Publications by authors named "Yandong Liu"

33 Publications

Apple quality identification and classification by image processing based on convolutional neural networks.

Sci Rep 2021 Aug 17;11(1):16618. Epub 2021 Aug 17.

School of Mechanical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan, 250061, Shandong, China.

This work researched apple quality identification and classification from real images containing complicated disturbance information (background was similar to the surface of the apples). This paper proposed a novel model based on convolutional neural networks (CNN) which aimed at accurate and fast grading of apple quality. Specific, complex, and useful image characteristics for detection and classification were captured by the proposed model. Compared with existing methods, the proposed model could better learn high-order features of two adjacent layers that were not in the same channel but were very related. The proposed model was trained and validated, with best training and validation accuracy of 99% and 98.98% at 2590th and 3000th step, respectively. The overall accuracy of the proposed model tested using an independent 300 apple dataset was 95.33%. The results showed that the training accuracy, overall test accuracy and training time of the proposed model were better than Google Inception v3 model and traditional imaging process method based on histogram of oriented gradient (HOG), gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) features merging and support vector machine (SVM) classifier. The proposed model has great potential in Apple's quality detection and classification.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-96103-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8371106PMC
August 2021

FUNDC1 insufficiency sensitizes high fat diet intake-induced cardiac remodeling and contractile anomaly through ACSL4-mediated ferroptosis.

Metabolism 2021 Sep 29;122:154840. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Department of Cardiology, Shanghai Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032, China; Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. Electronic address:

Objective: Ferroptosis is indicated in cardiovascular diseases. Given the prominent role of mitophagy in the governance of ferroptosis and our recent finding for FUN14 domain containing 1 (FUNDC1) in obesity anomalies, this study evaluated the impact of FUNDC1 deficiency in high fat diet (HFD)-induced cardiac anomalies.

Methods And Materials: WT and FUNDC1 mice were fed HFD (45% calorie from fat) or low fat diet (LFD, 10% calorie from fat) for 10 weeks in the presence of the ferroptosis inhibitor liproxstatin-1 (LIP-1, 10 mg/kg, i.p.).

Results: RNAseq analysis for differentially expressed genes (DEGs) reported gene ontology term related to ferroptosis and mitophagy in obese rat hearts, which was validated in obese rodent and human hearts. Although 10-week HFD intake did not alter global metabolism, cardiac geometry and function, ablation of FUNDC1 unmasked metabolic derangement, pronounced cardiac remodeling, contractile, intracellular Ca and mitochondrial anomalies upon HFD challenge, the effects of which with exception of global metabolism were attenuated or mitigated by LIP-1. FUNDC1 ablation unmasked HFD-evoked rises in fatty acid synthase ACSL4, necroptosis, inflammation, ferroptosis, mitochondrial O production, and mitochondrial injury as well as dampened autophagy and DNA repair enzyme 8-oxoG DNA glycosylase 1 (OGG1) but not apoptosis, the effect of which except ACSL4 and its regulator SP1 was reversed by LIP-1. In vitro data noted that arachidonic acid, an ACSL4 substrate, provoked cytochrome C release, cardiomyocyte defect, and lipid peroxidation under FUNDC1 deficiency, the effects were interrupted by inhibitors of SP1, ACSL4 and ferroptosis.

Conclusions: These data suggest that FUNDC1 deficiency sensitized cardiac remodeling and dysfunction with short-term HFD exposure, likely through ACSL4-mediated regulation of ferroptosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.metabol.2021.154840DOI Listing
September 2021

The Interface Thermal Resistance Evolution between Carbide-Bonded Graphene Coating and Polymer in Rapid Molding for Microlens Array.

Polymers (Basel) 2021 Jul 16;13(14). Epub 2021 Jul 16.

School of Sino-Germany Intelligent Production, Shenzhen Institute of Technology, Shenzhen 518116, China.

Surface rapid heating process is an efficient and green method for large-volume production of polymer optics by adopting 3D graphene network coated silicon molds with high thermal conductivity. Nevertheless, the heat transfer mechanism including the interface thermal resistance evolution between 3D graphene network coating and polymer has not been thoroughly revealed. In this study, the interface thermal resistance model was established by simplifying the contact situation between the coating and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA), and then embedding into the finite element method (FEM) model to study the temperature variations of PMMA in surface rapid heating process. Heating experiments for graphene network were then carried out under different currents to provide the initial heat for heat transfer model. In addition, residual stress of the PMMA lens undergoing the non-uniform thermal history during molding was presented by the simulation model together. Finally, the optimal molding parameters including heating time and pressure will be determined according to calculation results of the interface thermal resistance model and microlens array molding experiment was conducted to illustrate that the interface thermal resistance model can predict the temperature of the polymer to achieve a better filling of microlens array with smooth surface and satisfactory optical performance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/polym13142334DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8309634PMC
July 2021

The Association of Lumbar Disc Herniation with Lumbar Volumetric Bone Mineral Density in a Cross-Sectional Chinese Study.

Diagnostics (Basel) 2021 May 24;11(6). Epub 2021 May 24.

School of Medical Technology, Shaanxi University of Chinese Medicine, Xianyang 712083, China.

Little is known about the effect of lumbar intervertebral disc herniation (LDH) on lumbar bone mineral density (BMD), and few previous studies have used quantitative computed tomography (QCT) to assess whether the staging of LDH correlates with lumbar vertebral trabecular volumetric bone mineral density (Trab.vBMD). To explore the relationship between lumbar Trab.vBMD and LDH, seven hundred and fifty-four healthy participants aged 20-60 years were enrolled in the study from an ongoing study on the degeneration of the spine and knee between June 2014 and 2017. QCT was used to measure L2-4 Trab.vBMD and lumbar spine magnetic resonance images (MRI) were performed to assess the incidence of disc herniation. After 9 exclusions, a total of 322 men and 423 women remained. The men and women were divided into younger (age 20-39 years) and older (age 40-60 years) groups and further into those without LDH, with a single LDH segment, and with ≥2 segments. Covariance analysis was used to adjust for the effects of age, BMI, waistline, and hipline on the relationship between Trab.vBMD and LDH. Forty-one younger men (25.0%) and 59 older men (37.3%) had at least one LDH segment. Amongst the women, the numbers were 46 (22.5%) and 80 (36.4%), respectively. Although there were differences in the characteristics data between men and women, the difference in Trab.vBMD between those without LDH and those with single and ≥2 segments was not statistically significant ( > 0.05). These results remained not statistically significant after further adjusting for covariates ( > 0.05). No associations between lumbar disc herniation and vertebral trabecular volumetric bone mineral density were observed in either men or women.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics11060938DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8225064PMC
May 2021

A Novel Fenestrating Device, "Quick Fenestrater," for Reconstructing Supra-aortic Arteries In Situ during Thoracic Endovascular Aortic Repair.

Can J Cardiol 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, Changzheng Hospital, Naval Medical University, Shanghai, 200001, China. Electronic address:

Background: In situ fenestration (ISF) is an effective approach for reconstructing supra-aortic branches during thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR). A dedicated device is needed for ISF.

Methods: The "Quick Fenestrater" (QF) underwent in vitro, animal-based, and initial clinical testing. In vitro, the polytetrafluoroethylene and Dacron aortic endografts were fenestrated using the QF, and the structure of the graft, fenestration hole, and shed particulate material were evaluated. Eight white swine had QF-aided ISF combined with TEVAR and bridge stent implantation. The outcomes were assessed using intraoperative angiography and biopsy. Finally, 13 patients were treated with QF-assisted ISF, combined with TEVAR, and the success rate, technical details, and intra- and post-operative complications were recorded.

Results: The endograft structure was not damaged during in vitro testing. The fenestration hole was clean, and no particulate material was detected. In animal studies, all animals survived, the supra-aortic arteries were patent, and the endografts and bridge stents had normal morphology. In clinical studies, the technical success rate was 100%, and no fenestration-related neurological complications or death occurred. One patient had a local access-related hematoma perioperatively and recovered after conservative treatment. Three patients had type III endoleaks, which resolved with no additional treatment. During a mean follow-up of 22.1±6 months, no thoracic complications were identified, and the bridge stents were patent with no endoleaks. No adverse cerebrovascular events, cardiovascular events, or death occurred.

Conclusions: QF-assisted ISF is a safe and effective method for the reconstruction of supra-aortic branches during TEVAR. Intermediate-term follow-up results validate the application of the novel fenestration device.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cjca.2021.04.024DOI Listing
May 2021

Cystatin C level is associated with the recovery of renal function in cancer patients after onset of acute kidney injury.

Ann Palliat Med 2021 Feb;10(2):2158-2166

Laboratory of the Fifth People's Hospital of Shenyang, Shenyang Key Laboratory of Cancer, Shenyang, China.

Background: The risk of injury to the kidney can be significantly exacerbated by the presence of tumors and the effects of related treatments. Kidney injury associated with cancer is common in multiple myeloma, tumor lysis syndrome, hematopoietic stem cell therapy, and chemotherapy. Cancer patients are at increased risk of infection, sepsis, tumor lysis syndrome, drug-related toxicity, and other comorbidities, leading to a significantly increased risk of acute kidney injury (AKI). This study retrospectively analyzed the clinical data of AKI in cancer patients and explored the predictive value of Cystatin C (CysC) in the prognosis of cancer patients with AKI.

Methods: Cancer patients attending the Fifth People's Hospital of Shenyang from April 2014 to March 2019 were enrolled according to inclusion and exclusion criteria. Cancer patients with AKI were divided into two groups according to the changes in renal function during the follow-up period: a renal function recovery group and a nonrecovery group. The differences in baseline data of the two groups were compared. Logistic univariate and multivariate regression analyses were conducted to determine the risk of renal function failure.

Results: A total of 3,127 cases were included. Among them, 659 cases (21.1%) had AKI, and 2,468 cases had no AKI. Among the 659 AKI patients, 473 (71.8%) patients' renal function recovered, while 186 (28.2%) did not. Logistic univariate and multivariate regression analyses indicated that age [odds ratio (OR) =1.133, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.064-1.219], diabetes (OR =1.226, 95% CI: 1.093-1.385), chronic kidney disease (CKD) (OR =1.347, 95% CI: 1.108-1.624), hematological malignancies (OR =1.174, 95% CI: 1.063-1.311), chemotherapy (OR =1.119, 95% CI: 1.055-1.304), systolic blood pressure (OR =1.108, 95% CI: 1.062-1.267), serum creatinine (Scr) (OR =1.262, 95% CI: 1.105-1.446), and CysC (OR =1.416, 95% CI: 1.251-1.739) were related to the failure of renal function to recover after AKI.

Conclusions: Baseline CysC level is associated with the occurrence of AKI in cancer patients and a failure to recover renal function during follow-up.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/apm-21-191DOI Listing
February 2021

Carotid Occlusion Accentuates Aortic Stenosis and Cardiac Remodeling With Preserved Systolic Function in LDL Receptor-Deficient Mice.

Front Physiol 2020 11;11:578722. Epub 2021 Jan 11.

Department of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, Changzheng Hospital, Naval Medical University, Shanghai, China.

Carotid atherosclerotic disease is associated with aortic stenosis and reduced cardiac function. The causality between carotid and cardiac pathologies is unknown. We aim to explore the effects of carotid stenosis or occlusion on cardiac pathology and function. We produced carotid obstruction or stenosis in 36 atherogenic mice with 150- or 300-μm tandem surgery or sham surgery. The structure and function of the heart were assessed by histology and animal ultrasound. The 150-μm group had larger plaque burden and thicker valve leaflets in the aortic root than did the control group. Also, the two surgery groups had a thicker left ventricular posterior wall and smaller internal diameter compared with controls. Increased myocardial fibrosis was also found in the 150-μm group compared with controls, although the surgery groups had preserved systolic function compared with that of controls. In a mouse model, carotid occlusion accentuated the formation of aortic stenosis and promoted ventricular remodeling without impairing systolic function. Carotid atherosclerotic plaque may be a pathogenic factor for aortic stenosis and ventricular remodeling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2020.578722DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7873957PMC
January 2021

An optimized procedure for extraction and identification of microplastics in marine sediment.

Mar Pollut Bull 2021 Apr 11;165:112130. Epub 2021 Feb 11.

Key Laboratory of Marine Chemistry Theory and Technology (Ocean University of China), Ministry of Education, Qingdao 266100, China. Electronic address:

Microplastics (MPs) in sediment environments have been widely reported. As the number of samples increases, establishing a reliable and effective method becomes increasingly urgent for the rapid extraction and identification of MPs in sediments. Herein, we proposed a system with continuous density flotation of NaBr-ZnCl (mixture of NaBr and ZnCl) solution for extracting MPs in a sediment sample, combined with micro-Fourier transform infrared (μ-FT-IR) imaging scanning for identification of MPs. The recoveries of MPs were estimated for four different sizes, shapes, and ten different types of polymers. The results indicated NaBr-ZnCl solution showed a high recovery rate from 88.33% to 100.00% for extracting these different MPs. The μ-FT-IR imaging scanning allows for the detection of plastic down to the size of 6.25 μm in filed samples, and merely takes about 3 min, which was validated by testing of sediments from Jiaozhou Bay, China and its adjacent estuaries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2021.112130DOI Listing
April 2021

A systematic review and meta-analysis of incidence, prognosis, and laboratory indicators of venous thromboembolism in hospitalized patients with coronavirus disease 2019.

J Vasc Surg Venous Lymphat Disord 2021 09 30;9(5):1099-1111.e6. Epub 2021 Jan 30.

Department of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, Changzheng Hospital, Naval Medical University, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

Objective: We have summarized the incidence, anticoagulation panels, laboratory characteristics, and mortality of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in hospitalized patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).

Methods: After systematically searching PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, MedRxiv, and BioRxiv, a systematic review and meta-analysis of 18 retrospective, 6 prospective observational, and 2 cross-sectional studies was performed according to the guidelines of the PRISMA (preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses) statement.

Results: Overall, 4382 hospitalized patients with COVID-19 were included. Men accounted for significantly more patients than did women (odds ratio [OR], 1.59; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.25-2.02; P < .001). The total incidence of VTE among the patients with COVID-19 was 28.3% (95% CI, 21.6%-35.4%), with an incidence of 38.0% (95% CI, 29.1%-47.4%) and 17.2% (95% CI, 11.4%-23.8%) among those with severe and general COVID-19, respectively. The total incidence of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) of the lower extremities was 18.3% (95% CI, 10.8%-27.2%). The incidence of DVT was 22.1% (95% CI, 11.0%-35.5%) and 12.8% (95% CI, 5.0%-23.3%) in those with severe and general COVID-19, respectively. The total incidence of pulmonary embolism was 17.6% (95% CI, 12.3%-23.5%), with a rate of 21.7% (95% CI, 14.8%-29.3%) in severe cases and 12.5% (95% CI, 6.1%-23.5%) in general cases. When COVID-19 severity was unclassified, the mortality for the patients with VTE was not significantly greater (25.2%; 95% CI, 12.2%-40.5%) than that for those without VTE (10.2%; 95% CI, 3.4%-19.5%; OR, 1.88; 95% CI, 0.46-7.64; P = .377). However, among the patients with severe COVID-19, those who had developed VTE had significantly greater mortality compared with those without VTE (OR, 2.02; 95% CI, 1.15-3.53; P = .014). The patients with COVID-19 and VTE had significantly higher D-dimer levels than did similar patients without VTE in multiple studies.

Conclusions: The occurrence of VTE, DVT, and pulmonary embolism has been substantial among hospitalized patients with COVID-19, especially among those with severe COVID-19. Patients with severe COVID-19 and VTE had significantly greater mortality compared with similar patients without VTE. An increased D-dimer level might be an indicator of the occurrence of VTE in patients with COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvsv.2021.01.012DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7847192PMC
September 2021

Cross-sectional associations of adipokines and abdominal fat distribution with aging in men.

Aging Male 2020 Dec 27;23(5):1576-1582. Epub 2021 Jan 27.

Department of Radiology, Beijing Jishuitan Hospital, Beijing, China.

Objective: To investigate the relationship of adipokines and abdominal fat distribution with aging in men.

Methods: In a cross-sectional study, a total of 218 participants aged 40-79 years were recruited as a subset of the Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) China Action on Spine and Hip status (CASH) study population. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and multivariable regression were used to estimate the associations of interest.

Results: With the increasing of age, waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, waist-to-height ratio, total adipose tissue (TAT), visceral adipose tissue (VAT), VAT/subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), leptin, adiponectin-to-leptin ratio, and human monocyte chemo-attractant protein-1 (MCP-1) increased significantly ( < 0.05), while adiponectin decreased significantly ( < 0.05). Adiponectin, adiponectin/leptin, and adiponectin/resistin varied inversely with the VAT quartiles ( < 0.05). There was a significant negative correlation among adiponectin, adiponectin-to-leptin ratio, adiponectin-to-resistin ratio, and all the body fat distribution parameters. VAT was inversely and significantly associated with adiponectin, adiponectin-to-leptin ratio, and adiponectin-to-resistin ratio ( < 0.05).

Conclusions: It showed that aging, abdominal fat distribution, and adipokines were related with each other, which support the hypothesis that regulation of VAT and adipokines is closely linked to aging.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13685538.2021.1876020DOI Listing
December 2020

Endovascular and Hybrid Interventions for Extracranial Juxta-Skullbase Carotid Artery Aneurysms: Experience and Long-Term Results.

J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2021 Apr 15;30(4):105611. Epub 2021 Jan 15.

Department of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, Shanghai Changzheng Hospital affiliated to Naval Medical University, Shanghai, District of Huangpu, Fengyang Road 415, Shanghai 200003, China. Electronic address:

Background: Hybrid and endovascular procedures maybe effective and less invasive alternatives to open surgery for treatment of extracranial carotid artery aneurysm (ECAA), but the optimal management of juxta-skullbase ECAA is controversial.

Objective: This study evaluated the long-term effects of hybrid and endovascular procedures in treating juxta-skullbase ECAA.

Methods: The records of 9 consecutive patients who underwent hybrid or endovascular interventions for juxta-skullbase ECAA in a single center from April 2014 to May 2020 were retrospectively reviewed.

Results: Four patients presented with a pulsating mass, 1 with dysphagia, 1 with pain in the left temporal region, 1 with dizziness and headache, 1 with cerebral infarction, and 1 with dizziness and cerebral infarction. Seven true aneurysms, 1 false aneurysm, and 1 dissecting aneurysm were diagnosed with CTA in the 9 patients (mean age, 50.8±20.3 years; 1 male). The aneurysms were divided into two subgroups: 4 type I, and 5 type IIb according to a recent classification. Per schedule, 7 patients (4 type I and 3 type IIb) were treated with endovascular intervention, and 2 (type IIb) were treated with hybrid procedures. The technique success rate was 88.9%. One patient (type IIb) who was scheduled to be treated with an endovascular procedure was transferred to a hybrid procedure because of failure of the endovascular procedure. Eleven covered stents were implanted to exclude the aneurysms. During follow-up (mean duration 31.2±23.2 months), all aneurysms were proven excluded, no significant complication occurred, and preoperative symptoms resolved. One patient (type I) in the endovascular group had occlusion of the internal carotid artery but no symptoms; the internal carotid artery was patent in the other 8 patients.

Conclusions: Hybrid and endovascular procedures were found effective and durable alternatives to open operation for treatment of extracranial juxta-skullbase carotid aneurysm.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2021.105611DOI Listing
April 2021

In Vivo Assessment of Age- and Loading Configuration-Related Changes in Multiscale Mechanical Behavior of the Human Proximal Femur Using MRI-Based Finite Element Analysis.

J Magn Reson Imaging 2021 03 19;53(3):905-912. Epub 2020 Oct 19.

Department of Radiology, Beijing Jishuitan Hospital, Beijing, China.

Background: MRI-based finite element analysis (MRI-FEA) is the only method able to assess microstructural and whole-bone mechanical properties of the hip in vivo.

Purpose: To examine whether MRI-FEA is capable of discriminating age-related changes in whole-bone mechanical performance and micromechanical behavior of the proximal femur, particularly considering the most common hip fracture-related sideways fall loading.

Study Type: Retrospective.

Subjects: A total of nine younger (27 ± 3.2 years) and nine elderly (61 ± 3.9 years) healthy volunteers.

Field Strength/sequence: 3T; 3D fast field echo sequence.

Assessment: The left proximal femurs were scanned and FE models created. FEA was performed to simulate sideways fall and stance loading for each femoral model. Apparent stiffness and high-risk (90th percentile) tensile and compressive strains of the proximal femur as well as the average strains within cubic regions of the femoral neck and greater trochanter were assessed.

Statistical Tests: Paired and unpaired t-tests.

Results: Compared to the young group, the femoral stiffness of the elderly decreased by 39% and 40% (both P < 0.05) under the sideways fall and stance conditions, respectively. Accordingly, the high-risk tensile and compressive stains were elevated with aging (40% and 23% for sideways fall, 23% and 11% for stance conditions; all P < 0.05). However, the loading configuration-induced difference was only observed in the elderly group for the high-risk strains (22% for tension and 12% for compression; both P < 0.05). Additionally, compared to the stance condition, the sideways fall increased the average tensile (young: 108%, elderly: 123%; both P < 0.05) and compressive strains (young: 631%, elderly: 617%, both P < 0.05) within the greater trochanter rather than the femoral neck region.

Data Conclusion: In vivo MRI-FEA is capable of capturing age-related changes in both apparent-level stiffness and tissue-level micromechanical behavior of the proximal femur. However, the effect of sideways fall loading might be better reflected by tissue-level micromechanics rather than apparent stiffness.

Level Of Evidence: 3 TECHNICAL EFFICACY STAGE: 1.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmri.27403DOI Listing
March 2021

Adjustment of DXA BMD measurements for anthropometric factors and its impact on the diagnosis of osteoporosis.

Arch Osteoporos 2020 10 6;15(1):155. Epub 2020 Oct 6.

School of Biomedical Engineering and Imaging Sciences, King's College London, St Thomas' Hospital, London, SE1 7EH, UK.

We compared the effect of anthropometric factors on osteoporosis diagnosis by quantitative computed tomography (QCT) and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and found QCT spine volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) was not associated with body weight, body mass index (BMI) or DXA anteroposterior spine thickness. In contrast, DXA spine and hip areal bone mineral density (aBMD) were strongly associated with all three factors. Adjustment of DXA aBMD measurements improved consistency with QCT vBMD.

Purpose: Although the diagnosis of osteoporosis using DXA T scores preferentially targets patients with BMI, there is evidence that obesity is not protective against fractures. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of anthropometric factors on osteoporosis diagnosis by QCT and DXA and investigate whether adjustment of DXA aBMD can achieve a more even distribution of diagnoses between slimmer and heavier individuals consistent with QCT.

Methods: The participants were 964 men and 682 women referred for low-dose chest CT and DXA examinations as part of their employers' health check-up programs. QCT vBMD was measured in the L1-L2 vertebrae and DXA aBMD in the spine and hip. The prevalence of osteoporosis in each tertile of BMI in participants aged > 50 years was evaluated based on their QCT and DXA findings, and then re-evaluated after adjustment to the mean BMI in each sex. Similar investigations were performed for body weight and DXA anteroposterior (AP) spine thickness. The effect of the adjustment of DXA aBMD for anthropometric factors on the correlation with QCT vBMD was also examined.

Results: For spine QCT, correlations of age adjusted vBMD residuals against BMI were not statistically significant in men (P = 0.44) or women (P = 0.32). In contrast, slopes for aBMD residuals were all highly statistically significant (P < 0.001). There were similar findings for weight and AP spine thickness. Adjustment of DXA aBMD for anthropometric factors resulted in a more equal spread of diagnoses of osteoporosis and greater consistency with QCT.

Conclusion: Our study highlights differences between DXA and QCT in their correlation with anthropometric factors and its effect on the diagnosis of osteoporosis. Adjustment of DXA T scores for anthropometric factors gave greater consistency with QCT vBMD. Further studies are required into whether adjusting DXA aBMD for anthropometric factors has a beneficial impact on the discriminative or predictive power for vertebral fracture.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11657-020-00833-1DOI Listing
October 2020

Muscle density discriminates hip fracture better than computed tomography X-ray absorptiometry hip areal bone mineral density.

J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle 2020 12 7;11(6):1799-1812. Epub 2020 Sep 7.

Department of Medicine 3, FAU University Erlangen-Nürnberg and Universitätsklinikum Erlangen, Erlangen, Germany.

Background: Muscle weakness is a key factor in the increase risk of falls and might also play a significant role in the increase of risk of hip fracture. Computed tomography-measured muscle size and muscle density are well-established imaging biomarkers used in studies of physical function, frailty or cancer, but limited to hip fracture. In particular, it is warranted to have a better understanding of the performance of muscle size and density in the discrimination of acute hip fractures. We also aim to determine age-related differences of muscle size and density in healthy controls and hip fracture patients.

Methods: Four hundred thirty-eight low-energy acute hip fracture cases and 316 healthy controls from the China Action on Spine and Hip Status study were included in the study. Muscle cross-sectional area and density were measured for the gluteus maximus and gluteus medius and minimus. Areal bone mineral density (aBMD) of the femoral neck and total hip was measured. Using propensity score matching, we generated three samples with cases and controls matched for age, body mass index, and gender: femoral neck fracture (FNF), intertrochanteric fracture (ITF), and any hip fracture vs. controls, respectively.

Results: Handgrip strength, gluteus muscle area and density, and bone parameters of the matched hip fracture groups were lower than those of the correspondence control groups, respectively (P < 0.05). The univariate analysis showed that associations of aBMD with FNF and with ITF were significantly weaker than associations between fracture and muscle parameters. Gluteus medius and minimus muscle density showed the highest areas under the curve (AUC) with FNF (0.88, 95% confidence interval, 0.85-0.92) and trochanteric fracture (0.95, 95% confidence interval, 0.92-0.97). The model including all muscle and bone parameters provided the highest AUC (FNF: AUC 0.912; ITF: AUC 0.958), and AUC results of another selected model without muscle density showed that association with fracture significantly dropped (FNF: AUC 0.755; ITF: AUC 0.858). Separate results for the two age groups younger and older than 70 years showed no age-related significant differences in discriminate models.

Conclusions: Muscle density performs better than aBMD from hip computed tomography X-ray absorptiometry and muscle size in discrimination of hip fracture. Combination of aBMD and muscle density provided the best discrimination. The integration of muscle assessments may trigger a paradigm shift in hip fracture prediction. Gluteus muscle density should also be evaluated as treatment outcome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcsm.12616DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7749550PMC
December 2020

Beclin1 Haploinsufficiency accentuates second-hand smoke exposure -induced myocardial Remodeling and contractile dysfunction through a STING-mediated mechanism.

J Mol Cell Cardiol 2020 11 3;148:78-88. Epub 2020 Sep 3.

University of Wyoming College of Health Sciences, Laramie, WY 82071, USA; Department of Cardiology, Shanghai Institutes of Cardiovascular Diseases, Zhongshan Hospital Fudan University, Shanghai 200032, China. Electronic address:

Second-hand smoking evokes inflammation and cardiovascular diseases. Recent evidence has revealed a pivotal role for deranged autophagy in smoke exposure-induced cardiac anomalies. This study evaluated the impact of haploinsufficiency of the mTOR-independent autophagy protein Beclin1 on side-stream smoke exposure-induced cardiac anomalies and mechanism(s) involved. Adult WT and Beclin1 haploinsufficiency (Becn) mice were exposed to cigarette smoke for 1 h daily for 90 days. Echocardiographic, cardiomyocyte function, intracellular Ca, autophagy, mitophagy, apoptosis and inflammation were examined. DHE staining was employed to evaluate O level. Our data revealed that Beclin1 deficiency exacerbated smoke exposure-induced myocardial anomalies in geometry, fractional shortening, cardiomyocyte function, intracellular Ca handling, TEM ultrastructure, and inflammation along with pronounced apoptosis and O production. Side-stream smoke provoked excessive autophagy/mitophagy, mtDNA release, and activation of innate immune response signals cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) and its effector - stimulator of interferon genes (STING), the effect was abolished or unaffected by Becn haploinsufficiency. STING phosphorylation was overtly promoted by smoke exposure in Becn mice. Smoke exposure also suppressed phosphorylation of mTOR although it facilitated that of ULK1 in both groups. In vitro data revealed that inhibition of cGAS or STING failed to affect smoke extract-induced mitophagy although they abrogated smoke extract-induced cardiomyocyte dysfunction except cGAS inhibition in Becn mice. These data suggest that Beclin1 is integral in the maintenance of cardiac homeostasis under side-stream smoke exposure via a STING-mediated mechanism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yjmcc.2020.08.016DOI Listing
November 2020

Associations of Muscle Size and Density With Proximal Femur Bone in a Community Dwelling Older Population.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2020 28;11:503. Epub 2020 Jul 28.

Department of Medicine 3, FAU University Erlangen-Nürnberg and Universitätsklinikum Erlangen, Erlangen, Germany.

Muscle weakness and bone fragility are both associated with hip fracture. In general, muscle contractions create forces to the bone, and bone strength adapts to mechanical loading through changes in bone architecture and mass. However, the relationship between impairment of muscle and bone function remain unclear. In particular, the associations of muscle with properties of proximal femur cortical and trabecular bone are still not well understood. The aim of this study was to explore the associations of hip/thigh muscle density (CT attenuation value in Hounsfield units) and size with cortical and trabecular bone mineral density (BMD) of the proximal femur. Three-dimensional quantitative computed tomography (QCT) imaging of the lumber, hip and mid-thigh was performed in a total of 301 participants (mean age 68.4 ± 6.1 years, 194 women and 107 men) to derive areal BMD (aBMD) and volumetric BMD (vBMD). Handgrip strength (HGS) and the Timed Up and Go (TUG) test were also performed. From the CT images, cross-sectional area (CSA), and density were determined for the gluteus maximus muscle (G.MaxM), trunk muscle at the vertebrae L2 level, and mid-thigh muscle. Multivariate generalized linear models were applied to assess associations. Total hip (TH) aBMD was associated significantly with G.MaxM CSA (men: = 0.042; women: < 0.001) and density (men: = 0.012; women: = 0.043). In women, 0.035 cm of mid-thigh CSA (95% CI, 0.014-0.057; = 0.002) increased per SD increase in TH aBMD, but this significance was not observed in men ( = 0.095). Trunk muscle density and CSA were not associated with proximal femur BMD. The associations of hip/thigh muscle parameters with femoral neck BMD were weaker than those with trochanter and intertrochanter BMD. Furthermore, compared to muscle density, muscle CSA showed better associations with vBMD. G.MaxM CSA was associated with trochanter (TR) Cort. vBMD in men (β, 19.898; 95% CI, 0.924-38.871; = 0.040) and in women (β, 15.426; 95% CI, 0.893-29.958; = 0.038). Handgrip strength was only associated with TR aBMD (β, 0.038; 95% CI, 0.006-0.070; = 0.019) and intertrochanter aBMD (β, 0.049; 95% CI, 0.009-0.090; = 0.016) in men. We observed positive associations of the gluteus and thigh muscle size with proximal femur volumetric BMD. Specifically, the gluteus maximus muscle CSA was associated with trochanter cortical vBMD in both men and women.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2020.00503DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7399084PMC
June 2021

Muscle Density, but Not Size, Correlates Well With Muscle Strength and Physical Performance.

J Am Med Dir Assoc 2021 04 5;22(4):751-759.e2. Epub 2020 Aug 5.

Department of Medicine 3, FAU University Erlangen-Nürnberg and Universitätsklinikum Erlangen, Erlangen, Germany.

Objectives: There is increasing evidence that muscle volume and mass are poor predictors of muscle strength and physical performance. Other assessments of muscle quality such as skeletal muscle density measured by computed tomography (CT) may be more important. The aim of this study was to explore associations of muscle size and density with handgrip strength (HGS) and the Timed Up and Go test (TUG). We also hypothesized that the strength of these associations would depend on the specific muscle of muscle group, namely trunk, hip, and mid-thigh muscles.

Design: Cross-sectional study.

Setting And Participants: University hospital; 316 volunteers aged 59 to 85 years.

Methods: HGS, TUG, and quantitative CT imaging of the lumber, hip, and mid-thigh were performed in volunteers. From the CT images, cross-sectional area and attenuation were determined for the gluteus muscle, trunk muscle at vertebrae L2 level, and mid-thigh muscle.

Results: In men and women, associations of muscle area with TUG were insignificant after adjustment for age, height, and weight. Associations with HGS were only significant in men for the gluteus maximus and the mid-thigh but slopes were rather low (β < 0.20). Associations between muscle density and TUG/HGS were more pronounced, in particular for HGS. After adjustment, associations with TUG were significant in women for the gluteus maximus and trunk muscle even (β -0.06, P .001 and β -0.07, P .031, respectively).

Conclusions And Implications: Muscle density is more strongly associated with muscle strength than muscle size andin women muscle density was also more strongly associated than muscle size with physical performance. Therefore, muscle density may represent a more clinically meaningful surrogate of muscle performance than muscle size. Muscle density measurements of trunk and gluteus muscles can be easily obtained from routine CT scan and, therefore, may become an important measurement to diagnose and screen for sarcopenia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jamda.2020.06.052DOI Listing
April 2021

Assessing the potential risk and relationship between microplastics and phthalates in surface seawater of a heavily human-impacted metropolitan bay in northern China.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2020 Nov 31;204:111067. Epub 2020 Jul 31.

Key Laboratory of Marine Chemistry Theory and Technology (Ocean University of China), Ministry of Education, Qingdao, 266100, China. Electronic address:

The impacts of microplastics (MPs) and phthalates (PAEs), a class of MP-associated contaminants, on the marine environment are not thoroughly understood despite concern over their adverse effects on humans and ecosystems. Field studies linking MPs and PAEs in seawater have not yet been reported. We investigate for the first time the correlation between MPs contamination and the presence of PAEs in the surface seawater of Jiaozhou Bay (JZB), a semi-enclosed metropolitan bay in northern China heavily impacted by human activity. The abundance of MPs, dominated by polyethylene and polyethylene terephthalate mostly smaller than 2 mm, ranged between 24.44 items/m and 180.23 items/m, with the majority being black and transparent fibers and fragments. Concentrations of PAEs varied from 129.96 ng/L to 921.22 ng/L. Relatively higher abundances of MPs and higher concentrations of PAEs were generally found in areas near riverine inputs and sewage treatment plants. There was a strong correlation between PAEs concentration and MPs abundance, suggesting that they are closely linked. In a risk assessment combining PAEs and MPs, the risk quotients (RQs) indicated that the ecological risk of di-n-butyl phthalate in JZB was relatively high (0.046
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2020.111067DOI Listing
November 2020

Lack of periosteal apposition in the head and neck of femur after menopause in Chinese women with high risk for hip fractures - A cross-sectional study with QCT.

Bone 2020 10 27;139:115545. Epub 2020 Jul 27.

Department of Medicine 3, FAU University Erlangen-Nürnberg and Universitätsklinikum Erlangen, Erlangen, Germany.

In elderly subjects and in particular in those with osteoporosis the evidence on age related volume changes of the hip is still very limited. Even less is known about bone changes of the femoral head. The aim of this study is to explore associations of bone size of the femoral head and neck with age in postmenopausal women with very high risk of hip fracture and to investigate associations of femoral head and neck bone mineral density. MIAF (medical image analysis framework)-Femur was used for the analysis of CT datasets from 319 females with acute hip fractures age 50 to 98. Integral BMD and volume of the head and neck were assessed. The femoral head was divided into four quadrants to address differential vBMD and volume responses of its superior, inferior, posterior and anterior parts. Areal BMD (aBMD) of femoral neck was also obtained. In this population of postmenopausal women we did not observe age-related changes in bone volume of the femoral head or neck between ages 50 and 98 years. Integral vBMD in the head in the 90-98 year group was 48.0 mg/cm lower than that in 50-59 year group, which accounts for nearly 30% decrease in vBMD with 40 years increase. Age-related vBMD changes in the head quadrants were similar to that in total. With age, the trend line correlation coefficients for vBMD in quadrants were relatively small, but significant (p < 0.001) for all. The femoral head integral vBMD correlates well with neck vBMD and FN aBMD. FN aBMD explained 45% of head integral vBMD variance (p < 0.0001). Elderly women had relative preservation of femoral head and neck bone volume from 50 yrs. over four decades but markedly lower integral vBMD of proximal femur. The findings of our study call in question about the concept of bone expansion with aging even in elderly age.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bone.2020.115545DOI Listing
October 2020

The accurate relationship between spine bone density and bone marrow in humans.

Bone 2020 05 5;134:115312. Epub 2020 Mar 5.

School of Biomedical Engineering & Imaging Sciences, King's College London, St Thomas' Hospital, London SE1 7EH, United Kingdom.

Context: The accuracy of QCT measurements of lumbar spine trabecular volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) is decreased due to differences in the amount of bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT).

Objective: To correct vBMD measurements for differences in marrow composition and investigate the true relationship between vBMD and BMAT.

Design: Cross-sectional study.

Setting: University teaching hospital.

Participants: Healthy Chinese subjects (233 women, 167 men) aged between 21 and 82 years.

Main Outcome Measures: vBMD and BMAT were measured using QCT (120 kV) and chemical shift-encoded MRI of the L2-L4 vertebrae. vBMD measurements were standardized to the European Spine Phantom (ESP) and corrected for differences in BMAT. Linear regression was used to analyze BMAT, ESP adjusted vBMD (vBMD) and BMAT corrected vBMD (vBMD) against age and corrected vBMD against BMAT.

Results: BMAT in the L2-L4 vertebral bodies increased with age in both sexes, with a faster rate of change in women compared with men (0.54%/year vs. 0.27%/year, P < 0.0001). After vBMD measurements were corrected for BMAT there were statistically significant changes in the slope of the regression line with age in both sexes (women: -3.00 ± 0.13 vs. -2.57 ± 0.11 mg/cm/year, P < 0.0001; men: -1.92 ± 0.15 vs. -1.70 ± 0.14 mg/cm/year, P < 0.0001). When vBMD was plotted against BMAT, vBMD decreased linearly with increasing BMAT in both sexes (women: -3.30 ± 0.18 mg/cm/%; men: -2.69 ± 0.25 mg/cm/%, P = 0.048).

Conclusion: Our approach reveals the true relationship between vBMD and BMAT and provides a new tool for studying the interaction between bone and marrow adipose tissue.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bone.2020.115312DOI Listing
May 2020

IGFBP6 Is Downregulated in Unstable Carotid Atherosclerotic Plaques According to an Integrated Bioinformatics Analysis and Experimental Verification.

J Atheroscler Thromb 2020 Oct 8;27(10):1068-1085. Epub 2020 Feb 8.

Department of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, Changzheng Hospital Affiliated to the Second Military Medical University.

Aims: To investigate the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and molecular interaction in unstable atherosclerotic carotid plaques.

Methods: Gene expression datasets GSE41571, GSE118481, and E-MTAB-2055 were analyzed. Co-regulated DEGs in at least two datasets were analyzed with the enrichment of Gene Ontology Biological Process (GO-BP), Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG), protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks, interrelationships between miRNAs/transcriptional factors, and their target genes and drug-gene interactions. The expression of notable DEGs in human carotid artery plaques and plasma was further identified.

Results: The GO-BP enrichment analysis revealed that genes associated with inflammatory response, and extracellular matrix organization were altered. The KEGG enrichment analysis revealed that upregulated DEGs were enriched in the tuberculous, lysosomal, and chemokine signaling pathways, whereas downregulated genes were enriched in the focal adhesion and PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Collagen type I alpha 2 chain (COL1A2), adenylate cyclase 3 (ADCY3), C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4), and TYRO protein tyrosine kinase binding protein (TYROBP) might play crucial roles in the PPI networks. In drug-gene interactions, colonystimulating factor-1 receptor had the most drug interactions. Insulin-like growth factor binding protein 6 (IGFBP6) was markedly downregulated in unstable human carotid plaques and plasma. Under a receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, plasma IGFBP6 had a significant discriminatory power (AUC, 0.894; 95% CI, 0.810-0.977), with a cutoff value of 142.08 ng/mL.

Conclusions: The genes COL1A2, ADCY3, CXCR4, and TYROBP are promising targets for the prevention of unstable carotid plaque formation. IGFBP6 may be an important biomarker for predicting vulnerable plaques.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5551/jat.52993DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7585910PMC
October 2020

Centromere protein F and Forkhead box M1 correlation with prognosis of non-small cell lung cancer.

Oncol Lett 2020 Feb 20;19(2):1368-1374. Epub 2019 Dec 20.

Admin Office, Shenyang Fifth People's Hospital, Shenyang, Liaoning 110021, P.R. China.

Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most common histological type of lung cancer. Altered expression of centromere protein F (CENPF), a transient kinetochore protein, has been found in a variety of human cancers. However, its clinical significance in NSCLC remains unknown. In the present study the results of quantitative PCR and western blot analyses demonstrated that CENPF and Forkhead box M1 (FOXM1) were significantly higher in NSCLC tissues than in the non-cancerous controls at both transcriptional and translational levels. Immunohistochemical staining results showed 58.7% (44/75) and 64.0% (48/75) of NSCLC tissues displayed high expression of CENPF and FOXM1, respectively. CENPF protein expression showed a positive correlation with tumor size (P=0.0179), vital status (P=0.0008) and FOXM1 expression (P=0.0013) in NSCLC. Poor overall survival was correlated with high levels of CENPF and FOXM1 in NSCLC patients as evaluated by Kaplan-Meier and log rank test. Multivariate analyses showed that CENPF expression was an independent prognostic factor for NSCLC. In conclusion, our study provides evidence of the prognostic function of CENPF in NSCLC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/ol.2019.11232DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6956421PMC
February 2020

Mid-term results of in situ fenestration stented with balloon-expandable bare metal stents during thoracic endovascular aortic repair.

Catheter Cardiovasc Interv 2020 05 21;95(6):1163-1168. Epub 2020 Jan 21.

Department of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, Changzheng Hospital Affiliated to the Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, China.

Purpose: To assess the safety, feasibility and effectiveness of balloon-expandable bare metal stents (BMS) as bridge stents during thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR).

Materials And Methods: Retrospective analysis was conducted on 103 consecutive patients who underwent TEVAR procedures from December 2015 to March 2018. Thirty-one patients fulfilled requirements for inclusion and exclusion in the analysis. Thirty-three in situ fenestration (ISF) procedures (single fenestration [n = 29]; dual fenestration [n = 2]) were performed in the 31 patients (67.7% men; median age, 61.5 year) who underwent TEVAR for thoracic lesions (aortic dissection [n = 23], aortic aneurysm [n = 3], aortic ulcer [n = 5]) with 34 stents (33 balloon-expandable BMS, 1 covered stents) implanted in supraaortic arteries. The success rate of overall intervention, fenestration, and implantation of BMS was recorded. The therapeutic effects and complications during admission and follow-up (median 29.7 months, range 18-45 months) were the primary outcomes.

Results: The technical success rate was 90.3% (28/31). All thoracic lesions were totally excluded. Major complications (6.5%) were one dissection in the left subclavian artery (n = 1) and thrombus formation (n = 1). Minor complications (12.9%) were hematoma (n = 1), and type III endoleak (n = 3). During follow-up, no endoleak developed and all fenestrated branch arteries were patent, except for one left subclavian artery dissection and occlusion.

Conclusions: Use of balloon-expandable BMS in ISF is safe and effective in reconstruction of supraarotic arteries during TEVAR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ccd.28743DOI Listing
May 2020

Age- and sex-related differences in muscle strength and physical performance in older Chinese.

Aging Clin Exp Res 2020 May 2;32(5):877-883. Epub 2019 Jul 2.

Department of Radiology, Beijing Jishuitan Hospital, Beijing, 100035, China.

Background: Little is known about muscle strength and physical performance in Chinese.

Aim: This study aimed to assess the age- and sex-related differences in muscle strength and physical performance in older Chinese.

Methods: Three hundred and eight healthy participants (110 males and 198 females) age 68.3 ± 6.1 (mean ± SD) years were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. The handgrip muscle strength (HGS) of the dominant hand was measured using a Jamar dynamometer. Physical performance was assessed by the Timed Up and Go test (TUG). The EuroQol five-dimension questionnaire (EQ-5D) was used to evaluate participants' health status.

Results: Men showed higher levels of HGS with a smaller percentage having low muscle strength compared with women. No differences were observed in TUG between sexes. No significant association of TUG and age was observed in males. However, older females had increased TUG and hence poorer performance. Good health status was associated with better physical performance but was not related to muscle strength in either sex.

Discussion: In men, there was no correlation between age and TUG, although a negative association with handgrip muscle strength was observed. For women, both muscle strength and physical performance declined with age. The sex-related differences in aging effects on physical performance in our study could partly explain why women have a higher incidence of hip fracture than men.

Conclusion: Chinese women may be more vulnerable to severe sarcopenia in old age than men.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40520-019-01263-xDOI Listing
May 2020

A Single-Center, Randomized, Controlled Comparison of the Transradial vs Transfemoral Approach for Cerebral Angiography: A Learning Curve Analysis.

J Endovasc Ther 2019 10 1;26(5):717-724. Epub 2019 Jul 1.

Department of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, Changzheng Hospital Affiliated to the Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, China.

To compare the characteristics and learning curve of the transfemoral approach (TFA) vs the transradial approach (TRA) for cerebral angiography. Between February 2016 and April 2017, 101 patients undergoing cerebral angiography were enrolled. Fifty-one patients (mean age 67 years; 40 men) were randomized to TFA and 50 (mean age 68 years; 41 men) to TRA using a computer-generated random table. The patients' demographic and angiographic data were recorded and analyzed. The learning curve of a novice interventionist was analyzed for procedure time, puncture time, fluoroscopy time, and contrast volume as markers of technical proficiency with TFA compared with TRA. Median values are given with the interquartile range (IQR). Procedure time [35 (IQR 30, 47.5) vs 31.0 (IQR 25.0, 48.9) minutes, p=0.16), fluoroscopy time [10.3 (IQR 7.6, 13.9) vs 9.4 (IQR 6.1, 17.6) minutes, p=0.70], contrast volume [105 (IQR 92, 120) vs 95.5 (IQR 90, 111.3) mL, p=0.13), radiation exposure [390.2 (IQR 268.2, 617.9) vs 455.8 (IQR 286.8, 602.3) mGy, p=0.74], and the number of catheter exchanges [1 (IQR 1, 3) vs 1 (IQR 1, 1), p=0.06] were not significantly different between the TFA and TRA groups, respectively, but puncture time was shorter with TFA than with TRA [0.6 (IQR 0.5, 1.1) vs 1 (IQR 0.6, 1.9) minutes, p=0.01]. The learning curve was steeper with TRA than with TFA in the beginning stages of training, but with increasing experience, the procedure and fluoroscopy times were better for TRA than for TFA. Training progress was made earlier in TRA. TRA is a reasonable alternative to TFA for cerebral angiography. TRA has a shorter learning curve for novice interventionists.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1526602819859285DOI Listing
October 2019

Recurrent Neural Networks With External Addressable Long-Term and Working Memory for Learning Long-Term Dependences.

IEEE Trans Neural Netw Learn Syst 2020 03 3;31(3):813-826. Epub 2019 May 3.

Learning long-term dependences (LTDs) with recurrent neural networks (RNNs) is challenging due to their limited internal memories. In this paper, we propose a new external memory architecture for RNNs called an external addressable long-term and working memory (EALWM)-augmented RNN. This architecture has two distinct advantages over existing neural external memory architectures, namely the division of the external memory into two parts-long-term memory and working memory-with both addressable and the capability to learn LTDs without suffering from vanishing gradients with necessary assumptions. The experimental results on algorithm learning, language modeling, and question answering demonstrate that the proposed neural memory architecture is promising for practical applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TNNLS.2019.2910302DOI Listing
March 2020

Rapamycin: A Bacteria-Derived Immunosuppressant That Has Anti-atherosclerotic Effects and Its Clinical Application.

Front Pharmacol 2018 7;9:1520. Epub 2019 Jan 7.

Department of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, Changzheng Hospital Affiliated to the Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, China.

Atherosclerosis (AS) is the leading cause of stroke and death worldwide. Although many lipid-lowering or antiplatelet medicines have been used to prevent the devastating outcomes caused by AS, the serious side effects of these medicines cannot be ignored. Moreover, these medicines are aimed at preventing end-point events rather than addressing the formation and progression of the lesion. Rapamycin (sirolimus), a fermentation product derived from soil samples, has immunosuppressive and anti-proliferation effects. It is an inhibitor of mammalian targets of rapamycin, thereby stimulating autophagy pathways. Several lines of evidence have demonstrated that rapamycin possess multiple protective effects against AS through various molecular mechanisms. Moreover, it has been used successfully as an anti-proliferation agent to prevent in-stent restenosis or vascular graft stenosis in patients with coronary artery disease. A thorough understanding of the biomedical regulatory mechanism of rapamycin in AS might reveal pathways for retarding AS. This review summarizes the current knowledge of biomedical mechanisms by which rapamycin retards AS through action on various cells (endothelial cells, macrophages, vascular smooth muscle cells, and T-cells) in early and advanced AS and describes clinical and potential clinical applications of the agent.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2018.01520DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6330346PMC
January 2019

Hybrid Surgery for Nontaper or Nonstump Lesions in Symptomatic Subacute or Chronic Internal Carotid Occlusion: A Better Solution.

World Neurosurg 2019 Feb 17;122:e1416-e1425. Epub 2018 Nov 17.

Department of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, Changzheng Hospital Affiliated to the Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

Background: Internal carotid artery occlusion (ICAO) causes transient ischemic attack and cerebral infarction. ICAO management remains clinically challenging. We discuss a hybrid treatment combining carotid endarterectomy and endovascular intervention (E-I) for patients with nontaper or nonstump lesions of symptomatic ICAO.

Methods: We treated 32 patients with consecutive nontaper or nonstump ICAO with neurological symptoms with hybrid treatment or E-I. We analyzed the epidemiology, symptoms, angiographic morphology, technical success rate, and perioperative complications.

Results: Of the 32 patients, 17 were treated with hybrid surgery and 15, E-I. The demographic data and lesion characteristics were similar between the 2 groups. The overall recanalization success rate was 71.9%. The rate for hybrid surgery was better than that for E-I (88.2% vs. 53.3%). The postoperative cerebral hyperperfusion rate showed no difference between the 2 groups (11.8% vs. 6.7%). Ipsilateral cerebral perfusion improved after treatment. The mean transition time and time to peak were greater than normal (normal values, <6 seconds and <8 seconds, respectively). Both increased significantly after treatment (mean transition time, 11.30 seconds vs. 7.25 seconds; time to peak, 19.30 seconds vs. 15.50 seconds). The incidence of perioperative complications from hybrid surgery was less than that with E-I (5.9% vs. 40.0%). Recurrent cerebrovascular events (5.9% vs. 13.3%) and the 3-month modified Rankin scale score (2.76 ± 0.66 vs. 2.93 ± 0.70) did not differ between the 2 groups.

Conclusions: Recanalization of nontaper or nonstump ICAO with hybrid treatment was more successful than that with E-I, with fewer perioperative complications. The carotid endarterectomy procedure enables easier wire crossing across the occlusion and reduces potential technology-related complications by requiring a shorter lesion and fewer dissections and minimizing the effect of calcification.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2018.11.075DOI Listing
February 2019

Non‑thermal plasma inhibits tumor growth and proliferation and enhances the sensitivity to radiation in vitro and in vivo.

Oncol Rep 2018 Dec 28;40(6):3405-3415. Epub 2018 Sep 28.

Department of Radiation Oncology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215006, P.R. China.

Cancer is a major disease currently endangering the entire world population. Morbidity and mortality have increased substantially during recent decades. Radiotherapy is a primary treatment for malignant tumors, however side‑effects and tumor cell resistance to ionizing radiation reduce the efficacy of radiotherapy. In recent years, non‑thermal plasma (NTP) technology been used to treat cancer. In this study, we investigated the toxic effects of NTP on normal cells and tumor cells. We explored the inhibitory effect of NTP on tumor cell proliferation and evaluated the radiation‑sensitizing effects of NTP on tumor cells and its mechanisms. In short, we examined the effect of NTP‑combined radiation on proliferation, the cell cycle, apoptosis and DNA damage in normal and cancer cells. We found that NTP inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis in tumor cells. NTP was more lethal to tumor cells than to normal cells. We found promising synergies of NTP with radiotherapy on cancer cells owing to their combined cytotoxic effects by generating ROS, inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. NTP may be a new candidate for the treatment of cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/or.2018.6749DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6196603PMC
December 2018

Matrix metalloproteinases are regulated by MicroRNA 320 in macrophages and are associated with aortic dissection.

Exp Cell Res 2018 09 13;370(1):98-102. Epub 2018 Jun 13.

Department of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, Changzheng Hospital, Navy Second Military Medical University, 415 Fengyang Road, Shanghai, PR China. Electronic address:

Aortic dissection (AD) is the circumferential or transversal tear of the aorta wall that allows blood to infiltrate the layers. MicroRNA (miR) analyses have demonstrated a correlation between miR-320 family and AD. The underlying mechanism is yet unclear. The matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a group of proteolytic enzymes that could catalyze the degeneration of the extracellular matrix and the destruction of the vasculature. In this study, we investigated whether miR-320 presented a role in regulating the production of MMPs in aortic dissection. In a cohort of 30 CE patients and 30 healthy controls, the transcription and secretion of MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-3, MMP-8, MMP-9, and MMP-12 by monocytes were investigated. The monocyte from AD patients presented significantly elevated capacity of MMP expression than those from healthy controls. In contrast, the monocyte/macrophage expression of miR-320 was significantly lower in AD patients than in controls. In both AD patients and healthy controls, LPS-activation of macrophages resulted in MMP upregulation and miR-320 downregulation, in which the MMP expression was significantly higher while the miR-320 expression was significantly lower in AD patients than in healthy controls. Transfection of miR-320 mimic did not affect MMP gene transcription but significantly reduced the protein production in some MMPs, demonstrated that miR-320 were involved in the post-transcriptional regulation of MMPs. Together, these results demonstrated that miR-320 could regulate the expression of MMPs by macrophages, through which miR-320 may interfere with AD development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yexcr.2018.06.011DOI Listing
September 2018
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