Publications by authors named "Yang Bi"

152 Publications

Regulates Differentiation of Infection Structures Induced by Physicochemical Signals From Pear Fruit Cuticular Wax, Secondary Metabolism, and Pathogenicity of .

Front Plant Sci 2021 21;12:642601. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

College of Food Science and Engineering, Gansu Agricultural University, Lanzhou, China.

, the casual agent of black rot of pear fruit, can sense and respond to the physicochemical cues from the host surface and form infection structures during infection. To evaluate the role of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (cAMP-PKA) signaling in surface sensing of , we isolated and functionally characterized the cyclic adenosine monophosphate-dependent protein kinase A catalytic subunit gene (). Gene expression results showed that was strongly expressed during the early stages of appressorium formation on hydrophobic surfaces. Knockout mutants Δ were generated by replacing the target genes via homologous recombination events. We found that intracellular cAMP content increased but PKA content decreased in Δ mutant strain. Appressorium formation and infection hyphae were reduced in the Δ mutant strain, and the ability of the Δ mutant strain to recognize and respond to high hydrophobicity surfaces and different surface waxes was lower than in the wild type (WT) strain. In comparison with the WT strain, the appressorium formation rate of the Δ mutant strain on high hydrophobicity and fruit wax extract surface was reduced by 31.6 and 49.3% 4 h after incubation, respectively. In addition, is required for the hypha growth, biomass, pathogenicity, and toxin production of . However, negatively regulated conidia formation, melanin production, and osmotic stress resistance. Collectively, is required for pre-penetration, developmental, physiological, and pathological processes in
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2021.642601DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8096925PMC
April 2021

Indocyanine Green Uptake and Periodic Acid-Schiff Staining Method for Function Detection of Liver Cells are Affected by Different Cell Confluence.

Cytotechnology 2021 Apr 30;73(2):159-167. Epub 2021 Jan 30.

Department of Pediatric Research Institute of Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, National Clinical Research Center for Child Health and Disorders, Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Child Development and Disorders, Chongqing Key Laboratory of Pediatrics, Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, People's Republic of China.

Hepatic stem cell transplantation has been demonstrated as an effective alternative therapy for the end-stage liver failure patients. Therefore, the functional detection of hepatic stem cell is essentially required. The present study confirmed that adenovirus BMP9 (Ad-BMP9) could increase the ALB-Gluc activity of HP14-19 hepatic progenitor cells, the expression of specific hepatic markers ALB, TAT, UGT1A were up-regulated while the hepatic stem cell markers DLK, AFP were down-regulated, and the number of positive Periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) stained cells were significantly higher than those in control group. However, the indocyanine green (ICG) uptake failed to be detectable in induced hepatocytes, which was inconsistent. By using another cell line LC14d, we found out that positive ICG uptake cells were located in the area of low cell density, while positive PAS stained cells were mainly concentrated in the area where cells were overlapped, indicating that different cell confluence might affect the outcomes of ICG uptake and PAS staining. A manual wound healing of Ad-BMP9 induced HP14-19 cells was made, the crawling cells were stained positive for ICG but not for PAS. Therefore, our finding may provide evidence for better application of PAS staining and ICG uptake assay in functional detection of mature hepatocytes.

Supplementary Information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s10616-021-00453-8.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10616-021-00453-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8035352PMC
April 2021

The Effect of Environmental pH during (Pers.:Fr.) Link Inoculation of Apple Fruits on the Host Differential Reactive Oxygen Species Metabolism.

Antioxidants (Basel) 2021 Apr 28;10(5). Epub 2021 Apr 28.

College of Food Science and Engineering, Gansu Agricultural University, Lanzhou 730070, China.

is an important postharvest pathogen, belonging to an alkalizing group of pathogens secreting ammonia during fungal growth and colonization of apple fruits. Fungal pH modulation is usually considered a factor for improving fungal gene expression, contributing to its pathogenicity. However, the effects of inoculation with spore suspensions at increasing pH levels from pH 3 up to pH 7, on the reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and scavenging capability of the apple fruits, affecting host susceptibility, indicate that the pH regulation by the pathogens also affects host response and may contribute to colonization. The present results indicate that the inoculation of spores at pH 3 caused the lowest cell membrane permeability, and reduced malondialdehyde content, NADPH oxidases activity, O and HO production in the colonized fruit. Observations of the colonized area on the 9th day after inoculation at pH 3, showed that the rate of O production and HO content was reduced by 57% and 25%, compared to their activities at pH 7. In contrast, antioxidative activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and peroxidases of fruit tissue inoculated with spores' suspension in the presence of a solution at pH 3.0 showed their highest activity. The catalase and peroxidases activities in the colonized tissue at pH 3 were higher by almost 58% and 55.9%, respectively, on the 6th day after inoculation compared to inoculation at pH 7. The activities of key enzymes of the ascorbate-glutathione (AsA-GSH) cycle and their substrates and products by the 9th day after fruit inoculation at pH 3 showed 150%, 31%, 16%, and 110% higher activities of ascorbate peroxidase, monodehydroascorbate reductase, dehydroascorbate reductase and glutathione reductase, respectively, compared to pH 7. A similar pattern of response was also observed in the accumulation of ascorbic acid and dehydroascorbate which showed a higher accumulation at pH 3 compared to the colonization at pH 7. The present results indicate that the metabolic regulation of the pH environment by the not only modulates the fungal pathogenicity factors reported before, but it induces metabolic host changes contributing both together to fungal colonization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/antiox10050692DOI Listing
April 2021

Erratum: Urine-derived stem cells accelerate the recovery of injured mouse hepatic tissue.

Am J Transl Res 2021 15;13(3):1904. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Stem Cell Biology and Therapy Laboratory, Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University Chongqing, P. R. China.

[This corrects the article on p. 5131 in vol. 12, PMID: 33042410.].
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8014404PMC
March 2021

Hypoxia Preconditioning Promotes the Proliferation and Migration of Urine-Derived Stem Cells in Chronically Injured Liver of Mice by Upregulating .

Stem Cells Dev 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Stem Cell Biology and Therapy Laboratory, Department of Pediatric Surgery Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Child Development and Disorders, National Clinical Research Center for Child Health and Disorders (Chongqing), China International Science and Technology Cooperation Base of Child Development and Critical Disorders, Chongqing Key Laboratory of Pediatrics, Chongqing, P.R. China.

Our previous studies reported that urine-derived stem cells (USCs) possess a strong self-renewal ability and multidirectional differentiation potential and thus are an ideal candidate cell source for hepatocellular transplantation. USC transplantation may repair the pathological changes of chronic liver injury to a certain extent, and hypoxia pretreatment may improve the recovery efficiency of USCs. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the possible mechanism of the improved recovery efficiency of hypoxia-pretreated USCs. A chronic liver injury model was established by intraperitoneal injection of carbon tetrachloride into nude mice. USCs were transplanted via caudal vein injection. Hematoxylin and eosin staining and Masson's staining were performed to determine the pathology of the liver. Immunofluorescence and frozen section biopsy were performed to determine differentiation and cell fusion in vivo. Cell coculture was used to detect cell fusion in vitro. The proliferative ability of USCs was evaluated using cell viability and colony formation assays, and the migratory functions of USCs were evaluated using wound healing and transwell assays. The degeneration of hepatocytes and the level of fibrosis in the hypoxia transplantation group were improved compared with the normoxia transplantation group. It was found that exogenous USCs may be differentiated into functional hepatocytes or fused with hepatocytes in vivo. C-X-C motif chemokine (CXC) ligand 12 (CXCL12) expression levels in liver tissue of the chronic liver injury model were upregulated compared with those in the control group. The expression of CXC receptor 4 () in hypoxia-pretreated USCs was also significantly upregulated. The results suggested that USCs fused with different types of liver cells and that hypoxia treatment promoted the fusion rate in vitro by upregulating signaling. Furthermore, hypoxia pretreatment promoted cell proliferation, migration, and cell fusion by inducing signaling, leading to USC-elicited liver tissue recovery following injury in vivo.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/scd.2021.0008DOI Listing
April 2021

Arabidopsis ACINUS is O-glycosylated and regulates transcription and alternative splicing of regulators of reproductive transitions.

Nat Commun 2021 02 11;12(1):945. Epub 2021 Feb 11.

Department of Plant Biology, Carnegie Institution for Science, Stanford, CA, USA.

O-GlcNAc modification plays important roles in metabolic regulation of cellular status. Two homologs of O-GlcNAc transferase, SECRET AGENT (SEC) and SPINDLY (SPY), which have O-GlcNAc and O-fucosyl transferase activities, respectively, are essential in Arabidopsis but have largely unknown cellular targets. Here we show that AtACINUS is O-GlcNAcylated and O-fucosylated and mediates regulation of transcription, alternative splicing (AS), and developmental transitions. Knocking-out both AtACINUS and its distant paralog AtPININ causes severe growth defects including dwarfism, delayed seed germination and flowering, and abscisic acid (ABA) hypersensitivity. Transcriptomic and protein-DNA/RNA interaction analyses demonstrate that AtACINUS represses transcription of the flowering repressor FLC and mediates AS of ABH1 and HAB1, two negative regulators of ABA signaling. Proteomic analyses show AtACINUS's O-GlcNAcylation, O-fucosylation, and association with splicing factors, chromatin remodelers, and transcriptional regulators. Some AtACINUS/AtPININ-dependent AS events are altered in the sec and spy mutants, demonstrating a function of O-glycosylation in regulating alternative RNA splicing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-20929-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7878923PMC
February 2021

Accommodation and binocular vision changes after wearing orthokeratology lens in 8- to 14-year-old myopic children.

Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2021 Feb 2. Epub 2021 Feb 2.

Department of Optometry and Visual Science, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, No. 37, Guoxuexiang, Wuhou District, Chengdu, 610041, Sichuan, China.

Purpose: The study aimed to observe and analyze the dynamic accommodation and binocular vision changes in myopic children after they switched from spectacles to orthokeratology (ortho-k) lenses.

Methods: Thirty-six myopic children aged 8-14 years were enrolled in this prospective, self-controlled study from West China Hospital. General information was gathered, and examinations were performed at baseline and at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after switching to ortho-k lenses. The examination included assessments of distance/near visual acuity, distance/near horizontal and vertical ocular alignment, distance/near horizontal vergence range, accommodative amplitude, monocular/binocular accommodative facility, accommodative response, positive and negative relative accommodation (PRA/NRA), accommodation convergence/accommodation (AC/A), stereopsis, and reading ability.

Results: After the children switched to ortho-k lenses, distance and near ocular alignment showed an exophoric shift (distance: p = 0.001, near: p = 0.002), and the horizontal vergence range decreased by different degrees (convergence: distance blur point (p = 0.002), distance break point (p = 0.005), near blur point (p = 0.011), near break point (p = 0.043); divergence: distance break point (p < 0.001), distance recover point (p < 0.001), near recover point (p = 0.005)). The stereopsis ability (p < 0.001), monocular/binocular accommodative facility (p < 0.001), and PRA (p = 0.010) increased. The accommodative lag (p < 0.001), accommodative amplitude (p < 0.001), and calculated and gradient AC/A (calculated: p = 0.001, gradient: p = 0.025) decreased. The adjusted horizontal and vertical reading times and their ratio decreased (all p < 0.001).

Conclusion: The subjects showed distance and near exophoric shifts after switching to ortho-k lenses; improvements in accommodative function, stereopsis, and ocular motility; and a decrease in the binocular horizontal vergence range. The relationships between these changes and the ortho-k myopic control effects require further investigation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00417-021-05106-2DOI Listing
February 2021

Novel colorimetric aptasensor based on unmodified gold nanoparticle and ssDNA for rapid and sensitive detection of T-2 toxin.

Food Chem 2021 Jun 19;348:129128. Epub 2021 Jan 19.

College of Food Science and Engineering, Gansu Agricultural University, Lanzhou 730070, China. Electronic address:

A novel colorimetric aptasensor based on unmodified gold nanoparticle (AuNPs) and single-strand DNA (ssDNA) aptamer was developed for the rapid and sensitive detection of T-2 toxin. In the absence of T-2, the AuNPs were wrapped by the aptamer to avoid the salt-induced aggregation and the solution remains red. In the presence of T-2, the aptamer was bound with T-2 and released from the surface of AuNPs, resulting in the aggregation of AuNPs under proper salt solution and the color change from red to purple-blue. The aptasensor exhibited a high sensitivity and selectivity for the detection of T-2. The range of linearity and detection limit were 0.1 ng/mL-5000 ng/mL (0.21435 nM-10717.5 nM) and 57.8 pg/mL (0.124 nM), respectively. The aptasensor developed here was applicable to assay T-2 in wheat and corn samples. These results implied that the colorimetric aptasensor was potentially useful in food detection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2021.129128DOI Listing
June 2021

Folic acid rescues all-trans retinoic acid-induced anorectal malformations in rats.

Birth Defects Res 2020 12 14;112(20):1850-1856. Epub 2020 Oct 14.

Department of Neonatal Gastrointestinal Surgery, Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Child Development and Disorders, National Clinical Research Center for Child Health and Disorders (Chongqing), China International Science and Technology Cooperation base of Child Development and Critical Disorders, Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, P.R. China.

Background: To investigate whether folic acid (FA) can rescue anorectal malformations (ARMs) induced by all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) in rats.

Methods: Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups. In the model group, rats were administered ATRA (110 mg/kg) by gavage on the 10th day of gestation (E10.5). Rats in the rescue group were administered FA (40 mg/kg) by gavage 0.5 and 12 hr after treatment with ATRA. All fetuses were harvested on E20.5 using cesarean section and examined for ARMs. We recorded the weight, body length, tail length, and associated malformations of all the embryos. Hematoxylin and eosin staining was used to analyze the histopathology of the fetuses.

Results: Control rats did not show any abnormalities. ARMs, tail deformities (less than half of normal length), and neural tube defects were found in 97.98% (97/99), 92.93% (92/99), and 32.32% (32/99) of the rats in the model group, respectively. The incidence of ARMs and tail deformities were 48.57% (51/105) and 35.24% (37/105), respectively, in the rescue rats; no neural tube defects were observed in these rats. The weight, body length, and tail length of the fetal rats in the rescue group were more than those in the model group, but less than those in the control group.

Conclusion: Taken together, FA rescued ARMs induced by ATRA in rats. Thus, FA may reduce the incidence of associated malformations and improve the growth and development of fetal rats.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bdr2.1810DOI Listing
December 2020

A novel mycovirus infecting Aspergillus nidulans that is closely related to viruses in a new genus of the family Partitiviridae.

Arch Virol 2021 Feb 6;166(2):659-664. Epub 2021 Jan 6.

School of Environmental Sciences, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, N1G 2W1, Canada.

The bisegmented genome of a novel double-stranded (ds) RNA mycovirus, named "Aspergillus nidulans partitivirus 1" (AnPV1), isolated from the fungus Aspergillus nidulans strain HJ5-47, was sequenced and analyzed. AnPV1 contains two segments, AnPV1-1 and AnPV1-2. AnPV1-1 has 1837 bp with an open reading frame (ORF) that potentially encodes a putative RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) of 572 amino acids (aa). AnPV1-2 has 1583 bp with an ORF encoding a putative capsid protein (CP) of 488 aa. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that AnPV1 and related viruses clustered in a group that could represent a new unclassified genus in the family Partitiviridae.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00705-020-04930-xDOI Listing
February 2021

Host Factors Modulating Ochratoxin A Biosynthesis during Fruit Colonization by .

J Fungi (Basel) 2020 Dec 28;7(1). Epub 2020 Dec 28.

Institute of Postharvest and Food Sciences, The Volcani Center, Agricultural Research Organization, Rishon LeZion 7528809, Israel.

is a strong and consistent ochratoxin A (OTA) producer and considered to be the main source of this toxic metabolite in grapes and grape products such as wine, grape juice and dried vine fruit. OTA is produced under certain growth conditions and its accumulation is affected by several environmental factors, such as growth phase, substrate, temperature, water activity and pH. In this study, we examined the impact of fruit host factors on regulation and accumulation of OTA in colonized grape berries, and assessed in vitro the impact of those factors on the transcriptional levels of the key genes and global regulators contributing to fungal colonization and mycotoxin synthesis. We found that limited sugar content, low pH levels and high malic acid concentrations activated OTA biosynthesis by , both in synthetic media and during fruit colonization, through modulation of global regulator of secondary metabolism, and OTA gene cluster expression. These findings indicate that fruit host factors may have a significant impact on the capability of to produce and accumulate OTA in grapes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jof7010010DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7823970PMC
December 2020

All-trans-retinoic acid inhibits the malignant behaviors of hepatocarcinoma cells by regulating autophagy.

Am J Transl Res 2020 15;12(10):6793-6810. Epub 2020 Oct 15.

Department of Pediatric Research Institute of Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, National Clinical Research Center for Child Health and Disorders, Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Child Development and Disorders, Chongqing Key Laboratory of Pediatrics Chongqing, P.R. China.

Hepatocellular carcinoma is the fourth leading cause of cancer-related deaths due to its high rate of recurrence and metastasis. All-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) can inhibit the malignant behaviors of hepatocarcinoma cells. Autophagy is reportedly involved in the migration and metastasis of various cancer cells. This study aimed to investigate the effect of autophagy on the function of ATRA on hepatocarcinoma cells, and to explore its possible underlying mechanism. Hepatocarcinoma cell lines, Hepa1-6 and HepG2, were treated with ATRA and autophagy inhibitors, including 3-methyladenine (3-MA) and Bafilomycin (Baf). Transmission electron microscopy, laser scanning, western blot, and real-time PCR demonstrated that ATRA induces autophagy in hepatocarcinoma cells. Trypan blue staining, a wound healing assay, and a transwell assay showed that 3-MA and Baf reverses the inhibitory functions of ATRA on the proliferation, migration, and invasion of hepatocarcinoma cells. Flow cytometry, Hoechst staining, periodic acid-Schiff staining, and indocyanine green uptake validated that 3-MA and Baf reverses the function of ATRA on apoptosis and the differentiation of hepatocarcinoma cells. Real-time PCR, western blot, and an immunofluorescence assay demonstrated that the reversal of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) process by ATRA is weakened when autophagy is inhibited. Additionally, we confirmed that Bcl-2 is associated with the induction of ATRA-induced autophagy instead of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway. These findings suggest that ATRA induces autophagy and autophagic cell death through the Bcl-2/Beclin1 pathway. Furthermore, ATRA-induced autophagy is involved in the inhibitory effect of ATRA on the malignant behaviors of hepatocarcinoma cells by reversing the EMT process.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7653590PMC
October 2020

Functional roles of LaeA, polyketide synthase, and glucose oxidase in the regulation of ochratoxin A biosynthesis and virulence in Aspergillus carbonarius.

Mol Plant Pathol 2021 01 10;22(1):117-129. Epub 2020 Nov 10.

Institute of Postharvest and Food Sciences, The Volcani Center, Agricultural Research Organization, Rishon LeZion, Israel.

Aspergillus carbonarius is the major producer of ochratoxin A (OTA) among Aspergillus species, but the contribution of this secondary metabolite to fungal virulence has not been assessed. We characterized the functions and addressed the roles of three factors in the regulation of OTA synthesis and pathogenicity in A. carbonarius: LaeA, a transcriptional factor regulating the production of secondary metabolites; polyketide synthase, required for OTA biosynthesis; and glucose oxidase (GOX), regulating gluconic acid (GLA) accumulation and acidification of the host tissue during fungal growth. Deletion of laeA in A. carbonarius resulted in significantly reduced OTA production in colonized nectarines and grapes. The ∆laeA mutant was unable to efficiently acidify the colonized tissue, as a direct result of diminished GLA production, leading to attenuated virulence in infected fruit compared to the wild type (WT). The designed Acpks-knockout mutant resulted in complete inhibition of OTA production in vitro and in colonized fruit. Interestingly, physiological analysis revealed that the colonization pattern of the ∆Acpks mutant was similar to that of the WT strain, with high production of GLA in the colonized tissue, suggesting that OTA accumulation does not contribute to A. carbonarius pathogenicity. Disruption of the Acgox gene inactivated GLA production in A. carbonarius, and this mutant showed attenuated virulence in infected fruit compared to the WT strain. These data identify the global regulator LaeA and GOX as critical factors modulating A. carbonarius pathogenicity by controlling transcription of genes important for fungal secondary metabolism and infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/mpp.13013DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7749749PMC
January 2021

Reshaping the Immune Microenvironment by Oncolytic Herpes Simplex Virus in Murine Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma.

Mol Ther 2021 02 30;29(2):744-761. Epub 2020 Oct 30.

State Key Laboratory of Medicinal Chemical Biology and College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, Tianjin 300350, PR China; Key Laboratory of Microbial Functional Genomics of Ministry of Education, College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071, PR China. Electronic address:

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is the major type of pancreatic malignancy with very poor prognosis. Despite the promising results of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) in some solid tumors, immunotherapy is less effective for PDAC due to its immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment (TME). In this report, we established an immunocompetent syngeneic PDAC model and investigated the effect of oncolytic herpes simplex virus-1 (oHSV) on the composition of TME immune cells. The oHSV treatment significantly reduced tumor burden and prolonged the survival of tumor-bearing mice. Further, by single cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) and multicolor fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis, we demonstrated that oHSV administration downregulated tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs), especially the anti-inflammatory macrophages, and increased the percentage of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes, including activated cytotoxic CD8 T cells and T helper (Th)1 cells. Besides, the combination of oHSV and immune checkpoint modulators extended the lifespan of the tumor-bearing mice. Overall, our data suggested that oHSV reshapes the TME of PDAC by boosting the immune activity and leads to improved responsiveness of PDAC to immunotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ymthe.2020.10.027DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7854309PMC
February 2021

Heterokaryotic state of a point mutation (H249Y) in SDHB protein drives the evolution of thifluzamide resistance in Rhizoctonia solani.

Pest Manag Sci 2021 Mar 16;77(3):1392-1400. Epub 2020 Nov 16.

State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology for Arid Areas, College of Plant Protection, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, China.

Background: Sheath blight, caused by Rhizoctonia solani, can be effectively controlled by application of the succinate dehydrogenase inhibitor thifluzamide. Although the risk of resistance to thifluzamide in R. solani had been reported, the thifluzamide-resistance mechanism and the evolution of thifluzamide-resistance in R. solani have not been investigated in detail.

Results: No differences were found between the sequences of proteins SDHA, SDHC, and SDHD in thifluzamide-sensitive isolates and thifluzamide-resistant mutants, but a single point mutation H249Y was found in SDHB. Two different types of thifluzamide-resistant R. solani mutants were characterized: homokaryotic, carrying only the resistance allele; and heterokaryotic, retaining the wild-type allele in addition to the resistance allele. The resistance level differed according to the nuclear composition at codon 249 in the sdhB gene. Molecular docking results suggested that the point mutation (H249Y) might significantly alter the affinity of thifluzamide and SDHB protein. Heterokaryotic mutants were able to evolve into a homokaryon when repeatedly cultured on agar media or rice plants in the presence of thifluzamide, but thifluzamide treatment had no effect on the genotypes of homokaryotic mutants or sensitive isolates.

Conclusion: This study showed that H249Y in SDHB protein could cause thifluzamide resistance in R. solani. Fungicide application could promote heterokaryotic mutants to evolve into a homokaryon. © 2020 Society of Chemical Industry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ps.6155DOI Listing
March 2021

Analysis of parental decisions to use orthokeratology for myopia control in successful wearers.

Ophthalmic Physiol Opt 2021 Jan 16;41(1):3-12. Epub 2020 Oct 16.

School of Optometry, Centre for Myopia Research, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong.

Purpose: To investigate factors that influence parental decisions to use orthokeratology (ortho-k) as a myopia control method for their children, and parents' perspectives during children's ortho-k treatment in a hospital setting.

Methods: Parents/guardians of children wearing ortho-k lenses for at least six months were required to complete a face-to-face survey to investigate the reasons for choosing ortho-k and their experience of the treatment.

Results: Parents/guardians of 128 ortho-k wearers were recruited from the West China Hospital, Sichuan, China. The majority of the participants (74%) were mothers. Wearers' mean age at the time of the survey was 12.0 ± 2.0 years, with a mean history of ortho-k lens wear of 20.3 ± 8.0 months. Most participants had learned about ortho-k through word of mouth (56%) or from ophthalmologists (40%); in China, only ophthalmologists may prescribe ortho-k. The highest ranked motivation was the rapid progression of their children's myopia (54%), followed by ophthalmologists' advice (17%) or participants' who felt they had obtained enough knowledge (17%) of ortho-k (Kruskal-Wallis test, p = 0.002). 'Effectiveness' was the most common reason that participants decided to use ortho-k (81%), and potential injury was their major concern (75%). Itchy/sore eye was the most common initial adverse effect experienced with lens wear (22%), while a lost or broken ortho-k lens was the most frequently reported problem (34%). Parents of older lens wearers were significantly less involved in all procedures (Spearman rank correlation test, all p < 0.001). Most wearers, according to either the participants or the wearers themselves, were willing to wear ortho-k lenses at treatment commencement (80%), and the most common reason was 'to avoid having to wear spectacles in the daytime'.

Conclusions: The most powerful motivation for parents to enrol their children in ortho-k treatment was the rapid progression of myopia. The main reason why participants chose ortho-k, which most participants learned of by word of mouth, was the effectiveness of the treatment. During use, the most common symptom reported was itchy or sore eyes, but only initially. Children's willingness to participate is very important for successful ortho-k treatment; however, their motivation can be quite different from that of their parents. Ortho-k is a well-accepted option for myopia control in children.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/opo.12744DOI Listing
January 2021

Urine-derived stem cells accelerate the recovery of injured mouse hepatic tissue.

Am J Transl Res 2020 15;12(9):5131-5150. Epub 2020 Sep 15.

Stem Cell Biology and Therapy Laboratory, Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University Chongqing, P. R. China.

Urine-derived stem cells (USCs) are autologous stem cells that exhibit self-renewal ability and multi-lineage differentiation potential. These characteristics make USCs an ideal cell source for hepatocellular transplantation. Here, we investigated the biological characteristics of USCs and their potential use for the treatment of chronic liver injury. We characterized the cell-surface marker profile of USCs by flow cytometry and determined the osteogenic, adipogenic, and hepatic differentiation capacities of USCs using histology. We established a chronic liver-injury model by intraperitoneally injecting carbon tetrachloride into nude mice. USCs were then transplanted via tail vein injection. To determine liver function and histopathology following chronic liver injury, we calculated the liver index, measured serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels, and performed histological staining. USCs were small, adherent cells expressing mesenchymal but not hematopoietic stem-cell markers. Some induced USCs underwent osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation. When co-cultured with hepatic progenitor cells, about 10% of USCs underwent hepatic differentiation. The ALT and AST levels of the USC-transplanted group were lower than that of the chronic liver-injury model group, and there were no significant differences between the two USC-transplanted groups. However, hepatocyte degeneration and liver fibrosis substantially improved in the hypoxia-pretreated USC-transplanted group compared with the normoxia USC-transplanted group. Taken together, USCs display desirable proliferation and differentiation characteristics, and USC transplantation partially improves abnormal liver function and pathology associated with chronic liver injury. Furthermore, hypoxia pretreatment promotes cell proliferation, migration, and colony formation by inducing autophagy, leading to USC-elicited liver tissue recovery following injury .
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7540109PMC
September 2020

Isolation and Characterization of Human Synovial Fluid-Derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells from Popliteal Cyst.

Stem Cells Int 2020 18;2020:7416493. Epub 2020 Sep 18.

Department of Orthopedics, Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Child Development and Disorders, National Clinical Research Center for Child Health and Disorders, China International Science and Technology Cooperation Base of Child Development and Critical Disorders, Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China.

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent progenitor cells in adult tissues. The aim of this study is to isolate and identify synovial fluid-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (SF-MSCs) from the popliteal cyst fluid of pediatric patients. SF-MSCs were collected from the popliteal cyst fluid of pediatric patients during cystectomy surgery. After cyst fluid extraction and adherent culturing, in vitro morphology, growth curve, and cell cycle were observed. The expression of stem cell surface markers was analyzed by flow cytometry, and expression of cell marker protein was detected by immunofluorescence. SF-MSCs were cultured in osteogenic, adipogenic, and chondrogenic differentiation medium. The differentiation potential of SF-MSCs was analyzed by alkaline phosphatase (Alizarin Red), Oil Red O, and Alcian blue. Antibody detection of human angiogenesis-related proteins was performed compared with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs). The results show that SF-MSCs from the popliteal cyst fluid of pediatric patients showed a shuttle appearance and logarithmic growth. Flow cytometry analysis revealed that SF-MSCs were negative for hematopoietic lineage markers (CD34, CD45) and positive for MSC markers (CD44, CD73, CD90, and CD105). Interstitial cell marker (vimentin) and myofibroblast-like cell marker alpha-smooth muscle actin (-SMA) were positive. These cells could differentiate into osteogenic, adipogenic, and chondrogenic lineages, respectively. Several types of human angiogenesis-related proteins were detected in the cell secretory fluid. These results show that we successfully obtained SF-MSCs from the popliteal cyst fluid of pediatric patients, which have the potential to be a valuable source of MSCs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/7416493DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7519976PMC
September 2020

[Significant Increase in Astigmatism after Cycloplegia in Two Children].

Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban 2020 Sep;51(5):725-728

Department of Ophthalmology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, China.

Two cases with high corneal astigmatism and mixed astigmatism were reported. Both cases showed significantly increased astigmatism after cycloplegia. Combined with the patients' refractive error, corneal topography and wavefront aberration changes, the possible causes were analyzed. Aberration changes caused by pupil dilation, corneal astigmatism differences in different diameter ranges, and changes in lens astigmatism before and after cycloplegia may lead to increased astigmatism after cycloplegia. It was found that cycloplegic refraction may not accurately reflect the refractive status in daily life for children with high corneal astigmatism, especially mixed astigmatism. Because children need refractive correction in the state of natural pupil, it is recommended that the cycloplegic refraction result could not be directly used as prescription for such children. The final prescription should be based on the topography and the refraction result under natural pupil.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12182/20200960203DOI Listing
September 2020

Consumer responses to savings message framing.

Ann Tour Res 2020 Sep 17;84:102998. Epub 2020 Jul 17.

School of Hospitality Management, The Pennsylvania State University, 224 Mateer Building, University Park, PA 16802, United States.

Despite the prevalent use of savings messages (e.g., "get $x off" and "save $x"), no previous tourism and hospitality research has examined their effect on consumer responses. To fill that void, this study investigates the joint effect of savings message type (gain-framed vs. nonloss-framed) and weather conditions (sunny vs. rainy) on consumer attitude. The results show that individuals in rainy weather respond more favorably to a gain-framed (vs. nonloss-framed) message, and this effect is attenuated among people in sunny weather. Furthermore, this study reveals a boundary condition. When the amount of savings is presented in percentage terms (e.g., "get x% off" and "save x%"), the superiority of a gain frame disappears. Theoretical and managerial implications are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.annals.2020.102998DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7367006PMC
September 2020

Antibiotic eye drops prescription patterns by orthokeratology practitioners in China and the development of antibiotic usage guidelines.

Cont Lens Anterior Eye 2020 Aug 11. Epub 2020 Aug 11.

School of Optometry, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region.

Purpose: To investigate antibiotic eye drops prescribing patterns of contact lens practitioners in Mainland China for orthokeratology (ortho-k) patients and to develop guidelines for their use.

Methods: A questionnaire on their antibiotic prescribing habits was administered to eye care practitioners (ECP) involved in ortho-k lens fitting nationwide via an official online account. Multiple logistic regression models were used to assess the relationships between prescribing habits and demographics.

Results: A total of 555 ECP completed the survey, of whom 50.5 % were optometrists (non-medical degree). About 30 % of the respondents routinely prescribed antibiotic eye drops for prophylactic use before and/or after commencement of ortho-k treatment. Forty one percent of the respondents dispensed antibiotics to patients for emergency use without giving written instructions, 48.5 % used antibiotic eye drops to wet fluorescein strips during ortho-k lens fitting, and 44.9 % considered treating corneal infiltrate(s) with antibiotics to be appropriate. A set of guidelines, including when to use antibiotic eye drops during ortho-k lens treatment and their proper use, stratified by different corneal conditions, was developed.

Conclusions: Inappropriate use of antibiotic eye drops appeared to be common among ortho-k practitioners in Mainland China. Taking into account deficiencies and errors identified from the survey, a set of guidelines based on best practice was developed and can serve to provide advice for proper use of antibiotics in ortho-k practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clae.2020.07.005DOI Listing
August 2020

Modification performance and electrochemical characteristics of different groups of modified aptamers applied for label-free electrochemical impedimetric sensors.

Food Chem 2021 Feb 4;337:127761. Epub 2020 Aug 4.

College of Food Science and Engineering, Gansu Agricultural University, Lanzhou 730070, PR China; Department of Postharvest Science of Fresh Produce, the Volcani Center, Agricultural Research Organization, Bet Dagan 50250, Israel.

Amino and thiolated aptamers are the main aptamers used to construct label-free electrochemical impedimetric aptasensors. In this study, the modification performance and electrochemical properties of amino aptamers and thiolated aptamers were studied in the construction of label-free impedimetric sensors. The results showed that the initial modification density of amino aptamers was higher than that of thiol aptamers. Aptamers can recognize and bind OTA to generate electrical signals. The higher the density of aptamer modification was, the better the electric signals were. If only considering the initial modification density, amino aptamers were more suitable for the preparation of aptasensors than thiolated aptamers. However, the modification density of the amino aptamer decreased with the prolonged immersion time in 1 mM HCl solution, which suggests that the stability of this sensor was poor. However, the thiolated aptamer maintained relatively constant density and could be reused. Thus, the thiolated aptasensor had a wide range and good reproducibility and stability for the determination of ochratoxin A (OTA). In addition, this study proved that gold nanoparticles play an important role in signal amplification by increasing the effective gold surface to fix more aptamers in the process of sensor preparation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2020.127761DOI Listing
February 2021

Phospholipase C From Is Induced by Physiochemical Cues on the Pear Fruit Surface That Dictate Infection Structure Differentiation and Pathogenicity.

Front Microbiol 2020 30;11:1279. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

College of Food Science and Engineering, Gansu Agricultural University, Lanzhou, China.

To investigate the mechanisms of phospholipase C (PLC)-mediated calcium (Ca) signaling in , the regulatory roles of PLC were elucidated using neomycin, a specific inhibitor of PLC activity. Three isotypes of PLC designated , , and were identified in through genome sequencing. qRT-PCR analysis showed that fruit wax extracts significantly upregulated the expression of all three PLC genes . Pharmacological experiments showed that neomycin treatment led to a dose-dependent reduction in spore germination and appressorium formation in . Appressorium formation was stimulated on hydrophobic and pear wax-coated surfaces but was significantly inhibited by neomycin treatment. The appressorium formation rates of neomycin treated on hydrophobic and wax-coated surfaces decreased by 86.6 and 47.4%, respectively. After 4 h of treatment, exogenous CaCl could partially reverse the effects of neomycin treatment. Neomycin also affected mycotoxin production in alternariol (AOH), alternariol monomethyl ether (AME), altenuene (ALT), and tentoxin (TEN), with exogenous Ca partially reversing these effects. These results suggest that PLC is required for the growth, infection structure differentiation, and secondary metabolism of in response to physiochemical signals on the pear fruit surface.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2020.01279DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7339947PMC
June 2020

Vision-related quality of life of Chinese children undergoing orthokeratology treatment compared to single vision spectacles.

Cont Lens Anterior Eye 2020 Jul 13. Epub 2020 Jul 13.

School of Optometry, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong.

Objective: To measure and compare the vision-related quality of life between Chinese children wearing orthokeratology (ortho-k) lenses and single vision spectacles, to understand acceptance of ortho-k treatment by children in China.

Methods: Subjects of Chinese origin, with myopia of -5.00 to -0.75 D, astigmatism < 1.50 D were recruited. All subjects had been wearing optical correction - ortho-k lenses or single vision spectacles (SVS), for the past 12-18 months and were aged between 8-12 years. The Pediatric Refractive Error Profile (PREP) questionnaire, translated to Chinese, was used to evaluate the perceptions of children wearing spectacles in overall vision, near vision, far vision, symptoms, appearance, satisfaction, activities, academic performance, handling of optical corrections, and peer perceptions. PREP questions, rephrased to address the same issues for ortho-k subjects who did not wear spectacles in the daytime, were used for ortho-k wearers (PREP-OK). The mean score of all items was calculated as the overall score. For ortho-k wearers, four additional questions on experience and frequency of symptoms: experiencing difficulty in falling asleep, ocular discomfort, itchy/burning/dry eyes, and foreign body sensation during ortho-k lens wear at night were asked and reported separately.

Results: Forty subjects (20 ortho-k, 20 SVS) completed the study. Overall vision, far vision, appearance, satisfaction, activities, and peer perception scores in the ortho-k group were significantly better than the SVS group (all P < 0.05). Handling of optical correction score in the ortho-k group was significantly worse than the SVS group (P = 0.04). No significant differences in near vision, symptoms in the daytime and academic performance were found between two groups (P > 0.05). With respect to symptoms during ortho-k lens wear at night, none of the subjects reported difficulty in falling asleep, but 30-40 % of subjects reported occasional ocular discomfort, itchy/burning/dry eyes, and foreign body sensation after lens insertion.

Conclusion: Although ortho-k may induce some ocular discomfort with lens wear during the night, these were infrequent and the benefits from ortho-k can compensate for the discomfort, leading to better vision-related quality of life in Chinese children, compared with those wearing SVS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clae.2020.07.001DOI Listing
July 2020

Orthokeratology in adults and factors affecting success: Study design and preliminary results.

Cont Lens Anterior Eye 2020 12 1;43(6):595-601. Epub 2020 May 1.

School of Optometry, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong, China.

Objective: To report the study design and one month's preliminary results of a randomized, single-masked, one-year prospective study of orthokeratology (ortho-k) in adults wearing lenses of different compression factors.

Methods: Adults aged 18-38 years, with myopia of -0.75 to -5.00 D and astigmatism < 1.50 D, were recruited and randomly assigned into two groups: a conventional compression factor or Jessen Factor (CCF) group (compression factor = 0.75 D) and an increased (extra 1.00D) compression factor (ICF) group. Clinical outcomes, including spherical equivalent refraction (SER) reduction, visual acuity, corneal hysteresis (CH) and corneal resistance factor (CRF), and signs and symptoms were collected at the one-month follow-up visit. Indicators of the level of satisfaction and quality of life after commencing treatment were determined via a satisfaction questionnaire and the NEI-RQL-42 questionnaire.

Results: Baseline data from 26 CCF and 24 ICF participants were analysed and no significant differences were observed between the two groups (p > 0.05). The first fit success rates were 90 % for CCF group and 83 % for the ICF group, SER reductions were 97 % and 95 % for the CCF and ICF group, respectively, with uncorrected high-contrast visual acuity of -0.06 (-0.18 to 0.42) and 0.00 (-0.16 to 0.52), respectively (p > 0.05) at the 1-month visit. Overall, the incidence of corneal staining was 77 % in the CCF and 79 % in ICF group; central corneal staining was 15 % and 33 %, respectively. However, the differences of corneal staining between the groups did not reach significance in any visit (p > 0.05). The main complaint from participants was glare (both groups). No significant differences in CRF and CH were found in the first month (p > 0.05). Both groups recorded high scores in the level of satisfaction questionnaire, with no significant differences between groups (p > 0.05). Compared with baseline scores, 1-month NEI-RQL-42 subscales of dependence on correction, appearance, and satisfaction with correction significantly increased, and the glare score significantly decreased in both groups (all p < 0.05).

Conclusions: The majority of participants were satisfied with the treatment and no serious corneal adverse effects were observed. These results demonstrate that ortho-k lenses of default and increased compression factor (1D) demonstrated similar clinical performance and ortho-k can be a safe and well-accepted option for myopia correction in adults, but long-term observation is warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clae.2020.03.016DOI Listing
December 2020

Study on the motion law of aerosols produced by human respiration under the action of thermal plume of different intensities.

Sustain Cities Soc 2020 Mar 10;54:101935. Epub 2019 Dec 10.

School of Municipal and Environmental Engineering, Shenyang Jianzhu University, Shenyang, 110168, China.

Predicting influence of human thermal plume on the diffusion of respiration-produced particles is an important issue for improving indoor air quality through eliminating infectious microbes efficiently. In this study, the Large Eddy Simulation was utilized to predict the effects of thermal plume of different intensities on particle diffusion. Three postures of the human body model and three room temperatures were considered. The results show that the convective heat transfer coefficient on the surface of the human body varies greatly with different postures. The coefficient is the largest when the model is in sitting posture, leading to the greatest heat transfer rate. Meanwhile, the thermal plume generated by bending the thigh increases the size of the facial thermal plume in horizon direction. The increase of the difference between indoor temperature and skin temperature causes an increase of the convective heat transfer of the manikin, leading to stronger airflow in front of the face. The thicker and faster the human thermal plume is, the more difficult it is penetrated by aerosols produced by nasal breathing, finally resulting in most particles distributed within 0.2 m thick under the roof.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scs.2019.101935DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7104152PMC
March 2020

The pH-Responsive Transcription Factor PacC Governs Pathogenicity and Ochratoxin A Biosynthesis in .

Front Microbiol 2020 13;11:210. Epub 2020 Feb 13.

Institute of Postharvest and Food Sciences, Agricultural Research Organization, Volcani Center, Rishon LeZion, Israel.

Pathogenic fungi must respond effectively to changes in environmental pH for successful host colonization, virulence and toxin production. is a mycotoxigenic pathogen with the ability to colonize many plant hosts and secrete ochratoxin A (OTA). In this study, we characterized the functions and addressed the role of PacC-mediated pH signaling in pathogenicity using designed gene knockout mutant. Δ mutant displayed an acidity-mimicking phenotype, which resulted in impaired fungal growth at neutral/alkaline pH, accompanied by reduced sporulation and conidial germination compared to the wild type (WT) strain. The Δ mutant was unable to efficiently acidify the growth media as a direct result of diminished gluconic and citric acid production. Furthermore, loss of resulted in a complete inhibition of OTA production at pH 7.0. Additionally, Δ mutant exhibited attenuated virulence compared to the WT toward grapes and nectarine fruits. Reintroduction of gene into Δ mutant restored the WT phenotype. Our results demonstrate important roles of PacC of in OTA biosynthesis and in pathogenicity by controlling transcription of genes important for fungal secondary metabolism and infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2020.00210DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7031272PMC
February 2020

Mechanism of Ca-mediated NOX modulated in ROS metabolism induced by T-2 toxin in potato tuber.

Food Chem 2020 Jul 14;317:126416. Epub 2020 Feb 14.

College of Science, Gansu Agricultural University, Lanzhou 730070, PR China.

T-2 toxin at low concentrations can induce ROS accumulation and modulate host resistance in plants. NOX plays crucial roles in ROS production and is regulated by Cavia direct binding to EF-hand motifs. In this study, the effect of EGTA (Ca chelating agent) on the expression and enzymatic activity of NOX, as well as the activities and corresponding gene expressions involved in ROS metabolism and cell membrane integrity, were investigated in treated slices. Results indicated that EGTA treatment significantly affected gene expression and activity of NOX, and reduced ROS accumulation and cell membrane integrity and the enzymatic activities and gene expression involved in ROS metabolism when exposed to treatment. The addition of exogenous Ca restored the initial relative transcript abundance, ROS accumulation and their activities. Results suggest that Ca affected by EGTA plays a crucial role in NOX activity regulation, ultimately affecting ROS metabolism in slices induced by T-2 toxin.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2020.126416DOI Listing
July 2020

2-Phenylethyl Isothiocyanate Exerts Antifungal Activity against by Affecting Membrane Integrity and Mycotoxin Production.

Toxins (Basel) 2020 02 15;12(2). Epub 2020 Feb 15.

College of Food Science and Engineering, Gansu Agricultural University, Lanzhou 730070, China.

Black spot caused by is one of the important diseases of pear fruit during storage. Isothiocyanates are known as being strong antifungal compounds in vitro against different fungi. The aim of this study was to assess the antifungal effects of the volatile compound 2-phenylethyl isothiocyanate (2-PEITC) against in vitro and in pear fruit, and to explore the underlying inhibitory mechanisms. The in vitro results showed that 2-PEITC significantly inhibited spore germination and mycelial growth of the inhibitory effects showed a dose-dependent pattern and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was 1.22 mM. The development of black spot rot on the pear fruit inoculated with was also significantly decreased by 2-PEITC fumigation. At 1.22 mM concentration, the lesion diameter was only 39% of that in the control fruit at 7 days after inoculation. Further results of the leakage of electrolyte, increase of intracellular OD, and propidium iodide (PI) staining proved that 2-PEITC broke cell membrane permeability of . Moreover, 2-PEITC treatment significantly decreased alternariol (AOH), alternariolmonomethyl ether (AME), altenuene (ALT), and tentoxin (TEN) contents of . Taken together, these data suggest that the mechanisms underlying the antifungal effect of 2-PEITC against might be via reduction in toxin content and breakdown of cell membrane integrity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/toxins12020124DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7077316PMC
February 2020

Cuminal Inhibits Growth by Triggering Cell Starvation: Transcriptome and Proteome Analysis.

Microorganisms 2020 Feb 14;8(2). Epub 2020 Feb 14.

College of Food Science and Engineering, Gansu Agricultural University, Lanzhou 730070, China.

is a harmful postharvest fungus causing serious damage, together with the secretion of insidious mycotoxins, on apples, melons, and other important fruits. Cuminal, a predominant component of essential oil has proven to successfully inhibit the growth of in vitro and in vivo. Electron microscopic observations revealed cuminal exposure impaired the fungal morphology and ultrastructure, particularly the plasmalemma. Transcriptome and proteome analysis was used to investigate the responses of to exposure of cuminal. In total, 2825 differentially expressed transcripts (1516 up and 1309 down) and 225 differentially expressed proteins (90 up and 135 down) were determined. Overall, notable parts of these differentially expressed genes functionally belong to subcellular localities of the membrane system and cytosol, along with ribosomes, mitochondria and peroxisomes. According to the localization analysis and the biological annotation of these genes, carbohydrate and lipids metabolism, redox homeostasis, and asexual reproduction were among the most enriched gene ontology (GO) terms. Biological pathway enrichment analysis showed that lipids and amino acid degradation, ATP-binding cassette transporters, membrane reconstitution, mRNA surveillance pathway and peroxisome were elevated, whereas secondary metabolite biosynthesis, cell cycle, and glycolysis/gluconeogenesis were down regulated. Further integrated omics analysis showed that cuminal exposure first impaired the polarity of the cytoplasmic membrane and then triggered the reconstitution and dysfunction of fungal plasmalemma, resulting in handicapped nutrient procurement of the cells. Consequently, fungal cells showed starvation stress with limited carbohydrate metabolism, resulting a metabolic shift to catabolism of the cell's own components in response to the stress. Additionally, these predicaments brought about oxidative stress, which, in collaboration with the starvation, damaged certain critical organelles such as mitochondria. Such degeneration, accompanied by energy deficiency, suppressed the biosynthesis of essential proteins and inhibited fungal growth.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8020256DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7074788PMC
February 2020