide (NO) secreted by cells were detected by specific kits. The gene and protein expressions of catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were detected by fluorescence quantitative PCR and Western Blot.

Results: In these two kinds of cells, compared with the control group, the survival rate, total GSH level, and NO secretion, CAT and SOD gene and protein expressions were significantly decreased in the HO damaged group. In the TKPP treatment group, the cell survival rate was significantly elevated with the increase of the polysaccharide concentration, and the total GSH level, NO secretion, CAT and SOD gene expression, and protein expression levels were also significantly increased.

Conclusion: TKPP can improve the activities of HepG2 and HUASMC cells damaged by HO and protect the cellular antioxidant system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2022/1792977DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9314172PMC
August 2022

Seawater intrusion induced cadmium activation via altering its distribution and transformation in paddy soil.

Chemosphere 2022 Jul 30;307(Pt 2):135805. Epub 2022 Jul 30.

National-Regional Joint Engineering Research Center for Soil Pollution Control and Remediation in South China, Guangdong Key Laboratory of Integrated Agro-environmental Pollution Control and Management, Institute of Eco-environmental and Soil Sciences, Guangdong Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou, 510650, PR China.

Seawater intrusion can cause environmental risks to paddy soils around estuaries, but the impacts on the availability of heavy metals are still unclear. River water and sea water were collected along the river of an estuary. A stirred-flow experiment was conducted to examine the Cd desorption behavior in Cd-contaminated paddy soil. While the pH increased with increasing salinity levels, more Cd was released with increasing salinity, suggesting that Cd competition by cations and complexation by anions, but not pH, dominated the release of Cd from soils. Moreover, paddy soil was incubated at different salinities under alternating redox conditions. The availability of Cd, as indicated by the diffusive gradients in thin film (DGT), became relatively high with increasing salinity levels during the initial anaerobic and later aerobic stages. The available Cd fractions substantially decreased under anaerobic condition, and then rapidly increased under aerobic condition. When oxygen was introduced into the system, Cd associated with organic matter and Fe-Mn oxides were released, and oxidative dissolution of Cd sulfides was observed, especially in the high salinity treatment. Seawater intrusion affects biogeochemical cycles and can promote rapid export of NH, Fe, and SO in paddy soils, especially in soils with high salinity. Our findings demonstrated that the high salinity content in paddy soil significantly enhanced the availability of Cd, especially during the drainage stage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2022.135805DOI Listing
July 2022

Inhibition of Dyrk1A Attenuates LPS-Induced Neuroinflammation via the TLR4/NF-κB P65 Signaling Pathway.

Inflammation 2022 Aug 2. Epub 2022 Aug 2.

State Key Laboratory of Bioactive Substrate and Function of Natural Medicine, Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, No.1 Xian Nong Tan Street, Beijing, 100050, China.

Dual-specificity tyrosine phosphorylation-regulated kinase 1A (Dyrk1A) is a highly conserved protein kinase, playing a key role in the regulation of physiological brain functions and pathological processes. In Alzheimer's disease (AD), Dyrk1A promotes hyperphosphorylation of tau protein and abnormal aggregation of amyloid-β protein (Aβ). This study investigated the role of Dyrk1A in regulating neuroinflammation, another critical factor that contributes to AD. In the present study, we used an immortalized murine BV2 microglia cell line induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to study neuroinflammation. The expression and activity of Dyrk1A kinase were both increased by inflammation. Dyrk1A inhibition using harmine or siRNA silencing significantly reduced the production of proinflammatory factors in LPS-stimulated BV2 cells. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and nitric oxide (NO), as well as the expression of the inflammatory proteins, cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2), and inducible nitric synthase (iNOS), were attenuated. In vivo, in ICR mice injected with LPS into the left lateral cerebral ventricle, harmine (20 mg/kg) administration decreased the expression of inflammatory proteins in the cortex and hippocampus of mice brain. In addition, immunohistochemical detection of ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1 (Iba1) and Nissl staining showed that harmine significantly attenuated microglia activation and neuronal damage in the CA1 region of hippocampus. Further mechanistic studies indicated that Dyrk1A suppression may be related to inhibition of the TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway in LPS-induced neuroinflammation. Taken together, our studies suggest that Dyrk1A may be a novel target for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases with an inflammatory component.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10753-022-01699-wDOI Listing
August 2022

Effect of humic acid on bioreduction of facet-dependent hematite by Shewanella putrefaciens CN-32.

Sci Total Environ 2022 Jul 29:157713. Epub 2022 Jul 29.

State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Integrated Surface Water-Groundwater Pollution Control, School of the Environmental Science and Engineering, Southern University of Science and Technology, Shenzhen 518055, People's Republic of China.

Interfacial reactions between iron (Fe) (hydr)oxide surfaces and the activity of bacteria during dissimilatory Fe reduction affect extracellular electron transfer. The presence of organic matter (OM) and exposed facets of Fe (hydr)oxides influence this process. However, the underlying interfacial mechanism of facet-dependent hematite and its toxicity toward microbes during bioreduction in the presence of OM remains unknown. Herein, humic acid (HA), as typical OM, was selected to investigate its effect on the bioreduction of hematite {100} and {001}. When HA concentration was increased from 0 to 500 mg L, the bioreduction rates increased from 0.02 h to 0.04 h for hematite {100} and from 0.026 h to 0.05 h for hematite {001}. Since hematite {001} owned lower resistance than hematite {100} irrespective of the HA concentration, and hematite {100} was less favorable for reduction. Microscopy-based analysis showed that more hematite {001} nanoparticles adhered to the cell surface and were bound more closely to the bacteria. Moreover, less cell damage was observed in the HA-hematite {001} treatments. As the reaction progressed, some bacterial cells died or were inactivated; confocal laser scanning microscopy showed that bacterial survival was higher in the HA-hematite {001} treatments than in the HA-hematite {100} treatments after bioreduction. Spectroscopic analysis revealed that facet-dependent binding was primarily realized by surface complexation of carboxyl functional groups with structural Fe atoms, and that the binding order of HA functional groups and hematite was affected by the exposed facets. The exposed facets of hematite could influence the electrochemical properties and activity of bacteria, as well as the binding of bacteria and Fe oxides in the presence of OM, thereby governing the extracellular electron transfer and concomitant bioreduction of Fe (hydr)oxides. These results provide new insights into the interfacial reactions between OM and facet-dependent Fe oxides in anoxic, OM-rich soil and sediment environments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2022.157713DOI Listing
July 2022

Efficacy and safety of lacosamide in pediatric patients with epilepsy: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Epilepsy Behav 2022 Jul 29;134:108781. Epub 2022 Jul 29.

Key Laboratory of Birth Defects and Related Diseases of Women and Children (Sichuan University), Ministry of Education, China; Department of Children's Genetic Endocrinology and Metabolism, China; West China School of Pharmacy, Sichuan University, China.

Objective: Lacosamide (LCM), is a third-generation antiseizure medicine, with limited clinical evidence for use in pediatric populations. We aimed to evaluate evidence for the efficacy and safety of LCM in pediatric patients with epilepsy.

Methods: A systematic review was performed using literature published from inception to February 2022 identified in MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Library, and four Chinese databases. Efficacy and safety outcome data were collected, and a meta-analysis was performed.

Result: Twenty-one studies involving 1230 pediatric patients were included. The median percent reduction in seizure frequency per 28 days from baseline to maintenance was 33.1% (95% confidence interval [CI] 22.7%, 43.5%). After 6 months of treatment, the 50%, 75%, and 100% responder rates were 53.3% (95% CI 40.7%, 65.9%), 28.3% (95% CI 20.8%, 35.8%), and 20.4% (95% CI 12.6%, 28.2%), respectively. After 12 months of treatment, the 50%, 75%, and 100% responder rates were 42.0% (95% CI 29.5%, 54.5%), 19.5% (95% CI 11.1%, 27.8%), and 15.2% (95% CI 6.6%, 23.8%), respectively. The most common adverse events (AEs) were drowsiness (15.0%), dizziness (9.9%), and somnolence (8.3%).

Conclusion: Lacosamide is generally effective and well tolerated to use in children with epilepsy. However, further research with high-quality data and long-term follow-up of LCM use in pediatric populations is needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yebeh.2022.108781DOI Listing
July 2022
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