Publications by authors named "Yang Lv"

316 Publications

Central inhibition prevents the in vivo acute toxicity of harmine in mice.

J Toxicol Sci 2021 ;46(6):289-301

Faculty of Naval Medicine, Second Military Medical University (Naval Medical University), China.

Background: Harmine is a β-carboline alkaloid that displays antidepressant, antitumor and other pharmacological effects. However, the strong toxic effects limit its clinical application, and should be first considered.

Purpose: To evaluate the in vivo toxicity of harmine and explore intervention strategies against its toxicity.

Methods: The in vivo toxicity of harmine was assessed from the symptoms, biochemical indices, and cardiovascular effects in mice. The intervention experiments were performed by using anesthetics, central drugs, and peripheral anticholinergics.

Results: The acute toxicity of harmine is significantly dose-dependent and the median lethal dose is 26.9 mg/kg in vivo. The typical symptoms include convulsion, tremor, jumping, restlessness, ataxia, opisthotonos, and death; it also changes cardiovascular function. The anesthetics improved the survival rate and abolished the symptoms after harmine poisoning. Two central inhibitors, benzhexol and phenytoin sodium, uniformly improved the survival rates of mice poisoned with harmine. The peripheral anticholinergics didn't show any effects.

Conclusion: Harmine exposure leads to central neurological symptoms, cardiovascular effects and even death through direct inhibition of the central AChE activity, where the death primarily comes from central neurological symptoms and is cooperated by the secondary cardiovascular collapse. Central inhibition prevents the acute toxicity of harmine, and especially rapid gaseous anesthetics such as isoflurane, might have potential application in the treatment of harmine poisoning.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2131/jts.46.289DOI Listing
January 2021

2D self-assembly and electronic characterization of oxygen-boron-oxygen-doped chiral graphene nanoribbons.

Chem Commun (Camb) 2021 May 25. Epub 2021 May 25.

State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027, China. and Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research, Ackermannweg 10, Mainz D-55128, Germany.

Graphene nanoribbons (GNRs), quasi-one-dimensional strips of graphene, exhibit a nonzero bandgap due to quantum confinement and edge effects. In the past decade, different types of GNRs with atomically precise structures have been synthesized by a bottom-up approach and have attracted attention as a novel class of semiconducting materials for applications in electronics and optoelectronics. We report the large-scale, inexpensive growth of high-quality oxygen-boron-oxygen-doped chiral GNRs with a defined structure using chemical vapor deposition. For the first time, a regular 2D self-assembly of such GNRs has been demonstrated, which results in a unique orthogonal network of GNRs. Stable and large-area GNR films with an optical bandgap of ∼1.9 eV were successfully transferred onto insulating substrates. This ordered network structure of semiconducting GNRs holds promise for controlled device integration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1cc01901eDOI Listing
May 2021

Big data driven COVID-19 pandemic crisis management: potential approach for global health.

Arch Med Sci 2021 20;17(3):829-837. Epub 2021 Mar 20.

School of Public Administration, Sichuan University, China.

Introduction: Information has the power to protect against unexpected events and control any crisis such as the COVID-19 pandemic. Since COVID-19 has already rapidly spread all over the world, only technology-driven data management can provide accurate information to manage the crisis. This study aims to explore the potential of big data technologies for controlling COVID-19 transmission and managing it effectively.

Methods: A systematic review guided by PRISMA guidelines has been performed to obtain the key elements.

Results: This study identified the thirty-two most relevant documents for qualitative analysis. This study also reveals 10 possible sources and 8 key applications of big data for analyzing the virus infection trend, transmission pattern, virus association, and differences of genetic modifications. It also explores several limitations of big data usage including unethical use, privacy, and exploitative use of data.

Conclusions: The findings of the study will provide new insight and help policymakers and administrators to develop data-driven initiatives to tackle and manage the COVID-19 crisis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5114/aoms/133522DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8130465PMC
March 2021

Peripheral blood interleukin 6, interleukin 10, and T lymphocyte levels are associated with checkpoint inhibitor induced pneumonitis: a case report.

Acta Oncol 2021 May 3:1-5. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Internal Medicine, Hematology/Oncology Division, Brody School of Medicine, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0284186X.2021.1917001DOI Listing
May 2021

PET image reconstruction with deep progressive learning.

Authors:
Yang Lv Chen Xi

Phys Med Biol 2021 May 14;66(10). Epub 2021 May 14.

United Imaging Healthcare, Shanghai, People's Republic of China.

Convolutional neural networks (CNNs) have recently achieved state-of-the-art results for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging problems. However direct learning from input image to target image is challenging if the gap is large between two images. Previous studies have shown that CNN can reduce image noise, but it can also degrade contrast recovery for small lesions. In this work, a deep progressive learning (DPL) method for PET image reconstruction is proposed to reduce background noise and improve image contrast. DPL bridges the gap between low quality image and high quality image through two learning steps. In the iterative reconstruction process, two pre-trained neural networks are introduced to control the image noise and contrast in turn. The feedback structure is adopted in the network design, which greatly reduces the parameters. The training data come from uEXPLORER, the world's first total-body PET scanner, in which the PET images show high contrast and very low image noise. We conducted extensive phantom and patient studies to test the algorithm for PET image quality improvement. The experimental results show that DPL is promising for reducing noise and improving contrast of PET images. Moreover, the proposed method has sufficient versatility to solve various imaging and image processing problems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-6560/abfb17DOI Listing
May 2021

Clinical predictors for deep vein thrombosis on admission in patients with intertrochanteric fractures: a retrospective study.

BMC Musculoskelet Disord 2021 Apr 2;22(1):328. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Department of Orthopedics, Peking University Third Hospital, No. 49, North Garden Rd., Haidian District, Beijing, 100191, China.

Background: Limited studies were available to investigate the prevalence of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) on admission in elderly patients with intertrochanteric fractures. The aim of present study was to evaluate risk factors and the prevalence of pre-admission DVT in elderly patients with intertrochanteric fractures.

Methods: This retrospective study included 788 elderly patients with intertrochanteric fracture who were eligible for this study from January 1, 2010, to December 31, 2019. Color doppler ultrasonography was performed for DVT detection at admission. All patients' clinical data were collected. Univariate analysis and stepwise backward multivariate logistic regression were used to identify the risk factors contributing to the occurrence of DVT.

Results: The overall prevalence of pre-admission DVT in patients with intertrochanteric fractures was 20.81% (164 of 788 patients). The mean time from injury to admission was 2.1 days in the total population, 2.96 and 1.87 days in patients with and without DVT. Univariate analysis showed that significantly elevated risk of DVT were found in patients with longer time from injury to admission, high energy injury, lower Hb value, higher BMI, diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), atrial fibrillation, dementia, varicose veins, higher age-adjusted CCI, higher ASA class and A3 type intertrochanteric fractures (P < 0.05). The adjusted multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated that longer time from injury to admission, high energy trauma, COPD, lower Hb, diabetes and A3 type intertrochanteric fractures were independent risk factors of pre-admission DVT.

Conclusions: A high prevalence of pre-admission DVT was found in elderly Chinese patients with intertrochanteric fractures. Therefore, surgeons should be aware of the high prevalence of DVT for elderly patients with intertrochanteric fractures in order to prevent intraoperative and postoperative PE and other lethal complications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12891-021-04196-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8019175PMC
April 2021

Clinical characteristics of Lewy body dementia in Chinese memory clinics.

BMC Neurol 2021 Mar 31;21(1):144. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of neurology, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, China National Clinical Research Center for Neurological Diseases, Beijing, China.

Background: Lewy body dementia (LBD), consisting of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD), is the second most common type of neurodegenerative dementia in older people. The current study aimed to investigate the clinical characteristics of LBD in Chinese memory clinics.

Methods: A total of 8405 dementia medical records were reviewed, revealing 455 patients with LBD. Demographic data, neuropsychological scores, and the scale for Medial Temporal lobe Atrophy (MTA) were then analyzed from nine memory clinics in the China Lewy Body Disease Collaborative Alliance.

Results: The clinical proportion of LBD among the subjects and among all dementia types was 5.4% (4.9-5.9%) and 7.3% (6.7-8.0%), respectively, with a mean onset age of 68.6 ± 8.4 years. Patients with DLB comprised 5.6% (n = 348, age of onset 69.1 ± 8.3), while PDD comprised 1.7% (n = 107, age of onset 66.7 ± 8.8) of all dementia cases. There were slightly more males than females with DLB (n = 177, 50.9%) and PDD (n = 62, 57.9%). Patients with DLB had a poorer performance compared to those with PDD on the MMSE (16.8 ± 7.1 vs. 19.5 ± 5.7, p = 0.001), the MoCA (11.4 ± 6.6 vs. 14.0 ± 5.8, p<0.001), the CDR (1.8 ± 0.7 vs. 1.6 ± 0.7, p = 0.002), and the MTA (1.8 ± 0.7 vs. 1.2 ± 0.6, p = 0.002). Diagnostic differences for LBD exist among the centers; their reported proportions of those with DLB ranged from 0.7 to 11.4 and those with PDD ranged from 0.0 to 2.9%.

Conclusions: Variations of diagnoses exists in different regions and the clinical proportion of LBD is likely to be underestimated in China and other regions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12883-021-02169-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8010972PMC
March 2021

Surgical Treatment for Cervical Spine Fracture in Patients With Ankylosing Spondylitis: Single Posterior Approach or Combined Anterior-posterior Approach?

Clin Spine Surg 2021 Mar 23. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Department of Orthopedics, Peking University Third Hospital Beijing Key Laboratory of Spinal Disease Research, Beijing, People's Republic of China.

Study Design: A retrospective single-center study.

Objective: We aimed to compare the clinical outcomes of cervical spine fracture accompanied with ankylosing spondylitis (ASCSF) treated by single posterior approach (PA) and combined anterior-posterior approach (CA) for patients who were followed up for >1 year.

Summary Of Background Data: For ASCSF patients, surgical treatment has been widely accepted as a recommendable therapeutic option. But the optimal surgical approach is still under controversy, and few studies have focused on the comparison between PA and CA.

Materials And Methods: From February 2007 to March 2019, 53 patients were enrolled and divided into the PA group (34 cases) and CA group (19 cases). Their general characteristics and clinical materials were recorded. From the aspects of reduction distance, bone fusion, neurological functional restoration, and postoperative complications, patients' surgical outcomes were evaluated qualitatively and quantitatively.

Results: The reduction degree of dislocation (mean PA=2.05 mm, mean CA=2.36 mm, P=0.94) was close between the 2 groups. Besides, with a similar follow-up period (P=0.10), the rate of bone fusion (both 100%) and neurological functional restoration (PA=31.03%, CA=35.29%, P=0.77) were also without significant difference. The occurrence rate of postoperative complications tended to be higher in the CA group (31.58% vs. 23.53%) but with no significant difference (P=0.52). Nevertheless, the surgical duration time (mean=209.15 min) and blood loss (average=388.91 mL) of PA group were significantly less than CA group (mean duration time=285.34 min, mean blood loss=579.27 mL) (P<0.01).

Conclusions: Compared with to the CA approach and with the equally significant outcome, surgery by single PA was feasible and should be positively recommended for ASCSF patients, especially for those accompanying with a severe chin-on-chest deformity or poor physical conditions which restrain patients from tolerating a long surgery or major surgical trauma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/BSD.0000000000001155DOI Listing
March 2021

Incidence and Risk of Infection Associated With Fingolimod in Patients With Multiple Sclerosis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of 8,448 Patients From 12 Randomized Controlled Trials.

Front Immunol 2021 8;12:611711. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Department of Pharmacy, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

There is a controversy regarding whether fingolimod is associated with an increased risk of infection in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of data from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to determine the risk of infection in these patients. We systematically searched PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, and clinicaltrials.gov from inception to April 8, 2020, to identify RCTs that reported the occurrence of infection in patients with MS treated with fingolimod. Relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated using the random-effects model. Twelve RCTs including 8,448 patients were eligible. Compared with the control (placebo and other active treatments), fingolimod significantly increased the risk of infection (RR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.07-1.27; , 81%), regardless of whether the infection was a general infection (RR, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.05-1.25; , 78%), or a serious infection (RR, 1.49; 95% CI, 1.06-2.10; , 0%). Analyses of subgroups found that fingolimod significantly increased the risk of lower respiratory infection (RR, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.19-1.85; , 0%) and herpes virus infection (RR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.01-1.78; , 9%). There appears to be no dose-dependent increase in the risk of infection associated with fingolimod (0.5 mg: RR, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.07-1.25; , 91%; 1.25 mg: RR, 1.11; 95% CI, 0.97-1.28; , 81%; P = 0.66). Compared with a placebo and other active treatments, fingolimod was associated with a 16% increase in the risk of infection, especially lower respiratory infection and herpes virus infection. The risk of infection associated with fingolimod might not be dose related.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2021.611711DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7982402PMC
March 2021

The mechanism of aerobic exercise combined with glucosamine therapy and circUNK in improving knee osteoarthritis in rabbits.

Life Sci 2021 Jun 15;275:119375. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Department of Orthopaedics, Guangdong Provincial Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, China. Electronic address:

Aims: Both aerobic exercise and glucosamine hydrochloride capsules (OTL) have a therapeutic effect on knee osteoarthritis, but their joint application has not been investigated. This study clarified the mechanism of the combined treatment in knee osteoarthritis.

Main Methods: Aerobic exercise and OTL were used alone or in combination to treat papain-induced knee osteoarthritis model rabbits. Pathological changes of cartilage tissues, inflammatory cytokine content, glycosaminoglycan, and expressions of collagen II, cartilage differentiation-related genes and circUNK were analyzed by hematoxylin-eosin staining, Mankin score, Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, toluidine blue staining, Immunohistochemistry and qRT-PCR. The extracted chondrocytes were identified by Alcian Blue staining and immunohistochemistry and induced by iodoacetic acid (MIA) to establish osteoarthritis model. Effects of overexpressing or silencing circUNK on cell function and molecular changes in chondrocytes were analyzed by cell function experiments, qRT-PCR and Western blot. Rabbit modeling and intervention treatment were marked.

Key Findings: Aerobic exercise or OTL treatment alone relieved the damage caused by knee osteoarthritis in terms of cartilage tissue lesions, Mankin score, inflammatory cytokine content, glycosaminoglycan, and expressions of collagen II, cartilage differentiation-related genes and circUNK. Combined application of aerobic exercise and OTL showed better synergistic treatment effects. Transfection of overexpressed circUNK could attenuate the MIA-induced effect on cell viability and apoptosis in chondrocytes by regulating genes related to differentiation and apoptosis. Aerobic exercise combined with glucosamine had a synergistic therapeutic effect on knee osteoarthritis.

Significance: Overexpressing circUNK protected osteoarthritis model cells by regulating cartilage differentiation- and apoptosis-related genes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2021.119375DOI Listing
June 2021

Duration of immobilisation after Achilles tendon rupture repair by open surgery: a retrospective cohort study.

J Orthop Surg Res 2021 Mar 17;16(1):196. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Orthopaedic Department, Peking University Third Hospital, Haidian District, Beijing, 100191, China.

Background: The best treatment for acute Achilles tendon ruptures remains controversial. No cohort studies have compared different immobilisation durations after open surgery. This retrospective cohort study aimed to determine the optimal duration of immobilisation after this surgery.

Methods: A total of 266 patients with acute Achilles tendon rupture were divided into 4 groups (A, B, C, and D) according to immobilisation duration of 0, 2, 4, and 6 weeks, respectively. All patients underwent the same suture technique with a similar rehabilitation protocol and were examined clinically at 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 24, and 48 weeks, with a final follow-up at a mean of 22.3 months postoperatively. The primary outcome was the time of return to light sports activity (LSA). Secondary outcomes included range of motion (ROM) and single-legged heel rise height (SHRH). Data on operation time, complications, visual analogue pain scale (VAS), American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) hindfoot score, and Achilles tendon Total Rupture score (ATRS) were also collected. Demographic baseline data were analysed using one-way analysis of variance; outcome parameters were analysed using Kruskal-Wallis H test, and complications were analysed using Fisher's exact test. Statistical significance was considered at P ≤ 0.05.

Results: VAS scores decreased significantly, reaching 0 in all groups after 12 weeks. The AOFAS and ATRS scores were significantly different between the groups from weeks 2 to 12 (P<0.001) and weeks 2 to 16 (P<0.001), respectively. All the mean scores showed better results in group B than in the other groups. In terms of recovery time of ROM, SHRH, and LSA, groups A and B were significantly faster than groups C and D (P<0.001). There were 13 (13/266, 4.9%) complications: 5 superficial infections, 3 deep venous thrombosis, and 5 trauma-related re-ruptures. On the last follow-up, all complications had recovered. There were no significant differences in complications between the groups.

Conclusions: Immobilisation for 2 weeks after this open surgery is the best choice for early rehabilitation and weight-bearing while minimising pain and other complications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13018-021-02342-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7968267PMC
March 2021

Surgical Planning for Cleft Lip and/or Palate-Induced Moderate-to-Severe Midfacial Hypoplasia.

J Craniofac Surg 2021 Mar-Apr 01;32(2):492-495

Cleft Lip and Palate Department.

Background: Distraction osteogenesis and conventional bimaxillary orthognathic surgery have been performed for the treatment of midfacial hypoplasia for a long time. However, the effect of these 2 techniques on the maxilla, mandible, and whole-facial profile is significantly different. In this study, we aimed to measure the pre- to post-treatment changes in maxillary prominence, mandible size, and facial length and compare them between these 2 techniques to inform selection of the best technique.

Methods: This single-center, retrospective study included 35 patients with a cleft lip and/or palate-induced midfacial hypoplasia; 25 were treated using rigid external distraction osteogenesis and 10 using bimaxillary orthognathic surgery. Three-dimensional measures of changes in facial structure were obtained from reconstructed computed tomography images and used to compare the effects of the 2 techniques.

Results: Satisfactory appearance and occlusion were achieved in all patients. Three-dimensional reconstruction of the craniofacial skeleton revealed significant maxillary advancement (P < 0.001), mandibular (clockwise) rotation (P < 0.001), and increased facial length (P < 0.001) after rigid external distraction osteogenesis and obvious shortening of the mandibular body (P < 0.001) after bimaxillary orthognathic surgery.

Conclusion: Distraction osteogenesis can be selected as the first choice of treatment for cleft lip and/or palate-induced midfacial hypoplasia. A mandibular setback procedure can be performed as a second-stage surgery when severe temporomandibular joint complications develop with distraction osteogenesis. Bimaxillary orthognathic surgery results in an obvious shortening of the mandibular body, which is not a natural change in facial morphology.

Level Of Evidence: Therapeutic III.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SCS.0000000000006932DOI Listing
March 2021

FK228 sensitizes radioresistant small cell lung cancer cells to radiation.

Clin Epigenetics 2021 Feb 25;13(1):41. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, 230031, Anhui, People's Republic of China.

Background: Concurrent thoracic radiation plus chemotherapy is the mainstay of first-line treatment for limited-stage small cell lung cancer (LS-SCLC). Despite initial high responsiveness to combined chemo- and radiotherapy, SCLC almost invariably relapses and develops resistance within one year, leading to poor prognosis in patients with LS-SCLC. Developing new chemical agents that increase ionizing radiation's cytotoxicity against SCLC is urgently needed.

Results: Dual histone deacetylase (HDAC) and PI3K inhibitor FK228 not only displayed potent anticancer activity, but also enhanced the therapeutic effects of radiotherapy in SCLC cells. Mechanistically, radioresistant SCLC cells exhibit a lower level of histone H3K9 acetylation and a higher expression level of the MRE11-RAD50-NBS1 (MRN) complex and show more efficient and redundant DNA damage repair capacities than radiosensitive SCLC cells. FK228 pretreatment resulted in marked induction of H3k9 acetylation, attenuated homologous recombination (HR) repair competency and impaired non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) repair efficacy, leading to the accumulation of radiation-induced DNA damage and radiosensitization.

Conclusion: The study uncovered that FK228 sensitized human radioresistant SCLC cells to radiation mainly through induction of chromatin decondensation and suppression of DNA damage signaling and repair. Our study provides a rational basis for a further clinical study to test the potential of FK228 as a radiosensitizing agent to increase the radiation-induced tumor cell kill in LS-SCLC patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13148-021-01025-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7905898PMC
February 2021

Significance of Surgery in the Treatment of Colorectal Cancer Ovarian Metastases: A Retrospective Case Matching Study.

Cancer Manag Res 2021 5;13:1087-1097. Epub 2021 Feb 5.

Department of General Surgery, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common malignant tumors worldwide. Ovarian metastases (OM), which are low in frequency, are reported to occur in 3-14% of women with CRC and have a poor prognosis. Studies have shown that surgical treatment may benefit patients with ovarian metastases arising from CRC. However, the precise benefit of surgery is uncertain. This study was implemented to identify treatment outcomes associated with ovarian metastases from CRC, as well as to clarify the importance of primary and metastatic lesion resection.

Patients And Methods: Between January 2008 and December 2018, the medical records of 93 patients diagnosed with CRC ovarian metastases (CRC-OM) at Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, were retrospectively analyzed. Clinicopathological characteristics as well as prognostic conditions were evaluated. Nineteen patients with only synchronous OM and 38 patients without metastases were matched to compare surgical outcomes.

Results: The median overall survival (OS) of the total 93 CRC-OM patients was 26 months. The median OS times of patients with ovary-only metastases (n=37) and those with other metastases (n=56) were 49 months and 20 months, respectively. Patients with only ovarian metastases had a longer OS time (p<0.001) than patients with other metastases. Patients with ovarian metastases resected (n=76) (p<0.001) had a longer OS time than those unresected (n=17). Synchronous (n=54) and metachronous (n=39) metastases indicated no significant survival difference. Patients with only ovarian metastases could achieve similar OS times to those of patients without metastases after primary and metastasis surgery.

Conclusion: Surgical treatment is very important for CRC-OM patients. Primary and metastatic lesion resection can help achieve longer survival times.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/CMAR.S285451DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7872922PMC
February 2021

Impact of total variation regularized expectation maximization reconstruction on the image quality of Ga-PSMA PET: a phantom and patient study.

Br J Radiol 2021 Apr 16;94(1120):20201356. Epub 2021 Feb 16.

Department of Nuclear Medicine, Nanjing First Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210006, China.

Objectives: To investigate the impact of total variation regularized expectation maximization (TVREM) reconstruction on the image quality of Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT using phantom and patient data.

Methods: Images of a phantom with small hot sphere inserts and 20 prostate cancer patients were acquired with a digital PET/CT using list-mode and reconstructed with ordered subset expectation maximization (OSEM) and TVREM with seven penalisation factors between 0.01 and 0.42 for 2 and 3 minutes-per-bed (m/b) acquisition. The contrast recovery (CR) and background variability (BV) of the phantom, image noise of the liver, and SUV of the lesions were measured. Qualitative image quality was scored by two radiologists using a 5-point scale (1-poor, 5-excellent).

Results: The performance of CR, BV, and image noise, and the gain of SUV was higher for TVREM 2 m/b groups with the penalization of 0.07 to 0.28 compared to OSEM 3 m/b group (all < 0.05). The image noise of OSEM 3 m/b group was equivalent to TVREM 2 and 3 m/b groups with a penalization of 0.14 and 0.07, while lesions' SUV increased 15 and 20%. The highest qualitative score was attained at the penalization of 0.21 (3.30 ± 0.66) for TVREM 2 m/b groups and the penalization 0.14 (3.80 ± 0.41) for 3 m/b group that equal to or greater than OSEM 3 m/b group (2.90 ± 0.45, = 0.2 and < 0.001).

Conclusions: TVREM improves lesion contrast and reduces image noise, which allows shorter acquisition with preserved image quality for PSMA PET/CT.

Advances In Knowledge: TVREM reconstruction with optimized penalization factors can generate higher quality PSMA-PET images for prostate cancer diagnosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1259/bjr.20201356DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8010539PMC
April 2021

YAP expression in endothelial cells prevents ventilator-induced lung injury.

Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 2021 04 10;320(4):L568-L582. Epub 2021 Feb 10.

Department of Anesthesiology, University of Illinois College of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois.

Ventilator-induced lung injury is associated with an increase in mortality in patients with respiratory dysfunction, although mechanical ventilation is an essential intervention implemented in the intensive care unit. Intrinsic molecular mechanisms for minimizing lung inflammatory injury during mechanical ventilation remain poorly defined. We hypothesize that Yes-associated protein (YAP) expression in endothelial cells protects the lung against ventilator-induced injury. Wild-type and endothelial-specific YAP-deficient mice were subjected to a low (7 mL/kg) or high (21 mL/kg) tidal volume () ventilation for 4 h. Infiltration of inflammatory cells into the lung, vascular permeability, lung histopathology, and the levels of inflammatory cytokines were measured. Here, we showed that mechanical ventilation with high upregulated YAP protein expression in pulmonary endothelial cells. Endothelial-specific YAP knockout mice following high ventilation exhibited increased neutrophil counts and protein content in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, Evans blue leakage, and histological lung injury compared with wild-type littermate controls. Deletion of YAP in endothelial cells exaggerated vascular endothelial (VE)-cadherin phosphorylation, downregulation of vascular endothelial protein tyrosine phosphatase (VE-PTP), and dissociation of VE-cadherin and catenins following mechanical ventilation. Importantly, exogenous expression of wild-type VE-PTP in the pulmonary vasculature rescued YAP ablation-induced increases in neutrophil counts and protein content in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, vascular leakage, and histological lung injury as well as VE-cadherin phosphorylation and dissociation from catenins following ventilation. These data demonstrate that YAP expression in endothelial cells suppresses lung inflammatory response and edema formation by modulating VE-PTP-mediated VE-cadherin phosphorylation and thus plays a protective role in ventilator-induced lung injury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajplung.00472.2020DOI Listing
April 2021

Can GPR4 Be a Potential Therapeutic Target for COVID-19?

Front Med (Lausanne) 2020 21;7:626796. Epub 2021 Jan 21.

Department of Internal Medicine, Brody School of Medicine, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC, United States.

Coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), first emerged in late 2019 and has since rapidly become a global pandemic. SARS-CoV-2 infection causes damages to the lung and other organs. The clinical manifestations of COVID-19 range widely from asymptomatic infection, mild respiratory illness to severe pneumonia with respiratory failure and death. Autopsy studies demonstrate that diffuse alveolar damage, inflammatory cell infiltration, edema, proteinaceous exudates, and vascular thromboembolism in the lung as well as extrapulmonary injuries in other organs represent key pathological findings. Herein, we hypothesize that GPR4 plays an integral role in COVID-19 pathophysiology and is a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of COVID-19. GPR4 is a pro-inflammatory G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) highly expressed in vascular endothelial cells and serves as a "gatekeeper" to regulate endothelium-blood cell interaction and leukocyte infiltration. GPR4 also regulates vascular permeability and tissue edema under inflammatory conditions. Therefore, we hypothesize that GPR4 antagonism can potentially be exploited to mitigate the hyper-inflammatory response, vessel hyper-permeability, pulmonary edema, exudate formation, vascular thromboembolism and tissue injury associated with COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmed.2020.626796DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7859652PMC
January 2021

Providing a view for toxicity mechanism of tetracycline by analysis of the connections between metabolites and biologic endpoints of wheat.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 Apr 2;212:111998. Epub 2021 Feb 2.

School of Horticulture and Landscape Architecture, Henan Institute of Science and Technology, Xinxiang 453003, China; Henan Province Engineering Research Center of Horticultural Plant Resource Utilization and Germplasm Enhancement, Xinxiang 453003, China.

Metabolomics is an implement for testing the toxicity of antibiotics, and provides a comprehensive view of the overall response to stress; however, the connections between metabolites and biologic endpoints keep unclear in response to antibiotics. In this study, wheat seeds were exposed to tetracycline for 5 days. The results proved that tetracycline restrained growth, reduced chlorophyl and carotinoid contents and cell permeability, and increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and malondialdehyde (MDA) content. Orthogonal partial least squares (OPLS) was used to analyze the connections between metabolites and biologic endpoints, which discovered that 11 metabolic pathways were significantly affected by tetracycline, and amino acid metabolism could largely apply to root growth and ROS accumulation, while carbohydrate metabolism could have a ruling effect on tetracycline-induced cell permeability. 13 metabolites all played active roles in mediating tetracycline's effects on root length, root fresh weight and cell permeability but had no significant effects on ROS levels. The majority of metabolites with passive effects on root length, root fresh weight and cell permeability had active effects on ROS levels. These results offer a view about stress reaction of wheat to tetracycline.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2021.111998DOI Listing
April 2021

Review of Value of CT Texture Analysis and Machine Learning in Differentiating Fat-Poor Renal Angiomyolipoma from Renal Cell Carcinoma.

Tomography 2020 Dec;6(4):325-332

Department of Urology, China-Japan Union Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, China; and.

The diagnosis of patients with suspected angiomyolipoma relies on the detection of abundant macroscopic intralesional fat, which is always of no use to differentiate fat-poor angiomyolipoma (fp-AML) from renal cell carcinoma and diagnosis of fp-AML excessively depends on individual experience. Texture analysis was proven to be a potentially useful biomarker for distinguishing between benign and malignant tumors because of its capability of providing objective and quantitative assessment of lesions by analyzing features that are not visible to the human eye. This review aimed to summarize the literature on the use of texture analysis to diagnose patients with fat-poor angiomyolipoma vs those with renal cell carcinoma and to evaluate its current application, limitations, and future challenges in order to avoid unnecessary surgical resection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18383/j.tom.2020.00039DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7744193PMC
December 2020

Small Nuclear Ribonucleoprotein Polypeptide N Accelerates Malignant Progression and Poor Prognosis in Colorectal Cancer Transcriptionally Regulated by E2F8.

Front Oncol 2020 2;10:561287. Epub 2020 Nov 2.

Department of General Surgery, Zhongshan Hospital Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Colorectal cancer is a major cause of death worldwide, and the identification of new diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers is crucial to develop new strategies to avoid colorectal cancer-related deaths. Small nuclear ribonucleoprotein polypeptide N (SNRPN) is an imprinted gene that plays an important role in various neurodevelopmental disabilities. In this study, SNRPN was highly expressed in colorectal cancer tissues and involved in the progression of this disease. Immunohistochemistry analysis of 1,310 colorectal cancer tissue samples showed that SNRPN highly expressed in cancer tissues than in adjacent tissues and was mainly localized in the nucleus. Clinical pathological factor analysis demonstrated that higher expression of SNRPN was significantly associated with larger tumor size, location of the tumor on the left-sided colon, neural invasion, and distant metastasis. Univariate and multivariate analyses showed that SNRPN expression was an independent risk factor for survival, with high expression levels indicating worse overall survival. Both and experiments confirmed that high expression of SNRPN was associated with tumor proliferation, cell cycle, and metastasis. Knocking down SNRPN blocked the cell cycle at the G2/M phase transition and promoted tumor cell apoptosis, inhibiting the progression of colorectal cancer. To explore the up-steam of SNRPN, we found by luciferase reporter assay and chromosomal immunoprecipitation assay that E2F8 was a transcriptional regulator up-steam of SNRPN in colorectal cancer. Systematic studies of SNRPN will help us discover new regulatory molecules and provide a theoretical basis for finding new molecular targets for this disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2020.561287DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7669248PMC
November 2020

Factors related to improved American Spinal Injury Association grade of acute traumatic spinal cord injury.

World J Clin Cases 2020 Oct;8(20):4807-4815

Department of Emergency Medicine, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing 100191, China.

Background: Acute traumatic spinal cord injury (ATSCI) usually results in disability, yet data on contemporary national trends of ATSCI incidence are limited.

Aim: To provide a systematic and basic theoretical basis for improving the treatment of acute spinal cord injury.

Methods: Data from the Peking University Third Hospital Inpatient Sample databases were analyzed. A total of 304 patients with ATSCI were included from 2012 to 2017. The epidemiological data, treatment, complications and clinical outcomes of these patients were reviewed.

Results: Of the 304 patients, 257 (84.5%) were male, and 75% of the patients were 55 years old or younger. 135 patients had improved follow-up American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) grades (44.4%). Only 14 patients with ASIA grade A improved. A statistically significant difference in prognosis between patients who underwent surgery within 72 h and those who underwent surgery after 72 h was observed ( < 0.05). Surgery within 72 h resulted in better prognosis. The Steroid group and the Non-Steroid group showed a significant difference in outcome among patients with ASIA grades A and B ( < 0.05). Patients with pneumonia had a poorer prognosis than patients without pneumonia ( < 0.05). Surgery within 72 h resulted in better prognosis.

Conclusion: This study found that there was no significant difference in hospitalization time and prognosis between the Steroid group and the Non-Steroid group, but the patients with severe spinal cord injury (ASIA grades A and B) who underwent surgery combined with steroid therapy had a better prognosis than those who underwent surgery alone. The disastrous consequences of ATSCI and lack of consensus on the management strategy are obvious. Further improvements in treatment planns are needed in order to obtain more reliable functional outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12998/wjcc.v8.i20.4807DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7642550PMC
October 2020

Early diagnosis of breast cancer from exhaled breath by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis: A prospective cohort study.

J Clin Lab Anal 2020 Dec 4;34(12):e23526. Epub 2020 Nov 4.

Department of Anesthesiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin, China.

Background: It has proved that there is an association between cancer and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of exhaled breath. This study targets on verifying the existence of specific VOCs in breathing in breast cancer patients, especially those with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS).

Methods: There were a total of 203 participants included in the final analysis, which included 71 (35.0%) patients with histologically confirmed breast cancer (including 13 with DCIS, 31 with lymph node metastasis-negative status, and 27 with lymph node metastasis-positive status), 78 (38.4%) healthy volunteers, and 54 (26.6%) patients with histologically confirmed gastric cancer. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and solid-phase microextraction were used to analyze the breath samples for the presence of VOCs.

Results: There were significant differences in the volatile organic metabolites between the DCIS, lymph node metastasis-negative breast cancer, and lymph node metastasis-positive breast cancer groups compared with the healthy controls as well as between the breast cancer and gastric cancer patients. An overlapping set of seven VOCs, including (S)-1,2-propanediol, cyclopentanone, ethylene carbonate, 3-methoxy-1,2-propanediol, 3-methylpyridine, phenol, and tetramethylsilane, was significantly different between the breast cancer patients and healthy individuals as well as between the breast cancer and gastric cancer patients. The combination of these seven compounds was considered as a biomarker for breast cancer. The sensitivity for predicting DCIS by this set of seven compounds was determined to be 80.77%, and the specificity was determined to be 100%.

Conclusions: This set of seven breast cancer-specific VOCs can be regarded as one particular expiratory marker for DCIS and will help to establish new screening methods for early breast cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcla.23526DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7755810PMC
December 2020

The cardioprotective effects of the new crystal form of puerarin in isoproterenol-induced myocardial ischemia rats based on metabolomics.

Sci Rep 2020 10 20;10(1):17787. Epub 2020 Oct 20.

Key Laboratory of Drug Target Research and Drug Screen, Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, 2A Nan Wei Road, Beijing, 100050, China.

Puerarin has shown unique pharmacological effects on myocardial ischemia (MI). Changing the crystal form is an effective approach to improve the cardioprotective effects of puerarin. However, the mechanisms of the new crystal form of puerarin are unclear. In this study, an electrocardiogram, echocardiography, cardiac marker enzymatic activity, oxidative stress indices, and myocardial histology analysis of cardiac tissues were performed to evaluate the cardioprotective effects of the new crystal form of puerarin. Moreover, serum and cardiac tissue metabolomics based on nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) were used to investigate the potential mechanism of the new crystal form. The results indicated that the new crystal form of puerarin (30 mg/kg) could improve oxidative stress indices, and these improvements were similar to those of the original crystal form of puerarin (120 mg/kg). The new crystal form of puerarin (30 mg/kg) could effectively improve the activities of cardiac marker enzymes, and the improvement effects were better than those of the original crystal form (120 mg/kg). Moreover, metabolomics analysis showed that amino acid metabolism, oxidative stress and energy metabolism were disturbed after MI and could be improved by puerarin. These results demonstrated that the new crystal form of puerarin was effective in treating MI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-74246-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7575583PMC
October 2020

Corrigendum to"MicroRNA-185 inhibits the growth and proliferation of osteoblasts in fracture healing by targeting PTH gene through down-regulating" [Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 501(1) (2018) 55-63].

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2020 Dec 16;533(3):620-622. Epub 2020 Oct 16.

Orthopaedics Key Laboratory of Gansu Province, Lanzhou, 730000, PR China; Department of Orthopaedics, The Second Hospital of Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, 730000, PR China. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2020.10.001DOI Listing
December 2020

Indoor Air Design Parameters of Air Conditioners for Mold-Prevention and Antibacterial in Island Residential Buildings.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 10 7;17(19). Epub 2020 Oct 7.

School of Construction Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100000, China.

The climate characteristics of the islands in the Nansha Islands of China are a typical marine climate including high temperature, high relative humidity, high salt content, strong solar radiation, and long sunshine. These can provide suitable conditions for mold reproduction on the surface of the wall in a building. Therefore, mildew pollution on the wall for a long time can easily damage the building's structure. It does not only directly affect the appearance of the building, but also indirectly affects the indoor environment and human health. In this paper, dominant fungi in the residential buildings on thee Nansha Islands of China are , and . Critical lines of temperature and relative humidity for mould growth on the interior surfaces of island residential building envelopes have been given and discussed. The results show that the risk of mould growth on the wall with different materials, from low to high, is reinforced concrete, aerated concrete block, coral aggregate, brick, and wood. Furthermore, in order to prevent the room regulated by air conditioner from being contaminated by mould, indoor air temperature should be set variable and controlled between 26 °C and 28 °C, the relative humidity should be changed between 50% and 80%.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17197316DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7579053PMC
October 2020

Performance Evaluation of the uEXPLORER Total-Body PET/CT Scanner Based on NEMA NU 2-2018 with Additional Tests to Characterize PET Scanners with a Long Axial Field of View.

J Nucl Med 2021 Jun 2;62(6):861-870. Epub 2020 Oct 2.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of California-Davis, Davis, California.

The world's first total-body PET scanner with an axial field of view (AFOV) of 194 cm is now in clinical and research use at our institution. The uEXPLORER PET/CT system is the first commercially available total-body PET scanner. Here we present a detailed physical characterization of this scanner based on National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) NU 2-2018 along with a new set of measurements devised to appropriately characterize the total-body AFOV. Sensitivity, count-rate performance, time-of-flight resolution, spatial resolution, and image quality were evaluated following the NEMA NU 2-2018 protocol. Additional measurements of sensitivity and count-rate capabilities more representative of total-body imaging were performed using extended-geometry phantoms based on the world-average human height (∼165 cm). Lastly, image quality throughout the long AFOV was assessed with the NEMA image quality (IQ) phantom imaged at 5 axial positions and over a range of expected total-body PET imaging conditions (low dose, delayed imaging, short scan duration). Our performance evaluation demonstrated that the scanner provides a very high sensitivity of 174 kcps/MBq, a count-rate performance with a peak noise-equivalent count rate of approximately 2 Mcps for total-body imaging, and good spatial resolution capabilities for human imaging (≤3.0 mm in full width at half maximum near the center of the AFOV). Excellent IQ, excellent contrast recovery, and low noise properties were illustrated across the AFOV in both NEMA IQ phantom evaluations and human imaging examples. In addition to standard NEMA NU 2-2018 characterization, a new set of measurements based on extending NEMA NU 2-2018 phantoms and experiments was devised to characterize the physical performance of the first total-body PET system. The rationale for these extended measurements was evident from differences in sensitivity, count-rate-activity relationships, and noise-equivalent count-rate limits imposed by differences in dead time and randoms fraction between the NEMA NU 2 70-cm phantoms and the more representative total-body imaging phantoms. Overall, the uEXPLORER PET system provides ultra-high sensitivity that supports excellent spatial resolution and IQ throughout the field of view in both phantom and human imaging.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2967/jnumed.120.250597DOI Listing
June 2021

Caloric restriction alleviates aging-related fibrosis of kidney through downregulation of miR-21 in extracellular vesicles.

Aging (Albany NY) 2020 Aug 27;12(18):18052-18072. Epub 2020 Aug 27.

Department of Nephrology, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Chinese PLA Institute of Nephrology, State Key Laboratory of Kidney Diseases, National Clinical Research Center of Kidney Diseases, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing 100853, China.

Glomerulosclerosis and renal interstitial fibrosis occur with the aging kidney. In this study, we examined the expression of miR-21, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor(PPARα), hypoxia-inducible factor(HIF-1α) in the kidney of 3-month-old rats fed ad libitum (YAL), 24-month-old rats fed ad libitum (OAL) and 24-month-old rats subjected to a 70% calorie-restricted diet for 8 months (OCR). We found long-term caloric restriction (CR) ameliorated aging and aging-related fibrosis. CR ameliorated the increment of miR-21 and HIF-1α, as well as the decrement of PPARα in old ad libitum group. Human proximal tubular cells (HPTCs) presented phenotypes of senescence and epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) under high-glucose conditions, in which senescence occurred earlier than EMT. Senescent cells secreted extracellular vesicles (EVs) which contained miR-21 into the recipient cells. Inhibiting miR-21 of donor cells prevented the occurrence of EMT in recipient cells. In addition, miR-21 induced EMT through targeting PPARα protein and consequently enhancing HIF-1α expression, although other pathways cannot be ruled out. These findings demonstrated that miR-21-containing EVs derived from the senescent cells could facilitate EMT of HPTCs via PPARα-HIF-1α signaling pathway. Long-term caloric restriction and caloric restriction mimetics alleviated aging-related-fibrosis of kidney through downregulation of miR-21.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/aging.103591DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7585074PMC
August 2020

TGF-β1 enhanced myocardial differentiation through inhibition of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway with rat BMSCs.

Iran J Basic Med Sci 2020 Aug;23(8):1012-1019

Department of Histology and Embryology, Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, Hebei, China.

Objectives: To investigate and test the hypotheses that TGF-β1 enhanced myocardial differentiation through Wnt/β-catenin pathway with rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs).

Materials And Methods: Lentiviral vectors carrying the TGF-β1 gene were transduced into rat BMSCs firstly. Then several kinds of experimental methods were used to elucidate the related mechanisms by which TGF-β1 adjusts myocardial differentiation in rat BMSCs.

Results: Immunocytochemistry revealed that cTnI and Cx43 expressed positively in the cells that were transduced with TGF-β1. The results of Western blot (WB) test showed that the levels of intranuclear β-catenin and total β-catenin were all significantly decreased. However, the cytoplasmic β-catenin level was largely unchanged. Moreover, the levels of GSK-3β were largely unchanged in BMSCs, whereas phosphorylated GSK-3β was significantly decreased in BMSCs. When given the activator of Wnt/β-catenin pathway (lithium chloride, LiCl) to BMSCs transducted with TGF-β1, β-catenin was increased, while phosphorylated β-catenin was decreased. In addition, cyclinD1, MMP-7, and c-Myc protein in BMSCs transducted with Lenti-TGF-β1-GFP were significantly lower.

Conclusion: These results indicate that TGF-β1 promotes BMSCs cardiomyogenic differentiation by promoting the phosphorylation of β-catenin and inhibiting cyclinD1, MMP-7, and c-Myc expression in Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.22038/ijbms.2020.42396.10019DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7478252PMC
August 2020

Consolidated bioprocessing performance of a two-species microbial consortium for butanol production from lignocellulosic biomass.

Biotechnol Bioeng 2020 10 1;117(10):2985-2995. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

State Key Laboratory of Materials-Oriented Chemical Engineering, College of Biotechnology and Pharmaceutical Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing, China.

Consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) by using microbial consortium was considered as a promising approach to achieve direct biofuel production from lignocellulose. In this study, the interaction mechanism of microbial consortium consisting of Thermoanaerobacterium thermosaccharolyticum M5 and Clostridium acetobutylicum NJ4 was analyzed, which could achieve efficient butanol production from xylan through CBP. Strain M5 possesses efficient xylan degradation capability, as 19.73 g/L of xylose was accumulated within 50 hr. The efficient xylose utilization capability of partner strain NJ4 could relieve the substrate inhibition to hydrolytic enzymes of xylanase and xylosidase secreted by strain M5. In addition, the earlier solventogenesis of strain NJ4 was observed due to the existence of butyrate generated by strain M5. The mutual interaction of these two strains finally gave 13.28 g/L of butanol from 70 g/L of xylan after process optimization, representing a relatively high butanol production from hemicellulose. Moreover, 7.61 g/L of butanol was generated from untreated corncob via CBP. This successfully constructed microbial consortium exhibits efficient cooperation performance on butanol production from lignocellulose, which could provide a platform for the emerging butanol production from lignocellulose.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bit.27464DOI Listing
October 2020

Fe-Co Alloyed Nanoparticles Catalyzing Efficient Hydrogenation of Cinnamaldehyde to Cinnamyl Alcohol in Water.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2020 Dec 23;59(52):23521-23526. Epub 2020 Oct 23.

Key Laboratory of Materials Physics, Centre for Environmental and Energy Nanomaterials, Anhui Key Laboratory of Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology, CAS Centre for Excellence in Nanoscience, Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, 230031, P. R. China.

Selective hydrogenation of C=O against the conjugated C=C in cinnamaldehyde (CAL) is indispensable to produce cinnamyl alcohol (COL). Nonetheless, it is challenged by the low selectivity and the need to use organic solvents. Herein, for the first time, we report the use of Fe-Co alloy nanoparticles (NPs) on N-doped carbon support as a selective hydrogenation catalyst to efficiently convert CAL to COL. The resultant catalyst with the optimized Fe/Co ratio of 0.5 can achieve an exceptional COL selectivity of 91.7 % at a CAL conversion of 95.1 % in pure water medium under mild reaction conditions, ranking it the best performed catalyst reported to date. The experimental results confirm that the COL selectivity and CAL conversion efficiency are, respectively promoted by the presence of Fe and Co, while the synergism of the alloyed Fe-Co is the key to concurrently achieve high COL selectivity and CAL conversion efficiency.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.202009913DOI Listing
December 2020