Publications by authors named "Yanfang Zhang"

201 Publications

Binding and molecular basis of the bat coronavirus RaTG13 virus to ACE2 in humans and other species.

Cell 2021 May 24. Epub 2021 May 24.

CAS Key Laboratory of Pathogenic Microbiology and Immunology, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China; University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China. Electronic address:

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been spreading worldwide, causing a global pandemic. Bat-origin RaTG13 is currently the most phylogenetically related virus. Here we obtained the complex structure of the RaTG13 receptor binding domain (RBD) with human ACE2 (hACE2) and evaluated binding of RaTG13 RBD to 24 additional ACE2 orthologs. By substituting residues in the RaTG13 RBD with their counterparts in the SARS-CoV-2 RBD, we found that residue 501, the major position found in variants of concern (VOCs) 501Y.V1/V2/V3, plays a key role in determining the potential host range of RaTG13. We also found that SARS-CoV-2 could induce strong cross-reactive antibodies to RaTG13 and identified a SARS-CoV-2 monoclonal antibody (mAb), CB6, that could cross-neutralize RaTG13 pseudovirus. These results elucidate the receptor binding and host adaption mechanisms of RaTG13 and emphasize the importance of continuous surveillance of coronaviruses (CoVs) carried by animal reservoirs to prevent another spillover of CoVs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2021.05.031DOI Listing
May 2021

Molecular basis of cross-species ACE2 interactions with SARS-CoV-2-like viruses of pangolin origin.

EMBO J 2021 May 21:e107786. Epub 2021 May 21.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Shanxi Agricultural University, Jinzhong, China.

Pangolins have been suggested as potential reservoir of zoonotic viruses, including SARS-CoV-2 causing the global COVID-19 outbreak. Here, we study the binding of two SARS-CoV-2-like viruses isolated from pangolins, GX/P2V/2017 and GD/1/2019, to human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (hACE2), the receptor of SARS-CoV-2. We find that the spike protein receptor-binding domain (RBD) of pangolin CoVs binds to hACE2 as efficiently as the SARS-CoV-2 RBD in vitro. Furthermore, incorporation of pangolin CoV RBDs allows entry of pseudotyped VSV particles into hACE2-expressing cells. A screen for binding of pangolin CoV RBDs to ACE2 orthologs from various species suggests a broader host range than that of SARS-CoV-2. Additionally, cryo-EM structures of GX/P2V/2017 and GD/1/2019 RBDs in complex with hACE2 show their molecular binding in modes similar to SARS-CoV-2 RBD. Introducing the Q498H substitution found in pangolin CoVs into the SARS-CoV-2 RBD expands its binding capacity to ACE2 homologs of mouse, rat, and European hedgehog. These findings suggest that these two pangolin CoVs may infect humans, highlighting the necessity of further surveillance of pangolin CoVs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.15252/embj.2021107786DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8209949PMC
May 2021

Serum levels of miR-21-5p and miR-339-5p associate with occupational trichloroethylene hypersensitivity syndrome.

J Occup Med Toxicol 2021 May 17;16(1):19. Epub 2021 May 17.

Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Modern Toxicology, Shenzhen Medical Key Discipline of Health Toxicology (2020-2024), Shenzhen Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Shenzhen, 518055, China.

Background: Trichloroethylene (TCE) hypersensitivity syndrome (THS) is a dose-independent and potentially life-threatening disease. In this study, we sought to identify THS-related miRNAs and evaluate its potential clinical value.

Methods: Serum samples of five patients and five matched TCE contacts were used for screening differential miRNAs. Another 34 patients and 34 matched TCE contacts were used for verifying significantly differential miRNAs with SYBR™ Green PCR and MGB PCR. The diagnostic model based on these miRNAs was established via the support vector machine (SVM) algorithm. Correlation between differential miRNAs and liver function was analyzed via the Spearman correlation test.

Results: A total of 69 miRNAs was found to be differentially expressed. MiR-21-5p and miR-339-5p were verified to have significant higher expressions in patients. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of disease model were 100, 75 and 86%, respectively. The two miRNAs showed significant correlations with liver function.

Conclusion: These findings suggested that miRNAs profiles in serum of THS patients had changed significantly, and miR-21-5p and miR-339-5p were associated with THS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12995-021-00308-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8127200PMC
May 2021

Large-scale analysis of 2,152 Ig-seq datasets reveals key features of B cell biology and the antibody repertoire.

Cell Rep 2021 May;35(6):109110

Department of Epidemiology, Second Military Medical University, 800 Xiangyin Rd., Shanghai 200433, China. Electronic address:

Antibody repertoire sequencing enables researchers to acquire millions of B cell receptors and investigate these molecules at the single-nucleotide level. This power and resolution in studying humoral responses have led to its wide applications. However, most of these studies were conducted with a limited number of samples. Given the extraordinary diversity, assessment of these key features with a large sample set is demanded. Thus, we collect and systematically analyze 2,152 high-quality heavy-chain antibody repertoires. Our study reveals that 52 core variable genes universally contribute to more than 99% of each individual's repertoire; a distal interspersed preferences characterize V gene recombination; the number of public clones between two repertoires follows a linear model, and the positive selection dominates at RGYW motif in somatic hypermutations. Thus, this population-level analysis resolves some critical features of the antibody repertoire and may have significant value to the large cadre of scientists.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2021.109110DOI Listing
May 2021

Dynamic analysis of peripheral blood TCR β-chain CDR3 repertoire in occupational medicamentosa-like dermatitis due to trichloroethylene.

Sci Rep 2021 May 11;11(1):9971. Epub 2021 May 11.

Medical Laboratory, Shenzhen Prevention and Treatment Center for Occupational Diseases, 2019 Buxin Rd., Luohu district, Shenzhen, 518020, China.

Previously, we had cross-sectionally explored the characteristics of T cell receptor (TCR) repertoires from occupational medicamentosa-like dermatitis due to trichloroethylene (OMDT) patients, now we further analyzed the dynamic features of OMDT TCR repertoires. Peripheral blood TCR β-chain complementarity-determining region 3 (CDR3) genes were detected with the high throughput sequencing in 24 OMDT cases in their acute, chronic and recovery stages, respectively, and in 24 trichloroethylene-exposed healthy controls. The TCR repertoire diversity, TRBV/TRBD/TRBJ gene usage and combination, frequencies of CDR3 nucleotide (nt) and amino acid (aa) sequences in the cases in different stages and in the controls were analyzed. TRBV6-4 and TRBV7-9 frequencies significantly differed between the cases and controls (both P < 6.1 × 10). TRBV6-4 combination with TRBJ2-1, TRBJ2-2, TRBJ2-3, and TRBJ2-6, and TRBV7-9 combination with TRBJ2-1 were associated with the stage by OMDT severity (all P < 0.001). Ten CDR3-nt and 7 CDR3-aa sequences in TRBV7-9-TRBJ2-1 combination and 1 CDR3-nt and 1 CDR3-aa sequences in TRBV6-4-TRBJ2-1 combination were identified as associated with the severity of OMDT (all P < 0.001). We revealed further how TCR repertoires vary with the severity in the development of OMDT, and severity-related TCRs may provide important therapeutic targets for OMDT in clinical practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-89431-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8113444PMC
May 2021

Development of the yeast and lactic acid bacteria co-culture agent for atmospheric ammonia removing: Genomic features and on-site applications.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 Apr 29;218:112287. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

School of Minerals Processing and Bioengineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083, China; Key Laboratory of Biometallurgy, Ministry of Education, Central South University, Changsha 410083, China. Electronic address:

Odorous gas (e.g. atmospheric ammonia) in low ventilation public places, such as public toilets and waste transfer stations, causes severe health problems. Many technologies are developed to purify the atmospheric ammonia, among which the microbial agents are supposed to be a green and economical approach. In this study, we developed a yeast, Pichia sp. J1, and a lactic acid bacterium (LAB), Lactobacillus paracasei B1, co-culture agent for atmospheric ammonia removing. The on-site application results indicated the yeast and LAB mixed fermented agent had a maximum ammonia removing efficiency of 98.78%, which is significantly higher than the pure cultures (78.93% for B1 and 75.00% for J1), indicating the co-culture agent is an excellent biological product for ammonia removal. The excellent performance of the agent is closely related to the synergy behaviors between the yeast and LAB. In the co-culture agents, some of the LAB cells adhered closely to the yeast, and the growth and lactic acid producing ability of LAB were significantly promoted by yeast. Genomic analysis indicated the complementary of nutrients, i.e. carbon and nitrogen resources, signal transduction, and adhesion proteins (regulates adhesion behavior) played roles in regulating the synergy effects. Our study offers a novel biological solution of odorous gas purification.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2021.112287DOI Listing
April 2021

Analysis of the Long-Term Impact on Cellular Immunity in COVID-19-Recovered Individuals Reveals a Profound NKT Cell Impairment.

mBio 2021 04 27;12(2). Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) affected over 120 million people and killed over 2.7 million individuals by March 2021. While acute and intermediate interactions between SARS-CoV-2 and the immune system have been studied extensively, long-term impacts on the cellular immune system remain to be analyzed. Here, we comprehensively characterized immunological changes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in 49 COVID-19-convalescent individuals (CI) in comparison to 27 matched SARS-CoV-2-unexposed individuals (UI). Despite recovery from the disease for more than 2 months, CI showed significant decreases in frequencies of invariant NKT and NKT-like cells compared to UI. Concomitant with the decrease in NKT-like cells, an increase in the percentage of annexin V and 7-aminoactinomycin D (7-AAD) double-positive NKT-like cells was detected, suggesting that the reduction in NKT-like cells results from cell death months after recovery. Significant increases in regulatory T cell frequencies and TIM-3 expression on CD4 and CD8 T cells were also observed in CI, while the cytotoxic potential of T cells and NKT-like cells, defined by granzyme B (GzmB) expression, was significantly diminished. However, both CD4 and CD8 T cells of CI showed increased Ki67 expression and were fully able to proliferate and produce effector cytokines upon T cell receptor (TCR) stimulation. Collectively, we provide a comprehensive characterization of immune signatures in patients recovering from SARS-CoV-2 infection, suggesting that the cellular immune system of COVID-19 patients is still under a sustained influence even months after the recovery from disease. Wuhan was the very first city hit by SARS-CoV-2. Accordingly, the patients who experienced the longest phase of convalescence following COVID-19 reside here. This enabled us to investigate the "immunological scar" left by SARS-CoV-2 on cellular immunity after recovery from the disease. In this study, we characterized the long-term impact of SARS-CoV-2 infection on the immune system and provide a comprehensive picture of cellular immunity of a convalescent COVID-19 patient cohort with the longest recovery time. We revealed that the cellular immune system of COVID-19 patients is still under a sustained influence even months after the recovery from disease; in particular, a profound NKT cell impairment was found in the convalescent phase of COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mBio.00085-21DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8092197PMC
April 2021

Towards quantitative and intuitive percutaneous tumor puncture via augmented virtual reality.

Comput Med Imaging Graph 2021 Jun 31;90:101905. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, China.

In recent years, the radiofrequency ablation (RFA) therapy has become a widely accepted minimal invasive treatment for liver tumor patients. However, it is challenging for doctors to precisely and efficiently perform the percutaneous tumor punctures under free-breathing conditions. This is because the traditional RFA is based on the 2D CT Image information, the missing spatial and dynamic information is dependent on surgeons' experience. This paper presents a novel quantitative and intuitive surgical navigation modality for percutaneous respiratory tumor puncture via augmented virtual reality, which is to achieve the augmented visualization of the pre-operative virtual planning information precisely being overlaid on intra-operative surgical scenario. In the pre-operation stage, we first combine the signed distance field of feasible structures (like liver and tumor) where the puncture path can go through and unfeasible structures (like large vessels and ribs) where the needle is not allowed to go through to quantitatively generate the 3D feasible region for percutaneous puncture. Then we design three constraints according to the RFA specialists consensus to automatically determine the optimal puncture trajectory. In the intra-operative stage, we first propose a virtual-real alignment method to precisely superimpose the virtual information on surgical scenario. Then, a user-friendly collaborative holographic interface is designed for real-time 3D respiratory tumor puncture navigation, which can effectively assist surgeons fast and accurately locating the target step-by step. The validation of our system is performed on static abdominal phantom and in vivo beagle dogs with artificial lesion. Experimental results demonstrate that the accuracy of the proposed planning strategy is better than the manual planning sketched by experienced doctors. Besides, the proposed holographic navigation modality can effectively reduce the needle adjustment for precise puncture as well. Our system shows its clinical feasibility to provide the quantitative planning of optimal needle path and intuitive in situ holographic navigation for percutaneous tumor ablation without surgeons' experience-dependence and reduce the times of needle adjustment. The proposed augmented virtual reality navigation system can effectively improve the precision and reliability in percutaneous tumor ablation and has the potential to be used for other surgical navigation tasks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compmedimag.2021.101905DOI Listing
June 2021

Weaning Age Affects the Development of the Ruminal Bacterial and Archaeal Community in Hu Lambs During Early Life.

Front Microbiol 2021 23;12:636865. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Department of Animal Sciences, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, United States.

Weaning plays an important role in many animal processes, including the development of the rumen microbiota in ruminants. Attaining a better understanding of the development of the rumen microbial community at different weaning stages can aid the identification of the optimal weaning age. We investigated the effects of weaning age on ruminal bacterial and archaeal communities in Hu lambs. Thirty male Hu lambs were randomly assigned to two weaning-age groups: a group weaned at 30 days of age (W30) and a group weaned at 45 days of age (W45), with each group having five replicate pens. On the weaning day (day 30 for W30 and day 45 for W45) and at 5 days postweaning [day 35 for W30 (PW30) and day 50 for W45 (PW45)], one lamb from each replicate was randomly selected and sacrificed. Rumen contents were collected to examine the ruminal microbiota. Compared to W30, PW30 had a decreased relative abundance of . At genus level, the extended milk replacer feeding (W45 vs. W30) increased the relative abundance of while decreased that of and . Compared to W30, PW30 exhibited decreased relative abundances of , and but an increased unclassified . No significant difference was noted in the detected archaeal taxa among the animals. The function "biosynthesis of secondary metabolites" was less predominant in PW30 than in W30, whereas the opposite held true for "metabolism of cofactors and vitamins." Some bacterial genera were significantly correlated with rumen volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration or other animal measures, including negative correlations between ruminal VFA concentration and unclassified and unclassified ; positive correlations of ruminal papillae length with and , but negative correlations with and ; and negative correlations between plasma D-lactate concentration and , unclassified , and . Our results revealed that the ruminal bacterial community underwent larger changes over time in lambs weaned at 30 days of age than in lambs weaned half a month later. Thus, extending milk replacer feeding to 45 days weaning was recommended from the perspective of the rumen microbial community in the Hu lamb industry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2021.636865DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8021712PMC
March 2021

Establishment of LC-MS/MS method for determination of aloperine in rat plasma and its application in preclinical pharmacokinetics.

J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 2021 Mar 24;1173:122671. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Shanghai Key Laboratory of Regulatory Biology, Institute of Biomedical Sciences and School of Life Sciences, East China Normal University, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

Aloperine, a novel natural active alkaloid derived from Sophora alopecuroides L., has attracted much attention for its anti-inflammatory, antiviral, anti-tumor, anti-allergy and other pharmacological activities. In this study, we first established and validated an efficient and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for the quantification of aloperine in rat plasma. Cytisine was used as the internal standard (IS). The separation of aloperine and IS was conducted on a Phenomenex Luna Omega Polar C column (2.1 × 50 mm, 1.6 μm) with 0.3% (v/v) formic acid aqueous (containing 5 mM ammonium acetate) and 0.3% (v/v) formic acid acetonitrile using isocratic elution condition at a flow rate of 0.20 mL/min. Aloperine and IS were determined under the transitions of m/z 233.2 → 98.1 and m/z 191.2 → 148.2 (positive ionization mode), respectively. The calibration curve of aloperine was established in the range of 5 (LLOQ) to 2000 ng/mL (r = 0.994). The well validated method was full compliance with the bioanalytical method validation of FDA, and was applied to the pharmacokinetic study of aloperine in Sprague-Dawley rats after 50 mg/kg oral administration and 5 mg/kg intravenous injection. This study provides valuable references for the further study of Sophora alopecuroides L., especially for the drug development and clinical application of aloperine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jchromb.2021.122671DOI Listing
March 2021

Dynamic Changes in the Expression of Interferon-Stimulated Genes in Joints of SPF Chickens Infected With Avian Reovirus.

Front Vet Sci 2021 5;8:618124. Epub 2021 Feb 5.

State Key Laboratory for Conservation and Utilization of Subtropical Agro-Bioresources, College of Animal Science and Technology, Guangxi University, Nanning, China.

Avian reovirus (ARV) can induce many diseases as well as immunosuppression in chickens, severely endangering the poultry industry. Interferons (IFNs) play an antiviral role by inducing the expression of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs). The effect of ARV infection on the expression of host ISGs is unclear. Specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chickens were infected with ARV strain S1133 in this study, and real time quantitative PCR was used to detect changes in the dynamic expression of IFNs and common ISGs in joints of SPF chickens. The results showed that the transcription levels of A, , and several ISGs, including myxovirus resistance (), interferon-induced transmembrane protein 3 (), protein kinase R (), oligoadenylate synthase (), interferon-induced protein with tetratricopeptide repeats 5 (), interferon-stimulated gene 12 (), virus inhibitory protein (), interferon-alpha-inducible protein 6 (), and integrin-associated protein (), were upregulated in joints on days 1-7 of infection (the levels of increase of , and were the most significant, at hundreds-fold). In addition, the expression levels of the ISGs encoding zinc finger protein 313 (), and DNA damage-inducible transcript 4 () increased suddenly on the 1st or 2nd day, then decreased to control levels. The ARV viral load in chicken joints rapidly increased after 1 day of viral challenge, and the viral load remained high within 6 days of viral challenge. The ARV viral load sharply decreased starting on day 7. These results indicate that in SPF chicken joints, many ISGs have mRNA expression patterns that are basically consistent with the viral load in joints. IFNA, IFNB, and the ISGs MX, IFITM3, PKR, OAS, IFIT5, ISG12, VIPERIN, IFI6, and CD47 play important roles in defending against ARV invasion, inhibiting ARV replication and proliferation, and promoting virus clearance. These results enrich our understanding of the innate immune response mechanisms of hosts against ARV infection and provide a theoretical basis for prevention and control of ARV infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2021.618124DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7892438PMC
February 2021

INDITTO2 transposon conveys auxin-mediated DRO1 transcription for rice drought avoidance.

Plant Cell Environ 2021 Jun 5;44(6):1846-1857. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Key Laboratory of Economic Plants and Biotechnology, Yunnan Key Laboratory for Research and Development of Wild Plant Resources, Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, China.

Transposable elements exist widely throughout plant genomes and play important roles in plant evolution. Auxin is an important regulator that is traditionally associated with root development and drought stress adaptation. The DEEPER ROOTING 1 (DRO1) gene is a key component of rice drought avoidance. Here, we identified a transposon that acts as an autonomous auxin-responsive promoter and its presence at specific genome positions conveys physiological adaptations related to drought avoidance. Rice varieties with a high and auxin-mediated transcription of DRO1 in the root tip show deeper and longer root phenotypes and are thus better adapted to drought. The INDITTO2 transposon contains an auxin response element and displays auxin-responsive promoter activity; it is thus able to convey auxin regulation of transcription to genes in its proximity. In the rice Acuce, which displays DRO1-mediated drought adaptation, the INDITTO2 transposon was found to be inserted at the promoter region of the DRO1 locus. Transgenesis-based insertion of the INDITTO2 transposon into the DRO1 promoter of the non-adapted rice variety Nipponbare was sufficient to promote its drought avoidance. Our data identify an example of how transposons can act as promoters and convey hormonal regulation to nearby loci, improving plant fitness in response to different abiotic stresses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/pce.14029DOI Listing
June 2021

Heme oxygenase-1(HO-1) regulates Golgi stress and attenuates endotoxin-induced acute lung injury through hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α)/HO-1 signaling pathway.

Free Radic Biol Med 2021 Mar 23;165:243-253. Epub 2021 Jan 23.

Department of Anesthesiology, Chifeng Municipal Hospital, Inner Mongolia, China.

Sepsis caused acute lung injury (ALI) is a kind of serious disease in critically ill patients with very high morbidity and mortality. Recently, it has been demonstrated that Golgi is involved in the process of oxidative stress. However, whether Golgi stress is associated with oxidative stress in septic induced acute lung injury has not been elucidated. In this research, we found that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced oxidative stress, apoptosis, inflammation and Golgi morphology changes in acute lung injury both in vivo and in vitro. The knockout of heme oxygenase-1(HO-1) aggravated oxidative stress, inflammation, apoptosis and reduced the expression of Golgi matrix protein 130 (GM130), mannosidase Ⅱ, Golgi-associated protein golgin A1 (Golgin 97), and increased the expression of Golgi phosphoprotein 3 (GOLPH3), which caused the fragmentation of Golgi. Furtherly, the activation of hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α)/HO-1 pathway, attenuates Golgi stress and oxidative stress by increasing the levels of GM130, mannosidase Ⅱ, Golgin 97, and decreasing the expression of GOLPH3 both in vivo and in vitro. Therefore, the activation of HO-1 plays a crucial role in alleviating sepsis-induced acute lung injury by regulating Golgi stress, oxidative stress, which may provide a therapeutic target for the treatment of acute lung injury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2021.01.028DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7825924PMC
March 2021

The rates and medical necessity of cesarean delivery in China, 2012-2019: an inspiration from Jiangsu.

BMC Med 2021 01 25;19(1):14. Epub 2021 Jan 25.

State Key Laboratory of Reproductive Medicine, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, 211166, China.

Background: The World Health Organization (WHO) in 2015 stated that every effort should be made to provide cesarean delivery (CD) for women in need. In China, the two-child policy largely prompts the number of advanced age childbirth, which raises the possibility of an increasing number of women who need a c-section. The aim of this study was to assess the trends in the overall and medical indication-classified CD rates in the era of the two-child policy in Jiangsu, China.

Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional study of 291,448 women who delivered in 11 hospitals in Jiangsu province between 2012 and 2019 was conducted. Medical cesarean indication for each woman was ascertained by manually reviewing the medical records. The 291,448 women were divided into two subgroups according to the presence of the indications: the indicated group (7.80%) and the non-indicated group (92.20%). We then fitted joinpoint regression and log-binomial regression models to estimate trends in the CD rates across the study period.

Results: The overall CD rate was observed with a declining trend from 52.51% in 2012-2015 to 49.76% in 2016-2019 (adjusted RR, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.91-0.93; P < 0.001), along with an annual percentage change (APC) to be - 1.0 (95% CI, - 2.1 to 0.0) across the period. The participants were then divided into two subgroups according to the presence of medical CD indications: the indicated group (7.80%) and the non-indicated group (92.20%).We found the declining trend was most pronounced in the non-indicated group, with the CD rates decreased from 50.02% in 2012-2015 to 46.27% in 2016-2019 (adjusted RR, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.89-0.90; P < 0.001). By contrast, we observed a steady trend in the CD rate of the indicated group, which maintained from 87.47% in 2012-2015 to 86.57% in 2016-2019 (P = 0.448). In the indicated group, a higher risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes was revealed for those women who delivered vaginally as compared with those who received c-section. We further investigated that women with following specific indications had a higher proportion of vaginal delivery, i.e., pregnancy complications, fetal macrosomia, and pregnancy complicated with tumor (34.70%, 10.84%, and 16.34%, respectively). Women with the above 3 indications were observed with a higher risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes if delivered vaginally. The incidence rates of the medical indications among the general population increased considerably over the 8-year period (P < 0.001).

Conclusions: Although the overall CD rate apparently decreased in the recent years, along with the decline of the unnecessary CD rate, a considerable proportion of indicated women were not provided with CD service in Jiangsu, China. Instead of targeting the overall CD rate, we need to take actions to reduce unnecessary CD rate and provide adequate c-section service for women with indications, particularly for those with underlying diseases and suspected fetal macrosomia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12916-020-01890-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7831243PMC
January 2021

Half-auxetic effect and ferroelasticity in a two-dimensional monolayer TiSe.

J Phys Condens Matter 2021 Jan 18. Epub 2021 Jan 18.

Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No.8, Nansanjie, Zhongguancun, Haidian, Beijing, 100190, CHINA.

Two-dimensional (2D) materials with both auxetic effect and ferroelasticity are rare, however, have great potential applications in next generation microelectromechanical and nanoelectronic devices. Here, we report the findings of an extraordinary combination half-auxetic effect and ferroelasticity in a single p2mm-type TiSe monolayer by performing first-principles calculations. The unique half-auxetic effect, namely the material expand laterally under both uniaxial tensile strain, and compressive strain, is reported and explained by considering both the nearest and the next-nearest interactions. The ferroelasticity is stemming from the degeneracy breaking of the 3d-orbitals of Ti atoms in a distorted tetrahedron crystal field, or the so-called Jahn-Teller effect. The results provide a guideline for the future design of novel two-dimensional multiple functional materials at the nanoscale.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-648X/abdceaDOI Listing
January 2021

Genomic analysis of mutations in platelet mitochondria in a case of benzene-induced leukaemia: A case report.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Jan;100(1):e24014

Shenzhen Prevention and Treatment Center for Occupational Diseases, Shenzhen, Guangdong.

Introduction: As a hematopoietic carcinogen, benzene induces human leukemia through its active metabolites such as benzoquinone, which may cause oxidative damage to cancer-related nuclear genes by increasing reactive oxygen species (ROS). Mitochondrion is the main regulatory organelle of ROS, genetic abnormality of mitochondrion can impede its regulation of ROS, leading to more severe oxidative damage. Mutations have been related to certain types of cancer in several mitochondrial genes, but they have never been completely analyzed genome-wide in leukemia.

Patient Concerns: The patient was a 52-year-old female who had chronic exposure to benzene for several years. Her symptoms mainly included recurrent dizziness, fatigue, and they had lasted for nearly 8 years and exacerbated in recent weeks before diagnosis.

Diagnosis: Samples of peripheral blood were taken from the patient using evacuated tubes with EDTA anticoagulant on the second day of her hospitalization. At the same time blood routine and BCR/ABL genes of leukemic phenotype were tested. Platelets were isolated for mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) extraction. The genetic analysis of ATP synthase Fo subunit 8 (complex V), ATP synthase Fo subunit 6 (complex V), cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (complex IV), cytochrome c oxidase subunit 2 (complex IV), cytochrome c oxidase subunit 3, Cytb, NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (complex I) (ND) 1, ND2, ND3, ND4, ND5, ND6, 12S-RNA, 16S-RNA, tRNA-Cysteine, A, N, tRNA-Leucine, E, displacement loop in platelet mtDNA were performed. All the detected gene mutations were validated using the conventional Sanger sequencing method.

Interventions: The patient received imatinib, a small molecule kinase inhibitor, and symptomatic treatments.

Outcomes: After 3 months treatment her blood routine test indicators were restored to normal.

Conclusion: A total of 98 mutations were found, and 25 mutations were frame shift. The ND6 gene mutation rate was the highest among all mutation points. Frame shifts were identified in benzene-induced leukemia for the first time. Many mutations in the platelet mitochondrial genome were identified and considered to be potentially pathogenic in the female patient with benzene-induced leukemia. The mutation rate of platelet mitochondrial genome in the benzene-induced leukemia patient is relatively high, and the complete genome analysis is helpful to fully comprehend the disease characteristics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000024014DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7793417PMC
January 2021

CD44 enhances adriamycin resistance in chronic myelogenous leukaemia cells K562.

Int J Lab Hematol 2021 Jan 7. Epub 2021 Jan 7.

Department of Internal Medicine, The Affiliated Hospital of Yanbian University, Yanji, China.

Introduction: To investigate CD44 effects on the adriamycin-resistant in chronic myelogenous leukaemia cells K562, we explored the role of CD44 in the K562 cells migration and apoptosis.

Methods: GeneChip screening is used for elucidating various chemoresistance-related gene expression in the adriamycin-resistant leukaemia cells K562/ADR. We constructed K562/CD44 cells by transfection of an EGFP-SV40-CD44 plasmid, and adriamycin-resistant ability was confirmed by detecting migration and apoptosis-related proteins and mRNA expression using Western blotting and Real-time PCR respectively.

Results: K562/CD44 cells were generated by the transfection of an EGFP-SV40-CD44 plasmid with high CD44 expression. mRNA expression levels of CD44 and P-glycoprotein (P-gp), along with the proliferation rate, were increased, while the apoptosis rate of K562/CD44 cells was decreased. Migration-associated proteins such as MMP-2 and MMP-9 were upregulated, whereas apoptosis-related protein Bax was downregulated and Bcl-2 protein was not significantly altered in the K562/CD44 cells.

Conclusions: CD44 might be involved in adriamycin resistance via regulation of P-gp, MMP-2, MMP-9, and Bcl-2/Bax.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ijlh.13455DOI Listing
January 2021

Fluorescent lateral flow immunoassay based on gold nanocluster for detection of pyrrolizidine alkaloids.

Mikrochim Acta 2021 Jan 3;188(1):11. Epub 2021 Jan 3.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology of the College of Veterinary Medicine, China Agricultural University, Beijing Key Laboratory of Detection Technology for Animal-Derived Food Safety, Beijing Laboratory for Food Quality and Safety, Beijing, 100193, People's Republic of China.

An ultrasensitive and rapid fluorescent immunoassay based on a broad-spectrum monoclonal antibody (mAb) was developed to detect pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) in honey samples. First, Discovery Studio software was used to analyze and predict the target hapten, and retrorsine (RTS) was selected to react with succinic anhydride (HS) for hapten synthesization. A sensitive and broad-spectrum monoclonal antibody (mAb 13E1) was obtained for nine PAs. Then, fluorescent gold nanoclusters (AuNCs) were conjugated with mAb as a label probe and used in establishing a qualitative and quantitative lateral flow immunoassay (AuNCs-LFIA) for the determination of four PAs (retrorsine, platyphylline, senecionine, integerrimine) in honey within 14 min. The limits of detection (LOD) were 0.083 μg/kg. The recovery in spiked honey samples were 87.98-119.57%, with coefficients of variation of ≤ 11.5%. A total of 45 commercial import honey samples from nine different countries were tested through AuNCs-LFIA and UPLC-MS/MS method, and satisfactory consistency (R = 0.995) was obtained. The rates of positive samples were 55.56% (25/45), and the average concentrations of four PAs were 3.24-46.47 μg/kg. This ultrasensitive multi-PA method provides an alternative analytical tool for evaluating the human risk posed by the consumption of PA-contaminated honey.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00604-020-04672-2DOI Listing
January 2021

Metagenomic Next-Generation Sequencing of Cerebrospinal Fluid for the Diagnosis of External Ventricular and Lumbar Drainage-Associated Ventriculitis and Meningitis.

Front Microbiol 2020 14;11:596175. Epub 2020 Dec 14.

Department of Clinical Diagnosis, Laboratory of Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) has become a widely used technology that can accurately detect individual pathogens. This prospective study was performed between February 2019 and September 2019 in one of the largest clinical neurosurgery centers in China. The study aimed to evaluate the performance of mNGS on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from neurosurgical patients for the diagnosis of external ventricular and lumbar drainage (EVD/LD)-associated ventriculitis and meningitis (VM). We collected CSF specimens from neurosurgical patients with EVD/LD for more than 24 h to perform conventional microbiological studies and mNGS analyses in a pairwise manner. We also investigated the usefulness of mNGS of CSF for the diagnosis of EVD/LD-associated VM. In total, 102 patients were enrolled in this study and divided into three groups, including confirmed VM (cVM) (39), suspected VM (sVM) (49), and non-VM (nVM) (14) groups. Of all the patients, mNGS detected 21 Gram-positive bacteria, 20 Gram-negative bacteria, and five fungi. The three primary bacteria detected were (9), (5), and (3). The mNGS-positive coincidence rate of confirmed EVD/LD-associated VM was 61.54% (24/39), and the negative coincidence rate of the nVM group was 100% (14/14). Of 15 VM pathogens not identified by mNGS in the cVM group, eight were negative with mNGS and seven were inconsistent with the conventional microbiological identification results. In addition, mNGS identified pathogens in 22 cases that were negative using conventional methods; of them, 10 patients received a favorable clinical treatment; thus, showing the benefit of mNGS-guided therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2020.596175DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7767851PMC
December 2020

Modelling the combined effects of photoperiod and temperature on diapause induction in Apolygus lucorum (Meyer-Dür) across different latitudes.

Pest Manag Sci 2021 May 26;77(5):2231-2237. Epub 2021 Jan 26.

State Key Laboratory of Ecological Pest Control for Fujian and Taiwan Crops, Fujian Province Key Laboratory of Insect Ecology, College of Plant Protection, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou, China.

Background: The green mirid bug Apolygus lucorum is a dominant pest species on multiple crops over a wide area in northern China. However, the combined effect of photoperiod and temperature on diapause induction in this species across different latitudes is not clear. Thus, the combined effects of temperature (17-29 °C) and photoperiod (11:13 h to 15:9 h light/dark) on diapause induction for seven geographic populations, collected at latitudes between 30.47°N and 38.30°N, were investigated.

Results: A model, I = (15 - p)/(30 - p - 1.923(t - 16)  + 0.4499 t - 0.015 L - 19.5389) was established to predict diapause incidence (I) using photophase (p), temperature (t) and latitude (L). In most cases, the diapause incidence predicted by the model was within or close to the 95% confidence interval estimated from independently observed field data.

Conclusion: Diapause incidence in A. lucorum was influenced nonlinearly by temperature and photoperiod across different latitudes. The model established in this study is valid for predicting diapause incidence in this pest over a wide area in northern China, and thus can be incorporated into an areawide population dynamic model of this pest. © 2020 Society of Chemical Industry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ps.6247DOI Listing
May 2021

Cross-species recognition of SARS-CoV-2 to bat ACE2.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 01;118(1)

Chinese Academy of Sciences Key Laboratory of Pathogenic Microbiology and Immunology, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100101 Beijing, China;

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has emerged as a major threat to global health. Although varied SARS-CoV-2-related coronaviruses have been isolated from bats and SARS-CoV-2 may infect bat, the structural basis for SARS-CoV-2 to utilize the human receptor counterpart bat angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (bACE2) for virus infection remains less understood. Here, we report that the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein receptor binding domain (RBD) could bind to bACE2 from (bACE2-Rm) with substantially lower affinity compared with that to the human ACE2 (hACE2), and its infectivity to host cells expressing bACE2-Rm was confirmed with pseudotyped SARS-CoV-2 virus and SARS-CoV-2 wild virus. The structure of the SARS-CoV-2 RBD with the bACE2-Rm complex was determined, revealing a binding mode similar to that of hACE2. The analysis of binding details between SARS-CoV-2 RBD and bACE2-Rm revealed that the interacting network involving Y41 and E42 of bACE2-Rm showed substantial differences with that to hACE2. Bats have extensive species diversity and the residues for RBD binding in bACE2 receptor varied substantially among different bat species. Notably, the Y41H mutant, which exists in many bats, attenuates the binding capacity of bACE2-Rm, indicating the central roles of Y41 in the interaction network. These findings would benefit our understanding of the potential infection of SARS-CoV-2 in varied species of bats.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2020216118DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7817217PMC
January 2021

Preparation and characterization of natural quercetin-based Mongolia Medicine SenDeng-4 nanoemulsion (N-QUE-NE) and its antibacterial activity..

Curr Drug Deliv 2020 Dec 14. Epub 2020 Dec 14.

College of Pharmacy, School of Basic Medicine, Inner Mongolia Medical University, Hohhot 010059. China.

Background: Quercetin is the main active ingredient of Xanthoceras sorbifolia Bunge. Traditional compatibility theory of traditional Chinese medicine has typically reported a synergistic interaction among multiple components, while the synergistic effects of nanoemulsion have not been fully clarified.

Objective: To study preparation and characterization of quercetin-based Mongolia Medicine Sendeng-4 nanoemulsion (NQUE-NE) and its antibacterial activity and mechanisms.

Methods: The morphology of the nanoemulsion was observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and the zeta potential, polydispersity index (PDI), and particle size distribution were determined by the nanometer particle size analyze. The stability of nanoemulsion was investigated by light test, high speed centrifugal test and storage experiment at different temperature. The combined bacteriostatic effect of N-QUE-NE was studied in vitro by double-dilution method and checkerboard dilution method.

Results: The appearance of N-QUE-NE was pale yellow, clear and transparent. The nanoemulsion particles were spherical and uniformly distributed under TEM. The PDI was 0.052, the average particle size was 19.6nm, and the Zeta potential was -0.2mV. When quercetin nanoemulsion (QUE-NE) was used in combination with tannin nanoemulsion (TAN-NE) and toosendanin nanoemulsion (TOO-NE), it exhibited a synergistic antibacterial effect. However, the combination of QUE-NE and geniposide nanoemulsion (GEN-NE) exhibited an antagonistic effect. It was revealed that the antibacterial effect was in order of quercetin-tannin-toosendanin nanoemulsion (QUE-TAN-TOO-NE) > quercetin-tannin nanoemulsion (QUE-TANNE) > QUE-NE > quercetin-tannin-toosendanin-geniposide nanoemulsion (QUE-TAN-TOO-GEN-NE).

Conclusion: This study explored the preparation and efficacy of N-QUE-NE, and the results showed that quercetin, tannin and toosendanin had satisfactory synergistic antibacterial effects. The antagonistic effect of quercetin and geniposide in nanoemulsion indicated that it is not beneficial to the antibacterial effect of Sendeng-4, and further research needs to be conducted to clarify its antibacterial effect.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1567201818666201214143631DOI Listing
December 2020

1-Bromopropane-induced apoptosis in OVCAR-3 cells via oxidative stress and inactivation of Nrf2.

Toxicol Ind Health 2021 Feb 11;37(2):59-67. Epub 2020 Dec 11.

Institute of Occupational Hazard Assessment, 200636Shenzhen Prevention and Treatment Center for Occupational Diseases, Shenzhen, Guangdong, China.

The bromoalkane, 1-bromopropane (1-BP), may damage the reproductive system though oxidative stress, while the transcription factor nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) plays an important role in regulating intracellular antioxidant levels against oxidative stress. This study explored the role of oxidative stress and the Nrf2 signaling pathway in mediating the reproductive toxicity of 1-BP using the ovarian carcinoma cell line OVCAR-3 as an model of the human ovary. OVCAR-3 cells were treated with 1, 5, 10 and 15 mM 1-BP. After 24 h, the cellular reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde concentrations significantly increased, while the superoxide dismutase activity decreased; translocation of Nrf2 from the cytosol to the nucleus as well as downstream protein expression of Nrf2-regulated genes heme oxygenase-1 and Bcl-2 was inhibited. Apoptosis was also observed, accompanied by increased caspase-3 and caspase-9 activity. The antioxidant vitamin C alleviated 1-BP-induced apoptosis by inhibiting caspase activity activating the Nrf2 signaling pathway. These findings suggested that 1-BP induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in OVCAR-3 cells through inactivation of Nrf2 signaling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0748233720979427DOI Listing
February 2021

CT-guided localization techniques of small pulmonary nodules: a prospective non-randomized controlled study on pulmonary nodule localization needle and methylene blue staining with surgical glue.

J Thorac Dis 2020 Nov;12(11):6826-6835

Department of Interventional Radiology, Shenzhen People's Hospital (The Second Clinical Medical College, Jinan University; The First Affiliated Hospital, Southern University of Science and Technology), Shenzhen, China.

Background: Thoracoscopic resection of small pulmonary nodules (SPNs) is challenging. Accurate preoperative computed tomography-guided localization of SPNs is key to successful rection. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the clinical value of a novel localization needle and methylene blue staining combined with surgical glue (MBSG) and to explore the risk factors for post-localization complications.

Methods: This prospective, non-randomized controlled study was conducted on 110 patients who received either MBSG or novel needle localization prior to video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) from January 2019 to December 2019 at Shenzhen People's Hospital. The primary endpoints were the safety and the success rates of the 2 localization techniques. The secondary endpoints were operative time and feasibility.

Results: The 110 patients were categorized into 2 groups: the MBSG group (n=84) and the pulmonary nodule localization needle group (n=26). The success rate of pre-VATS localization was 100% in both groups. No deaths or serious complications occurred during localization. The rates of pneumothorax, pulmonary hemorrhage, and localization-induced cough were 38.1%, 25%, and 7.14%, respectively, in the MBSG group, and 26.92%, 19.23%, and 0%, respectively, in the pulmonary nodule localization needle group. Differences between the 2 groups were not statistically significant (P>0.05). Total complication rate and the incidence of pain were significantly lower in the pulmonary nodule localization needle group (χ=4.441 and 4.295, respectively; P<0.05). The difference in operative time between the 2 groups was not statistically significant (P>0.05). Dye diffusion occurred in 2 patients in the MBSG group; however, it had no impact on VATS or on the pathological analysis. Neither displacement nor dislocation was observed in the pulmonary nodule localization needle group. Logistic regression analysis showed that the localization technique was an independent risk factor for total complications (odds ratio: 2.634, 95% confidence interval: 1.022-6.789, P<0.05).

Conclusions: Both techniques can localize SPNs effectively prior to VATS. The pulmonary nodule localization needle technique has a lower incidence of complications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/jtd-20-3147DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7711370PMC
November 2020

Gallus NME/NM23 nucleoside diphosphate kinase 2 interacts with viral σA and affects the replication of avian reovirus.

Vet Microbiol 2021 Jan 10;252:108926. Epub 2020 Nov 10.

Department of Biotechnology, Guangxi Key Laboratory of Veterinary Biotechnology, Guangxi Veterinary Research Institute, Nanning, 530001, China. Electronic address:

Our present study aimed to identify host cell proteins that may interact with avian reovirus (ARV) σA protein and their potential effect on ARV replication. The ARV structural protein σA has been demonstrated to suppress interferon production and confirmed to activate the PI3K/Akt pathway. However, host cell factors interacting with σA to affect ARV replication remain unknown. In current study, a cDNA library of chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEFs) was constructed, and host cell proteins interacting with σA were screened by a yeast two-hybrid system. We identified four candidate cellular proteins that interact with ARV σA protein. Among them, Gallus NME/NM23 nucleoside diphosphate kinase 2 (NME2) was further validated as a σA-binding protein through co-immunoprecipitation. The key interaction domain was identified at amino acids (aa) 121-416 in NME2 and at aa 71-139 in σA, respectively. We demonstrated that overexpression of NME2 substantially inhibited ARV replication. In addition silencing NME2 by small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) resulted in marked enhancement of ARV replication. Our work has demonstrated that NME2 is a σA-binding protein that may affect ARV replication in CEF cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2020.108926DOI Listing
January 2021

A simple and rapid immunochromatography test based on readily available filter paper modified with chitosan to screen for 13 sulfonamides in milk.

J Dairy Sci 2021 Jan 12;104(1):126-133. Epub 2020 Nov 12.

Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Food Nutrition and Human Health, College of Veterinary Medicine, China Agricultural University, Beijing Key Laboratory of Detection Technology for Animal-Derived Food Safety, Beijing Laboratory for Food Quality and Safety, 100193 Beijing, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

In this study, we developed a novel, simple, rapid, and low-cost colloidal gold-based immunochromatography method, with filter paper replacing nitrocellulose membrane as the substrate. To obtain adequately immobilized protein, chitosan was used to functionalize the filter paper. After conditions and parameters were optimized, the novel immunochromatography method was applied for detection of sulfonamide residues in milk. Quantitative detection was accomplished using a smartphone and Photoshop software (Adobe Inc., San Jose, CA), allowing us to screen 13 sulfonamides with a limit of detection ranging from 0.42 to 8.64 μg/L and recovery ranging from 88.2 to 116.9% in milk. The proposed novel method performed similarly to the conventional method that uses a nitrocellulose membrane as the transport medium, and it had lower cost and better usability because of the inexpensive and easily available filter paper.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.2020-18987DOI Listing
January 2021

Genetic variant rs72613567 of HSD17B13 gene reduces alcohol-related liver disease risk in Chinese Han population.

Liver Int 2020 09 3;40(9):2194-2202. Epub 2020 Aug 3.

Department of Clinical Laboratory, The First Hospital of Jilin University, Jilin, China.

Background & Aims: Recently, the variant rs72613567:TA in the 17-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 13 (HSD17B13) has been associated with reduced levels of ALT and AST and a reduced risk of alcohol-related liver disease (ALD) in the European population. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the association between the polymorphisms of HSD17B13 and ALD, liver serum markers and patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing protein 3 (PNPLA3) p.I148M in the Chinese Han population.

Methods: A case-control study was performed from five centres and included 769 ALD patients and 767 healthy controls. Two SNPs (rs72613567 and rs6834314) in HSD17B13 were genotyped using the Sequenom MassArray system and allele association analysis was performed using PLINK 1.90 software.

Results: HSD17B13 rs72613567:TA allele was associated with a reduced risk of ALD by 19% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.05-0.31, P = .01), uniformly, the G allele in the rs6834314 reduced the risk of ALD by 19% (95% CI: 0.05-0.31, P = 8.28 × 10). And the genotypes of two SNPs were associated with reducing the risk of ALD in three genetic model analysis. In addition, we found that TA allele was associated with lower levels of serum ALT, AST and GGT (P = .005, .007 and .02, respectively), higher level of serum ALB (P = .02), but not associated with ALP. In this cohort, the interaction between HSD17B13 rs72613567 and the steatogenic allele PNPLA3 rs738409 was not validated.

Conclusion: The present study revealed that HSD17B13 rs72613567 was significantly associated with a reduced risk of ALD in Chinese Han population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/liv.14616DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7496237PMC
September 2020

Epidemiological Surveillance of Parvoviruses in Commercial Chicken and Turkey Farms in Guangxi, Southern China, During 2014-2019.

Front Vet Sci 2020 8;7:561371. Epub 2020 Oct 8.

Guangxi Key Laboratory of Veterinary Biotechnology, Guangxi Veterinary Research Institute, Nanning, China.

A previously unidentified chicken parvovirus (ChPV) and turkey parvovirus (TuPV) strain, associated with runting-stunting syndrome (RSS) and poultry enteritis and mortality syndrome (PEMS) in turkeys, is now prevalent among chickens in China. In this study, a large-scale surveillance of parvoviruses in chickens and turkeys using conserved PCR assays was performed. We assessed the prevalence of ChPV/TuPV in commercial chicken and turkey farms in China between 2014 and 2019. Parvoviruses were prevalent in 51.73% (1,795/3,470) of commercial chicken and turkey farms in Guangxi, China. The highest frequency of ChPV positive samples tested by PCR occurred in chickens that were broiler chickens 64.18% (1,041/1,622) compared with breeder chickens 38.75% (572/1,476) and layer hens 38.89% (112/288), and TuPV was detected in 70/84 (83.33%). Native and exotic chicken species were both prevalent in commercial farms in southern China, and exotic broiler chickens had a higher positive rate with 88.10% (148/168), while native chickens were 50.00% (1,465/2,930). The environmental samples from poultry houses tested positive for ChPV and TuPV were 47.05% (415/874). Samples from open house flocks had higher prevalence rates of ChPV than those of closed house flocks (), among which those from the open house showed 84.16% (85/101) positivity, those from litter showed 62.86% (44/70) positivity, and those from drinking water showed 50.00% (56/112) positivity, whereas those from the closed house litter were 53.57% (60/112), those from swabs were 50.18% (138/275), and those from drinking water were 15.69% (32/204). Samples collected during spring were more frequently ChPV/ TuPV positive than those collected during other seasons. This study is the first report regarding the epidemiological surveillance of ChPV and TuPV in chicken/turkey flocks in Guangxi, China. Our results suggest that ChPV and TuPV are widely distributed in commercial fowl in Guangxi. These findings highlight the need for further epidemiological and genetic research on ChPV and TuPV in this area.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2020.561371DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7579407PMC
October 2020

Strangulated internal hernia following severe ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome: a case report.

Gynecol Endocrinol 2021 Jan 20;37(1):93-96. Epub 2020 Oct 20.

Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, Tianjin, China.

Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) is a serious complication of ovarian stimulation. Herein, we report a rare case of strangulated internal hernia in a woman with severe OHSS following ovulation induction. A delay in the diagnosis and management of acute abdominal pain can lead to serious problems. The aim of this case report was to highlight the diagnostic difficulties of abdominal pain in women with OHSS, and emphasize the positive effects of imaging and a timely differential diagnosis in clinical practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09513590.2020.1812568DOI Listing
January 2021

Broad host range of SARS-CoV-2 and the molecular basis for SARS-CoV-2 binding to cat ACE2.

Cell Discov 2020 29;6:68. Epub 2020 Sep 29.

CAS Key Laboratory of Microbial Physiological and Metabolic Engineering, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100101 China.

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of the recent pandemic COVID-19, is reported to have originated from bats, with its intermediate host unknown to date. Here, we screened 26 animal counterparts of the human ACE2 (hACE2), the receptor for SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV, and found that the ACE2s from various species, including pets, domestic animals and multiple wild animals, could bind to SARS-CoV-2 receptor binding domain (RBD) and facilitate the transduction of SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus. Comparing to SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV seems to have a slightly wider range in choosing its receptor. We further resolved the cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) structure of the cat ACE2 (cACE2) in complex with the SARS-CoV-2 RBD at a resolution of 3 Å, revealing similar binding mode as hACE2 to the SARS-CoV-2 RBD. These results shed light on pursuing the intermediate host of SARS-CoV-2 and highlight the necessity of monitoring susceptible hosts to prevent further outbreaks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41421-020-00210-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7526519PMC
September 2020