Publications by authors named "Yang Lei"

2,880 Publications

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A Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo- and Positive-controlled Crossover Study of the Effects of Tebipenem Pivoxil Hydrobromide on QT/QTc Intervals in Healthy Subjects.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Spero Therapeutics, Inc., Cambridge, MA.

Tebipenem pivoxil hydrobromide (TBP-PI-HBr) is an orally available prodrug of TBP, a carbapenem with activity against multidrug-resistant gram-negative pathogens. This study evaluated the effects of single therapeutic and supratherapeutic doses of TBP-PI-HBr on the heart rate corrected QT interval (QTc) by assessing the concentration-QT (C-QT) relationship using exposure-response modeling. This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo- and active-controlled, single dose, 4-way, crossover study. Subjects received single oral doses of TBP-PI-HBr 600 and 1200 mg, placebo, and positive control, moxifloxacin 400 mg. Cardiodynamic electrocardiograms (ECGs) and blood samples were collected in each period. Twenty-four subjects were enrolled. TBP-PI-HBr had no clinically significant adverse effects on heart rate or ECG parameters. The model-predicted slope suggests that ddHR was not importantly affected by plasma tebipenem concentrations, supporting the use of QTcF as an appropriate correction method. The model predicted difference in corrected QT interval (ddQTcF) at mean peak concentration (C) for TBP had negative predicted values for each dose, and no QTc prolongation was detected following TBP-PI-HBr 600 mg or 1200 mg. Assay sensitivity was established following moxifloxacin 400 mg. Exposure to TBP increased in a dose-dependent manner with 600 and 1200 mg doses. TBP area under the concentration curve from time 0 to infinity (AUC) and C at the 1200 mg dose level were 1.8- and 1.3-fold higher than with the 600 mg dose. TBP-PI-HBr was generally safe and well tolerated with no effect on QT prolongation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AAC.00145-21DOI Listing
April 2021

Polyphyllin I promotes cell death via suppressing UPR-mediated CHOP ubiquitination and degradation in non-small cell lung cancer.

Chin J Nat Med 2021 Apr;19(4):255-266

Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Bioactive Natural Product Research and State Key Laboratory of Natural Medicines, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 210009, China. Electronic address:

Polyphyllin I (PPI) purified from Polyphyllarhizomes displays puissant cytotoxicity in many kinds of cancers. Several researches investigated its anti-cancer activity. But novel mechanisms are still worth investigation. This study aimed to explore PPI-induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress as well as the underlying mechanism in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Cell viability or colony-forming was detected by MTT or crystal violet respectively. Cell cycle, apoptosis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitochondrial membrane potential were assessed by flow cytometry. Gene and protein levels were evaluated by qRT-PCR and immunoblotting respectively. Protein interaction was determined by immunoprecipitation or immunofluorescence assay. Gene overexpression or silencing was carried out by transient transfection with plasmids or small interfering RNAs. The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database was used for Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA), survival analysis, gene expression statistics or pathway enrichment assay. PPI inhibited the propagation of NSCLC cells, increased non-viable apoptotic cells, arrested cell cycle at G2/M phase, induced ROS levels but failed to decrease mitochondrial membrane potential. High levels of GRP78 indicates poor prognosis in NSCLC patients. PPI selectively suppressed unfolded protein response (UPR)-induced GRP78 expression, subsequently protected CHOP from GRP78-mediated ubiquitination and degradation. We demonstrated that the natural product PPI, obtained from traditional herbal medicine, deserves for further study as a valuable candidate for lead compound in the chemotherapy of NSCLC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1875-5364(21)60027-4DOI Listing
April 2021

Arrb2 Causes Hepatic Lipid Metabolism Disorder via AMPK Pathway Based on Metabolomics in Alcoholic Fatty Liver.

Clin Sci (Lond) 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Anhui Medical University, Hefei, China.

Background & Aims: Alcoholic fatty liver (AFL) is an early form of alcoholic liver disease (ALD) that usually manifests as lipid synthesis abnormalities in hepatocytes. Arrb2 is involved in multiple biological processes. This study aimed to explore the role of Arrb2 in the regulation of lipid metabolism in AFL and the underlying mechanism and identify potential targets for the treatment of AFL.

Methods: The expression of Arrb2 was detected in liver tissues obtained from AFL patients and Gao-binge AFL model mice. In addition, we specifically knocked down Arrb2 in AFL mouse liver in vivo and used Arrb2-siRNA or pEX3-Arrb2 to silence or overexpress Arrb2 in AML-12 cells in vitro to explore the functional role and underlying regulatory mechanism of Arrb2 in AFL. Finally, we investigated whether Arrb2 could cause changes in hepatic lipid metabolites, thereby leading to dysregulation of lipid metabolism based on liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis.

Results: Arrb2 was upregulated in the livers of AFL patients and AFL mice. The in vivo and in vitro results confirmed that Arrb2 could induce lipid accumulation and metabolism disorders. Mechanistically, Arrb2 induced hepatic metabolism disorder via AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway. The results of LC-MS analysis revealed that hepatic lipid metabolites with the most significant differences were primary bile acids.

Conclusions: Arrb2 induces hepatic lipid metabolism disorders via AMPK pathway in AFL. On one hand, Arrb2 increases fatty acid synthesis. On the other hand, Arrb2 could increase the cholesterol synthesis, thereby leading to the upregulation of primary bile acid levels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1042/CS20201363DOI Listing
April 2021

A transparent hydrophilic anti-biofouling coating for intraocular lens materials prepared by "bridging" of the intermediate adhesive layer.

J Mater Chem B 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

National Engineering Research Center for Biomaterials, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610064, China.

The attachment of bio-foulants, including unwanted cells, proteins, and bacteria, to a medical device such as an intraocular lens can lead to implantation failure. Hydrophilic polymers are often used as surface modifiers in the fabrication of anti-biofouling coatings, but a hydrophilic coating can easily become swollen and peel off the substrate. In this study, we chose polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) as the representative material of intraocular lenses because PMMA has better biocompatibility, a higher refractive index, better optical clarity, lighter weight, more stable performance, and lower cost than other intraocular lens materials. We fabricated polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) coatings with or without a "bridge", that is, an intermediate adhesive layer (AL), to increase the adhesion bonding effect between the anti-biofouling coating and the substrate. The results indicated that the prepared coatings were transparent and noncytotoxic. Moreover, the anti-adhesion properties of the cells and the resistance properties to nonspecific protein adsorption of PMMA modified by both AL and PVA coatings were better and more durable compared with the sample only modified with a physically dipped PVA coating. The coating prepared by AL "bridging" provides a new strategy for the preparation of a transparent hydrophilic anti-biofouling coating suitable for PMMA intraocular lens materials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1tb00065aDOI Listing
April 2021

An AIS-based emission inventory and the impact on air quality in Tianjin port based on localized emission factors.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Apr 6;783:146869. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Tianjin Key Laboratory of Urban Transport Emission Research & State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Urban Ambient Air Particulate Matter Pollution Prevention and Control, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071, China. Electronic address:

Ship pollution has become a hot global issue. This study established a basic information database of Tianjin Port ship emissions and used it to screen representative ship types and perform real-world ship measurements by a portable emission measurement system (PEMS), which generated localized emission factors. The results show that the localized emission factors are significantly higher than those recommended in recommended in Chinese guidelines, which will lead to lower calculation results of the previous inventory. A high temporal-spatial ship emission inventory for Tianjin Port was developed using a "bottom-up" method based on automatic identification system (AIS) data by combining localized emission factors. The total estimated ship emissions for SO2, NOX, PM10, PM2.5, THC and CO in 2018 were 1.453 × 10 t, 2.861 × 10 t, 2.04 × 10 t, 1.82 × 10 t, 1.13 × 10 t, and 2.21 × 10 t, respectively. NOX was the primary pollutant, accounting for 56.9%, followed by SO2 (28.9%). The use of low-sulfur fuel in the port area has significantly reduced the discharge of SO and primary particles. The main channel and anchorage are the areas with the highest emission intensity. The intermonth ship emissions varied according to the ship activity, lowest in February and highest in May. The contribution of cargo transportation vessels to various pollutant emissions is more than 60%. Main engines (MEs) were the largest source of emissions, followed by auxiliary engines (AEs). NOX and SOX from ships have the greatest impact on the air quality in the surrounding area, especially in summer and autumn, as analyzed by the atmospheric dispersion modeling system (ADMS) model. Our research will update localized emission factors and inventories and evaluate the impact of ship emissions on air quality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.146869DOI Listing
April 2021

MicroRNA-520a Suppresses Pathogenesis and Progression of Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer through Targeting the RRM2/Wnt Axis.

Anal Cell Pathol (Amst) 2021 30;2021:9652420. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Department of Tuberculosis, Shandong Provincial Chest Hospital, Jinan, 250013 Shandong, China.

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate multiple cellular behaviors, and their aberrant expression is frequently associated with disease progression. This research focused on the effects of miR-520a on the development of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and the molecules involved. Tumor and normal tissues from 24 patients with NSCLC were collected. Differentially expressed miRNAs between tumor tissues and normal tissues were screened using microarrays, and miR-520a was screened to be significantly poorly expressed in tumor samples. Artificial upregulation of miR-520a reduced proliferation, migration and invasion, and resistance to death of NSCLC A549 and H460 cells according to the MTT, EdU labeling, transwell, and flow cytometry assays, respectively. miR-520a upregulation suppressed growth and metastasis of xenograft tumors in vivo. The integrated bioinformatic analysis and dual luciferase assays suggested that miR-520a targeted ribonucleotide reductase subunit 2 (RRM2) mRNA and inactivated the Wnt/-catenin signaling pathway in NSCLC cells. Upregulation of RRM2 enhanced the malignant behaviors of NSCLCs, but the oncogenic effects of RRM2 were blocked upon miR-520a overexpression. To conclude, this study evidenced that miR-520a inhibits NSCLC progression through suppressing RRM2 and the Wnt signaling pathway. This paper may offer novel insights into NSCLC treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/9652420DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8026327PMC
March 2021

Discovery of a Highly Selective and Potent TRPC3 Inhibitor with High Metabolic Stability and Low Toxicity.

ACS Med Chem Lett 2021 Apr 5;12(4):572-578. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, the University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, Tennessee 38163, United States.

The overactivation of transient receptor potential canonical 3 (TRPC3) is associated with neurodegenerative diseases and hypertension. Pyrazole 3 (Pyr3) is reported as the most selective TRPC3 inhibitor, but it has two inherent structural limitations: (1) the labile ester moiety leads to its rapid hydrolysis to the inactive Pyr8 , and (2) the alkylating trichloroacrylic amide moiety is known to be toxic. To circumvent these limitations, we designed a series of conformationally restricted Pyr3 analogues and reported that compound maintains high potency and selectivity for human TRPC3 over its closely related TRP channels. It has significantly improved metabolic stability compared with Pyr3 and has a good safety profile. Preliminary evaluation of demonstrated its ability to rescue Aβ-induced neuron damage with similar potency to that of Pyr3 . Collectively, these results suggest that represents a promising scaffold to potentially ameliorate the symptoms associated with TRPC3-mediated neurological and cardiovascular disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsmedchemlett.0c00571DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8040052PMC
April 2021

A deep-learning pipeline for the diagnosis and discrimination of viral, non-viral and COVID-19 pneumonia from chest X-ray images.

Nat Biomed Eng 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Urology, Department of Radiology, Department of Emergency Medicine, Department of Disciplinary Development and Planning, Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.

Common lung diseases are first diagnosed using chest X-rays. Here, we show that a fully automated deep-learning pipeline for the standardization of chest X-ray images, for the visualization of lesions and for disease diagnosis can identify viral pneumonia caused by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and assess its severity, and can also discriminate between viral pneumonia caused by COVID-19 and other types of pneumonia. The deep-learning system was developed using a heterogeneous multicentre dataset of 145,202 images, and tested retrospectively and prospectively with thousands of additional images across four patient cohorts and multiple countries. The system generalized across settings, discriminating between viral pneumonia, other types of pneumonia and the absence of disease with areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUCs) of 0.94-0.98; between severe and non-severe COVID-19 with an AUC of 0.87; and between COVID-19 pneumonia and other viral or non-viral pneumonia with AUCs of 0.87-0.97. In an independent set of 440 chest X-rays, the system performed comparably to senior radiologists and improved the performance of junior radiologists. Automated deep-learning systems for the assessment of pneumonia could facilitate early intervention and provide support for clinical decision-making.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41551-021-00704-1DOI Listing
April 2021

A randomized controlled trial to compare the efficacy of regenerated and non-regenerated oxidized cellulose gauze for the secondary treatment of local bleeding in patients undergoing hepatic resection.

Ann Surg Treat Res 2021 Apr 30;100(4):193-199. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, The First Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, China.

Purpose: Oxidized cellulose is available in many forms, but manufactured using either a regenerated or non-regenerated process. In this study, we evaluated the effects of 2 different hemostatic agents for the treatment of local bleeding in patients undergoing hepatic resection.

Methods: This was a monocentric, parallel-group, randomized, and controlled clinical trial to compare oxidized regenerated cellulose gauze (ORCG) with oxidized non-regenerated cellulose gauze (ONRCG) in patients undergoing hepatectomy. The primary endpoint was the time to hemostasis at the target bleeding site. The secondary endpoints were the postoperative drainage volume on the first 2 days after surgery and the hospital stay.

Results: There was no significant difference between the ORCG and ONRCG groups in time to hemostasis from column analysis (238.8 ± 121.6 seconds 193.7 ± 85.3 seconds, P = 0.068), and there were no differences in the rates of hemostatic success between the 2 groups at 120 seconds (18.4% 24.3%; odds ratio [OR], 0.703; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.231-2.136) and 300 seconds (71.1% 89.2%; OR, 0.298; 95% CI, 0.085-1.041). However, the ONRCG group was superior to the ORCG group in hemostasis according to the survival analysis (log-rank test, P = 0.044). Moreover, there were also no significant differences between the 2 groups in postoperative drainage volume on the first 2 days (P = 0.436, P = 0.381) and hospital stay (P = 0.537, P = 0.200).

Conclusion: ONRCG was not inferior to ORCG as a hemostatic agent in patients undergoing liver resection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4174/astr.2021.100.4.193DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8019981PMC
April 2021

Oral multivalent epitope vaccine, based on UreB, HpaA, CAT, and LTB, for prevention and treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection in C57BL / 6 mice.

Helicobacter 2021 Apr 12:e12807. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Natural Medicinal Chemistry, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, China.

Background: As the resistance of Helicobacter pylori to traditional triple therapy is gradually revealed, an increasing number of people are focusing on vaccine treatments for H. pylori infection. Epitope vaccines are a promising strategy for the treatment of H. pylori infection, and multivalent vaccines will be more effective than monovalent vaccines.

Materials And Methods: In this study, we designed a multivalent vaccine named LHUC, which consists of the adjuvant LTB as well as three Th cell epitopes (HpaA , UreB and UreB ) and five B-cell epitopes (UreB , UreB , CAT , CAT and HpaA ) from UreB, HpaA, and catalase. In BALB/c mice, the specificity and immunogenicity of the fusion peptide LHUC and the neutralization of H. pylori urease and catalase by the specific IgG elicited by LHUC were evaluated. The preventive and therapeutic effects of LHUC were evaluated in C57BL/6 mice infected with H. pylori.

Results: The results showed that compared with LTB and PBS, LHUC induced specific IgG and IgA antibody production in mice, and IgG antibodies significantly inhibited the H. pylori urease and catalase activities in vitro. Additionally, by detecting the levels of IFN-γ, IL-4, and IL-17 in lymphocyte supernatants, we proved that LHUC could activate Th1, Th2, and Th17 mixed T-cell immune responses in vivo. Finally, a C57BL/6 mouse model of gastric infection with H. pylori was established. The results showed that compared with the effects of LTB and PBS, the prevention and treatment effects of oral inoculation with LHUC significantly inhibited bacterial colonization.

Conclusions: In conclusion, LHUC, a multivalent vaccine based on multiple H. pylori antigens, is a promising and safe vaccine that can effectively reduce the colonization of H. pylori in the stomach.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/hel.12807DOI Listing
April 2021

NONO-TFE3 fusion promotes aerobic glycolysis and angiogenesis by targeting HIF1A in NONO-TFE3 translocation renal cell carcinoma.

Curr Cancer Drug Targets 2021 Apr 11. Epub 2021 Apr 11.

Immunology and Reproduction Biology Laboratory & State Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Life Sciences, Medical School, Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210093. China.

Background: NONO-TFE3 translocation renal cell carcinoma (tRCC), one of RCCs associated with Xp11.2 translocation/TFE3 gene fusion (Xp11.2 tRCCs), involves an X chromosome inversion between NONO and TFE3 with the characteristics of endonuclear aggregation of NONO-TFE3 fusion protein. Nowadays, the oncogenic mechanisms of NONO-TFE3 fusion have not been fully elucidated.

Objective: This study aimed at investigating the mechanism of NONO-TFE3 fusion regulating HIF1A as well as the role of HIF-1α in the progression of NONO-TFE3 tRCC under hypoxia.

Methods: Immunohistochemistry and Western Blotting assays were performed to profile HIF-1α expression in renal clear cell carcinoma (ccRCC) or in Xp11.2 tRCC. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP), luciferase reporter assay and real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) were used to evaluate the regulation of HIF1A expression by NONO-TFE3 fusion. Then, flow cytometry analysis, tube formation assays and cell migration assays were used as well as glucose or lactic acid levels were measured to establish the impact of HIF-1α on the progression of NONO-TFE3 tRCC. Besides, the effect of HIF-1α inhibitor (PX-478) on UOK109 cells was analyzed.

Results: We found that HIF1A was targeting gene of NONO-TFE3 fusion. In UOK109 cells, which were isolated from NONO-TFE3 tRCC samples, NONO-TFE3 fusion promoted aerobic glycolysis and angiogenesis by up-regulating the expression of HIF-1α under hypoxia. Furthermore, inhibition of HIF-1α mediated by PX-478 suppressed the development of NONO-TFE3 tRCC under hypoxia.

Conclusion: HIF-1α is a potential target for therapy of NONO-TFE3 tRCC under hypoxia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1568009621666210412115026DOI Listing
April 2021

Is vitamin K a treatment choice for atypical femoral fractures in patients with secondary osteoporosis?

J Int Med Res 2021 Apr;49(4):3000605211001643

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, The Second Affiliated Hospital and Yuying Children's Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang Province, People's Republic of China.

An atypical femoral fracture (AFF) is a rare complication associated with excessive inhibition of osteoclast expression during treatment of osteoporosis. We herein describe a patient who had been treated with alendronate for more than 10 years and subsequently developed an AFF that healed after treatment with vitamin K (VK2). We also discuss the potential beneficial effects of VK2 on the healing of AFFs. A 48-year-old Asian man with secondary osteoporosis was treated with alendronate for more than 10 years. The patient underwent surgical treatment for a complete AFF of the right femur. Six months postoperatively, he complained of pain in his left thigh. X-ray examination revealed an incomplete AFF of the left femoral shaft. He was then treated with VK2. After 4 months of VK2 treatment, the patient reported that the pain in his left thigh had decreased, and follow-up X-ray examination demonstrated healing of the left AFF line. This case report indicates that VK2 may be a potential direction for pharmacological treatment of AFFs in future research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/03000605211001643DOI Listing
April 2021

Curcumin Ameliorates Palmitic Acid-Induced Saos-2 Cell Apoptosis Via Inhibiting Oxidative Stress and Autophagy.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2021 26;2021:5563660. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Jiangxi Provincial Key Lab of System Biomedicine, Jiujiang University, Jiujiang 332000, Jiangxi, China.

Objectives: We aimed to determine the effects of curcumin on palmitic acid- (PA-) induced human osteoblast-like Saos-2 cell apoptosis and to explore the potential molecular mechanisms in vitro level.

Methods: Saos-2 cell were cultured with PA with or without curcumin, N-acetylcysteine (NAC, anti-oxidant), 3-methyladenine (3-MA, autophagy inhibitor) AY-22989 (autophagy agonist) or HO. Then, the effects of PA alone or combined with curcumin on viability, apoptosis, oxidative stress, and autophagy in were detected by CCK-8, flow cytometry assay and western blot.

Results: We found that autophagy was induced, oxidative stress was activated, and apoptosis was promoted in PA-induced Saos-2 cells. Curcumin inhibited PA-induced oxidative stress, autophagy, and apoptosis in Saos-2 cells. NAC successfully attenuated oxidative stress and apoptosis, and 3-MA attenuated oxidative stress and apoptosis in palmitate-induced Saos-2 cells. Interestingly, NAC inhibited PA-induced autophagy, but 3-MA had no obvious effects on oxidative stress in PA-treated Saos-2 cells. In addition, curcumin inhibited HO (oxidative stress agonist)-induced oxidative stress, autophagy, and apoptosis, but curcumin had no obvious effect on AY-22989 (autophagy agonist)-induced autophagy and apoptosis.

Conclusion: The present study demonstrated that oxidative stress is an inducer of autophagy and that curcumin can attenuate excess autophagy and cell apoptosis by inhibiting oxidative stress in PA-induced Saos-2 cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/5563660DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8018866PMC
March 2021

A Comparison for Dimensionality Reduction Methods of Single-Cell RNA-seq Data.

Front Genet 2021 23;12:646936. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

College of Bioinformatics Science and Technology, Harbin Medical University, Harbin, China.

Single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) is a high-throughput sequencing technology performed at the level of an individual cell, which can have a potential to understand cellular heterogeneity. However, scRNA-seq data are high-dimensional, noisy, and sparse data. Dimension reduction is an important step in downstream analysis of scRNA-seq. Therefore, several dimension reduction methods have been developed. We developed a strategy to evaluate the stability, accuracy, and computing cost of 10 dimensionality reduction methods using 30 simulation datasets and five real datasets. Additionally, we investigated the sensitivity of all the methods to hyperparameter tuning and gave users appropriate suggestions. We found that t-distributed stochastic neighbor embedding (t-SNE) yielded the best overall performance with the highest accuracy and computing cost. Meanwhile, uniform manifold approximation and projection (UMAP) exhibited the highest stability, as well as moderate accuracy and the second highest computing cost. UMAP well preserves the original cohesion and separation of cell populations. In addition, it is worth noting that users need to set the hyperparameters according to the specific situation before using the dimensionality reduction methods based on non-linear model and neural network.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2021.646936DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8021860PMC
March 2021

Cardiometabolic diseases, frailty, and healthcare utilization and expenditure in community-dwelling Chinese older adults.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 8;11(1):7776. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Cardiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, 277 West Yanta Road, Xi'an, 710061, Shaanxi, People's Republic of China.

This study investigated associations between cardiometabolic diseases, frailty, and healthcare utilization and expenditure among Chinese older adults. The participants were 5204 community-dwelling adults aged at least 60 years from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study. Five cardiometabolic diseases were assessed including hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes, cardiac diseases and stroke. Frailty status was based on five criteria: slowness, weakness, exhaustion, inactivity, and shrinking. Participants were deemed frailty if they met at least three criteria. As the number of cardiometabolic diseases increased, so did the prevalence of frailty, and the proportion of healthcare utilization, including outpatient visit and inpatient visit. Moreover, the total healthcare expenditure and the odds of catastrophic health expenditure were increased with the number of cardiometabolic disorders. After adjusting for covariates, cardiometabolic diseases were positively associated with higher odds of frailty, incurring outpatient and inpatient visit. And individuals with 2 or more cardiometabolic diseases had a higher odds of catastrophic health expenditure than persons with non-cardiometabolic disease. Participants who were frailty were more likely to report higher odds of healthcare utilization. These findings suggest that both cardiometabolic diseases and frailty assessment may improve identification of older adults likely to require costly, extensive healthcare.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-87444-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8032763PMC
April 2021

Efficacy and safety of traditional Chinese medicine on treating oligomenorrhea: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Ann Palliat Med 2021 Mar 24. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Department of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shandong Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Jinan, China.

Background: Oligomenorrhea is one of the most frequent gynecologic complaints that interferes with women's life quality. Treatment using traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is a preferred alternative therapy for oligomenorrhea. However, systematic reviews (SRs) evaluating the efficacy of TCM treatments for oligomenorrhea remain absent. The present SR and meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of TCM treatment for oligomenorrhea.

Methods: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published in English and Chinese were retrieved by searching in the databases in October 2019, including PubMed, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, Sinomed, CNKI, VIP, and WanFang databases. Quantitative analyses and quality assessments were then conducted based on abstracted data. This study protocol is registered PROSPERO, number CRD42018095660.

Results: A total of 26 eligible RCTs involving 2,389 patients were included in our analysis. Overall, we observed an effect of increasing menstrual blood volumes owing to using TCM treatments plus bio-medicine (BM) (n=649; MD, 12.05; 95% CI: 5.23 to 18.87; P<0.00001; I2 =96%). Besides, TCM combined with BM yielded a significant prolongation in menstrual periods (MD, 1.20; 95% CI: 0.78 to 1.62; P<0.00001; I 2 =76%), and had potential improvements on enhancing effectiveness rates, increasing endometrial thickness, and raising the levels of estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P). Concerning adverse events (AEs), no significant difference was found in either group. The quality of evidence was relatively low.

Conclusions: This study seems to support the potential effect of TCM on treating oligomenorrhea. However, the relatively low quality of prior studies calls for future RCTs to further assess the efficacy of TCM on treating oligomenorrhea using rigorous designs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/apm-20-825DOI Listing
March 2021

Prediction of air traffic delays: An agent-based model introducing refined parameter estimation methods.

PLoS One 2021 7;16(4):e0249754. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

College of Civil Aviation, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing, China.

We propose an agent-based model for predicting individual flight delays in an entire air traffic network. In contrast to previous work, more detailed parameter estimation methods were incorporated into the agent-based model, acting on the state transitions of agents. Specifically, a conditional probability model was proposed for modifying the expected departure time, which was used to indicate whether a flight had experienced the necessary waiting due to Ground Delay Programs (GDPs) or carrier-related reasons. Additionally, two random forest regression models were presented for estimating the turnaround time and the elapsed time of flight agents in the agent-based delay prediction model. The parameter models were trained and fitted using the flight data for 2017 in the United States. The performance of the delay prediction model was tested for thirty days with three types of delay levels (low, medium, and high), which were randomly selected from 2018. The experimental results showed that the average absolute error in the test days was 6.8 min, and the classification accuracy with a 15 min threshold for a two-hour forecast horizon was 89.5%. The performance of our model outperformed that of existing research. Additionally, the positive effect of introducing parameter models and the negative impact of increasing the prediction horizon on the prediction performance were further studied.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0249754PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8026076PMC
April 2021

Dual-Mode Sensing Platform Guided by Intramolecular Electrochemiluminescence of a Ruthenium Complex and Cationic ,-Bis(2-(trimethylammonium iodide)propylene) Perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxydiimide for Estradiol Assay.

Anal Chem 2021 Apr 7;93(15):6088-6093. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Collaborative Innovation Center for Green Chemical Manufacturing and Accurate Detection, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022, P. R. China.

Herein, a dual-mode sensing platform using cationic ,-bis(2-(trimethylammonium iodide)propylene)perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxydiimide (PDA)-assembled DNA strands as a quencher was suggested for estradiol (E2) detection. The aptamer chain was initially anchored with the Ru(II) novel molecule (Ru complex), which was recombined with carbohydrazide (CONH) and tris(4,4'-dicarboxylicacid-2,2'-bipyridyl)ruthenium(II) dichloride [Ru(dcbpy)] modified on copper oxide (CuO) nanospheres. Intramolecular electrochemiluminescence (ECL) occurring between CONH and Ru(dcbpy) effectively improved the reaction rate and increased the ECL efficiency. By employing effective van der Waals' force, PDA was endowed with an efficient ECL quenching probe on an electrode. The signal on the ECL interface can be converted into quenching because of energy transfer between the intercalator and the emitter. Notably, cationic PDA possessing a large planar π-π skeleton improved advantageous activity of redox and DNA aptamer indurative loading capacity and directly generated a well-defined cathodic peak to execute the EC bio-detection. This method not only avoids the difficulty of assembling various signal indicators but also improves the sensitivity greatly using the quenching mechanism. In addition, disparate double-response signals coming from different principles of transduction are in a position to verify each other to improve the accuracy. Hence, examination areas of 0.001-100 nM with E2 for ECL and EC were obtained, supplying a novel sensing strategy with promising ideas and perspectives of detection platform construction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.analchem.0c04563DOI Listing
April 2021

Efficient Chiral Nanosenor Based on Tip-Modified Nanochannels.

Anal Chem 2021 Apr 7;93(15):6145-6150. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Key Laboratory of Pesticide and Chemical Biology (CCNU), Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry, Central China Normal University, Wuhan 430079, P. R. China.

Enantiomers of various drug molecules have a specific effect on living organisms. Accordingly, developing a sample method for the efficient and rapid recognition of chiral drug enantiomers is of great industrial value and physiological significance. Here, inspired by the structure of ion channels in living organisms, we developed a chiral nanosensor based on an artificial tip-modified nanochannel system that allows efficient selective recognition of chiral drugs. In this system, l-alanine-pillar[5]arenes as selective receptors were introduced on the tip side of conical nanochannels to form an enantioselective "gate". The selective coefficient of our system toward -propranolol is 4.96, which is higher than the traditional fully modified nanochannels in this work.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.analchem.0c05390DOI Listing
April 2021

Worldwide Clinical Practice of High-Flow Nasal Cannula and Concomitant Aerosol Therapy among Adult Critical Care Subjects.

Respir Care 2021 Apr 6. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

CHRU Tours, Médecine Intensive Réanimation, CIC INSERM 1415, CRICS-TriggerSEPresearch network, Tours, France; and INSERM, Centre d'étude des pathologies respiratoires, U1100, Université de Tours, Tours, France.

Background: Therapy with high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) has been broadly utilized. However, no consensus has been achieved on practical implementation of HFNC and how to provide aerosol delivery during HFNC therapy in adult subjects.

Methods: An online anonymous questionnaire survey, endorsed by four academic societiesfrom America, Europe, mainland China and Taiwan, was administered from May to December, 2019.Clinicians who had worked in adult intensive care unit for more than one year and had used HFNC to treat subjects within 30 days were included.

Results: 2,279 participants clicked on the survey link, 1358 respondents completed the HFNC section, while 1014 completed the whole survey. Post-extubation hypoxemia and moderate hypoxemia were major indications for HFNC. Initial flow was set mainly at 40-50 L/min. Aerosol delivery via HFNC was utilized by 24% (248/1014) of participants, 30% (74/248) of whom reported reducing flow during aerosol delivery. For subjects who required aerosol treatment during HFNC therapy, 40% (403/1014) of participants reported placing a nebulizer with a mask or mouthpiece while pursuing HFNC (a method shown to reduce inhaled dose) while 33% (331/1014) discontinued HFNC to use conventional aerosol devices. Vibrating mesh nebulizer (VMN) was the most commonly used nebulizer (40%) and was mainly placed at the inlet of the humidifier.

Conclusions: The clinical utilization of HFNC was variable, as were indications, flow settings, and criteria for adjustment. Many practices associated with concomitant aerosol therapy were not consistent with available evidence for optimal use. More efforts are warranted to close the knowledge gap.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4187/respcare.08996DOI Listing
April 2021

Cerebral Microbleeds are Associated with Impairments in Executive Function and Processing Speed.

J Alzheimers Dis 2021 Mar 26. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Department of Neurology, Beijing Chaoyang Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Background: Cerebral microbleed (CMB) is an increasingly important risk factor for cognitive impairment due to population aging. Controversies, however, remain regarding the exact association between CMB and cognitive dysfunction.

Objective: We aimed to determine the relationship between CMB burden and cognitive impairment, and also explore the characteristics of cognitive decline in CMB patients for middle-aged and elderly people.

Methods: The present cross-sectional study included 174 participants (87 CMB patients and 87 controls) who underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging and a battery of neuropsychological test. Global cognitive function was measured using Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). Compound z-scores were calculated for three cognitive subdomains: memory, executive function and processing speed.

Results: CMB patients had lower scores of MMSE (p <  0.001) and MoCA (p <  0.001). Patients at each category of CMB count had worse performance in global cognitive function and all three cognitive subdomains (p <  0.001). In multiple linear regression models, CMB patients had significantly greater declines in executive function (p <  0.001), processing speed (p <  0.001), and MoCA (p = 0.003) with increasing number of CMB. We found no relationship between CMB location and cognition (p <  0.05).

Conclusion: CMB is associated with impairment in global cognition as well as for all tested subdomains. Strongest effect sizes were seen for tests which rely on executive functioning, where performance deficits increased in proportion to degree of CMB burden. Prospective studies are needed to evaluate whether the association between CMB and executive dysfunction is causal.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/JAD-201202DOI Listing
March 2021

Bioactivity and Control Efficacy of the Novel Antibiotic Tetramycin against Various Kiwifruit Diseases.

Antibiotics (Basel) 2021 Mar 10;10(3). Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Department of Food and Medicine, Guizhou Vocational College of Agriculture, Qingzhen 551400, China.

Tetramycin, a novel polyene agriculture antibiotic, has excellent antimicrobial activity against many plant pathogens. In this study, the antimicrobial activities of tetramycin and conventional antibiotics on eight common pathogens and their field control efficacies against four serious diseases in kiwifruit were investigated. The results show that 0.3% tetramycin aqueous solutions (AS) exhibited the superior antibacterial and antifungal activity against pv. , , , , sp., , and of kiwifruit pathogens with EC values of 1.21, 1.24, 0.72, 0.14, 0.09, 0.16, 0.06 and 0.17 mg kg, respectively. These EC values of tetramycin were much higher than those of conventional kasugamycin, zhongshengmycin or polyoxin. Meanwhile, 0.3% tetramycin AS possessed the good field control efficacies for canker, soft rot, blossom blight and brown spot disease of kiwifruit with 74.45, 83.55, 84.74 and 89.62%. Moreover, 0.3% tetramycin AS application notably increased fruit resistance substances contents, activated fruit superoxide dismutase and polyphenoloxidase activities, as well as remarkably enhanced fruit growth, improved fruit quality and storability. This study highlights that tetramycin can be used as a preferred alternative to conventional antibiotics in kiwifruit production.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics10030289DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7998335PMC
March 2021

Organics-Coated Nanoclays Further Promote Hydrate Formation Kinetics.

J Phys Chem Lett 2021 Apr 1;12(13):3464-3467. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Key Laboratory of Ocean Energy Utilization and Energy Conservation of the Ministry of Education, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024, China.

A deeper understanding of the kinetics of CO hydrate formation in the complicated natural environment is required for its enhanced sequestration. Here we found that the organics-coated nanoclays enriched in the natural sediments could contribute to a 92% decline of the induction time of hydrate formation. This can be ascribed to the negative charges carried by the organics and the resulting ordered arrangement of the surrounding water molecules. It was, for the first time, proposed that the abundant functional groups from the coating organics could function as a protecting crust enabling the system more resistant to the acidification potentially upon the CO sequestration; besides, the negative charges could help prevent the deposition of the nanoclays via interparticle repulsive forces. These would consequently secure their sustainable promoting effect on hydrate formation. The findings suggest the deposits of gas hydrate a kinetically promising geological setting for the CO sequestration via forming hydrates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jpclett.1c00010DOI Listing
April 2021

Risk factors for electrocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy in a young Chinese general population: the Hanzhong adolescent cohort study.

BMC Cardiovasc Disord 2021 Mar 31;21(1):159. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, People's Republic of China.

Background: Electrocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy (ECG-LVH) is a common manifestation of preclinical cardiovascular disease. The present study aimed to investigate risk factors for ECG-LVH and its prevalence in a cohort of young Chinese individuals.

Methods: (1) A total of 1515 participants aged 36-45 years old from our previously established cohort who were followed up in 2017 were included. Cross-sectional analysis was used to examine risk factors for ECG-LVH and its prevalence. (2) A total of 235 participants were recruited from the same cohort in 2013 and were followed up in 2017. Longitudinal analysis was used to determine the predictors of LVH occurrence over the 4-year period. We used multivariable logistic regression models to calculate OR and 95% CIs and to analyze risk factors for ECG-LVH.

Results: In the cross-sectional analysis, the prevalence of LVH diagnosed by the Cornell voltage-duration product in the overall population and the hypertensive population was 4.6% and 8.8%, respectively. The logistic regression results shown that female sex [2.611 (1.591-4.583)], hypertension [2.638 (1.449-4.803)], systolic blood pressure (SBP) [1.021 (1.007-1.035)], serum uric acid (SUA) [1.004 (1.001-1.006)] and carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) [67.670 (13.352-342.976)] were significantly associated with the risk of LVH (all P < 0.05). In the longitudinal analysis, fasting glucose [1.377 (1.087-1.754)], SBP [1.046 (1.013-1.080)] and female sex [1.242 (1.069-1.853)] were independent predictors for the occurrence of LVH in the fourth year of follow-up.

Conclusions: Our study suggested that female sex, hypertension, SBP, SUA and CIMT were significantly associated with the risk of LVH in young people. In addition, fasting glucose, SBP and female sex are independent predictors of the occurrence of LVH in a young Chinese general population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12872-021-01966-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8011382PMC
March 2021

Letter to the Editor: Outcomes of Incisional Hernia Repair Surgery After Multiple Re-recurrences: A Propensity Score Matched Analysis.

World J Surg 2021 Mar 31. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

West China Hospital, Sichuan University, No.37 Guoxue Alley, Wuhou District, Chengdu City, 610000, Sichuan Province, People's Republic of China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00268-021-06086-4DOI Listing
March 2021

Genomic insights into evolution of pathogenicity and resistance of multidrug-resistant Raoultella ornithinolytica WM1.

Ann N Y Acad Sci 2021 Mar 30. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Key Laboratory of Molecular Medicine and Biotherapy, School of Life Science, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing, 100081, China.

Raoultella ornithinolytica is a poorly understood opportunistic pathogen, and the underlying mechanisms of its multidrug resistance and pathogenicity have not yet been comprehensively investigated. The multidrug-resistant (MDR) strain WM1 was isolated from the blood of a male patient in Tianjin, China, in 2018. Here, we describe the complete genome and provide a genomic analysis of R. ornithinolytica WM1. The isolate was resistant to all tested antimicrobials except amikacin, tobramycin, and tigecycline. Two plasmids, pWM1-1 (IncHI5) and pWM1-2 (IncR), carried multidrug-resistance regions. A large antimicrobial resistance island region resided on pWM1-1 and exhibited mosaic structures resulting from the acquisition of complex integrations of variable regions, including genes conferring resistance to multiple classes of antimicrobials. Moreover, WM1 possessed virulence-related elements that encode several virulence factors, including type I fimbriae, Escherichia coli common pilus, type II and VI secretion systems, yersiniabactin, enterobactin, and surface polysaccharide, indicating pathogenic potential. Furthermore, the core genome phylogeny and pan-genome analyses revealed extensive genetic diversity. Our analysis indicates the need for stringent infection control, antimicrobial stewardship, periodic resistance monitoring, and rational medication to address potential threats posed by MDR R. ornithinolytica strains.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nyas.14595DOI Listing
March 2021

Transcriptional regulation of intermolecular Ca signaling in hibernating ground squirrel cardiomyocytes: The myocardin-junctophilin axis.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Apr;118(14)

State Key Laboratory of Membrane Biology, College of Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China;

The contraction of heart cells is controlled by the intermolecular signaling between L-type Ca channels (LCCs) and ryanodine receptors (RyRs), and the nanodistance between them depends on the interaction between junctophilin-2 (JPH2) in the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) and caveolin-3 (CAV3) in the transversal tubule (TT). In heart failure, decreased expression of JPH2 compromises LCC-RyR communication leading to deficient blood-pumping power. In the present study, we found that JPH2 and CAV3 transcription was concurrently regulated by serum response factor (SRF) and myocardin. In cardiomyocytes from torpid ground squirrels, compared with those from euthermic counterparts, myocardin expression was up-regulated, which boosted both JPH2 and CAV3 expression. Transmission electron microscopic imaging showed that the physical coupling between TTs and SRs was tightened during hibernation and after myocardin overexpression. Confocal Ca imaging under the whole-cell patch clamp condition revealed that these changes enhanced the efficiency of LCC-RyR intermolecular signaling and fully compensated the adaptive down-regulation of LCCs, maintaining the power of heart contraction while avoiding the risk of calcium overload during hibernation. Our finding not only revealed an essential molecular mechanism underlying the survival of hibernating mammals, but also demonstrated a "reverse model of heart failure" at the molecular level, suggesting a strategy for treating heart diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2025333118DOI Listing
April 2021

Depression promotes lung carcinoma progression by regulating the tumor microenvironment in tumor-bearing models of C57BL/6J mice.

Neurosci Lett 2021 Mar 26;754:135851. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou, China. Electronic address:

Psychological stress is a common etiology among patients with lung cancer and serves as a potential indication of poor prognosis and advanced cancer clinical stage. Evidence indicates that depression is positively correlated with the evolvement of lung carcinoma. Nevertheless, the mechanisms underlying the effects of mental disorder on lung cancer have not been considerably and systemically explored. We hypothesized that mental disorder may affect the adjustment of the tumor microenvironment and immune cells. We used the chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) procedure to induce depressed mice models and established tumor-bearing models of C57BL/6 J mice. Results revealed that the worsening of lung cancer was notably hastened in the CUMS + tumor group. Notably, the expression of PD-L1 in tumor issues increased in the tumor microenvironment, accompanied with a decline in the levels of CD8. On the basis of the date of tumor migration, our results indicated that MMPs and VEGF significantly increased after CUMS + tumor treatment. Thus, we demonstrated that modulation of the tumor microenvironment is pivotal for depression-promoted lung cancer migration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neulet.2021.135851DOI Listing
March 2021

Male pelvic CT multi-organ segmentation using synthetic MRI-aided dual pyramid networks.

Phys Med Biol 2021 Apr 16;66(8). Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Radiation Oncology and Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, United States of America.

The delineation of the prostate and organs-at-risk (OARs) is fundamental to prostate radiation treatment planning, but is currently labor-intensive and observer-dependent. We aimed to develop an automated computed tomography (CT)-based multi-organ (bladder, prostate, rectum, left and right femoral heads (RFHs)) segmentation method for prostate radiation therapy treatment planning. The proposed method uses synthetic MRIs (sMRIs) to offer superior soft-tissue information for male pelvic CT images. Cycle-consistent adversarial networks (CycleGAN) were used to generate CT-based sMRIs. Dual pyramid networks (DPNs) extracted features from both CTs and sMRIs. A deep attention strategy was integrated into the DPNs to select the most relevant features from both CTs and sMRIs to identify organ boundaries. The CT-based sMRI generated from our previously trained CycleGAN and its corresponding CT images were inputted to the proposed DPNs to provide complementary information for pelvic multi-organ segmentation. The proposed method was trained and evaluated using datasets from 140 patients with prostate cancer, and were then compared against state-of-art methods. The Dice similarity coefficients and mean surface distances between our results and ground truth were 0.95 ± 0.05, 1.16 ± 0.70 mm; 0.88 ± 0.08, 1.64 ± 1.26 mm; 0.90 ± 0.04, 1.27 ± 0.48 mm; 0.95 ± 0.04, 1.08 ± 1.29 mm; and 0.95 ± 0.04, 1.11 ± 1.49 mm for bladder, prostate, rectum, left and RFHs, respectively. Mean center of mass distances was within 3 mm for all organs. Our results performed significantly better than those of competing methods in most evaluation metrics. We demonstrated the feasibility of sMRI-aided DPNs for multi-organ segmentation on pelvic CT images, and its superiority over other networks. The proposed method could be used in routine prostate cancer radiotherapy treatment planning to rapidly segment the prostate and standard OARs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-6560/abf2f9DOI Listing
April 2021

The complete molecular sequence of chloroplast genome of (L.) Sweet.

Mitochondrial DNA B Resour 2021 Mar 11;6(3):758-759. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

College of Pharmacy, Shaanxi University of Chinese Medicine, Xianyang, PR China.

The complete molecular sequence of chloroplast genome of (L.) Sweet was firstly assembled and characterized using Illumina sequencing technology. It is 151916 bp in length, with a GC content of 35.4%, and has a typical quadrant structure, including a large single-copy region (LSC), a pair of inverted repeat regions (IRs) and a small single-copy region (SSC), the sequence length is 81132, 53244, 17540 bp, respectively. There are 131 genes in the chloroplast genome, including 84 encoding protein genes, 8 genes, and 38 genes. Phylogenetic analysis showed that clustered into a large evolutionary clade with three species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23802359.2021.1878958DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7954507PMC
March 2021