Publications by authors named "Yang Hao"

1,188 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Clinical efficacy of intravitreal corticoid as an adjunctive therapy to anti-VEGF treatment of neovascular age-related macular degeneration: a Meta-analysis.

Int J Ophthalmol 2021 18;14(7):1092-1099. Epub 2021 Jul 18.

Department of Ophthalmology, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, Tianjin 300052, China.

Aim: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of intravitreal corticoid as an adjunctive therapy to anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) treatment of neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nvAMD).

Methods: Four databases including PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, and the clinicaltrials.gov were comprehensively searched for studies comparing intravitreal corticoid plus anti-VEGF (IVC/IVA) anti-VEGF monotherapy (IVA) in patients with nvAMD. GRADE profiler was used to assess the quality of outcomes. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), central macular thickness (CMT) and adverse events including the occurrence of severe elevation of intraocular pressure (IOP) and the progress of cataract were extracted from the eligible studies. Review Manager (RevMan) 5.3 was used to analyze the data.

Results: There was no statistic difference of mean change in BCVA at 6 and 12mo between IVC/IVA and IVA group [95% confidence interval (CI): -2.28 to 4.24, =0.55; 95%CI: -3.01 to 8.70, =0.34]. No statistic difference was found in the change of CMT between two groups at 6mo time point (95%CI: -17.98 to 16.42, =0.93) while the CMT reduction in IVC/IVA group was significantly more obvious than IVA group at 12mo time point [mean difference (MD)=-44.08, 95%CI: -80.52 to -7.63, =0.02]. The risk of occurrence of severe elevation of IOP in the IVC/IVA group was higher than that in the IVA group (95%CI: 1.92 to 9.48; =0.0004). Cataract progression risk was calculated no statistic difference between two groups (95%CI: 0.74 to 4.66; =0.18).

Conclusion: No visual or anatomical benefits are observed in IVC/IVA group at 6mo. At 12mo, the CMT of the IVC/IVA group is significantly lower than that of the IVA group. Risk of severe elevation of IOP is significantly higher when treated by IVC/IVA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18240/ijo.2021.07.19DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8243190PMC
July 2021

A tailored LNA clamping design principle: efficient, economized, specific and ultrasensitive for the detection of point mutations.

Biotechnol J 2021 Jul 18:e2100233. Epub 2021 Jul 18.

School of Biomedical Engineering/Med-X Research Institute, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, 200030, PR China.

In the development of personalized medicine, the ultrasensitive detection of point mutations that correlate with diseases is important to improve the efficacy of treatment and guide clinical medication. In this study, locked nucleic acid (LNA) was introduced as an amplification suppressor of a massive number of wild-type alleles in an amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS) to achieve the detection of low-abundance mutations with high specificity and sensitivity of at least 0.1%. By integrating the length of clamp, base type, number and position of LNA modifications, we have established a "shortest length with the fewest LNA bases" principle from which each LNA base would play a key role in the affinity and the ability of single base discrimination could be improve. Finally, based on this LNA design guideline, a series of the most important single point mutation sites of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) was verified to achieve the optimal amplification state which as low as 0.1% mutation gene amplification was not affected under the wild gene amplification was completely inhibited, demonstrating that the proposed design principle has good applicability and versatility and is of great significance for the detection of circulating tumor DNA. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/biot.202100233DOI Listing
July 2021

EnrichVisBox: A Versatile and Powerful Web Toolbox for Visualizing Complex Functional Enrichment Results of Omics Data.

J Comput Biol 2021 Jul 16. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Frontiers Science Center for Disease-Related Molecular Network, Institutes for Systems Genetics, Key Lab of Transplant Engineering and Immunology, MOH, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/cmb.2020.0564DOI Listing
July 2021

A comprehensive analysis of immune infiltration in the tumor microenvironment of osteosarcoma.

Cancer Med 2021 Jul 13. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Department of Respiratory Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, China.

Background: Even though immunotherapy has been an effective treatment for solid tumors, its efficacy in osteosarcoma remains sub-optimal. It is therefore imperative to understand the complex tumor microenvironment (TME) of osteosarcoma to facilitate the development of immunotherapies against this cancer.

Methods: The mRNA expression profiles of osteosarcoma tissues were downloaded from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. Next, the ssGSEA, MCP-counter, CIBERSORT, and Xcell algorithm analyses were performed to characterize the tumor microenvironment of osteosarcoma tissues. The tumor tissues were divided into inflammatory and non-inflammatory. A comprehensive assessment of immune cell infiltration in osteosarcoma tissues was then performed. Sub-group analysis of immune cell infiltration between men and women patients with osteosarcoma was also carried out.

Results: The results revealed that the infiltration of immune cells including activated B cell, activated CD8 T cell, CD56dim natural killer cell, and cytotoxic lymphocytes cells, in osteosarcoma tissues was higher in male than in female patients. Based on the infiltration profile of different immune cells, the osteosarcoma tissues were grouped into four clusters. The four clusters were further divided into hot and cold tumors. The differently expressed genes (DEGs) between cold and hot tumors were mainly associated with the activation and regulation of immune response. Additionally, a neuronal pentraxin (NPTX2) expression which was upregulated in cold tumors was found to be negatively correlated with the expression of CD8a Molecule (CD8A), Granzyme B (GZMB), and Interferon Gamma (IFNG). NPTX2 decreased CCL4 secretion. Knockdown of NPTX2 in osteosarcoma cells inhibited tumor growth and increased tumor cell apoptosis. Moreover, a prognosis prediction model of osteosarcoma was constructed and validated in patients receiving immunotherapy using external data.

Conclusions: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to characterize the infiltration of immune cells in osteosarcoma tissues from patients receiving immune infiltration therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cam4.4117DOI Listing
July 2021

Correction to: miR-330-5p targets SPRY2 to promote hepatocellular carcinoma progression via MAPK/ERK signaling.

Oncogenesis 2021 Jul 13;10(7):50. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Liver Cancer Laboratory, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41389-021-00340-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8277786PMC
July 2021

Patch-Wise Spatial-Temporal Quality Enhancement for HEVC Compressed Video.

IEEE Trans Image Process 2021 15;30:6459-6472. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Recently, many deep learning based researches are conducted to explore the potential quality improvement of compressed videos. These methods mostly utilize either the spatial or temporal information to perform frame-level video enhancement. However, they fail in combining different spatial-temporal information to adaptively utilize adjacent patches to enhance the current patch and achieve limited enhancement performance especially on scene-changing and strong-motion videos. To overcome these limitations, we propose a patch-wise spatial-temporal quality enhancement network which firstly extracts spatial and temporal features, then recalibrates and fuses the obtained spatial and temporal features. Specifically, we design a temporal and spatial-wise attention-based feature distillation structure to adaptively utilize the adjacent patches for distilling patch-wise temporal features. For adaptively enhancing different patch with spatial and temporal information, a channel and spatial-wise attention fusion block is proposed to achieve patch-wise recalibration and fusion of spatial and temporal features. Experimental results demonstrate our network achieves peak signal-to-noise ratio improvement, 0.55 - 0.69 dB compared with the compressed videos at different quantization parameters, outperforming state-of-the-art approach.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TIP.2021.3092949DOI Listing
July 2021

Exosomal IDH1 increases the resistance of colorectal cancer cells to 5-Fluorouracil.

J Cancer 2021 11;12(16):4862-4872. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Shanghai Key Laboratory of Molecular Imaging, Shanghai University of Medicine and Health Sciences, Shanghai 201318, China.

Chemoresistance challenges the clinical treatment of colorectal cancer and requires an urgent solution. Isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) is a key enzyme involved in glucose metabolism that mediates the malignant transformation of tumors. However, the mechanisms by which IDH1 is involved in colorectal cancer cell proliferation and drug resistance induction remain unclear. In this study, we found that IDH1 was highly expressed in human colorectal cancer tissues and could be used to indicate a high-grade tumor. gene overexpression and knockdown were used to determine whether IDH1 promoted the proliferation of the colorectal cancer cell line HCT8 and resistance to 5-Fluorouracil (5FU). Further studies have shown that the 5FU-resistant cell line, HCT8FU, secreted exosomes that contained a high level of IDH1 protein. The exosomal IDH1 derived from 5FU-resistant cells enhanced the resistance of 5FU-sensitive cells. Metabolic assays revealed that exosomes derived from 5FU-resistant cells promoted a decrease in the level of IDH1-mediated NADPH, which is associated with the development of 5FU resistance in colorectal cancer cells. Therefore, exosomal IDH1 may be the transmitter and driver of chemoresistance in colorectal cancer and a potential chemotherapy target.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/jca.58846DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8247374PMC
June 2021

Genome-wide identification, expression analysis, and functional study of the GRAS transcription factor family and its response to abiotic stress in sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench].

BMC Genomics 2021 Jul 6;22(1):509. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

College of Agriculture, Guizhou University, Huaxi District, 550025, Guiyang, People's Republic of China.

Background: GRAS, an important family of transcription factors, have played pivotal roles in regulating numerous intriguing biological processes in plant development and abiotic stress responses. Since the sequencing of the sorghum genome, a plethora of genetic studies were mainly focused on the genomic information. The indepth identification or genome-wide analysis of GRAS family genes, especially in Sorghum bicolor, have rarely been studied.

Results: A total of 81 SbGRAS genes were identified based on the S. bicolor genome. They were named SbGRAS01 to SbGRAS81 and grouped into 13 subfamilies (LISCL, DLT, OS19, SCL4/7, PAT1, SHR, SCL3, HAM-1, SCR, DELLA, HAM-2, LAS and OS4). SbGRAS genes are not evenly distributed on the chromosomes. According to the results of the gene and motif composition, SbGRAS members located in the same group contained analogous intron/exon and motif organizations. We found that the contribution of tandem repeats to the increase in sorghum GRAS members was slightly greater than that of fragment repeats. By quantitative (q) RT-PCR, the expression of 13 SbGRAS members in different plant tissues and in plants exposed to six abiotic stresses at the seedling stage were quantified. We further investigated the relationship between DELLA genes, GAs and grain development in S. bicolor. The paclobutrazol treatment significantly increased grain weight, and affected the expression levels of all DELLA subfamily genes. SbGRAS03 is the most sensitive to paclobutrazol treatment, but also has a high response to abiotic stresses.

Conclusions: Collectively, SbGRAs play an important role in plant development and response to abiotic stress. This systematic analysis lays the foundation for further study of the functional characteristics of GRAS genes of S. bicolor.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12864-021-07848-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8259154PMC
July 2021

Assessing clinicians' Post-Exposure Prophylaxis recommendations for rabies virus exposures in Hunan Province, China.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2021 Jul 6;15(7):e0009564. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

Division of Infectious Disease, Key Laboratory of Surveillance and Early-Warning on Infectious Disease, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, China.

Background: Timely and appropriate administration of post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) is an essential component of human rabies prevention programs. We evaluated patient care at rabies clinics in a high-risk county in Hunan Province, China to inform strategies needed to achieve dog-mediated human rabies elimination by 2030.

Methods: We collected information on PEP, staff capacity, and service availability at the 17 rabies clinics in the high-risk county during onsite visits and key staff interviews. Additionally, we conducted observational assessments at five of these clinics, identified through purposive sampling to capture real-time information on patient care during a four-week period. Wound categories assigned by trained observers were considered accurate per national guidelines for comparison purposes. We used the kappa statistic and an alpha level of 0.05 to assess agreement between observers and clinic staff.

Results: In 2015, the 17 clinics provided PEP to 5,261 patients. Although rabies vaccines were available at all 17 clinics, rabies immune globulin (RIG) was only available at the single urban clinic in the county. During the assessment period in 2016, 196 patients sought care for possible rabies virus exposures. According to observers, 88 (44%) patients had category III wounds, 104 (53%) had category II wounds and 4 (2%) had category I wounds. Observers and PEP clinic staff agreed on approximately half of the assigned wound categories (kappa = 0.55, p-value< 0.001). Agreement for the urban county-level CDC clinic (kappa = 0.93, p-value<0.001) was higher than for the township clinics (kappa = 0.16, p-value = 0.007). Using observer assigned wound categories, 142 (73%) patients received rabies vaccinations and RIG as outlined in the national guidelines.

Conclusion: Rabies PEP services were available at each town of the project county; however, gaps between clinical practice and national rabies guidelines on the use of PEP were identified. We used these findings to develop and implement a training to rabies clinic staff on wound categorization, wound care, and appropriate use of PEP. Additional risk-based approaches for evaluating human rabies virus exposures may be needed as China progresses towards elimination.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0009564DOI Listing
July 2021

Discovery of memantyl urea derivatives as potent soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitors against lipopolysaccharide-induced sepsis.

Eur J Med Chem 2021 Jun 29;223:113678. Epub 2021 Jun 29.

Key Laboratory of Structure-Based Drug Design & Discovery of Ministry of Education, School of Pharmaceutical Engineering, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, 103 Wenhua Road, Shenyang, Liaoning, 110016, China. Electronic address:

Sepsis, a systemic inflammatory response, caused by pathogenic factors including microorganisms, has high mortality and limited therapeutic approaches. Herein, a new soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) inhibitor series comprising a phenyl ring connected to a memantyl moiety via a urea or amide linkage has been designed. A preferential urea pharmacophore that improved the binding properties of the compounds was identified for those series via biochemical assay in vitro and in vivo studies. Molecular docking displayed that 3,5-dimethyl on the adamantyl group in B401 could make van der Waals interactions with residues at a hydrophobic pocket of sEH active site, which might indirectly explain the subnanomolar level activities of memantyl urea derivatives in vitro better than AR-9281. Among them, compound B401 significantly improved the inhibition potency with human and murine sEH IC values as 0.4 nM and 0.5 nM, respectively. Although the median survival time of C57BL/6 mice in LPS-induced sepsis model was slightly increased, the survival rate did not reach significant efficacy. Based on safety profile, metabolic stability, pharmacokinetic and in vivo efficacy, B401 demonstrated the proof of potential for this class of memantyl urea-based sEH inhibitors as therapeutic agents in sepsis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejmech.2021.113678DOI Listing
June 2021

Serum epidermal growth factor-like domain 7 serves as a novel diagnostic marker for early hepatocellular carcinoma.

BMC Cancer 2021 Jul 3;21(1):772. Epub 2021 Jul 3.

Department of Surgery, Liver Cancer Laboratory, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, 410008, Hunan, China.

Background: Epidermal growth factor-like domain 7 (Egfl7), a recently identified secreted protein, was significantly increased in patients with HCC by our previous studies. However, its efficacy in the diagnosis of early HCC remains unknown. In this study, we therefore evaluate the efficacy of serum Egfl7 for early HCC diagnosis and compare it with alpha-fetoprotein (AFP).

Methods: Serum Egfl7 levels in testing cohort (1081 participants) and validation cohort (476 participants) were measured by a sandwich enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA). The cut-off value of Egfl7 was determined by Youden's index and the efficacies of Egfl7 and AFP in diagnosing early HCC were estimated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC).

Results: Serum Egfl7 was significantly elevated in patients with early HCC than all non-HCC controls in whatever Testing Cohort or Validation Cohort. In the Testing Cohort, ROC curves showed the optimum cut-off value of Egfl7 was 2610 ng/mL and Egfl7 showed a significantly higher sensitivity than AFP in discriminating early HCC from healthy individuals (77.4% vs. 65.3%, P = 0.0013) but the area under ROC (AUROC) and accuracy of Egfl7 and AFP were similar (0.860 vs. 0.868, P = 0.704; 80.2% vs. 83.8%, P = 0.184). In distinguishing patients with early HCC from patients with chronic liver disease (CLD), the AUROC, sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of Egfl7 were 0.800, 75.2, 71.7 and 73.5%, which were all significantly higher than AFP (0.675, 61.8, 62.0 and 61.9% in order). Egfl7 also showed a significant higher sensitivity and accuracy than AFP (76.6% vs. 64.0%, P = 0.0031; 79.9% vs. 66.1%, P < 0.0001) in differentiating early HCC patients from non-HCC individuals. Additionally, 70.8% of early HCC patients with negative AFP could be diagnosed by Egfl7 and the combined use of Egfl7 and AFP increased the sensitivity to 91.0%. These results were confirmed by a validation cohort.

Conclusion: Egfl7 is a valuable serum marker in the diagnosis of early HCC and could complement the efficacy of AFP, especially in distinguishing early HCC from CLD and identifying patients with AFP-negative early HCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12885-021-08491-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8255001PMC
July 2021

Intra-articular Injection of Kartogenin-Enhanced Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells in the Treatment of Knee Osteoarthritis in a Rat Model.

Am J Sports Med 2021 Jul 2:3635465211023183. Epub 2021 Jul 2.

Orthopedic Research Institution, Department of Orthopedics, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.

Background: In this study, we investigated the in vitro and in vivo chondrogenic capacity of kartogenin (KGN)-enhanced bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) for cartilage regeneration.

Purpose: To determine (1) whether functionalized nanographene oxide (NGO) can effectively deliver KGN into BMSCs and (2) whether KGN would enhance BMSCs during chondrogenesis in vitro and in vivo in an animal model.

Study Design: Controlled laboratory study.

Methods: Functionalized NGO with line chain amine-terminated polyethylene glycol (PEG) and branched polyethylenimine (BPEI) were used to synthesize biocompatible NGO-PEG-BPEI (PPG) and for loading hydrophobic KGN molecules noncovalently via π-π stacking and hydrophobic interactions (PPG-KGN). Then, PPG-KGN was used for the intracellular delivery of hydrophobic KGN by simple mixing and co-incubation with BMSCs to acquire KGN-enhanced BMSCs. The chondrogenic efficacy of KGN-enhanced BMSCs was evaluated in vitro. In vivo, osteoarthritis (OA) was induced by anterior cruciate ligament transection in rats. A total of 5 groups were established: normal (OA treated with nothing), phosphate-buffered saline (PBS; intra-articular injection of PBS), PPG-KGN (intra-articular injection of PPG-KGN), BMSCs (intra-articular injection of BMSCs), and BMSCs + PPG-KGN (intra-articular injection of PPG-KGN-preconditioned BMSCs). At 6 and 9 weeks after the surgical induction of OA, the rats received intra-articular injections of PPG-KGN, BMSCs, or KGN-enhanced BMSCs. At 14 weeks after the surgical induction of OA, radiographic and behavioral evaluations as well as histological analysis of the knee joints were performed.

Results: The in vitro study showed that PPG could be rapidly uptaken in the first 4 hours after incubation, reaching saturation at 12 hours and accumulating in the lysosome and cytoplasm of BMSCs. Thus, PPG-KGN could enhance the efficiency of the intracellular delivery of KGN, which showed a remarkably high chondrogenic differentiation capacity of BMSCs. When applied to an OA model of cartilage injuries in rats, PPG-KGN-preconditioned BMSCs contributed to protection from joint space narrowing, pathological mineralization, OA development, and OA-induced pain, as well as improved tissue regeneration, as evidenced by radiographic, weightbearing, and histological findings.

Conclusion: Our results demonstrate that KGN-enhanced BMSCs showed markedly improved capacities for chondrogenesis and articular cartilage repair. We believe that this work demonstrates that a multifunctional nanoparticle-based drug delivery system could be beneficial for stem cell therapy. Our results present an opportunity to reverse the symptoms and pathophysiology of OA.

Clinical Relevance: The intracellular delivery of KGN to produce BMSCs with enhanced chondrogenic potential may offer a new approach for the treatment of OA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/03635465211023183DOI Listing
July 2021

Dietary Curcumin Alleviated Acute Ileum Damage of Ducks () Induced by AFB1 through Regulating Nrf2-ARE and NF-κB Signaling Pathways.

Foods 2021 Jun 14;10(6). Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Laboratory of Molecular Nutrition, Institute of Animal Nutrition, Northeast Agricultural University, Changjiang Street 600#, Xiangfang District, Harbin 150030, China.

Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a stable toxic metabolite threatening health of human and animal and widely contaminated animal feed and human food. This present study aimed to investigate the effects of dietary curcumin on ileum injury in ducks induced by AFB1 administration and explore its underlying mechanisms. Ducks ( = 450, one-day-old male) with a similar weight were randomly assigned to 3 groups, containing the control group, AFB1 group (60 μg AFB1 kg body weight) and curcumin (500 mg curcumin kg diet) + AFB1 group. AFB1 administration markedly increased the ileum damage, AFB1-DNA adducts in the plasma and oxidation stress and inflammation. Adding curcumin into diet protected the ileum against morphology damage induced by AFB1 administration, decreased AFB1-DNA adducts in the plasma and eliminated oxidation stress and inflammation in the ileum of ducks. Anti-oxidation and anti-inflammatory effects of curcumin could protect the ileum against acute damage via activating Nrf2-ARE signaling pathway and inhibiting NF-κB signaling pathway. Conclusively, curcumin was a dietary anti-oxidation and anti-inflammation agent via activating Nrf2-ARE signaling pathway and inhibiting NF-κB signaling pathway to protect ileum against acute damage induced by AFB1 administration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods10061370DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8231806PMC
June 2021

The prognostic value of lymph node ratio in patients with surgically resected stage I-III small-cell lung cancer: a propensity score matching analysis of the SEER database.

Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 2021 Jul 1. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Department of Respiratory and Critical Diseases, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China.

Objectives: Due to the lack of prospective studies, the role of the lymph node ratio (LNR) in small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) remains unknown. This study aimed to assess the prognostic effect of LNR in surgically resected stage I-III SCLC patients.

Methods: Clinical data of stage I-III (excluding N3 and NX) SCLC patients diagnosed between 1998 and 2016 were extracted from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results database. Patients were divided into low-risk and high-risk subsets based on the LNR cut-off value of 0.15 using X-tile software. Propensity score matching analysis was employed to reduce bias in baseline characteristics. Kaplan-Meier analysis was performed to determine the overall survival (OS) and lung cancer-specific survival (LCSS). Cox regression analysis was performed to evaluate the effects of multiple variables.

Results: A total of 978 patients were identified, of whom 669 (68.40%) had LNR ≤0.15. Patients with LNR ≤0.15 showed better OS (P < 0.001) and LCSS (P < 0.001) both before and after propensity score matching. Multivariable analyses of the matched population confirmed LNR as an independent prognostic factor. Patients with LNR >0.15 showed poorer OS [hazard ratio (HR) 1.55, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.09-2.19; P = 0.015] and LCSS (HR 1.65, 95% CI 1.13-2.43; P = 0.010). Subgroup analyses revealed that LNR ≤0.15 was associated with favourable OS (P = 0.009 and 0.197, respectively) and LCSS (P = 0.010 and 0.169, respectively) in N1 and N2 patients.

Conclusions: LNR was determined as an independent predictor for surgically resected stage I-III SCLC, indicating that higher LNR is associated with reduced survival. The predictive value of LNR should to be further validated in prospective studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ejcts/ezab287DOI Listing
July 2021

Predictions of Chemical Shifts for Reactive Intermediates in CO Reduction under Conditions.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Jul 29;13(27):31554-31560. Epub 2021 Jun 29.

Institute of Functional Nano & Soft Materials (FUNSOM), Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials & Devices, Joint International Research Laboratory of Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123, Jiangsu, PR China.

The electroreduction of CO into value-added products is a significant step toward closing the global carbon loop, but its performance remains far from meeting the requirement of any practical application. The insufficient understanding of the reaction mechanism is one of the major causes that impede future development. Although several possible reaction pathways have been proposed, significant debates exist due to the lack of experimental support. In this work, we provide opportunities for experiments to validate the reaction mechanism by providing predictions of the core-level shifts (CLS) of reactive intermediates, which can be verified by the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) data in the experiment. We first validated our methods from benchmark calculations of cases with reliable experiments, from which we reach consistent predictions with experimental results. Then, we conduct theoretical calculations under conditions close to the experimental ones and predict the C 1s CLS of 20 reactive intermediates in the CO reduction reaction (CORR) to CH and CH on a Cu(100) catalyst by carefully including solvation effects and applied voltage (U). The results presented in this work should be guidelines for future experiments to verify and interpret the reaction mechanism of CORR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c02909DOI Listing
July 2021

Maternal and neonatal outcomes of pregnancy complicated by urolithiasis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

J Nephrol 2021 Jun 26. Epub 2021 Jun 26.

Kidney Disease Center, The First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Qingchun Road 79, Hangzhou, 31000, People's Republic of China.

Background: The effect of urolithiasis on pregnancy-related outcomes remains unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the risk of adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes.

Methods: We searched PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library through December 2020 for studies reporting on adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes in patients with urolithiasis. Risk ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for these outcomes in pregnant mothers with urolithiasis and compared to healthy controls.

Results: Eight studies comprising 26,577 mothers with urolithiasis were included in our analysis. Preterm birth (OR = 1.63; 95% CI 1.37-1.95, p < 0.001) or very preterm birth risk (OR = 1.49, 95% CI 1.06-2.11, p = 0.02) was more common in patients with urolithiasis compared to healthy controls. Mothers with urolithiasis had an increased incidence of preeclampsia (OR = 1.75, 95% CI 1.33-2.3, p < 0.001), hypertension (OR = 2.97, 95% CI 1.31-6.71, p = 0.009), caesarean section (OR 1.31, 95% CI 1.11-1.55, p = 0.001), and gestational diabetes mellitus (OR 1.84, 95% CI 1.37-2.46, p < 0.001).

Conclusion: Patients with urolithiasis may be at increased risk of developing adverse maternal or neonatal outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40620-021-01093-zDOI Listing
June 2021

Punicalagin attenuates osteoarthritis progression via regulating Foxo1/Prg4/HIF3α axis.

Bone 2021 Nov 23;152:116070. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Department of Orthopedics, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450052, Henan Province, China.. Electronic address:

Background: Punicalagin (PUN) is a common anti-inflammatory polyphenol. However, the function and mechanism of PUN in osteoarthritis remains unknown.

Methods: Chondrocytes were isolated from rats, and confirmed by toluidine blue staining and immunofluorescence. Chondrocytes were challenged by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and rat osteoarthritis model was established by Hulth method. The secretion of inflammatory factors, cell viability and apoptosis were tested via enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), MTT and flow cytometry. The levels of forkhead box O1 (Foxo1), proteoglycan 4 (Prg4), hypoxia-inducible factor-3α (HIF3α), autophagy-related genes or extracellular matrix (ECM)-related proteins were examined via quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), western blot or immunohistochemistry. The cartilage tissue damage was assessed via hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining, toluidine blue staining and terminal dexynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated dUTP nick and labeling (TUNEL) staining.

Results: LPS triggered inflammatory injury in chondrocytes. PUN promoted autophagy to mitigate LPS-induced inflammatory injury. Foxo1 silence attenuated the effect of PUN on LPS-mediated autophagy inhibition and inflammatory injury. Promotion of Prg4/HIF3α axis abolished the influence of Foxo1 knockdown on LPS-mediated chondrocytes injury. PUN mitigated the inflammatory injury in rat osteoarthritis model by promoting autophagy and inhibiting inflammation and ECM degradation via Foxo1/Prg4/HIF3α axis.

Conclusion: PUN attenuates LPS-induced chondrocyte injury and osteoarthritis progression by regulating Foxo1/Prg4/HIF3α axis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bone.2021.116070DOI Listing
November 2021

Isolation, Antimicrobial Resistance Phenotypes, and Virulence Genes of From Pigs in China, 2018-2020.

Front Vet Sci 2021 8;8:672716. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, China.

is a leading cause of respiratory diseases in pigs. However, epidemiological data of in pigs particularly in China, the largest pig rearing country in the world is still limited. We isolated 181 strains from 4259 lung samples of dead pigs with respiratory diseases in 14 provinces in China from 2018 to 2020. The average isolation rate of this 3-year period was 4.25% (181/4259). Antimicrobial susceptibility testing performed by disc diffusion method revealed that most of the isolates in this study were resistant to ampicillin (83.98%), while a proportion of isolates were resistant to cefotaxime (30.39%%), chloramphenicol (12.71%), gentamicin (11.60%), florfenicol (11.60%), tetracycline (8.84%), amoxicillin (8.29%), tobramycin (6.63%), ceftriaxone (4.97%), and cefepime (0.55%). There were no isolates with resistant phenotypes to imipenem, meropenem, polymyxin B, ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, and amikacin. In addition, ~13.18% of the isolates showed phenotypes of multidrug resistance. Detection of antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs) by PCR showed that 16.57% of the isolates in this study was positive to , while 3.87%, 2.21%, 1.10%, 0.55%, 0.55%, and 0.55% of the isolates were positive to , , , and , respectively. Detection of virulence factors encoding genes (VFGs) by conventional PCR showed that over 90% of the pig isolates in this study were positive to the five VFGs examined (, 97.24%; , 91.16%; , 98.34%; , 98.34%; , 92.82%). These results demonstrate as an important pathogen associated with pig respiratory disorders in China. The present work contributes to the current understanding of the prevalence, antimicrobial resistance and virulence genes of in pigs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2021.672716DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8217433PMC
June 2021

Proteomic Analysis of Generative and Vegetative Nuclei Reveals Molecular Characteristics of Pollen Cell Differentiation in .

Front Plant Sci 2021 7;12:641517. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

State Key Laboratory of Wheat and Maize Crop Science, College of Life Sciences, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou, China.

In plants, the cell fates of a vegetative cell (VC) and generative cell (GC) are determined after the asymmetric division of the haploid microspore. The VC exits the cell cycle and grows a pollen tube, while the GC undergoes further mitosis to produce two sperm cells for double fertilization. However, our understanding of the mechanisms underlying their fate differentiation remains limited. One major advantage of the nuclear proteome analysis is that it is the only method currently able to uncover the systemic differences between VC and GC due to GC being engulfed within the cytoplasm of VC, limiting the use of transcriptome. Here, we obtained pure preparations of the vegetative cell nuclei (VNs) and generative cell nuclei (GNs) from germinating lily pollens. Utilizing these high-purity VNs and GNs, we compared the differential nucleoproteins between them using state-of-the-art quantitative proteomic techniques. We identified 720 different amount proteins (DAPs) and grouped the results in 11 fate differentiation categories. Among them, we identified 29 transcription factors (TFs) and 10 cell fate determinants. Significant differences were found in the molecular activities of vegetative and reproductive nuclei. The TFs in VN mainly participate in pollen tube development. In comparison, the TFs in GN are mainly involved in cell differentiation and male gametogenesis. The identified novel TFs may play an important role in cell fate differentiation. Our data also indicate differences in nuclear pore complexes and epigenetic modifications: more nucleoporins synthesized in VN; more histone variants and chaperones; and structural maintenance of chromosome (SMC) proteins, chromatin remodelers, and DNA methylation-related proteins expressed in GN. The VC has active macromolecular metabolism and mRNA processing, while GC has active nucleic acid metabolism and translation. Moreover, the members of unfolded protein response (UPR) and programmed cell death accumulate in VN, and DNA damage repair is active in GN. Differences in the stress response of DAPs in VN vs. GN were also found. This study provides a further understanding of pollen cell differentiation mechanisms and also a sound basis for future studies of the molecular mechanisms behind cell fate differentiation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2021.641517DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8215658PMC
June 2021

Elevated basal serum levels of calcitonin and simultaneous surgery of MEN2A-specific tumors.

Neoplasma 2021 Jun 23. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Department of Oncologic and Urologic Surgery, The 903rd PLA Hospital, Wenzhou Medical University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China.

Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A (MEN2A) is a rare syndrome caused almost by germline RET mutation, and characterized by medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC), in combination or not with pheochromocytoma (PHEO), hyperparathyroidism (HPTH), cutaneous lichen amyloidosis (CLA), and Hirschsprung's disease (HD). The basal serum calcitonin (Ctn)/carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) levels are significantly correlated with the MTC stage. Metachronous surgery of MEN2A-specific tumors is a routine procedure. We aimed to explore the clinical significance of pro-gastrin-releasing peptide (proGRP) in MTC with elevated Ctn and simultaneous surgery of MEN2A-specific tumors. We retrospectively investigated 8 RET mutation carriers of 2 Chinese pedigrees with MEN2A. Clinical profiles, imaging examinations, preoperative and postoperative biochemical data, surgical procedures, and follow-up records were evaluated. Three patients showed levels of elevated Ctn but normal proGRP. Among them, one patient (FAIII-6) in Family A (one for RET C634R mutation), diagnosed with bilateral MTC, left PHEO, bilateral HPTH and CLA, classified as MEN2A-related CLA subtype, underwent successfully simultaneous adrenal-sparing surgery (ASS), total thyroidectomy (TT) and parathyroidectomy, while TT of the other two patients (FBII-3 and FBIII-7) diagnosed with bilateral MTC in Family B (all for RET C618R mutation) were performed. Unexpectedly, the absence of neck lymph node MTC metastasis was indicated by histopathological examination. Postoperatively, all had consistently "undetectable" or normal levels of Ctn/CEA during follow-up. Patients with normal proGRP, despite high levels of Ctn, might have no regional lymph node MTC metastasis, and neck dissection should be avoided. Moreover, simultaneous surgery for coexistent PHEO and either MTC or HPTH is an approach of choice to use as an alternative treatment pattern. Recognition of MEN2A-related CLA and subsequently early screening of RET mutation may be favorable for timely management of MEN2A-specific tumors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4149/neo_2021_210330N419DOI Listing
June 2021

Efficient bidirectional marching solver for optical propagation in three-dimensional waveguide structures.

Authors:
Hao Yang

Opt Express 2021 Jun;29(12):18291-18303

A novel bidirectional operator marching method based on the Dirichlet-to-Neumann (DtN) mapping for three-dimensional optical waveguide structures is developed and implemented using iterative methods. The backward propagation wave is integrated into the classical operator marching approach which represents the forward propagating wave. The bidirectional range marching formulas are exact for each range-independent piece and a large range step is possible in both directions. The validity and effectiveness of our proposed method are verified by analyzing uniform waveguides and longitudinal waveguides with varying refractive indices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.428014DOI Listing
June 2021

Association Between Different Obesity Patterns and the Risk of Developing Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Among Adults in Eastern China: A Cross-Sectional Study.

Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes 2021 10;14:2631-2639. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Health Examination Center, Huadong Sanatorium, Wuxi, 214065, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: Obesity has become a public health challenge worldwide and can lead to the development of diabetes. However, studies examining the associations between different obesity patterns and the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in China are limited. Therefore, this study aimed to explore the associations between three obesity patterns and the risk of T2DM development in Eastern China.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted at our health examination center, involving 5860 adults, from June to December 2019. Data, including sociodemographic information, lifestyle, and biochemical measurements, were collected, and obesity was classified into three patterns: overweight and general obesity, abdominal obesity, and compound obesity. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess the associations between different obesity patterns and T2DM risk after adjustment for confounding factors. Subgroup analysis was used to further explore the associations between obesity patterns and T2DM risk.

Results: A total of 5860 subjects were enrolled in this study. A significant difference in the T2DM incidence was observed between men and women with normal weight or overweight and general obesity ( < 0.05); however, no significant differences were observed between men and women with abdominal obesity and compound obesity. After multivariable adjustment, multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the odds ratios (ORs) [95% confidence interval (CI)] for T2DM in individuals with abdominal and compound obesity were 1.55 [1.08-2.24] and 1.85 [1.25-2.73], respectively, compared with the normal-weight group. Subgroup analysis showed that different obesity patterns were not independent risk factors for T2DM development among adults aged ≥ 60 years, whereas abdominal and compound obesity were highly associated with the risk of T2DM development among individuals who report current smoking or alcohol drinking.

Conclusion: Abdominal obesity and compound obesity are risk factors for T2DM. More attention should be paid to obesity prevention among individuals younger than 60 years and improving control of cigarette and alcohol abuse.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/DMSO.S309400DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8203197PMC
June 2021

2D-layered Mg(OH) material adsorbing cellobiose via interfacial chemical coupling and its applications in handling toxic Cd and UO ions.

Chemosphere 2021 Sep 24;279:130617. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

Key Laboratory of Functional Inorganic Material Chemistry (Ministry of Education), School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Heilongjiang University, Harbin, 150080, China. Electronic address:

The interfacial chemistry of nanocomposite materials is of overarching importance in the separation and purification science; moreover, its understanding helps to guide synthesis, clarify structure-property relationship and unearth novel applications. However, the composites feature rather complicated local structures and hydrogen bonds are often involved in the interface and the vicinity of active sites. In this regard, density functional theory first-principle calculations associated with experimental study have synergistically examined two-dimensional (2D) magnesium hydroxide material with different layers and their adsorption toward cellobiose. Hydrogen bonds are found responsible for the interfacial coupling, which make it vital to cover the dispersion correction in the calculation. The average adsorption energy ranges from -0.29 to -0.35 eV, falling well within the range of reported hydrogen-bonding strength. On the basis of calculated structural/interfacial properties and experimental findings, the 2D Mg(OH) in terms of three-layer model was unraveled to substitute toxic Cd ion and sorb radioactive UO that is coordinated by water and hydroxyl groups. These reactions are thermodynamically feasible. The ion-exchanging mechanism was proposed for cadmium removal and the outer-sphere adsorption one for uranium extraction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.130617DOI Listing
September 2021

Uncontrolled Confounders May Lead to False or Overvalued Radiomics Signature: A Proof of Concept Using Survival Analysis in a Multicenter Cohort of Kidney Cancer.

Front Oncol 2021 27;11:638185. Epub 2021 May 27.

Department of Radiology, Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York, NY, United States.

Purpose: We aimed to explore potential confounders of prognostic radiomics signature predicting survival outcomes in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) patients and demonstrate how to control for them.

Materials And Methods: Preoperative contrast enhanced abdominal CT scan of ccRCC patients along with pathological grade/stage, gene mutation status, and survival outcomes were retrieved from The Cancer Imaging Archive (TCIA)/The Cancer Genome Atlas-Kidney Renal Clear Cell Carcinoma (TCGA-KIRC) database, a publicly available dataset. A semi-automatic segmentation method was applied to segment ccRCC tumors, and 1,160 radiomics features were extracted from each segmented tumor on the CT images. Non-parametric principal component decomposition (PCD) and unsupervised hierarchical clustering were applied to build the radiomics signature models. The factors confounding the radiomics signature were investigated and controlled sequentially. Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox regression analyses were performed to test the association between radiomics signatures and survival outcomes.

Results: 183 patients of TCGA-KIRC cohort with available imaging, pathological, and clinical outcomes were included in this study. All 1,160 radiomics features were included in the first radiomics signature. Three additional radiomics signatures were then modelled in successive steps removing redundant radiomics features first, removing radiomics features biased by CT slice thickness second, and removing radiomics features dependent on tumor size third. The final radiomics signature model was the most parsimonious, unbiased by CT slice thickness, and independent of tumor size. This final radiomics signature stratified the cohort into radiomics phenotypes that are different by cancer-specific and recurrence-free survival; HR (95% CI) = 3.0 (1.5-5.7), p <0.05 and HR (95% CI) = 6.6 (3.1-14.1), p <0.05, respectively.

Conclusion: Radiomics signature can be confounded by multiple factors, including feature redundancy, image acquisition parameters like slice thickness, and tumor size. Attention to and proper control for these potential confounders are necessary for a reliable and clinically valuable radiomics signature.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.638185DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8191735PMC
May 2021

The electronic structure of FeV-cofactor in vanadium-dependent nitrogenase.

Chem Sci 2021 Mar 29;12(20):6913-6922. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Utah State University Logan UT 84322 USA +1-435-797-3964.

The electronic structure of the active-site metal cofactor (FeV-cofactor) of resting-state V-dependent nitrogenase has been an open question, with earlier studies indicating that it exhibits a broad = 3/2 EPR signal (Kramers state) having values of ∼4.3 and 3.8, along with suggestions that it contains metal-ions with valencies [1V, 3Fe, 4Fe]. In the present work, genetic, biochemical, and spectroscopic approaches were combined to reveal that the EPR signals previously assigned to FeV-cofactor do not correlate with active VFe-protein, and thus cannot arise from the resting-state of catalytically relevant FeV-cofactor. It, instead, appears resting-state FeV-cofactor is either diamagnetic, = 0, or non-Kramers, integer-spin ( = 1, 2 ). When VFe-protein is freeze-trapped during high-flux turnover with its natural electron-donating partner Fe protein, conditions which populate reduced states of the FeV-cofactor, a new rhombic = 1/2 EPR signal from such a reduced state is observed, with = [2.18, 2.12, 2.09] and showing well-defined V ( = 7/2) hyperfine splitting, = 110 MHz. These findings indicate a different assignment for the electronic structure of the resting state of FeV-cofactor: = 0 (or integer-spin non-Kramers state) with metal-ion valencies, [1V, 4Fe, 3Fe]. Our findings suggest that the V does not change valency throughout the catalytic cycle.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0sc06561gDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8153082PMC
March 2021

Effects of dietary resveratrol supplementation on the chemical composition, oxidative stability and meat quality of ducks (Anas platyrhynchos).

Food Chem 2021 Jun 1;363:130263. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Laboratory of Molecular Nutrition, Institute of Animal Nutrition, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030, PR China. Electronic address:

The effects of dietary resveratrol (0, 300, 400 and 500 mg/kg) on the chemical composition, antioxidative capacity, meat quality and volatile compound concentrations of duck meat were investigated. The results showed that dietary resveratrol had no significant effects on the chemical composition. Dietary resveratrol supplementation increased superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, catalase activity, pH, pH and color, and reduced the malondialdehyde, and carbonyl contents and shear force, thereby improving water mobility and distribution (T, T, T), drip loss, cooking loss and volatile compounds concentration of duck meat. In conclusion, dietary resveratrol supplementation improved the meat quality of ducks by enhancing the antioxidant capacity, improving the color and shear force, and suppressing lipid and protein oxidation, and 500 mg/kg dietary resveratrol had the greatest effect in this study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2021.130263DOI Listing
June 2021

Global Trends in Research of Macrophages Associated With Acute Lung Injury Over Past 10 Years: A Bibliometric Analysis.

Front Immunol 2021 20;12:669539. Epub 2021 May 20.

Department of Anesthesiology, Shanghai Pulmonary Hospital, School of Medicine, Tongji University, Shanghai, China.

Acute lung injury (ALI) is an intractable disorder associated with macrophages. This bibliometric analysis was applied to identify the characteristics of global scientific output, the hotspots, and frontiers about macrophages in ALI over the past 10 years. We retrieved publications published from 2011 to 2020 and their recorded information from Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-expanded) of Web of Science Core Collection (WoSCC). Bibliometrix package was used to analyze bibliometric indicators, and the VOSviewer was used to visualize the trend and hotspots of researches on macrophages in ALI. Altogether, 2,632 original articles were reviewed, and the results showed that the annual number of publications (Np) concerning the role of macrophages in ALI kept increasing over the past 10 years. China produced the most papers, the number of citations (Nc) and H-index of the USA ranked first. Shanghai Jiaotong University and INT IMMUNOPHARMACOL were the most prolific affiliation and journal, respectively. Papers published by Matute-Bello G in 2011 had the highest local citation score (LCS). Recently, the keywords "NLRP3" and "extracellular vesicles" appeared most frequently. Besides, researches on COVID-19-induced ALI related to macrophages seemed to be the hotspot recently. This bibliometric study revealed that publications related to macrophages in ALI tend to increase continuously. China was a big producer and the USA was an influential country in this field. Most studies were mainly centered on basic researches in the past decade, and pathways associated with the regulatory role of macrophages in inhibiting and attenuating ALI have become the focus of attention in more recent studies. What is more, our bibliometric analysis showed that macrophages play an important role in COVID-19-induced ALI and may be a target for the treatment of COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2021.669539DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8173163PMC
June 2021

Genome-wide identification and expression analysis of the bHLH transcription factor family and its response to abiotic stress in sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench].

BMC Genomics 2021 Jun 5;22(1):415. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

College of Agriculture, Guizhou University, Huaxi District, Guiyang City, 550025, Guizhou Province, P.R. China.

Background: Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) is a superfamily of transcription factors that is widely found in plants and animals, and is the second largest transcription factor family in eukaryotes after MYB. They have been shown to be important regulatory components in tissue development and many different biological processes. However, no systemic analysis of the bHLH transcription factor family has yet been reported in Sorghum bicolor.

Results: We conducted the first genome-wide analysis of the bHLH transcription factor family of Sorghum bicolor and identified 174 SbbHLH genes. Phylogenetic analysis of SbbHLH proteins and 158 Arabidopsis thaliana bHLH proteins was performed to determine their homology. In addition, conserved motifs, gene structure, chromosomal spread, and gene duplication of SbbHLH genes were studied in depth. To further infer the phylogenetic mechanisms in the SbbHLH family, we constructed six comparative syntenic maps of S. bicolor associated with six representative species. Finally, we analyzed the gene-expression response and tissue-development characteristics of 12 typical SbbHLH genes in plants subjected to six different abiotic stresses. Gene expression during flower and fruit development was also examined.

Conclusions: This study is of great significance for functional identification and confirmation of the S. bicolor bHLH superfamily and for our understanding of the bHLH superfamily in higher plants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12864-021-07652-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8178921PMC
June 2021