Publications by authors named "Yang Huang"

519 Publications

Using new criteria to improve the differentiation between HCC and non-HCC malignancies: clinical practice and discussion in CEUS LI-RADS 2017.

Radiol Med 2021 Oct 19. Epub 2021 Oct 19.

Department of Medical Ultrasonics, Ultrasomics Artificial Intelligence X-Lab, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Ultrasound, The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University, No. 58 Zhongshan Road 2, Guangzhou, 510080, Guangdong, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: Using contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) to evaluate the diagnostic performance of liver imaging reporting and data system (LI-RADS) version 2017 and to explore potential ways to improve the efficacy.

Methods: A total of 315 nodules were classified as LR-1 to LR-5, LR-M, and LR-TIV. New criteria were applied by adjusting the early washout onset (< 45 s) and the time of marked washout (within 3 min). Two subgroups of the LR-M nodules were recategorized as LR-5, respectively. The diagnostic performance was evaluated by calculating the accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV).

Results: By adjusting early washout onset to < 45 s, the LR-5 as a standard for diagnosing HCC had an improved sensitivity (74.1% vs. 56.1%, P < 0.001) without significant change in PPV (93.3% vs. 96.1%, P = 0.267), but the specificity was decreased (48.3% vs. 78.5%, P = 0.018). The LR-M as a standard for the diagnosis of non-HCC malignancies had an increase in specificity (89.2% vs. 66.2%, P < 0.001) but a decrease in sensitivity (31.5% vs. 68.4%, P = 0.023). After reclassification according to the time of marked washout, the sensitivity of the LR-5 increased (80% vs. 56.1%, P < 0.001) without a change in PPV (94.9% vs. 96.1%, P = 0.626) and specificity (80% vs. 78.5%, P = 0.879). For reclassified LR-M nodules, the specificity increased (87.5% versus 66.2%, P < 0.001) with a non-significant decrease in sensitivity (47.3% vs. 68.4%, P = 0.189).

Conclusions: The CEUS LI-RADS showed good confidence in diagnosing HCC while tended to misdiagnose HCC as non-HCC malignancies. Adjusting the marked washout time within 3 min would reduce the possibility of this misdiagnosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11547-021-01417-wDOI Listing
October 2021

Novel monkey mAbs induced by a therapeutic vaccine targeting the hepatitis B surface antigen effectively suppress hepatitis B virus in mice.

Antib Ther 2021 Oct 29;4(4):197-207. Epub 2021 Sep 29.

State Key Laboratory of Molecular Vaccinology and Molecular Diagnostics, School of Public Health and School of Life Science, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361102, China.

Background: We have previously obtained a mouse anti-hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) antibody E6F6 with long-lasting serum HBsAg clearance effects. The E6F6 epitope-based protein CR-T3-SEQ13 (HBsAg aa 113-135) vaccination therapy in cynomolgus monkeys induced long-term polyclonal antibodies-mediated clearance of HBsAg in the HBV transgenic (HBV-Tg) mice.

Methods: We isolated monoclonal antibodies from CR-T3-SEQ13 vaccinated cynomolgus monkeys, compared their therapeutic effects with E6F6, identified their epitopes on HBsAg, determined the pharmacokinetics and studied their physical property.

Results: A panel of anti-HBsAg mAbs was generated through memory B cell stimulatory culture. Two lead monkey-human chimeric antibodies, C1-23 and C3-23, effectively suppressed HBsAg and HBV DNA in HBV-Tg mice. The humanized antibodies and humanized-mouse reverse chimeric antibodies of two antibodies exhibited comparable HBsAg clearance and viral suppression efficacy as those versions of E6F6 in HBV-Tg mice. Humanized antibody hu1-23 exhibited more efficacy HBsAg-suppressing effects than huE6F6-1 and hu3-23 in HBV-Tg mice at dose levels of 10 and 20 mg/kg. Evaluation of the binding sites indicates that the epitope recognized by hu1-23 is located in HBsAg aa 118-125 and 121-125 for hu3-23. Physical property study revealed that hu1-23 and hu3-23 are stable enough for further development as a drug candidate.

Conclusions: Our data suggest that the CR-T3-SEQ13 protein is a promising HBV therapeutic vaccine candidate, and hu1-23 and hu3-23 are therapeutic candidates for the treatment of chronic hepatitis b. Moreover, the generation of antibodies from the epitope-based vaccinated subjects may be an alternative approach for novel antibody drug discovery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/abt/tbab020DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8499627PMC
October 2021

RGB Three-Channel SWE-Based Ultrasomics Model: Improving the Efficiency in Differentiating Focal Liver Lesions.

Front Oncol 2021 27;11:704218. Epub 2021 Sep 27.

Department of Medical Ultrasonics, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Ultrasound, Ultrasomics Artificial Intelligence X-Lab, The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, China.

Objective: To explore a new method for color image analysis of ultrasomics and investigate the efficiency in differentiating focal liver lesions (FLLs) by Red, Green, and Blue (RGB) three-channel SWE-based ultrasomics model.

Methods: One hundred thirty FLLs were randomly divided into training set (n = 65) and validation set (n = 65). The RGB three-channel and direct conversion methods were applied to the same color SWE images. Ultrasomics features were extracted from the preprocessing images establishing two feature data sets. The least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) logistic regression model was applied for feature selection and model construction. Two models, named RGB model (based on RGB three-channel conversion) and direct model (based on direct conversion), were used to differentiate FLLs. The diagnosis performance of the two models was evaluated by area under the curve (AUC), calibration curves, decision curves, and net reclassification index (NRI).

Results: In the validation cohort, the AUC of the direct model and RGB model in characterization on FLLs were 0.813 and 0.926, respectively ( = 0.038). Calibration curves and decision curves indicated that the RGB model had better calibration efficiency and provided greater clinical benefits. NRI revealed that the RGB model correctly reclassified 7% of malignant cases and 25% of benign cases compared to the direct model ( = 0.01).

Conclusion: The RGB model generated by RGB three-channel method yielded better diagnostic efficiency than the direct model established by direct conversion method. The RGB three-channel method may be promising on ultrasomics analysis of color images in clinical application.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.704218DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8504873PMC
September 2021

Theoretical Design of Inorganic Flexible Bulk Photovoltaic Materials.

J Phys Chem Lett 2021 Oct 13;12(41):10182-10189. Epub 2021 Oct 13.

Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Devices and Systems of Ministry of Education and Guangdong Province, College of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060, China.

Current flexible photovoltaics (PVs) are usually based on low-dimensional structures of inorganic semiconductors and hybrid perovskites, as well as organic materials. Here, we propose a type of inorganic flexible bulk PV material, evaluating its structure flexibility, electronic structure, and PV efficiency in the framework of density functional theory, suggesting α-AgS as the best candidate. It is found that the band structure and effective masses of α-AgS can be significantly modulated by external strain, whereas leaving the high PV efficiency was not affected much. The flexibility of α-AgS can be further enhanced by applying electron doping during stretching or applying hole doping during compression. We further studied the intrinsic defect properties of α-AgS by using the Heyd-Scuseria-Ernzerhof hybrid functional, and the calculation results show that α-AgS is a defect-tolerant semiconductor even when an external strain is applied. Our results open the door for searching inorganic flexible bulk PV materials for robust flexible solar cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jpclett.1c02886DOI Listing
October 2021

Encapsulating NHBr in a metal organic framework: achieving remarkable proton conduction in a wide relative humidity range.

Dalton Trans 2021 Oct 12. Epub 2021 Oct 12.

Key Laboratory for Soft Chemistry and Functional Materials of Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210094, China.

Proton-conducting materials are key components for constructing high-energy-density electronic devices. In this work, by accumulating NHBr into the nanospace of the classical metal organic framework MIL-101-Cr, a proton conductivity as high as 1.53 × 10 S cm was achieved at 363 K and 100% RH. The proton conduction of [email protected] was also high even at lower relative humidity; for instance, it was ∼10 S cm at 75% RH. The activation energy was calculated to be 0.11 eV for [email protected], indicative of tight H-bond networks and a low barrier to proton transfer, and confirming the occurrence of pure proton conduction as well.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1dt02253aDOI Listing
October 2021

Preliminary study of the hemodynamics of iliac venous compression syndrome using magnetic resonance imaging.

J Vasc Surg Venous Lymphat Disord 2021 Oct 8. Epub 2021 Oct 8.

Department of Vascular Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing City, China. Electronic address:

Objective: In clinical practice, the degree of iliac vein stenosis is often inconsistent with chronic venous disease (CVD) symptoms. Clinical studies evaluating hemodynamic changes associated with iliac vein stenosis are currently lacking. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can noninvasively provide hemodynamic information. This study assessed the degree of stenosis associated with iliac venous compression syndrome (IVCS) and the relationships between IVCS-induced, MRI-determined hemodynamic changes and lower limb symptoms.

Methods: Stenosis severity, collateral vessels, and flow rate differences between the common and external iliac veins secondary to iliac vein stenosis were measured by MRI in 69 CVD patients. Villalta scores were used as a measure of symptom severity in all patients, and percent change in Villalta score was used as a measure of symptom improvement in patients who received iliac vein stents. Symptom severity in all patients, in a subgroup of patients with iliac vein compression (affected limbs) and in a group of patients with unilateral iliac vein compression treated with stents was correlated with stenosis, differences in external and common iliac vein flow rates [< 0 ml/s group (indicating that stenosis-induced decreased common iliac vein flow) and ≥ 0 ml/s groups] and stenosis-induced collateral vessel formation.

Results: Iliac vein stenosis severity and flow rate differences in all affected limbs were correlated with the Villalta scores of the affected limbs (stenosis: r = 0.38, P < 0.001, n = 95; flow rate difference: r = -0.44, P < 0.001). In the unilateral compression subgroup, stenosis severity, differences in flow rate, and collateral vessels were not associated with significant changes in contralateral symptoms. In the endovascular treatment subgroup, both lower limbs exhibited significant improvement after stent implantation (affected limb: symptom remission 64.6% ± 18.2%, n = 15; contralateral limb: symptom remission 49.1% ± 29.1%, n = 11). Symptom remission was higher in patients with decreased iliac vein flow in the affected limbs (< 0 ml/s group: 74.6 ± 16.4%, n = 7; ≥ 0 ml/s group: 52.2 ± 16.6%, n = 6; P = 0.032).

Conclusions: Iliac vein stenosis, the presence of collateral vessels, and decreased flow rate due to stenosis were significantly correlated with lower limb symptom severity. Endovascular treatment yielded good outcomes in patients with stenosis > 50%. A decreased iliac venous flow rate could indicate a better response to stent implantation and could be used in diagnosis and in guiding decisions to treat iliac venous compression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvsv.2021.09.011DOI Listing
October 2021

Eco-green C, O co-doped porous BN adsorbent for aqueous solution with superior adsorption efficiency and selectivity.

Chemosphere 2021 Oct 8;288(Pt 2):132520. Epub 2021 Oct 8.

School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin, 300130, PR China; Hebei Key Laboratory of Boron Nitride Micro and Nano Materials, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin, 300130, PR China. Electronic address:

Toxic dyes in wastewater will become a significant hazard to human health if they are not treated effectively. Therefore, it is significant to separate and remove dyes from the aqueous solution. C and O co-doped BN (BCNO) with high adsorption capacity and outstanding cycle efficiency is a simple and efficient adsorbent for the cationic dye malachite green (MG). Glucose is characterized as an eco-friendly and cheap source of C and O. Benefited by the high specific surface area (1515.6 m/g), the maximum adsorption capacity of MG is 1511.1 mg/g. Besides, the curves of adsorption fitting correspond to the Langmuir model and the pseudo-second-order model, respectively. Moreover, after 5 cycles, the adsorption efficiency reached 78% of the first time and the adsorption capacity remained above 780 mg/g. Furthermore, in the selectivity adsorption study, the cationic dyes (MG, neutral red (NR), methylene blue (MB)) can be removed more effectively in the binary dye system of MG-methyl orange (MO), NR-MO, MB-MO, MG-Orange II (OR), MB-OR, or NR-OR. BCNO-2 has a promising application in the removal of cationic dyes from complex dye wastewaters.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.132520DOI Listing
October 2021

Altered Functional Topological Organization in Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus With and Without Microvascular Complications.

Front Neurosci 2021 22;15:726350. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Department of MRI, Shaanxi Provincial People's Hospital, Xi'an, China.

Microvascular complications can accelerate cognitive impairment in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and have a high impact on their quality of life; however, the underlying mechanism is still unclear. The complex network in the human brain is the physiological basis for information processing and cognitive expression. Therefore, this study explored the relationship between the functional network topological properties and cognitive function in T2DM patients with and without microvascular complications (T2DM-C and T2DM-NC, respectively). Sixty-seven T2DM patients and 41 healthy controls (HCs) underwent resting-state functional MRI and neuropsychological assessment. Then, graph theoretical network analysis was performed to explore the global and nodal topological alterations in the functional whole brain networks of T2DM patients. Correlation analyses were performed to investigate the relationship between the altered topological parameters and cognitive/clinical variables. The T2DM-C group exhibited significantly higher local efficiency (Eloc), normalized cluster coefficient (γ), and small-world characteristics (σ) than the HCs. Patients with T2DM at different clinical stages (T2DM-C and T2DM-NC) showed varying degrees of abnormalities in node properties. In addition, compared with T2DM-NC patients, T2DM-C patients showed nodal properties disorders in the occipital visual network, cerebellum and middle temporal gyrus. The Eloc metrics were positively correlated with HbA1c level ( = 0.001, = 0.515) and the NE values in the right paracentral lobule were negatively related with serum creatinine values ( = 0.001, = -0.517) in T2DM-C patients. This study found that T2DM-C patients displayed more extensive changes at different network topology scales. The visual network and cerebellar may be the central vulnerable regions of T2DM-C patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2021.726350DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8493598PMC
September 2021

Genome-wide identification and expression profiling of glutathione S-transferase family under hypoxia stress in silver sillago (Sillago sihama).

Comp Biochem Physiol Part D Genomics Proteomics 2021 Sep 29;40:100920. Epub 2021 Sep 29.

Fisheries College, Guangdong Ocean University, Guangdong Research Center on Reproductive Control and Breeding Technology of Indigenous Valuable Fish Species, Guangdong Provincial Engineering Laboratory for Mariculture Organism Breeding, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Pathogenic Biology and Epidemiology for Aquatic Economic Animals, Zhanjiang 524088, China; Southern Marine Science and Engineering Guangdong Laboratory, Zhanjiang 524088, China. Electronic address:

Glutathione S-transferase (GST) is an important detoxification enzyme in organisms. GSTs play an important role in responding to environmental stresses. This study aimed to identify the GST gene superfamily in silver sillago (Sillago sihama) and analyze its expression pattern under hypoxia stress. A total of 17 GST genes were identified in silver sillago. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the GST gene family contained two subgroups (cytosolic and MAPEGs), and lacked three subgroups (i.e. Pi, Kappa, and MGST2). Phylogenetic and syntenic analysis revealed that GST genes were conserved in evolution. Eight SsGSTs were significantly differentially expressed under hypoxia stress in silver sillago by RNA-seq and qRT-PCR analysis. The expression levels of SsMGST3b, SsGSTO1, SsGSTT1b and SsGSTR2 genes were significantly up-regulated after 4 h of reoxygenation in the gill tissue. In the heart tissue, the expression of SsGSTR3 was significantly up-regulated after 1 h of hypoxia while the expression levels of SsGSTT1b and SsFLAP genes were significantly down-regulated after 4 h of hypoxia. In summary, this study provides for the first time a comprehensive analysis of the GST gene superfamily of silver sillago.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cbd.2021.100920DOI Listing
September 2021

Cross-neutralizing antibodies bind a SARS-CoV-2 cryptic site and resist circulating variants.

Nat Commun 2021 09 27;12(1):5652. Epub 2021 Sep 27.

State Key Laboratory of Molecular Vaccinology and Molecular Diagnostics, School of Life Sciences, School of Public Health, Xiamen University, 361102, Xiamen, Fujian, China.

The emergence of numerous variants of SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of COVID-19, has presented new challenges to the global efforts to control the COVID-19 pandemic. Here, we obtain two cross-neutralizing antibodies (7D6 and 6D6) that target Sarbecoviruses' receptor-binding domain (RBD) with sub-picomolar affinities and potently neutralize authentic SARS-CoV-2. Crystal structures show that both antibodies bind a cryptic site different from that recognized by existing antibodies and highly conserved across Sarbecovirus isolates. Binding of these two antibodies to the RBD clashes with the adjacent N-terminal domain and disrupts the viral spike. Both antibodies confer good resistance to mutations in the currently circulating SARS-CoV-2 variants. Thus, our results have direct relevance to public health as options for passive antibody therapeutics and even active prophylactics. They can also inform the design of pan-sarbecovirus vaccines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-25997-3DOI Listing
September 2021

Tumor size-based validation of contrast-enhanced ultrasound liver imaging reporting and data system (CEUS LI-RADS) 2017 for hepatocellular carcinoma characterizing.

Br J Radiol 2021 Oct;94(1126):20201359

Department of Medical Ultrasonics, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Ultrasound, The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, China.

Objectives: To validate the efficacy of contrast-enhanced ultrasound Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System (CEUS LI-RADS) and its major features in diagnosing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) of different sizes in high-risk patients.

Methods: Between January 2014 and December 2015, a total of 545 untreated liver nodules were included. These liver nodules were divided into two groups (<20 mm and ≥20 mm). Each nodule was classified based on CEUS LI-RADS. The diagnostic performance comparison was assessed by the chi-square test, with pathology results as the golden criterion.

Results: The accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value (PPV) of CEUS LR-5 criteria in <20 mm group ≥20 mm group in diagnosing HCC were 60.5% 59.8%, 55.6% 57.6%, 85.7% 88.6 and 95.2% 98.5%, respectively, without significant difference (all > 0.05). The accuracy, sensitivity and PPV of LR5/M for malignancy in <20 mm group were lower than in ≥20 mm group, with values of 79.1% 95.0%, 84.2% 95.7 and 91.4% 99.2%, respectively ( < 0.05).

Conclusions: The CEUS LI-RADS has a comparable performance for diagnosing HCC between lesions ≥ 20 mm and <20 mm. For diagnosing malignancy including HCC, it has a higher efficacy for lesions ≥ 20 mm than 20 mm.

Advances In Knowledge: 1.For diagnosing HCC, CEUS LI-RADS has comparable performances between lesions ≥ 20 mm and <20 mm.2. For diagnosing malignancy including HCC, CEUS LI-RADS has a higher efficacy for lesions ≥ 20 mm than <20 mm.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1259/bjr.20201359DOI Listing
October 2021

A c-Met Inhibitor Suppresses Osteosarcoma Progression via the ERK1/2 Pathway in Human Osteosarcoma Cells.

Onco Targets Ther 2021 10;14:4791-4804. Epub 2021 Sep 10.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, HangZhou, People's Republic of China.

Introduction: Osteosarcoma is the most common primary malignancy of the bone among adolescents and children. Despite intensive chemotherapy and aggressive surgery, the 5-year survival rate of osteosarcoma still falls under 70%, mainly due to its tendency to metastasize and to develop drug resistance. Therefore, new treatments for osteosarcoma are urgently needed. HGF/c-Met signaling pathway, when dysregulated, is involved in the onset, progression and metastasis of various cancers, making the HGF/c-Met axis a promising therapeutic target.

Methods: In this study, we found Met to be a cancer-promoting gene in osteosarcoma as well, and aimed to investigate the role of a c-met inhibitor (PHA-665752) in osteosarcoma. For this purpose, two human osteosarcoma cell lines (143B and U2OS) were introduced in this study and treated with PHA-665752. CCK8 cell proliferation assay was performed to obtain the IC value of PHA-665752 for 143B and U2OS. After that, colony formation assay, transwell migration and invasion assay and wound-healing assay were performed. Furthermore, a tumor-transplanted mouse model was used for in vivo experiments.

Results: Our results showed that PHA-665752 could suppress osteosarcoma progression, promote apoptosis and inhibit proliferation of human osteosarcoma cells. Moreover, we found ERK1/2 pathway to be an important mediator underlying the osteosarcoma-suppressing function of PHA-665752. LY3214996, a highly selective inhibitor of the ERK1/2 pathway, was able to antagonize the effects of PHA-665752 in osteosarcoma. Finally, in vivo experiments indicated that PHA-665752 suppressed tumor growth in a tumor-transplanted mouse model.

Conclusion: Taken together, Met provided a druggable target for osteosarcoma and PHA-665752 is a promising candidate for anti-osteosarcoma treatments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/OTT.S317122DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8440230PMC
September 2021

[Effect of acupuncture on analgesia and sedation in elderly patients with severe pneumonia during invasive mechanical ventilation].

Zhongguo Zhen Jiu 2021 Sep;41(9):971-8

Department of Emergency, Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing 210029, Jiangsu Province, China.

Objective: To observe the analgesic and sedative effects of acupuncture in elderly patients with severe pneumonia during invasive mechanical ventilation.

Methods: A total of 188 elderly patients with severe pneumonia were randomly divided into an observation group and a control group, 94 cases in each group. Both groups were treated with routine nursing and treatment of severe pneumonia such as invasive mechanical ventilation, analgesia and sedation. Based on these, the observation group was treated with acupuncture at Neiguan (PC 6), Hegu (LI 4), Yintang (GV 29) and Baihui (GV 20), twice a day until the mechanical ventilation was offline. The critical care pain observation tool (CPOT) score and Richmond agitation-sedation score (RASS) were observed before treatment and 0.5 h after analgesia and sedation; the average time of reaching the standard, the reaching standard rate of shallow sedation and analgesia within 0.5 h and 72 h as well as the dosage of analgesic and sedative drugs and compilations were compared between the two groups. The mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR) and blood oxygen saturation (SpO) were observed before treatment and 0.5 h, 1 h and 2 h after analgesia and sedation. The levels of partial pressure of blood oxygen (PaO), partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO) and lactic acid (Lac) were observed before treatment and 12 h, 24 h, 48 h, 72 h, 96 h, 120 h and 144 h after analgesia and sedation. The white blood cell (WBC), neutrophil percentage (NEUT%), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and creatinine (Cr) were observed before treatment and 72 h after analgesia and sedation. The tracheal intubation time and ICU hospitalization time were compared between two groups.

Results: At the time point of 0.5 h after treatment, the CPOT and RASS scores in the two groups were lower than those before treatment (<0.05); the average time of reaching the standard in the observation group was shorter than that in the control group (<0.01); the 30 min reaching standard rates of CPOT and RASS scores as well as the rate of reaching the shallow sedation and analgesia within 72 h in the observation group were higher than those in the control group (<0.01, <0.05). The dosage and duration of dexmedetomidine, propofol and butorphanol in the observation group were less than those in the control group (<0.05), and the occurrence times of hypotension, respiratory depression, bradycardia, constipation as well as average tracheal intubation time and average ICU hospitalization time in the observation group were less than those in the control group (<0.05). After 0.5 h, 1 h and 2 h of treatment, the HR and RR were lower than those before treatment in the two groups (<0.05), MAP and SpO were higher than those before treatment in the two groups (<0.05); the MAP 0.5 h after treatment in the observation group was higher than that in the control group (<0.05); the HR after 1 h and 2 h of treatment in the observation group was lower than that in the control group (<0.05). Compared before treatment, the levels of PaCO and Lac were reduced and the levels of PaO were increased 12 h, 24 h, 48 h, 72 h, 96 h, 120 h and 144 h after treatment in both groups (<0.05); compared before treatment, the WBC, NEUT%, hs-CPR, ALT and Cr were reduced 72 h after treatment in the two groups (<0.05), and the hs-CRP in the observation group was lower than that in the control group (<0.05).

Conclusion: Acupuncture has analgesic and sedative effect in elderly patients with severe pneumonia during invasive mechanical ventilation, which could reduce the dosage of sedative and analgesic drugs and the occurrence of complications, improve blood oxygen, and has good safety.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.13703/j.0255-2930.20200903-k0004DOI Listing
September 2021

Social mobility by parent education and childhood overweight and obesity: a prospective cohort study.

Eur J Public Health 2021 Oct;31(4):764-770

Department of Public Health, Erasmus Medical Centre, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: The association of social mobility, measured by parent education and childhood overweight and obesity (OWOB) has been scarcely reported on. This study evaluated the associations between social mobility measured by parent education and childhood OWOB at child age 6 and 10 years.

Methods: We analyzed data of 4030 children and parents participating in the Generation R study. We used generalized linear models controlling for potential confounders to determine if social mobility (upward mobility, static-low and static-high based on the change of parent education) was associated with age- and sex-specific standard deviation scores of body mass index (BMI-SDS) or OWOB (the cut-offs of International Obesity Task Force).

Results: Mean BMI-SDS of the children was 0.23 ± 0.89 and 0.26 ± 1.03 at child age 6 and 10 years, respectively; the prevalence of OWOB increased from 15.2 to 17.4%. Compared with children from mothers in the upward mobility group, children from mothers in the static-high group had lower BMI-SDS and lower odds of OWOB at both ages (all P < 0.001). Compared with children from fathers in the upward mobility group, children from fathers in static-low group had higher BMI-SDS and higher odds of OWOB at both ages (all P < 0.05).

Conclusions: Our study contributes to the literature by showing that the behaviors of parents' obtaining a higher level of education after the child was born may be beneficial to attenuate the odds of the child developing overweight in late childhood.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurpub/ckab073DOI Listing
October 2021

Determination of Saccharides in Honey Using Supercritical Fluid Chromatography Coupled with Single Quadrupole Mass Spectrometry.

J Chromatogr Sci 2021 Sep 1. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

Institute of Pharmaceutical Analysis, College of Pharmacy, Jinan University, No. 855, Xingye Avenue East, Xinzao, Panyu District, Guangzhou, 510632, China.

Saccharides are one of the most important biomoleculars in the world, which are responsible for various roles in living organisms. In this work, a combined use of mass spectrometry (MS) together with supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) was applied for the separation of eight saccharides. A satisfactory separation was achieved within 15 min on a Unitary Diol column using 10 mM ammonium acetate in methanol as mobile phase additive at a temperature of 60°C. Compared to liquid chromatography-MS (LC-MS), the SFC-MS presented faster running time and better selectivity. The SFC-MS was validated and applied to the analysis of three saccharides (fructose, glucose and sucrose) present in different honey samples. The limits of detection (LODs) and limits of quantification (LOQs) of SFC-MS method for fructose, glucose and sucrose were 5.2, 4.5, 7.4 μg/mL and 17.2, 14.9, 24.1 μg/mL, respectively. The relative standard deviations for intrabatch and interbatch precision were <2.5% and the recoveries ranged from 97.6% to 103.1% for three concentration levels. The values of LODs and LOQs using SFC-MS method were lower (1.5-2.4-fold) than using LC-MS method. The results demonstrated the potential of SFC-MS for fast and sensitive determination of saccharides in honey.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/chromsci/bmab104DOI Listing
September 2021

Facile Construction of a Solely-DNA-Based System for Targeted Delivery of Nucleic Acids.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2021 Jul 30;11(8). Epub 2021 Jul 30.

College of Materials Science and Engineering, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518055, China.

We designed a functional drug delivery system based solely on DNA. The whole system was built with only four DNA strands. Cyclization of DNA strands excluded the formation of byproducts. DNA aptamers were equipped to endow triangular DNA nanostructures with targeting ability. The homogeneity of materials enabled not only facile construction but also convenient loading of nucleic acid-based drugs with much ease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nano11081967DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8398070PMC
July 2021

China experts' consensus on preventive and interceptive orthodontic treatments of malocclusions of children.

Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi 2021 Aug;39(4):369-376

Wuxi Stomatology Hospital, Wuxi 214000, China.

Malocclusion is one of the three most common oral diseases reported by World Health Organization(WHO). In China, its incidence rate is rising. Malocclusion seriously affects the dental and maxillofacial function, facial appearance and growth development of nearly 260 million children in China, and what is more, it affects their physical and mental health development. Malocclusion occurrence is related to genetic and environmental factors. Early treatment of malocclusion can create a good dental and maxillofacial development environment, correct abnormal growth and control the adverse effects of abnormal genetic factors. It can effectively reduce the prevalence of children's malocclusion and enhance their physical and mental health. This is an urgent need from the economic perspective of our society, so it has great practical and social significance. Experts from the project group "standard diagnose and treatment protocols for early orthodontic intervention of malocclusions of children" which initiated by China National Health Institute of Hospital Administration wrote the "China Experts' Consensus on Preventive and Interceptive Orthodontic Treatments of Malocclusions of Children", which aims to guide and popularize the clinical practice, improve the clinical theory and practice level, and accelerate the disciplinary development of early treatment of children's malocclusion in China. The consensus elaborates the harmfulness of malocclusion and the necessity of early treatment, and brings up the principles and fundamental contents. Based on the law of dental and maxillofacial development, this paper puts forward the guiding suggestions of preventive and interceptive treatments in different stages of dental development ranging from fetus to early permanent dentition. It is a systematic project to promote and standardize the early treatment of malocclusion. Through scientific and comprehensive stratified clinical practice and professional training, the clinical system of early treatment of malocclusion in China will eventually be perfected, so as to comprehensively care for children's dental and maxillofacial health, and improve their oral and physical health in China.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7518/hxkq.2021.04.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8381117PMC
August 2021

Self-diffusion mechanisms based defect complexes in MoSi.

J Phys Condens Matter 2021 Sep 6;33(46). Epub 2021 Sep 6.

Aerospace Research Institute of Materials and Processing Technology, The First Academy of China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation, Beijing 100076, People's Republic of China.

MoSiis widely concerned due to excellent electrical conductivity, oxidation resistance as a typical transition metal silicide. The high-temperature diffusion behavior is one of the important factors for the degradation of MoSicoatings. However, the diffusion mechanism in MoSiis still unclear. Prior theoretical work mostly focused on defect formation energy, but these are not consistent with the self-diffusion experiments because the migration behaviors were not considered. Therefore, the purpose of this work was to investigate the microscopic diffusion mechanisms of Mo and Si atoms in MoSiusing density functional theory and the CI-NEB method. We confirmed that the temperature-dependent vibrational contribution has a significant impact on the defect formation free energy. The isolated point defects in MoSiwill tend to aggregate to form defect complexes, which participate in the atomic diffusion as mediators. The defect migration behaviors of atoms for vacancy mediated, vacancy complex mediated, and antisite assisted jumps were obtained based on electronic structures analysis. The results show that Si diffusion is mediated by intrasublattice jumps of the nearest neighbor Si vacancies. Moreover, the destroyed covalent Mo-Si bonds by Si vacancies and the non-directional weak metal bonds formed by the Mo antisites and Mo atoms could improve the mobility of the Mo atom which results in the low migration barrier. The agreement between our calculations and the reported experimental results indicates that the dominant diffusion mechanism for Mo atoms is mediated by vacancy complex mediated jumps and antisite assisted jumps. It is concluded that the Si vacancy-based defect complexes are likely the diffusion mediators for Mo atom self-diffusion in MoSi. This work provides a deeper insight into the connection between the atomic mechanism and the macroscopic behavior for the diffusion in the MoSi, and establishes the basis for further optimizing high-temperature coating materials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-648X/ac1ec7DOI Listing
September 2021

The safety and efficacy of chemotherapy combined with immunotherapy for pancreatic cancer: A meta-analysis.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Jul;100(29):e26673

Central Hospital Affiliated to Shenyang Medical College, Shenyang, China.

Background: Since the combination of chemotherapy and immunotherapy, such as new molecular targeted drugs or vaccines, is controversial in terms of survival advantages compared with chemotherapy therapy alone, we conducted a meta-analysis to compare the efficacy and safety of immunotherapy combined with chemotherapy and chemotherapy alone for advanced pancreatic cancer.

Methods: We searched PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library from the establishment of the database to November 2020. We included some studies that reported pancreatic cancer patients receiving immunotherapy, and we excluded duplicate publications, research without full text, incomplete information or inability to conduct data extraction, animal experiments, reviews, and systematic reviews.

Results: The risk ratio of the objective response rate and disease control rate was 1.10 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.88-1.38) and 1.17 (95% CI: 1.06-1.31), respectively, indicating that there was no significant difference between the objective response rate of combination therapy and chemotherapy alone, while the disease control rate of the combined treatment was higher than that of chemotherapy alone. The hazard ratio of overall survival and progression-free survival was 0.91 (95% CI: 0.82-1.01) and 0.87 (95% CI: 0.77-0.98), respectively, indicating that there was no significant difference between the overall survival of combination therapy and chemotherapy alone, while progression-free survival of the combined treatment was longer than that of chemotherapy alone. We also found that in addition to the combination treatment, the incidence of vomiting in pancreatic cancer was higher than that of chemotherapy alone, and the incidence of other complications was not significantly different from that of treatment alone.

Conclusion: Chemotherapy combined with immunotherapy for pancreatic cancer not only improves treatment efficiency but also does not cause serious adverse reactions. This treatment strategy should be widely used clinically.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000026673DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8294910PMC
July 2021

Electrochemical Approaches to Carbonylative Coupling Reactions.

Chem Asian J 2021 Oct 19;16(19):2830-2841. Epub 2021 Aug 19.

State Key Laboratory for Oxo Synthesis and Selective Oxidation, Suzhou Research Institute of LICP, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics (LICP), Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou, 730000, P. R. China.

The carbonylation reaction is an effective way to introduce CO or other carbonyl groups into organic compounds, and widely used in the preparation of aldehydes, ketones, amides, and esters. The replacement of conventional reaction approaches by greener electrochemical methods is appealing with great synthetic potential as well as inherent safety, owing to the avoidance of external oxidants or reductants and a more facile control in product selectivity. In this minireview, we give a summary of the recent development of carbonylation reactions via the electrochemical approach.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/asia.202100800DOI Listing
October 2021

Recent Advances in Design and Fabrication of Nanocomposites for Electromagnetic Wave Shielding and Absorbing.

Materials (Basel) 2021 Jul 26;14(15). Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Jiangsu Co-Innovation Center of Efficient Processing and Utilization of Forest Resources and International Innovation Center for Forest Chemicals and Materials, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing 210037, China.

Electromagnetic (EM) pollution has raised significant concerns to human health with the rapid development of electronic devices and wireless information technologies, and created adverse effects on the normal operation of the sensitive electronic apparatus. Notably, the EM absorbers with either dielectric loss or magnetic loss can hardly perform efficient absorption, which thereby limits their applications in the coming 5G era. In such a context, the hotspot materials reported recently, such as graphene, MXenes, and metal-organic frameworks (MOF)-derived materials, etc., have been explored and applied as EM absorbing and shielding materials owing to their tunable heterostructures, as well as the facile incorporation of both dielectric and magnetic components. In this review, we deliver a comprehensive literature survey according to the types of EM absorbing and shielding materials, and interpret the connectivity and regularity among them on the basis of absorbing mechanisms and microstructures. Finally, the challenges and the future prospects of the EM dissipating materials are also discussed accordingly.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma14154148DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8347516PMC
July 2021

Effect of biochar-derived DOM on the interaction between Cu(II) and biochar prepared at different pyrolysis temperatures.

J Hazard Mater 2022 01 26;421:126739. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

College of Resources and Environment, Chengdu University of Information Technology, No. 24 Block 1, Xuefu Road, Chengdu 610225, China. Electronic address:

The structure and composition of biochar-derived dissolved organic matter (DOM) at different pyrolysis temperatures differed significantly, affecting the environmental geochemical behavior of heavy metals (HMs). Herein, the binding properties of Cu(II) onto walnut-shell DOM were investigated using spectroscopic methods. The results showed that the DOM at low pyrolysis temperatures (300 °C and 500 °C) showed higher Cu(II) affinity than that at high pyrolysis temperature (700 °C). There was a preferential Cu(II) binding with fulvic-like substances (360 nm) at 300 °C, and with protein-like materials (275 nm) at 500 °C and 700 °C. The C-O group of alcohols, ethers, and esters showed preferential binding with Cu(II) at 300 °C and 700 °C pyrolysis temperatures. However, preferential bonding of Cu(II) to the C-O stretching vibration and O-H bending vibration of carboxyl was exhibited at 500 °C pyrolysis temperature. Pyrolysis temperature played a crucial role in the release of biochar-derived DOM and in the migration and bioavailability of HMs. Meanwhile, the adsorption effect of Cu(II) increased by 11.2% for biochar at 300 °C, and decreased by 15.0% and 61.1% for biochar at 500 °C and 700 °C, respectively, after the removal of DOM, suggesting that the presence of DOM influenced the adsorption behavior of biochar towards Cu(II).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.126739DOI Listing
January 2022

Functionalized Masks: Powerful Materials against COVID-19 and Future Pandemics.

Small 2021 Oct 28;17(42):e2102453. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Chemical Engineering, University of New Brunswick, Fredericton, New Brunswick, E3B 5A3, Canada.

The outbreak of COVID-19 revealed the vulnerability of commercially available face masks. Without having antibacterial/antiviral activities, the current masks act only as filtering materials of the aerosols containing microorganisms. Meanwhile, in surgical masks, the viral and bacterial filtration highly depends on the electrostatic charges of masks. These electrostatic charges disappear after 8 h, which leads to a significant decline in filtration efficiency. Therefore, to enhance the masks' protection performance, fabrication of innovative masks with more advanced functions is in urgent demand. This review summarizes the various functionalizing agents which can endow four important functions in the masks including i) boosting the antimicrobial and self-disinfectant characteristics via incorporating metal nanoparticles or photosensitizers, ii) increasing the self-cleaning by inserting superhydrophobic materials such as graphenes and alkyl silanes, iii) creating photo/electrothermal properties by forming graphene and metal thin films within the masks, and iv) incorporating triboelectric nanogenerators among the friction layers of masks to stabilize the electrostatic charges and facilitating the recharging of masks. The strategies for creating these properties toward the functionalized masks are discussed in detail. The effectiveness and limitation of each method in generating the desired properties are well-explained along with addressing the prospects for the future development of masks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.202102453DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8420174PMC
October 2021

Plant adaptability in karst regions.

J Plant Res 2021 Sep 13;134(5):889-906. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Key Laboratory of Ecology of Rare and Endangered Species and Environmental Protection, College of Life Science, Guangxi Normal University, Ministry of Education, Guilin, China.

Karst ecosystems are formed by dissolution of soluble rocks, usually with conspicuous landscape features, such as sharp peaks, steep slopes and deep valleys. The plants in karst regions develop special adaptability. Here, we reviewed the research progresses on plant adaptability in karst regions, including drought, high temperature and light, high-calcium stresses responses and the strategies of water utilization for plants, soil nutrients impact, human interference and geographical traits on karst plants. Drought, high temperature and light change their physiological and morphological structures to adapt to karst environments. High-calcium and soil nutrients can transfer surplus nutrients to special parts of plants to avoid damage of high nutrient concentration. Therefore, karst plants can make better use of limited water. Human interference also affects geographical distribution of karst plants and their growing environment. All of these aspects may be analyzed to provide guidance and suggestions for related research on plant adaptability mechanisms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10265-021-01330-3DOI Listing
September 2021

Characterization, expression, and regulatory effects of nr0b1a and nr0b1b in spotted scat (Scatophagus argus).

Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol 2021 Oct-Dec;256:110644. Epub 2021 Jul 2.

Guangdong Research Center on Reproductive Control and Breeding Technology of Indigenous Valuable Fish Species, Guangdong Research Center on Reproductive Control and Breeding Technology of Indigenous Valuable Fish Species, Key Laboratory of Marine Ecology and Aquaculture Environment of Zhanjiang, Guangdong South China Sea Key Laboratory of Aquaculture for Aquatic Economic Animals, Fisheries College, Guangdong Research Center on Reproductive Control and Breeding Technology of Indigenous Valuable Fish Species, Guangdong Ocean University, Zhanjiang 524088, China. Electronic address:

Nuclear receptor subfamily 0 group B member 1 (Nr0b1) belongs to the nuclear receptor (NR) superfamily. It plays critical roles in sex determination, sex differentiation, and gonadal development in mammals. In this study, the duplicated genes nr0b1a and nr0b1b were identified in spotted scat (Scatophagus argus). Phylogenetic and synteny analyses revealed that, unlike nr0b1a, nr0b1b was retained in several species of teleosts after an nr0b1 gene duplication event but was secondarily lost in other fish species, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals. In a sequence analysis, only 1.5 LXXLL-related repeat motifs were identified in spotted scat Nr0b1a, Nr0b1b, and non-mammalian Nr0b1a/Nr0b1, different from the 3.5 repeat motifs in mammalian Nr0b1. By qPCR, nr0b1a and nr0b1b were highly expressed in testes from stages IV to V and in ovaries from stages II to IV, respectively. Male-to-female sex reversal was induced in XY spotted scat by the administration of exogenous E2. A qPCR analysis showed that nr0b1b mRNA expression was higher in sex-reversed XY fish than in control XY fish, with no difference in nr0b1a. A luciferase assay showed that spotted scat Nr0b1a and Nr0b1b did not individually activate cyp19a1a gene transcription. As in mammals, spotted scat Nr0b1a suppressed Nr5a1-mediated cyp19a1a expression, despite containing only 1.5 LXXLL-related repeat motifs in its N-terminal region, while Nr0b1b stimulated Nr5a1-mediated cyp19a1a transcription. These results demonstrated that nr0b1a and nr0b1b in spotted scat have distinct expression patterns and regulatory effects and further indicate that nr0b1b might be involved in ovarian development by regulating Nr5a1-mediated cyp19a1a expression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cbpb.2021.110644DOI Listing
September 2021

Altered Functional Connectivity of Insular Subregions in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

Front Neurosci 2021 16;15:676624. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Department of MRI, Shaanxi Provincial People's Hospital, Xi'an, China.

Diabetes-related brain damage can lead to cognitive decline and increase the risk of depression, but the neuropathological mechanism of this phenomenon remains unclear. Different insular subregions have obvious functional heterogeneity, which is related to many aspects of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM)-related brain damage. However, little is known about changes in functional connectivity (FC) in insular subregions in patients with T2DM. Therefore, we aimed to investigate FC between different insular subregions and clinical/cognitive variables in patients with T2DM. Fifty-seven patients with T2DM and 55 healthy controls (HCs) underwent a neuropsychological assessment and resting-state FC examination. We defined three insular subregions, including the bilateral dorsal anterior insula (dAI), bilateral ventral anterior insula (vAI), and bilateral posterior insula (PI). We examined differences in FC between insular subregions and the whole brain in patients with T2DM compared with HCs. A correlation analysis was performed to examine the relationship between FC and clinical/cognitive variables. Compared with HCs, patients with T2DM showed significantly decreased FC between the dAI and the right inferior frontal gyrus, right superior/middle temporal gyrus, right hippocampus, and right precentral gyrus. FC between the vAI and the right supramarginal gyrus, as well as the PI and the right precentral/postcentral gyrus, was reduced in the T2DM group compared with the control group. In the T2DM group, we showed a significant negative correlation between glycated hemoglobin concentration and FC in the dAI and right hippocampus ( = -0.428, = 0.001) after Bonferroni correction. We conclude that different insular subregions present distinct FC patterns with functional regions and that abnormal FC in these insular subregions may affect cognitive, emotional, and sensorimotor functions in patients with T2DM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2021.676624DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8242202PMC
June 2021

Supercritical fluid chromatography using methacrylate-based monolithic column for the separation of polar analytes.

J Sep Sci 2021 Sep 11;44(17):3324-3332. Epub 2021 Jul 11.

College of Pharmacy, Institute of Pharmaceutical Analysis, Jinan University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, 510632, P. R. China.

A poly(N,N-dimethyl-N-methacryloyloxyethyl-N-(3-sulfopropyl) ammonium betaine-co-ethylene dimethacrylate) monolith was prepared in a 100 × 2.0 mm id stainless-steel column and was investigated for supercritical fluid chromatography. Optimization of its porosity was performed by changing the conditions of polymerization. Then, the chemical group of this column was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and elemental analysis. The morphology was characterized by scanning electron microscopy. The prepared column showed good repeatability based on the retention factor of adenine, uracil and cytosine to calculate their run-to-run, day-to-day, column-to-column, and batch-to-batch relative standard deviations. Those values were less than 1.9% (n = 10), 6.5% (n = 3), 5.6% (n = 3), and 1.7% (n = 3), respectively. In addition, the column was found to be stable within 3 and 10 days with relative standard deviations less than 6.5 and 8.5%, respectively. These results indicated that the columns showed good reproducibility and stability. Compared with liquid chromatogaphy, supercritical fluid chromatography provided better kinetic performance and selectivity. Finally, several neutral, acid, and basic polar analytes were utilized to test its application. The results demonstrated that the prepared column exhibited a good separation performance and showed great potential in supercritical fluid chromatography.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jssc.202100256DOI Listing
September 2021

Occurrence and ecological risks of 156 pharmaceuticals and 296 pesticides in seawater from mariculture areas of Northeast China.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Oct 9;792:148375. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Institute of Environmental Science and Technology, The University of Kitakyushu, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka, Japan. Electronic address:

China is the largest mariculture producer in the world. In recent years, pharmaceuticals and pesticides have been widely used in mariculture activities; however, most studies have only focused on the occurrence of limited types of antibiotics and organochlorine pesticides. It is critical to comprehensively investigate the occurrence of pharmaceuticals and pesticides in mariculture areas and assess their potential impacts on ocean ecosystems. In this study, the occurrence, distribution, and ecological risk of 484 compounds, including 296 pesticides, 156 pharmaceuticals, and 32 other substances, in the drainage ditches of culture ponds and raft-culture areas were investigated. A total of 51 compounds were detected in the mariculture area, with total concentrations ranging from 5.4 × 10 to 2.0 × 10 ng/L at each sampling site. Eleven pesticides, three pharmaceuticals, and five other compounds were detected with detection frequencies of 100%. The cluster analysis indicated that mariculture is a source of herbicide pollution in coastal waters. To assess the ecological risks of the detected compounds, toxicity data collected from the database and predicted from quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) models were used to calculate the risk quotients and probabilistic risks. According to the risk quotients, five pollutants, including diuron, ametryn, prometryne, simetryn, and terbutryn, were estimated to pose high risks to marine organisms. The results of the probabilistic risk assessment indicated that only diuron, a biocide used in antifouling paint and mariculture, would have an adverse effect on up to 8% of the aquatic species in nearshore areas. These findings could be helpful in determining the aquatic benchmarks of pesticides and pharmaceuticals in mariculture discharge to promote the sustainable development of mariculture and ecological protection in coastal areas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.148375DOI Listing
October 2021

A Chromosome-Level Genome Assembly of the Spotted Scat (Scatophagus argus).

Genome Biol Evol 2021 Jun;13(6)

Guangdong Research Center on Reproductive Control and Breeding Technology of Indigenous Valuable Fish Species, Fisheries College, Guangdong Ocean University, Zhanjiang, China.

The spotted scat, Scatophagus argus is a member of the family Scatophagidae found in Indo-Pacific coastal waters. It is an emerging commercial aquaculture species, particularly in East and Southeast Asia. In this study, the first chromosome-level genome of S. argus was constructed using PacBio and Hi-C sequencing technologies. The genome is 572.42 Mb, with a scaffold N50 of 24.67 Mb. Using Hi-C data, 563.28 Mb (98.67% of the genome) sequences were anchored and oriented in 24 chromosomes, ranging from 12.57 Mb to 30.38 Mb. The assembly is of high integrity, containing 94.26% conserved single-copy orthologues, based on BUSCO analysis. A total of 24,256 protein-coding genes were predicted in the genome, and 96.30% of the predicted genes were functionally annotated. Evolutionary analysis showed that S. argus diverged from the common ancestor of Japanese puffer (Takifugu rubripes) approximately 114.8 Ma. The chromosomes of S. argus showed significant correlation to T. rubripes chromosomes. A comparative genomic analysis identified 49 unique and 90 expanded gene families. These genomic resources provide a solid foundation for functional genomics studies to decipher the economic traits of this species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/gbe/evab092DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8214404PMC
June 2021
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