Publications by authors named "Yanfang Huang"

44 Publications

Inhibiting PDE7A Enhances the Protective Effects of Neural Stem Cells on Neurodegeneration and Memory Deficits in Sevoflurane-Exposed Mice.

eNeuro 2021 Jul-Aug;8(4). Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Department of Anesthesiology, Quanzhou First Hospital Affiliated to Fujian Medical University, Quanzhou, Fujian 362000, China

Sevoflurane is widely used in general anesthesia, especially for children. However, prolonged exposure to sevoflurane is reported to be associated with adverse effects on the development of brain in infant monkey. Neural stem cells (NSCs), with potent proliferation, differentiation, and renewing ability, provide an encouraging tool for basic research and clinical therapies for neurodegenerative diseases. We aim to explore the functional effects of injecting NSCs with phosphodiesterase 7A (PDE7A) knock-down in infant mice exposed to sevoflurane. The effects of PDE7A in NSCs proliferation and differentiation were determined by cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay and differentiation-related gene expression assay, respectively. The effects of NSCs with modified PDE7A on mice's long-term memory and learning ability were assessed by behavioral assays. Our data demonstrated that depleting PDE7A promoted, whereas forcing PDE7A suppressed the activation of cAMP/cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB) signaling as well as cell proliferation and neuronal differentiation of NSCs. Inhibition of PDE7A in NSCs exhibited profound improved effects on long-term memory and learning ability of mice exposed to sevoflurane. Our results for the first time show that knock-down of PDE7A improves the neurogenesis of NSCs and , and is beneficial for alleviating sevoflurane-induced brain damage in infant mice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1523/ENEURO.0071-21.2021DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8266220PMC
July 2021

The novel FAT4 activator jujuboside A suppresses NSCLC tumorigenesis by activating HIPPO signaling and inhibiting YAP nuclear translocation.

Pharmacol Res 2021 Jun 9;170:105723. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Joint Laboratory for Translational Cancer Research of Chinese Medicine of the Ministry of Education of the People's Republic of China, International Institute for Translational Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510006, PR China; State Key Laboratory of Quality Research in Chinese Medicine/ Macau Institute for Applied Research in Medicine and Health, Macau University of Science and Technology, Macau (SAR), PR China. Electronic address:

FAT atypical cadherin 4 (FAT4) has been identified as a tumor suppressor in lung cancers. However, no agent for lung cancer treatment targeting FAT4 has been used in the clinic. Jujuboside A (JUA) is a major active compound in Semen Ziziphi Spinosae. Semen Ziziphi Spinosae is a traditional Chinese herbal medicine used clinically for tumor treatment to improve patients' quality of life. However, the anti-lung cancer activity and the underlying mechanisms of JUA are not yet fully understood. Here, we demonstrated the anti-lung cancer activity of JUA in two lung cancer mice models and three non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines, and further illustrated its underlying mechanisms. JUA suppressed the occurrence and development of lung cancer and extended mice survival in vivo, and suppressed NSCLC cell activities through cell cycle arrest, proliferation suppression, stemness inhibition and senescence promotion. Moreover, JUA directly bound with and activated FAT4, subsequently activating FAT4-HIPPO signaling and inhibiting YAP nuclear translocation. Knockdown of FAT4 diminished JUA's effects on HIPPO signaling, YAP nuclear translocation, cell proliferation and cellular senescence. In conclusion, JUA significantly suppressed NSCLC tumorigenesis by regulating FAT4-HIPPO-YAP signaling. Our findings suggest that JUA is a novel FAT4 activator that can be developed as a promising NSCLC therapeutic agent targeting the FAT4-HIPPO-YAP pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phrs.2021.105723DOI Listing
June 2021

Correction to: PTEN Expression in Human Granulosa Cells Is Associated with Ovarian Responses and Clinical Outcomes in IVF.

Reprod Sci 2021 Jul;28(7):1922

Fuzhou Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine Affiliated to Fujian University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Fuzhou, People's Republic of China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s43032-021-00568-5DOI Listing
July 2021

Effect of the Mendelsohn maneuver and swallowing training in patients with senile vascular dementia complicated with dysphagia.

J Int Med Res 2021 May;49(5):3000605211013198

Nursing Department, Houjie Hospital of Dongguan, Dongguan, Guangdong, China.

Objective: We investigated the effect of the Mendelsohn maneuver and swallowing training in patients with senile vascular dementia complicated with dysphagia.

Methods: We randomly classified 214 patients with senile vascular dementia and swallowing dysfunction into a control group (CG, n = 106) and observation group (OG, n = 108). Both groups underwent health education, psychological intervention, and training of the oral muscle group. The OG additionally underwent the Mendelsohn maneuver and swallowing training. The Hasegawa Dementia Scale (HDS), China Stroke Scale (CSS), and Neurobehavioral Cognitive Status Examination (NCSE) were used to evaluate dementia, neurological impairment, and cognitive dysfunction, respectively.

Results: The OG had a higher rate of effective therapy than the CG. After intervention, the OG showed better swallowing function than the CG. At 15 days and 1 month after intervention, the OG had higher video fluoroscopic swallowing exam scores than the CG. The OG had lower serum interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α levels than the CG. After intervention, the OG had higher HDS and NCSE scores and lower CSS scores than the CG.

Conclusions: The Mendelsohn maneuver and swallowing training can improve swallowing function in patients with senile vascular dementia complicated with dysphagia and help to ameliorate the inflammatory response.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/03000605211013198DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8127777PMC
May 2021

The role of a two-assay serological testing strategy for anti-HCV screening in low-prevalence populations.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 22;11(1):8689. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Clinical Laboratory, Minhang Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

HCV screening depends mainly on a one-assay anti-HCV testing strategy that is subject to an increased false-positive rate in low-prevalence populations. In this study, a two-assay anti-HCV testing strategy was applied to screen HCV infection in two groups, labelled group one (76,442 people) and group two (18,415 people), using Elecsys electrochemiluminescence (ECL) and an Architect chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay (CMIA), respectively. Each anti-HCV-reactive serum was retested with the other assay. A recombinant immunoblot assay (RIBA) and HCV RNA testing were performed to confirm anti-HCV positivity or active HCV infection. In group one, 516 specimens were reactive in the ECL screening, of which CMIA retesting showed that 363 (70.3%) were anti-HCV reactive (327 positive, 30 indeterminate, 6 negative by RIBA; 191 HCV RNA positive), but 153 (29.7%) were not anti-HCV reactive (4 positive, 29 indeterminate, 120 negative by RIBA; none HCV RNA positive). The two-assay strategy significantly improved the positive predictive value (PPV, 64.1% & 90.1%, P < 0.05). In group two, 87 serum specimens were reactive according to CMIA screening. ECL showed that 56 (70.3%) were anti-HCV reactive (47 positive, 8 indeterminate, 1 negative by RIBA; 29 HCV RNA positive) and 31 (29.7%) were anti-HCV non-reactive (25 negative, 5 indeterminate, 1 positive by RIBA; none HCV RNA positive). Again, the PPV was significantly increased (55.2% & 83.9%, P < 0.05). Compared with a one-assay testing strategy, the two-assay testing strategy may significantly reduce false positives in anti-HCV testing and identify inactive HCV infection in low-seroprevalence populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-88138-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8062551PMC
April 2021

Small-Molecule Absorber A1094 as a Stable and Fast-Clearing NIR-II Imaging Agent.

ChemMedChem 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Center for Molecular Imaging and Translational Medicine, State Key Laboratory of Molecular Vaccinology and Molecular Diagnostics, School of Public Health, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian, 361102, China.

Photoacoustic imaging (PAI) in the second near-infrared window (NIR-II) is conducive to deep-tissue imaging due to small scattering coefficients, but often requires exogenous imaging agents. At present, nanoparticle-based NIR-II imaging agents are mainly used in non-clinical studies, some basic components of which are resistant to metabolism in vivo. The aim of this study was to examine the ∼600 Da croconaine absorber A1094, absorbing lights around 1094 nm, as a rare, small-molecule NIR-II imaging agent in vivo. The clinical translational potential of A1094 injection were systematically revealed, including sufficient solubility and freeness in blood, good anti-interference ability, and favourable pH/oxidation-reduction/metabolic stabilities. After intravenous administration of A1094 injection, PAI of murine ears exhibited comparable capillaries visibility to that of PAI with popular Au nanorods. The contrasts achieved with A1094 and Au nanorods were 1.78 and 1.29 times higher than before administration, in the healthy group, and 3.25 and 1.58 times higher in the inflammation group. Notably, A1094 demonstrated a desired faster liver clearance than Au nanorods. The PAI signal of A1094 was cleared by 74.2 % after 3 h, whereas Au nanorods were only cleared by 43.1 %. The main metabolic mechanisms of A1094 were identified as N-methylation and lipid hydrolysis by murine liver microsomes in vitro. Therefore, A1094 may have promising clinical potential as a stable and fast-clearing NIR-II imaging agent.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cmdc.202100125DOI Listing
April 2021

Sustainable and high-efficiency recycling of valuable metals from oily honing ferroalloy scrap via de-oiling and smelting separation.

J Hazard Mater 2021 07 12;413:125399. Epub 2021 Feb 12.

School of Chemical Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001, Henan, PR China.

Oily ferroalloy scraps generated from machinery honing enterprises are typical hazardous municipal materials that release benzene-series volatile organic compounds (VOC), which endanger human physical and mental health. Therefore, harmless treatment and resource reuse for these hazardous materials is urgent. In this study, the VOC emission, and pyrolysis and de-oiling behaviors of oily honing scrap was first characterized to evaluate the environmental risks. Smelting separation was then proposed to economically and eco-friendly recover valuable metals from the de-oiled ferroalloy scraps. The thermodynamics of AlO-SiO and CaO-AlO-SiO systems was calculated to optimize the slag formation. Results showed that after de-oiling and smelting with CaO addition, the hazardous VOC are removed, and the valuable metals are recovered in ferroalloy state. Under optimum conditions, a crude Fe-Mo-Cu alloy with Fe, Mo and Cu recoveries of 98.5 wt%, 97.9 wt%, and 98.4 wt% were obtained. In addition, the slag containing few toxic elements and VOC can be used for silicate cement production. Pyrolysis, de-oiling behaviors and mechanism for slagging and growth of Fe-Mo-Cu alloy during smelting were discussed via various testing techniques, and leaching toxicity of the cleaned slag was also characterized in this work. This process is also applicative to recover metals from various honing ferroalloy scraps.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.125399DOI Listing
July 2021

PTEN Expression in Human Granulosa Cells Is Associated with Ovarian Responses and Clinical Outcomes in IVF.

Reprod Sci 2021 07 13;28(7):1910-1921. Epub 2021 Jan 13.

Fuzhou Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine Affiliated to Fujian University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Fuzhou, People's Republic of China.

The ovarian reserve determines the success of in vitro fertilization (IVF) and embryo transfer treatment. It predicts the ovarian response in controlled ovarian hyperstimulation cycles. Apoptosis in granulosa cells surrounding oocytes is important for ovarian function and has been closely associated with follicular atresia. PTEN (encoding phosphatase and tensin homolog) is a well-known tumor suppressor gene that functions as a mediator of apoptosis and is crucial for mammal reproduction. In the present study, we analyzed the expression level of PTEN in human granulosa cells and aimed to investigate its association with the ovarian response and clinical outcomes in IVF. Apoptosis in granulosa cells were analyzed using Annexin V-Allophycocyanin staining after PTEN short hairpin RNA lentivirus transfection. Real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR analysis showed that the PTEN transcript level was significantly higher in poor responders and significantly lower in high responders, compared with that in normal responders. However, PTEN expression in the pregnancy group decreased slightly, but not significantly, compared with that in the non-pregnancy group. The apoptosis rate of granulosa cells declined significantly after 24-h transfection of the PTEN-shRNA lentivirus. These results suggest a fundamental role of PTEN in the regulation of follicular development, and that it might be involved in the pathogenesis of follicular dysplasia and ovarian dysfunction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s43032-020-00429-7DOI Listing
July 2021

An efficient separation for metal-ions from wastewater by ion precipitate flotation: Probing formation and growth evolution of metal-reagent flocs.

Chemosphere 2021 Jan 18;263:128363. Epub 2020 Sep 18.

School of Chemical Engineering, Zhengzhou University, 450001, Zhengzhou, PR China.

Hazardous metal pollution became a severe environmental issue in China. An efficient precipitation-flotation process was developed to achieve fast removal for metal-ions from wastewater. Structure and strength of precipitate particles/flocs significantly influence the flotation removal of metal-ions. Formation and growth-evolution of precipitate flocs in precipitate flotation were studied by stage analysis of precipitate particles-formation, flocs-regulation and flotation separation. The results demonstrate that early formed precipitates MHA(humics-metal complexing particles) have small particle size, high fractal dimension, low strength and recovery factor. The addition of Fe and CTAB(cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide) reagents make the precipitate particles aggregated to flocs(MHA-Fe, MHA-Fe-CTAB) much more large, loose, coarse, and small-density. The final generated MHA-Fe-CTAB flocs are hard to be broken up, easy to be recovered and efficient to be separated by flotation process. The flotation removal of MHA-Fe-CTAB flocs is clearly higher than that of MHA or MHA-Fe. The flotation results of MHA-Fe-CTAB are as follows: flotation removal of 98.7 ± 0.40%-99.9 ± 0.10%, residual TOC of 0.96 ± 0.38-1.35 ± 0.41 mg/L and turbidity of 0.44 ± 0.09-0.63 ± 0.16 NTU. Introducing Fe and CTAB reagents into flotation solution contributes to the growth-evolution of precipitate flocs, which could intensify the metal-ions removal via precipitate flotation process and result in more ideal purification indexes for metal-containing wastewater.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.128363DOI Listing
January 2021

Fabrication, characterizations and performance of a high-efficiency micro-electrolysis filler for isobutyl xanthate (IBX) degradation.

J Hazard Mater 2021 02 13;403:123640. Epub 2020 Aug 13.

School of Chemical Engineering, Zhengzhou University, No. 100 Science Avenue, Zhengzhou 450001, People's Republic of China.

Micro-electrolysis is a cost-effective method widely applied in wastewater treatment. In this paper, a high-efficiency micro-electrolysis filler was prepared by a facile calcination method for the degradation of isobutyl xanthate (IBX). The optimization of filler fabrication process was investigated from aspects of compressive strength, abrasion loss and degradation rate. Combined with multi-characterization techniques, it can be found that the zero-valent iron (ZVI) was partially changed to Fe(2+) in the phase of fayalite (FeSiO) during the treatment. The influence of operation parameters of filler dosage, initial pH and initial concentration were thoroughly studied. The result shows that the IBX degradation rate by optimized filler can reach 93.30%, superior to that of Fe/C filler (the element Fe kept at ZVI during heat treatment) with 61.8% removal. The degradation pathway of IBX was studied by GC-MS in details and the bis(2-methylpropyl)carbonate was postulated as the main by-product. The stability of filler was evaluated by batch cycle tests and column tests. This work provides a novel perspective about micro-electrolysis filler preparation. The extraordinary performance brings it potential for industrial application.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2020.123640DOI Listing
February 2021

Clinical association of progesterone receptor isoform A with breast cancer metastasis consistent with its unique mechanistic role in preclinical models.

BMC Cancer 2020 Jun 3;20(1):512. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Barbara Ann Karmanos Cancer Institute and Department of Oncology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, 4100 John R, HWCRC 840.1, Detroit, MI, 48201-2013, USA.

Background: Luminal breast cancer (L-BCa) comprises the majority of incurable, distally metastatic breast cancer cases. Estrogen supports growth of L-BCa cells but suppresses invasiveness. Estrogen also induces the progesterone receptor (PR). Invasiveness and metastasis of L-BCa cells is supported by the short PR isoform (PR-A), in response to the range of pre- and post-menopausal plasma hormone levels, by counteracting the effects of estrogen via micro RNA-mediated cross-talk with the estrogen receptor (ER). PR-B directly supports L-BCa invasion and metastasis and also inhibits tumor growth, both only at high progesterone levels. As public datasets on L-BCa tumors cannot distinguish PR-A, this study was designed to seek clinical evidence for the role of PR-A in metastasis in comparison with PR-B and ER.

Methods: Measurement of tumor PR-A, PR-B and ER mRNA expression in 125 treatment-naive primary L-BCa patients with differential node involvement and analysis using linear mixed effects models. Transcriptional activity assays of PR-A and PR-B.

Results: Lymph node involvement was strongly associated with PR-A expression (median, 3-fold higher vs. node-negative), independent of age, pathologic type, tumor grade, HER2 and PR-B. PR-B and ER correlated weakly with PR-A, but whereas PR-B and the PR-A/PR-B ratio were not significantly associated with node involvement, ER weakly negatively correlated with node positivity. PR-A was hypersensitive to mifepristone compared with PR-B.

Conclusions: Taken together with previous mechanistic studies, the findings provide clinical evidence in support of the role of PR-A in L-BCa metastasis. They also suggest the possibility of developing selective PR-A modulators for future interventions in appropriate clinical situations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12885-020-07002-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7268268PMC
June 2020

COVID-19 in a patient with pre-existing acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.

Br J Haematol 2020 07 2;190(1):e13-e15. Epub 2020 Jun 2.

Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Fuzhou Pulmonary Hospital, Fuzhou, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.16799DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7267334PMC
July 2020

Evodiamine suppresses Notch3 signaling in lung tumorigenesis via direct binding to γ-secretases.

Phytomedicine 2020 Mar 31;68:153176. Epub 2020 Jan 31.

Joint Laboratory for Translational Cancer Research of Chinese Medicine of the Ministry of Education of the People's Republic of China, International Institute for Translational Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510006, China. Electronic address:

Background: Notch activation requires proteolytic cleavage of the receptor by γ-secretase protein complex. Inhibition of Notch receptor activation (e.g. Notch3) with γ-secretase inhibitor is a potential new therapeutic approach for the targeted therapy of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, only a few safe and effective γ-secretase inhibitors have been discovered. Evodiamine (EVO), a compound derived from Euodiae Fructus (Chinese name, Wu-Zhu-Yu), exhibits remarkable anti-NSCLC activities. However, the underlying mechanisms of action have yet to be fully elucidated.

Purpose: We sought to determine the involvement of Notch3 signaling in the anti-NSCLC effects of EVO, and to explore whether EVO suppressed Notch3 signaling by inhibiting γ-secretase in cultured A549 and H1299 NSCLC cells and in urethane-induced lung cancer FVB mouse model.

Methods: Cell viability, migration, stemness and cell cycle distribution of EVO were examined by the MTT assay, wound healing assay, soft agar colony assay and flow cytometry analysis, respectively. The binding affinity of EVO and γ-secretase complex was analyzed by molecular docking. Cellular thermal shift assay (CETSA) was performed to study the drug-target interactions in NSCLC cells. Protein levels were determined by Western blotting.

Results: EVO dramatically inhibited cell viability, induced G2/M cell cycle arrest, suppressed cell migration, and reduced stemness in NSCLC cells. Mechanistic studies indicated that EVO prevented the γ-secretase cleavage of Notch3 at the cell surface and hence inhibited Notch3 activation. Moreover, EVO notably reduced tumor growth in the mouse model and inhibited Notch3 activity in the tumors.

Conclusion: This study provides new insights into the anti-NSCLC action of EVO, and suggests that suppressing Notch3 signaling by inhibiting γ-secretase is a mechanism of action underlying the anti-NSCLC effect of EVO.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phymed.2020.153176DOI Listing
March 2020

Genetic variant rs3750625 in the 3'UTR of ADRA2A affects the sleep quality of patients in the ICU by promoting miR‑34a binding to ADRA2A.

Int J Mol Med 2020 Mar 8;45(3):910-918. Epub 2020 Jan 8.

Nursing Department, Dongguan Houjie Hospital, Dongguan, Guangdong 523945, P.R. China.

Poor sleep is very common in patients in the ICU and hence, sleep quality is considered an important aspect of intensive care; however, the underlying mechanisms of poor sleep in patients in the ICU remain unknown. In this study, we aimed to explore the role of rs3750625, which is located in the 3'UTR of adrenoceptor alpha 2A (ADRA2A), in sleep quality. For this purpose, luciferase assay was conducted to investigate the association between miR‑34a and ADRA2A, and the effect of rs3750625 on the binding affinity between miR‑34a and ADRA2A was examined. RT‑qPCR and western blot analysis were carried out to examine the regulatory association between miR‑34a and ADRA2A. The differences in sleep time and efficiency were compared between groups carrying the AC and CC genotypes of rs3750625, respectively. According to the results from an online search, miR‑34a could directly bind to the 3'UTR of ADRA2A, and such binding was confirmed by the observation that miR‑34a inhibited the luciferase activity of major or minor ADRA2A 3'UTR in a dose‑dependent manner in HCN‑1A and U251 cells. In addition, the ADRA2A protein and mRNA levels in the HCN‑1A and U251 cells were evidently decreased following transfection with miR‑34a precursors. Notably, patients in the AC group exhibited a similar level of miR‑34a mRNA expression compared with patients in the CC group; however, the ADRA2A mRNA and protein levels in the CC group were significantly increased in comparison with those in the AC group. In addition, the sleep time and sleep efficiency in the CC group were much higher than those in the AC group. Furthermore, the mean arterial pressure (MAP) values in both the AC and CC groups remained stable from 22:00 to 08:00, and the respiratory rates in both groups were quite similar. However, the heart rate of patients in the CC group was much lower than that of patients in the AC group. On the whole, the findings of this study suggest that the genetic variant rs3750625 in the 3'UTR of ADRA2A affects the sleep quality of patients in the ICU by promoting the binding of miR‑34a to ADRA2A, and hence it may serve as a novel biomarker for the prediction of the sleep quality of patients in the ICU.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/ijmm.2020.4456DOI Listing
March 2020

Imaging findings of ductal carcinoma in situ arising within fibroadenoma.

Breast J 2020 05 14;26(5):1037-1038. Epub 2019 Dec 14.

Department of Radiology, Yi Yang Central Hospital, Yiyang, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tbj.13709DOI Listing
May 2020

The ternary complex factor protein ELK1 is an independent prognosticator of disease recurrence in prostate cancer.

Prostate 2020 02 3;80(2):198-208. Epub 2019 Dec 3.

Department of Oncology and Barbara Ann Karmanos Cancer Institute, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan.

Background: Both hormone-sensitive and castration- and enzalutamide-resistant prostate cancers (PCa) depend on the ternary complex factor (TCF) protein ELK1 to serve as a tethering protein for the androgen receptor (AR) to activate a critical set of growth genes. The two sites in ELK1 required for AR binding are conserved in other members of the TCF subfamily, ELK3 and ELK4. Here we examine the potential utility of the three proteins as prognosticators of disease recurrence in PCa.

Methods: Transcriptional activity assays; Retrospective analysis of PCa recurrence using data on 501 patients in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database; Unpaired Wilcoxon rank-sum test and multiple comparison correction using the Holm's method; Spearman's correlations; Kaplan-Meier methods; Univariable and multivariable Cox regression analyses; LASSO-based penalized Cox regression models; Time-dependent area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve.

Results: ELK4 but not ELK3 was coactivated by AR similar to ELK1. Tumor expression of neither ELK3 nor ELK4 was associated with disease-free survival (DFS). ELK1 was associated with higher clinical T-stage, pathology T-stage, Gleason score, prognostic grade, and positive lymph node status. ELK1 was a negative prognosticator of DFS, independent of ELK3, ELK4, clinical T-stage, pathology T-stage, prognostic grade, lymph node status, age, and race. Inclusion of ELK1 increased the abilities of the Oncotype DX and Prolaris gene panels to predict disease recurrence, correctly predicting disease recurrence in a unique subset of patients.

Conclusions: ELK1 is a strong, independent prognosticator of disease recurrence in PCa, underscoring its unique role in PCa growth. Inclusion of ELK1 may enhance the utility of currently used prognosticators for clinical decision making in prostate cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pros.23932DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7302117PMC
February 2020

Quantitative Photoacoustic Diagnosis of Gastric and Intestinal Dysfunctions with a Broad pH-Responsive Sensor.

ACS Nano 2019 08 2;13(8):9561-9570. Epub 2019 Aug 2.

State Key Laboratory of Molecular Vaccinology and Molecular Diagnosis & Center for Molecular Imaging and Translational Medicine, School of Public Health , Xiamen University , Xiamen 361102 , P.R. China.

Gastrointestinal diseases affect many people in the world and significantly impair life quality and burden the healthcare system. The functional parameters of the gastrointestinal tract such as motility and pH can effectively reflect the changes of gastrointestinal activity in physiological and pathological conditions. Thus, a noninvasive method for real-time and quantitative measurement of gastrointestinal functional parameters is highly desired. At present, there are many strategies widely used for the diagnosis of gastrointestinal diseases in clinic, including X-ray barium meal examination, ultrasound imaging, radionuclide examination, endoscopy, . However, these methods are limited in determining the gastrointestinal status and cannot provide comprehensive quantitative information. Photoacoustic imaging (PAI) is a rapid noninvasive real-time imaging technique in which multiple types of functional and quantitative information can be simultaneously obtained. Unfortunately, very few ratiometric PAI contrast agents have been reported for quantification of gastrointestinal functional parameters . In this work, a broad, pH-responsive ratiometric sensor based on polyaniline and Au triangular nanoplates was developed. Utilizing the sensor as a contrast agent, PAI served as an all-in-one technique, accurately measuring the gastrointestinal functional parameters in a single test. Notably, this sensor was examined to be ultrasensitive with pH responses as fast as 0.6 s and durability as long as 24 h, and was repeatable and reversible for longitudinal monitoring. The quantitative results demonstrated a significant disorder in motility and decrease in pH for gastric and duodenal ulcers. Collectively, the combination of PAI and this broad pH-responsive sensor might be a promising candidate for quantitative diagnosis of gastrointestinal diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsnano.9b04541DOI Listing
August 2019

Biocompatible Croconaine Aggregates with Strong 1.2-1.3 μm Absorption for NIR-IIa Photoacoustic Imaging in Vivo.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2019 Aug 14;11(34):30511-30517. Epub 2019 Aug 14.

Department of Nuclear Medicine , Hebei General Hospital , Shijiazhuang 050051 , China.

Although photoacoustic imaging (PAI) in the second near-infrared (NIR-II) region (1.0-1.7 μm) is admired for deeper penetration and higher contrast, few organic NIR-II absorbers are available as exogenous contrast agents in vivo. A1094 belongs to the very few ∼1.1 μm absorbing croconaine dyes that have superior extinction coefficient and tend to form irregular aggregation. In this study, shape-controlled [email protected] micelles with a J-aggregate core with remarkable 1.2-1.3 μm absorption are fabricated as biocompatible organic agents. Excellent capabilities in photothermal conversion, photostability, and PAI are found in in vitro studies. In vivo PAI of inguinal lymph nodes and in situ glioma pre- and post-resection, all demonstrate high lymph/tumor-targeting efficiency. An ∼4.54 mm deep brain lesion is imaged at 1200 nm with minimized background and increased contrast compared to 970 nm. Overall, we achieved significant bathochromic shift of organic absorbers and expanded their PAI application to the long-wavelength end of the NIR-IIa region.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.9b06824DOI Listing
August 2019

Comprehensive evaluation on a prospective precipitation-flotation process for metal-ions removal from wastewater simulants.

J Hazard Mater 2019 06 12;371:592-602. Epub 2019 Mar 12.

School of Chemical Engineering and Energy, Zhengzhou University, 450001, Zhengzhou, PR China.

Toxic metal pollutants threaten water environment. It exists undesirably metal-ion concentration limits with conventional precipitation flotation. An enhanced precipitation flotation system focusing on efficient removal for bivalent metal-ions was researched. The system involved the addition of humics and Fe to generate and regulate the precipitates. The characteristics of precipitates were investigated by particle analysis, conditional stability constants and DLVO theory calculations, and SEM&TEM imaging. The results reveal that metal-ions chelate with humics at low metal-ion concentration, with generating the limited micro-size precipitates of <2.0 μm, fractal dimension of 1.60-1.80 and precipitate efficiency of <91.00%. By adding trivalent Fe, the macro-size precipitates are obtained with particle size of approximate 10.0 μm, fractal dimension of 1.50-1.60, and nearly-total flotation removal of precipitate. The chelating interaction of Fe with humics is the mainly regulating mechanism, which could enhance the conditional stability constants and the precipitate efficiency of metal-ions at low concentration. The desired precipitate particles are finally obtained by breaking the limitations of metal-ion concentration. Finally, the flotation removal of metal-ions from single or mixed solutions is respectively 99.10 ± 0.10% for Cu, 99.60 ± 0.10% for Pb, and 94.30 ± 0.30% for Zn. Therefore, the enhanced precipitation flotation process is an efficient purification approach for metal-containing wastewaters.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2019.03.048DOI Listing
June 2019

[Differential diagnosis for breast ductal carcinoma in situ and plasma cell mastitis by magnetic resonance imaging].

Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban 2018 Oct;43(10):1123-1130

Department of Radiology, First Affiliated Hospital, Hunan University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Changsha 410007, China.

Objective: To investigate the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features for ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and plasma cell mastitis (PCM) , and to improve diagnostic accuracy for DCIS and PCM. 
 Methods: The MRI morphology confirmed by surgical pathology and dynamic enhancement for 35 patients with DCIS and 45 patients with PCM were retrospectively analyzed, which included T1 pre-scan high signal, enhanced distribution characteristics, internal strengthening mode, whether centrifugation or centripetal diffusion, dynamic enhancement curve morphology, diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) signal characteristics, and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values. 
 Results: The segmental distribution, clustered ring, T1 pre-catheters diffusion and the dynamic delayed concentric diffusion were more common in DCIS than those in PCM (P<0.05). Regional distribution, internal heterogeneity enhancement, and enhanced delay period eccentric diffusion were more common in PCM than those in DCIS (P<0.05). In the PCM group, nipple repertoire, DWI center high signal, adjacent skin thickening, and sinus formation were significantly higher than those in the DCIS group (P<0.05).
 Conclusion: Both DCIS and PCM show a non-mass like enhancement on MRI. Images in DCIS mostly show duct-like, branch-like and segment-like distribution. The internal enhancement mode is centripetal diffusion. Images in PCM mostly show regional distribution, and the inside displays heterogeneity enhancement with the adjacent skin thickening and nipple subsided.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11817/j.issn.1672-7347.2018.10.013DOI Listing
October 2018

Chronic p27 Induction by Dexamethasone Causes Senescence Phenotype and Permanent Cell Cycle Blockade in Lung Adenocarcinoma Cells Over-expressing Glucocorticoid Receptor.

Sci Rep 2018 10 30;8(1):16006. Epub 2018 Oct 30.

Barbara Ann Karmanos Cancer Institute and Department of Oncology, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, 48201-2013, USA.

Dexamethasone (Dex), co-administered to lung adenocarcinoma patients with pemetrexed chemotherapy, protects against pemetrexed cytotoxicity by inducing reversible G1 arrest, reflected by the effect of Dex on FLT-PET images of patient tumors. However, perioperative Dex treatment increases survival but the mechanism is unknown. In cells with glucocorticoid receptor-α (GR) expression corresponding to higher clinical tumor levels, Dex-induced growth arrest was followed by marked cell expansion, beta-galactosidase expression and Ki67 negativity, despite variable p53 and K-RAS status. Dex induced a transient early surge in p21. However, a progressive, irreversible loss of clonogenic growth, whose time of onset was dependent on GR level and Dex dose, was independent of p21and caused by gradual accumulation of p27 due to transcriptional activation of p27 by Dex. This effect was independent of canonical pathways of senescence or p27 regulation. The in vitro observations were reflected by growth suppression and P27 induction in GR-overexpressing tumor xenografts compared with isogenic low-GR tumors. Extended Dex treatment induces irreversible cell cycle blockade and a senescence phenotype through chronic activation of the p27 gene in GR overexpressing lung tumor cell populations and hence could improve outcome of surgery/pemetrexed chemotherapy and sensitize tumors to immunotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-34475-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6207728PMC
October 2018

Effects of superovulation, in vitro fertilization, and oocyte in vitro maturation on imprinted gene Grb10 in mouse blastocysts.

Arch Gynecol Obstet 2018 12 24;298(6):1219-1227. Epub 2018 Sep 24.

The School of Basic Medical Science, Fujian Medical University, No. 88 Jiaotong Road, Fuzhou, 350003, Fujian, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: Grb10 is a key imprinted gene that is suspected to have a role in the adverse outcomes of assisted reproductive technology (ART), but little is known about the effects of ART on it. Primary ART techniques, including superovulation, in vitro fertilization (IVF), and oocyte in vitro maturation (IVM), were analyzed in this study of the effects of ART on embryo quality and Grb10.

Methods: Embryo development rates were determined. Blastocyst cell number and global methylation were analyzed at the single-embryo level, together with Grb10 methylation and mRNA expression of the imprinted genes.

Results: Lower blastocyst cell number, higher genome and Grb10 CGI1 methylation, and variable mRNA expression were observed in the ART groups compared with the control group. Whether fertilization was in vivo or in vitro, the changes in the genome and Grb10 CGI1 methylation level and Grb10 and H19 expression were similar in the groups with superovulation and more significant than the IVM group.

Conclusions: These results suggest that superovulation had a greater impact than IVF or IVM on the genome and Grb10 DNA methylation level, and Grb10 and H19 expression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00404-018-4905-3DOI Listing
December 2018

Strategy for Tumor-Selective Disruption of Androgen Receptor Function in the Spectrum of Prostate Cancer.

Clin Cancer Res 2018 12 5;24(24):6509-6522. Epub 2018 Sep 5.

Department of Oncology, Wayne State University School of Medicine and Barbara Ann Karmanos Cancer Institute, Detroit, Michigan.

Purpose: Testosterone suppression in prostate cancer is limited by serious side effects and resistance via restoration of androgen receptor (AR) functionality. ELK1 is required for AR-dependent growth in various hormone-dependent and castration-resistant prostate cancer models. The amino-terminal domain of AR docks at two sites on ELK1 to coactivate essential growth genes. This study explores the ability of small molecules to disrupt the ELK1-AR interaction in the spectrum of prostate cancer, inhibiting AR activity in a manner that would predict functional tumor selectivity.

Experimental Design: Small-molecule drug discovery and extensive biological characterization of a lead compound.

Results: We have discovered a lead molecule (KCI807) that selectively disrupts ELK1-dependent promoter activation by wild-type and variant ARs without interfering with ELK1 activation by ERK. KCI807 has an obligatory flavone scaffold and functional hydroxyl groups on C5 and C3'. KCI807 binds to AR, blocking ELK1 binding, and selectively blocks recruitment of AR to chromatin by ELK1. KCI807 primarily affects a subset of AR target growth genes selectively suppressing AR-dependent growth of prostate cancer cell lines with a better inhibitory profile than enzalutamide. KCI807 also inhibits growth of castration/enzalutamide-resistant cell line-derived and patient-derived tumor xenografts. In the rodent model, KCI807 has a plasma half-life of 6 hours, and maintenance of its antitumor effect is limited by self-induced metabolism at its 3'-hydroxyl.

Conclusions: The results offer a mechanism-based therapeutic paradigm for disrupting the AR growth-promoting axis in the spectrum of prostate tumors while reducing global suppression of testosterone actions. KCI807 offers a good lead molecule for drug development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-18-0982DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6295231PMC
December 2018

Quantitative parameters of CT texture analysis as potential markersfor early prediction of spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage enlargement.

Eur Radiol 2018 Oct 30;28(10):4389-4396. Epub 2018 Apr 30.

Department of Radiology, First Affiliated Hospital of College of Medical Science, Zhejiang University, 79 Qingchun Road, Hangzhou, 310003, China.

Objective: To objectively quantify intracranial hematoma (ICH) enlargement by analysing the image texture of head CT scans and to provide objective and quantitative imaging parameters for predicting early hematoma enlargement.

Methods: We retrospectively studied 108 ICH patients with baseline non-contrast computed tomography (NCCT) and 24-h follow-up CT available. Image data were assessed by a chief radiologist and a resident radiologist. Consistency analysis between observers was tested. The patients were divided into training set (75%) and validation set (25%) by stratified sampling. Patients in the training set were dichotomized according to 24-h hematoma expansion ≥ 33%. Using the Laplacian of Gaussian bandpass filter, we chose different anatomical spatial domains ranging from fine texture to coarse texture to obtain a series of derived parameters (mean grayscale intensity, variance, uniformity) in order to quantify and evaluate all data. The parameters were externally validated on validation set.

Results: Significant differences were found between the two groups of patients within variance at V and in uniformity at U, U and U. The intraclass correlation coefficients for the texture parameters were between 0.67 and 0.99. The area under the ROC curve between the two groups of ICH cases was between 0.77 and 0.92. The accuracy of validation set by CTTA was 0.59-0.85.

Conclusion: NCCT texture analysis can objectively quantify the heterogeneity of ICH and independently predict early hematoma enlargement.

Key Points: • Heterogeneity is helpful in predicting ICH enlargement. • CTTA could play an important role in predicting early ICH enlargement. • After filtering, fine texture had the best diagnostic performance. • The histogram-based uniformity parameters can independently predict ICH enlargement. • CTTA is more objective, more comprehensive, more independently operable, than previous methods.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00330-018-5364-8DOI Listing
October 2018

Progesterone receptor A promotes invasiveness and metastasis of luminal breast cancer by suppressing regulation of critical microRNAs by estrogen.

J Biol Chem 2018 01 21;293(4):1163-1177. Epub 2017 Nov 21.

From the Barbara Ann Karmanos Cancer Institute and Department of Oncology, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan 48201-2013

Distal metastasis of luminal breast cancer is frequent and incurable, yet the metastasis mechanisms are poorly understood. Estrogen, even at postmenopausal concentrations, suppresses invasiveness of luminal breast cancer cells through the estrogen receptor (ER). Invasive tumors overexpress the short progesterone receptor A (PR-A) isoform. Even at postmenopausal concentrations, progesterone activates PR-A, inducing invasiveness by counteracting estrogen's effects, particularly when cells are hypersensitized to progesterone by PR-A overexpression. To interrogate the role of this cross-talk in metastasis, we investigated selective cross-talk mechanisms of PR-A with ER. We developed a quantitative PCR-based lymph node infiltration assay to address the slowness of metastasis of tumor xenografts. We found that 15 microRNAs (miRNAs) are regulated by progesterone via PR-A, but not the longer PR-B isoform, with increased progesterone sensitivity when PR-A was overexpressed. Two of these miRNAs whose induction (miR-92a-3p) or repression (miR-26b-5p) by estrogen was suppressed by progesterone plus PR-A were critical for the PR-A-ER cross-talk causing a gene-regulatory pattern of invasiveness and metastasis and complete rescue of invasiveness Constitutive expression of miR-92a-3p or inhibition of miR-26b-5p profoundly suppressed metastasis. Finally, in primary breast tumors, PR-A expression was correlated negatively with miR-92a-3p expression and positively with miR-26b-5p expression. Therefore, hormonal cross-talk of PR-A with ER is probably a fundamental mechanism that enables metastasis of luminal breast cancer. Moreover, miRNA biomarkers of hyperactive PR-A may help predict metastatic potential of luminal breast tumors. Further, miR-92a-3p and miR-26b-5p may reveal target pathways for selective intervention to suppress hormone-regulated metastasis, both pre- and postmenopause.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M117.812438DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5787796PMC
January 2018

Effect of vitrification on development and imprinted gene in mouse embryos.

Reproduction 2017 09;154(3):97-105

College of Preclinical Medicine, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, People's Republic of China.

Vitrification of embryos is a routine procedure in IVF ( fertilization) laboratories. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the effect of vitrification on mouse preimplantation embryo development , and effect on the epigenetic status of imprinted gene in mouse embryos. The blastocyst formation rate for vitrified 8-cell embryos was similar to the non-vitrified 8-cell embryos, whereas the blastocyst hatching rate was lower than that of the non-vitrified group. The expression level of major-type transcript decreased significantly in vitrified blastocysts compared with non-vitrified and blastocysts. Moreover, the global DNA methylation level in 8-cell embryos and blastocysts, and the DNA methylation at CpG island 1 (CGI1) of in blastocysts were also significantly decreased after vitrification. culture condition had no adverse effect, except for on the DNA methylation in CGI1. These results suggest that vitrification may reduce the development of mouse 8-cell embryos and affect the expression and DNA methylation of imprinted gene .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1530/REP-16-0480DOI Listing
September 2017

Drug-resistance dynamics of Staphylococcus aureus between 2008 and 2014 at a tertiary teaching hospital, Jiangxi Province, China.

BMC Infect Dis 2017 01 25;17(1):97. Epub 2017 Jan 25.

Department of Clinical Laboratory, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, 17 Yongwaizhengjie, Nanchang, 330006, China.

Background: To understand the relationship between the Staphylococcus aureus infection rate and the reasonable usage of antibiotics, which will help in the effective control of MRSA infection.

Methods: All data were obtained by the application of the nosocomial infection surveillance network. Drug resistance, departmental sources, and isolated sites as well as infection rate variations of S. aureus were analyzed in the 7-year period in key departments.

Results: Between 2008 and 2014, 2525 strains of S. aureus isolates, mainly from sputum, skin/soft tissue, bloodstreams were collected from several hospital departments including respiratory, burn, brain surgery, orthopedics, ICU, and emergency. During these periods, the resistance rate of S. aureus to most drugs, including oxacillin, tetracycline, erythromycin, clindamycin, gentamicin, and ciprofloxacin, showed a tendency to decrease. The resistance to sulphamethoxazole/trimethoprim showed the opposite trend (P = 0.075) and there were no S. aureus strains resistant to linezolid and vancomycin. The MRSA infection rate was different across crucial hospital departments, with the burns department and ICU maintaining a high infection level. Over the 7-year period, both the brain surgery and the emergency departments had an expected upward trend (P < 0.05), while the orthopedic department showed a clear downward trend (P < 0.05) in MRSA infection rate.

Conclusion: Hospitals should continue to maintain the current pattern of antibiotic administration, while more effective measures should be taken to reduce the high MRSA infection rate in some important hospital departments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-016-2172-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5267434PMC
January 2017

Beneficial effects of diazepin-quinazolin-amine derivative (BIX-01294) on preimplantation development and molecular characteristics of cloned mouse embryos.

Reprod Fertil Dev 2017 Jun;29(6):1260-1269

College of Preclinical Medicine, Fujian Medical University, Jiaotong Road, 350004, Fuzhou, PR China.

Somatic cell nuclear transfer is frequently associated with abnormal epigenetic modifications that may lead to the developmental failure of cloned embryos. BIX-01294 (a diazepine-quinazoline-amine derivative) is a specific inhibitor of the histone methyltransferase G9a. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of BIX-01294 on development, dimethylation of histone H3 at lysine 9 (H3K9), DNA methylation and the expression of imprinted genes in cloned mouse preimplantation embryos. There were no significant differences in blastocyst rates of cloned embryos treated with or without 0.1μM BIX-01294. Relative to clone embryos treated without 0.1μM BIX-01294, exposure of embryos to BIX-01294 decreased histone H3K9 dimethylation and DNA methylation in cloned embryos to levels that were similar to those of in vivo-fertilised embryos at the 2-cell and blastocyst stages. Cloned embryos had lower expression of octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (Oct4) and small nuclear ribonucleoprotein N (Snrpn), but higher expression of imprinted maternally expressed transcript (non-protein coding) (H19) and growth factor receptor-bound protein 10 (Grb10) compared with in vivo-fertilised counterparts. The addition of 0.1μM BIX-01294 to the activation and culture medium resulted in lower H19 expression and higher cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor 1C (Cdkn1c) and delta-like 1 homolog (Dlk1) expression, but had no effect on the expression of Oct4, Snrpn and Grb10. The loss of methylation at the Grb10 cytosine-phosphorous-guanine (CpG) islands in cloned embryos was partially corrected by BIX-01294. These results indicate that BIX-01294 treatment of cloned embryos has beneficial effects in terms of correcting abnormal epigenetic modifications, but not on preimplantation development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/RD15463DOI Listing
June 2017

Restoration of the cellular secretory milieu overrides androgen dependence of in vivo generated castration resistant prostate cancer cells overexpressing the androgen receptor.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2016 07 12;476(2):69-74. Epub 2016 May 12.

Barbara Ann Karmanos Cancer Institute, Department of Oncology, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48201-2013, USA. Electronic address:

It is believed that growth of castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) cells is enabled by sensitization to minimal residual post-castrate androgen due to overexpression of the androgen receptor (AR). Evidence is derived from androgen-induced colony formation in the absence of cell-secreted factors or from studies involving forced AR overexpression in hormone-dependent cells. On the other hand, standard cell line models established from CRPC patient tumors (e.g., LNCaP and VCaP) are hormone-dependent and require selection pressure in castrated mice to re-emerge as CRPC cells and the resulting tumors then tend to be insensitive to the androgen antagonist enzalutamide. Therefore, we examined established CRPC model cells produced by castration of mice bearing hormone-dependent cell line xenografts including CRPC cells overexpressing full-length AR (C4-2) or co-expressing wtAR and splice-variant AR-V7 that is incapable of ligand binding (22Rv1). In standard colony formation assays, C4-2 cells were shown to be androgen-dependent and sensitive to enzalutamide whereas 22Rv1 cells were incapable of colony formation under identical conditions. However, both C4-2 and 22Rv1 cells formed colonies in conditioned media derived from the same cells or from HEK293 fibroblasts that were proven to lack androgenic activity. This effect was (i) not enhanced by androgen, (ii) insensitive to enzalutamide, (iii) dependent on AR (in C4-2) and on AR-V7 and wtAR (in 22Rv1) and (iv) sensitive to inhibitors of several signaling pathways, similar to androgen-stimulation. Therefore, during progression to CRPC in vivo, coordinate cellular changes accompanying overexpression of AR may enable cooperation between hormone-independent activity of AR and actions of cellular secretory factors to completely override androgen-dependence and sensitivity to drugs targeting hormonal factors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2016.05.058DOI Listing
July 2016

A perspective of stepwise utilisation of Bayer red mud: Step two--Extracting and recovering Ti from Ti-enriched tailing with acid leaching and precipitate flotation.

J Hazard Mater 2016 Apr 11;307:318-27. Epub 2016 Jan 11.

School of Chemical Engineering and Energy, Zhengzhou University, 450001, Zhengzhou, PR China.

The extraction and recovery of Ti from Ti-enriched tailing with acid leaching and precipitate flotation, as one of the critical steps, was proposed for the stepwise utilization of red mud. The factors influencing acid leaching and precipitate flotation were examined by factorial design. The leaching thermodynamics, kinetics of Ti(4+), Al(3+) and Fe(3+), and the mechanism of selectively Fe(3+) removal using [Hbet][Tf2N] as precipitating reagent were discussed. The extracting of Ti(4+), Al(3+) and Fe(3+) in concentrated H2SO4 is controlled by diffusion reactions, depending mainly upon leaching time and temperature. The maximum extracting efficiency of Ti(4+) is approximately 92.3%, whereas Al(3+) and Fe(3+) leaching are respectively 75.8% and 84.2%. [Hbet][Tf2N], as a precipitating reagent, operates through a coordination mechanism in flotation. The pH value is the key factor influencing the flotation recovery of Ti(4+), whereas the dosage of precipitating reagent is that for Al(3+) recovery. The maximum flotation recovery of Ti(4+) is 92.7%, whereas the maximum Al(3+) recovery is 93.5%. The total recovery rate for extracting and recovering titanium is 85.5%. The liquor with Ti(4+) of 15.5g/L, Al(3+) of 30.4g/L and Fe(3+) of 0.48g/L was obtained for the following hydrolysis step in the integrated process for red mud utilisation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2016.01.010DOI Listing
April 2016
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