Publications by authors named "Yanan Wang"

693 Publications

Water-Assisted Highly Efficient Photocatalytic Reduction of CO to CO with Noble Metal-Free Bis(terpyridine)iron(II) Complexes and an Organic Photosensitizer.

Inorg Chem 2021 Feb 21. Epub 2021 Feb 21.

School of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Ningbo University, Ningbo, Zhejiang 315211, China.

Photocatalytic CO reduction reaction is believed to be a promising approach for CO utilization. In this work, a noble metal-free photocatalytic system, composed of (terpyridine)iron(II) complexes and an organic thermally activated delayed fluorescence compound, has been developed for selective reduction of CO to CO with a maximum turnover number up to 6320, 99.4% selectivity, and turnover frequency of 127 min under visible-light irradiation in dimethylformamide/HO solution. More than 0.3 mmol CO was generated using 0.05 μmol catalyst after 2 h of light irradiation. The apparent quantum yield was found to be 9.5% at 440 nm (180 mW cm). Control experiments and UV-vis-NIR spectroscopy studies further demonstrated that water strongly promoted the photocatalytic cycle and terpyridine ligands rather than Fe(II) were initially reduced during the photocatalytic process.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.inorgchem.0c03503DOI Listing
February 2021

Emergence of a Pressure-Driven Superconducting Phase in BaNaTiSbO.

Inorg Chem 2021 Feb 21. Epub 2021 Feb 21.

Research Institute for Interdisciplinary Science, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530, Japan.

We investigated the pressure dependence of electric transport in a superconducting sample, BaNaTiSbO, to complete the phase diagram of superconducting transition temperature () against pressure (). This superconducting sample exhibits a value of 5.8 K at ambient pressure. Here, the superconductivity of the recently reported sample was investigated over a wide pressure range. The value monotonously decreased with pressure below 8 GPa. Interestingly, the value rapidly increased above 8 GPa and slowly declined with pressure above 11 GPa. Thus, a new superconducting phase was discovered above ∼9 GPa. The crystal structure of BaNaTiSbO was also elucidated at 0-22.0 GPa with synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction. Consequently, an evident relation between the crystal structure and the superconductivity was revealed, namely, a clear structural phase transition was observed at 8-11 GPa, where the value rapidly increased against pressure. This study provides detailed information on the superconductivity of BaNaTiSbO under pressure, which will lead to a comprehensive understanding of pressure-driven superconductivity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.inorgchem.0c02836DOI Listing
February 2021

A spatial study on serum selenoprotein P and Keshan disease in Heilongjiang Province, China.

J Trace Elem Med Biol 2021 Feb 14;65:126728. Epub 2021 Feb 14.

Institute of Keshan Disease, Chinese Center for Endemic Disease Control, Harbin Medical University, Harbin, PR China. Electronic address:

Background: Few spatial studies on serum selenoprotein P (SELENOP) and Keshan disease (KD) have been reported at the county-level in Heilongjiang province, China. This study aimed to provide visualized spatial epidemiological evidence of selenium molecular marker in residents living in endemic areas for the precise assessment of prevention, control, and elimination of KD.

Methods: Using a spatial ecological study design, 587 subjects living in cities, townships, and rural areas of 50 KD endemic counties and 37 non-endemic counties in Heilongjiang province were investigated. The serum SELENOP levels of the participants were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Thematic maps were created, and spatial regression analysis was conducted using ordinary least squares.

Results: The mean serum SELENOP level of the 587 subjects was 7.4 ± 3.0 μg/mL. The mean levels of serum SELENOP were higher in cities (7.4 ± 2.9 μg/mL) and townships (7.9 ± 3.2 μg/mL) than in rural areas (6.0 ± 3.0 μg/mL). The mean levels of serum SELENOP were trending towards high levels in non-endemic areas (7.4 ± 3.0 μg/mL) than in KD endemic areas (6.3 ± 3.3 μg/mL). Spatial regression analysis showed that the serum SELENOP level was positively correlated with the per capita gross domestic product.

Conclusion: Selenium deficiency may still exist in some KD endemic counties in Heilongjiang province, including Lingdong, Nenjiang, and Baiquan; these counties should be considered as key areas for precision prevention, control, and elimination of KD. Inclusion of selenium in the national surveillance of KD will provide more evidence for the assessment of KD elimination from a selenium nutrition perspective.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtemb.2021.126728DOI Listing
February 2021

Controlling Native Oxidation of HfS for 2D Materials Based Flash Memory and Artificial Synapse.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Feb 19. Epub 2021 Feb 19.

Joint School of National University of Singapore and Tianjin University, International Campus of Tianjin University, Binhai New City, Fuzhou 350207, P. R. China.

Two-dimensional (2D) materials based artificial synapses are important building blocks for the brain-inspired computing systems that are promising in handling large amounts of informational data with high energy-efficiency in the future. However, 2D devices usually rely on deposited or transferred insulators as the dielectric layer, resulting in various challenges in device compatibility and fabrication complexity. Here, we demonstrate a controllable and reliable oxidation process to turn 2D semiconductor HfS into native oxide, HfO, which shows good insulating property and clean interface with HfS. We then incorporate the HfO/HfS heterostructure into a flash memory device, achieving a high on/off current ratio of ∼10, a large memory window over 60 V, good endurance, and a long retention time over 10 seconds. In particular, the memory device can work as an artificial synapse to emulate basic synaptic functions and feature good linearity and symmetry in conductance change during long-term potentiation/depression processes. A simulated artificial neural network based on our synaptic device achieves a high accuracy of ∼88% in MNIST pattern recognition. Our work provides a simple and effective approach for integrating high- dielectrics into 2D material-based memory and synaptic devices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.0c22561DOI Listing
February 2021

Hepatic SRB1 (Scavenger Receptor Class B Type 1) Knockdown Reduces Atherosclerosis and Enhances the Antiatherosclerotic Effect of Brown Fat Activation in APOE*3-Leiden.CETP Mice.

Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2021 Feb 11:ATVBAHA121315882. Epub 2021 Feb 11.

Division of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, Einthoven Laboratory for Experimental Vascular Medicine, Leiden University Medical Center, The Netherlands. (E.Z., Z.L., H.N., C.L., Z.Y., J.F.P.B., KW.v.D., P.C.N.R., Y.W.).

Objective: Brown fat activation attenuates atherosclerosis development by accelerating triglyceride-rich lipoprotein turnover and/or stimulation of reverse cholesterol transport via the SRB1 (scavenger receptor class B type 1). The aim of this study was to investigate the specific role of hepatic SRB1 in the atheroprotective properties of brown fat activation. Approach and Results: mice, a well-established model of human-like lipoprotein metabolism and atherosclerosis, were treated with vehicle or adenoassociated virus serotype 8-short hairpin RNA, which decreased hepatic SRB1 protein levels by 40% to 55%. After 2 weeks, mice without or with hepatic SRB1 knockdown were treated with vehicle or the β3-adrenergic receptor agonist CL316 243 to activate brown fat for 4 weeks to determine HDL (high-density lipoprotein) catabolism and for 9 weeks to evaluate atherosclerosis. Surprisingly, hepatic SRB1 knockdown additively improved the beneficial effects of β3-adrenergic receptor agonism on atherosclerosis development. In fact, hepatic SRB1 knockdown per se not only increased HDL-cholesterol levels but also reduced plasma triglyceride and non-HDL-cholesterol levels, thus explaining the reduction in atherosclerosis development. Mechanistic studies indicated that this is due to increased lipolytic processing and hepatic uptake of VLDL (very low density lipoprotein) by facilitating VLDL-surface transfer to HDL.

Conclusions: Hepatic SRB1 knockdown in a mouse model with an intact ApoE (apolipoprotein E)-LDLR (low density lipoprotein receptor) clearance pathway, relevant to human lipoprotein metabolism, reduced atherosclerosis and improved the beneficial effect of brown fat activation on atherosclerosis development, explained by pleiotropic effects of hepatic SRB1 knockdown on lipolytic processing and hepatic uptake of VLDL. Brown fat activation could thus be an effective strategy to treat cardiovascular disease also in subjects with impaired SRB1 function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/ATVBAHA.121.315882DOI Listing
February 2021

An affibody-conjugated nanoprobe for IGF-1R targeted cancer fluorescent and photoacoustic dual-modality imaging.

Nanotechnology 2021 Feb 8. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin, CHINA.

Dual-modal molecular imaging that combines photoacoustic imaging (PAI) with near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging integrates the benefits of both imaging modalities and may achieve more precise detection of disease. In this study, silver sulfide quantum dots (Ag2S QDs) with superior photoacoustic properties and a strong fluorescent emission in the NIR region were successfully synthesized. They were further modified with the insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) targeted small scaffold protein, Affibody (ZIGF-1) to achieved targeted photoacoustic/fluorescent dual-modal imaging of cancer. Our results showed that the prepared nanoprobe had good tumor targeting properties in vivo, and the probe also showed good biocompatibility without any significant toxicity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-6528/abe437DOI Listing
February 2021

Bioactive Metabolites From Acid-Tolerant Fungi in a Thai Mangrove Sediment.

Front Microbiol 2020 22;11:609952. Epub 2021 Jan 22.

School of Medicine and Pharmacy, Ocean University of China, Laboratory for Marine Drugs and Bioproducts of Qingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology, Qingdao, China.

Despite being potentially useful extremophile resources, there have been few reports on acid-tolerant fungi and their bioactive metabolites. Acidophilic/aciduric fungi ( = 237) were isolated from Thai mangrove sediments in an acidic medium. Using fungal identification technology (including morphologic observation, chemical screening, and sequence comparisons) all the isolates were identified and 41 representative isolates were selected for analysis of the phylogenetic relationships (ITS rDNA, β-tubulin, calmodulin, and actin gene sequences). There were seven genera identified - ; ; ; ; ; ; and - in four taxonomic orders of the phylum Ascomycota, and , , and were the dominant genera. Acidity tolerance was evaluated and 95% of the isolates could grow under extremely acidic conditions (pH 2). Six strains were classed as acidophilic fungi that cannot survive under pH 7, all of which had an extraordinarily close genetic relationship and belonged to the genus . This is the first report on the acidophilic characteristics of this genus. The antimicrobial, anti-tumor, and antiviral activities of the fermentation extracts were evaluated. Nearly three-quarters of the extracts showed cytotoxic activity, while less than a quarter showed antimicrobial or anti-H1N1 activity. The typical aciduric fungus OUCMDZ-5207 showed similar growth but completely different chemical diversity at pH 3 and 7. The metabolites of OUCMDZ-5207 that were obtained only at pH 3 were identified as tetrahydroauroglaucin (), flavoglaucin (), and auroglaucin (), among which auroglaucin showed strong selective inhibition of A549 cells with an IC value of 5.67 μM. These results suggest that acid stress can activate silent gene clusters to expand the diversity of secondary metabolites, and the bioprospecting of aciduric/acidophilic microorganism resources in Thai mangrove sediments may lead to the discovery of compounds with potential medicinal applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2020.609952DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7862741PMC
January 2021

The efficacy and safety of moderate aerobic exercise for patients with Parkinson's disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

Ann Palliat Med 2021 Feb 5. Epub 2021 Feb 5.

Shanghai Fifth People's Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Background: Exercise therapy is an important component of non-drug treatment for Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the impact of moderate aerobic exercise on PD remains unclear. The purpose of this systematic review was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of moderate aerobic exercise for patients with PD.

Methods: Databases including the Cochrane Library, PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE, Chinese Biomedical Literature (CBM) Database, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), WanFang, and the Weipu Database for Chinese Technical Periodicals (VIP) were searched electronically from the date of inception of the database to June 2020 to recruit relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs) investigating the efficacy and safety of moderate aerobic exercise on balance and other symptoms in patients with PD. Literature screening, data extraction, and quality evaluation were carried out. Revman5.1 (http:// ims.cochrane.org/revman) was used for data analysis.

Results: In total, nine RCTs with 444 patients were included in this study. Most of the included trials had a low risk of bias and high methodological quality. The meta-analysis suggested that moderate aerobic exercise is effective in improving balance [weighted mean difference (WMD) =-0.42, 95% confidence interval (CI): -0.59 to -0.25, P<0.001] and gait (WMD =49.97, 95% CI: 17.84-82.10, P<0.001) in patients with PD, but not in motor symptoms (WMD =-2.14, 95% CI: -4.86-0.58, P=0.12). Subgroup analysis showed that the improvement in the quality of life of PD patients was affected by different types of exercise, and the treadmill subgroup improved significantly (WMD =-3.90, 95% CI: -5.02 to -2.78), P<0.001).

Conclusions: On the whole, moderate aerobic exercise effectively improves balance and gait in patients with PD, but the effect on motor symptoms is not obvious. Different exercise styles have varying effects on the quality of life of PD patients. It is necessary to standardize the exercise program further and carry out indepth research in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/apm-20-1661DOI Listing
February 2021

Explosive Secondary Aerosol Formation during Severe Haze in the North China Plain.

Environ Sci Technol 2021 Feb 4;55(4):2189-2207. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

Department of Atmospheric Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas 77843, United States.

Severe haze events with exceedingly high-levels of fine aerosols occur frequently over the past decades in the North China Plain (NCP), exerting profound impacts on human health, weather, and climate. The development of effective mitigation policies requires a comprehensive understanding of the haze formation mechanisms, including identification and quantification of the sources, formation, and transformation of the aerosol species. Haze evolution in this region exhibits distinct physical and chemical characteristics from clean to polluted periods, as evident from increasing stagnation and relative humidity, but decreasing solar radiation as well as explosive secondary aerosol formation. The latter is attributed to highly elevated concentrations of aerosol precursor gases and is reflected by rapid increases in the particle number and mass concentrations, both corresponding to nonequilibrium chemical processes. Considerable new knowledge has been acquired to understand the processes regulating haze formation, particularly in light of the progress in elucidating the aerosol formation mechanisms. This review synthesizes recent advances in understanding secondary aerosol formation, by highlighting several critical chemical/physical processes, that is, new particle formation and aerosol growth driven by photochemistry and aqueous chemistry as well as the interaction between aerosols and atmospheric stability. Current challenges and future research priorities are also discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.0c07204DOI Listing
February 2021

Di'ao Xinxuekang: Therapeutic Potential in Cardiovascular Diseases.

Curr Mol Pharmacol 2021 Feb 3. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

Department of Pharmacy, Anhui Provincial Hospital, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui, 230001, . China.

Background:Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in both developed and developing countries. Di'ao Xinxuekang (DAXXK) is a pure Chinese medicine herbal preparation refined from dioscin extracted from the roots of Dioscorea panthaica Prain et Burk and Diosorea nipponica Makino. Objective: To evaluate the application of DAXXK in Cardiovascular disease. Methods: We searched and summarized all the studies on DAXXK and Cardiovascular disease in pumend, Google, and CNKI. Results:Modern pharmacological studies have shown that DAXXK has pharmacological effects such as dilating blood vessels, lowering blood pressure and cardiac load, improving hemodynamics, lowering blood lipids and anti-platelet aggregation, and is widely used for the therapy of various kinds of cardiovascular diseases, including hypertension, atherosclerosis, coronary heart disease (CHD), angina pectoris (AP) and myocardial infarction. We provide an overview of the clinical efficacy, molecular mechanisms, safety and therapeutic potential of DAXXK in the treatment of cardiovascular disease, aiming to provide clues and evidence for clinical decision-making. Conclusion:DAXXK exerts cardiovascular protection by regulating a variety of cardiovascular disease-related signaling pathways.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1874467214666210203212341DOI Listing
February 2021

A Spatial Ecological Study on Hair Selenium Level of Residents in Keshan Disease Endemic and Non-endemic Areas in Heilongjiang Province, China.

Biol Trace Elem Res 2021 Feb 3. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

Institute of Keshan Disease, Chinese Center for Endemic Disease Control, Harbin Medical University, 157 Baojian Road, Harbin, 150081, China.

This study was aimed to provide, by mapping the spatial distribution of hair selenium levels of residents, visualized evidence for assessment of KD elimination from a perspective of selenium nutrition of the residents living in the KD-endemic and non-endemic areas. Using a spatial ecological research design, 401 male permanent residents in KD-endemic and non-endemic areas participated in this study. Demographic information and hair samples were obtained through a questionnaire survey and sample collection, respectively. Hair selenium was measured using hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry. Thematic maps were created, and spatial analysis was conducted using ArcGIS 9.0. The median of hair selenium of the participants was 0.30 (IQR, 0.23-0.34) mg/kg. The median hair selenium of the residents in the KD-endemic areas was significantly lower than that of the residents of the non-endemic areas. The hair selenium levels of residents were spatially clustered, with cold spots and hot spots located in northwest and southwest regions respectively. Residents living in KD-endemic areas may still have selenium deficiency. Measuring hair selenium levels of residents in KD-endemic areas as a molecular marker of selenium nutritional status as part of KD surveillance could provide visualized evidence for the evaluation of KD elimination from a perspective of selenium nutrition of the residents living in the KD endemic areas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12011-021-02609-1DOI Listing
February 2021

New insights into the antibacterial and quorum sensing inhibition mechanism of leaf extracts towards PAO1.

3 Biotech 2021 Feb 27;11(2):97. Epub 2021 Jan 27.

School of Food Science and Biotechnology, Zhejiang Gongshang University, Hangzhou, 310018 China.

This study aimed to investigate the anti-quorum sensing (QS) activity of leaf extracts (AALE) towards PAO1 as well as the underlying molecular mechanisms. Using a biosensor CV026, AALE were found to have anti-QS activity as AALE treatment significantly inhibited the violacein production of CV026 while produced little effect on the cell growth. Beyond that a higher dosage of AALE inhibited cell growth, sub-MIC of AALE significantly reduced the production of QS-regulated virulence factors (pyocyanin, elastase, and rhamnolipid), biofilm formation, and the swarming and swimming motility in PAO1 with a dosage-dependent manner. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis did not detect the direct inhibitory effect of AALE on the expression of QS genes (, , , and ). By iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomic analysis, 129 proteins were found to be differentially expressed upon AALE treatment, with 85 upregulated and 44 downregulated proteins, respectively. Functional enrichment analysis of the differential proteins revealed that AALE exerted anti-QS activity towards PAO1 by upregulating the expression of the global regulator CsrA, inducing oxidative stress, and perturbing protein homeostasis. Moreover, the inhibitory effect of AALE on the virulence of PAO1 was likely to be achieved by attenuating the expression of QS-regulated genes instead of QS genes. Collectively, the results of this study provide a basis for the future use of AALE as a preservative in controlling food spoilage caused by .

Supplementary Information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s13205-021-02663-5.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13205-021-02663-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7840821PMC
February 2021

The Dataset of Camellia Cultivars Names in the World.

Biodivers Data J 2021 19;9:e61646. Epub 2021 Jan 19.

Kunming Botanical Garden, Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, China Kunming Botanical Garden, Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences Kunming China.

Background: Camellias are popular ornamental, tea and woody-oil plants that have been cultivated throughout the world for centuries. To date, over 23,000 cultivars, with more than 45,000 cultivar names including synonyms, have been registered or published. A global digital dataset of Camellia names will provide a validated reference which can then serve to prevent further duplication when selecting names for new cultivars and assist in clearing up some of the confusion that still clings to a few of the old cultivar names. This comprehensive compendium is our review of camellia cultivars through history.

New Information: The camellia cultivar names were collected from books and journals, as well as new registrations. These were then reviewed by experts in the online working platform, the Database of International Camellia Register (DICR). After treating and correcting important issues that existed in camellia names, especially those with many re-used names and diacritical marks etc. in Japanese cultivars, a dataset of camellia names from sources throughout the world was summarised from the year 1253 to 2019. To date, a total of 45,210 cultivar names were released by different countries, including 23,887 accepted names and 21,323 synonyms. Excluding 3,944 names believed extinct, a total of 19,944 cultivar names are still in use. Amongst camellia cultivars, most (23,449) were for ornamental use, 429 were additionally used for tea and 228 for oil. and its hybrids represent 18,141 or 74.10%, followed by those of and its hybrids (1,432 or 5.85%) and and its hybrids (1,291 or 5.27%). The top five countries of origin are USA (7,502 cultivars), Japan (6,592), Italy (2,833), China (2,066) and Australia (1,216). The data showed the number of camellia cultivars per country is somewhat related to each country's economic prosperity. Managed by the International Camellia Registration team, this is the most comprehensive dataset in the genus . It will facilitate quick reference and scientific naming for breeders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/BDJ.9.e61646DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7838149PMC
January 2021

Expansion within the CYP71D subfamily drives the heterocyclization of tanshinones synthesis in Salvia miltiorrhiza.

Nat Commun 2021 01 29;12(1):685. Epub 2021 Jan 29.

State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Dao-di Herbs, National Resource Center for Chinese Materia Medica, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing, China.

Tanshinones are the bioactive nor-diterpenoid constituents of the Chinese medicinal herb Danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza). These groups of chemicals have the characteristic furan D-ring, which differentiates them from the phenolic abietane-type diterpenoids frequently found in the Lamiaceae family. However, how the 14,16-epoxy is formed has not been elucidated. Here, we report an improved genome assembly of Danshen using a highly homozygous genotype. We identify a cytochrome P450 (CYP71D) tandem gene array through gene expansion analysis. We show that CYP71D373 and CYP71D375 catalyze hydroxylation at carbon-16 (C16) and 14,16-ether (hetero)cyclization to form the D-ring, whereas CYP71D411 catalyzes upstream hydroxylation at C20. In addition, we discover a large biosynthetic gene cluster associated with tanshinone production. Collinearity analysis indicates a more specific origin of tanshinones in Salvia genus. It illustrates the evolutionary origin of abietane-type diterpenoids and those with a furan D-ring in Lamiaceae.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-20959-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7846762PMC
January 2021

ATG5 is instrumental in the transition from autophagy to apoptosis during the degeneration of tick salivary glands.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2021 Jan 29;15(1):e0009074. Epub 2021 Jan 29.

Key Laboratory of Animal Parasitology of Ministry of Agriculture, Shanghai Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Shanghai, China.

Female tick salivary glands undergo rapid degeneration several days post engorgement. This degeneration may be caused by the increased concentration of ecdysone in the hemolymph during the fast feeding period and both autophagy and apoptosis occur. In this work, we first proved autophagy-related gene (ATG) and caspase gene expression peaks during degeneration of the tick salivary glands. We explored the regulatory role of Rhipicephalus haemaphysaloides autophagy-related 5 (RhATG5) in the degeneration of tick salivary glands. During the fast feeding phase, RhATG5 was cleaved and both calcium concentration and the transcription of Rhcalpains increased in the salivary glands. Recombinant RhATG5 was cleaved by μ-calpain only in the presence of calcium; the mutant RhATG5191-199Δ was not cleaved. Treatment with 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) led to programmed cell death in the salivary glands of unfed ticks in vitro, RhATG8-phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) was upregulated in ticks treated with low concentration of 20E. Conversely, RhATG8-PE decreased and Rhcaspase-7 increased in ticks treated with a high concentration of 20E and transformed autophagy to apoptosis. High concentrations of 20E led to the cleavage of RhATG5. Calcium concentration and expression of Rhcalpains were also upregulated in the tick salivary glands. RNA interference (RNAi) of RhATG5 in vitro inhibited both autophagy and apoptosis of the tick salivary glands. RNAi of RhATG5 in vivo significantly inhibited the normal feeding process. These results demonstrated that high concentrations of 20E led to the cleavage of RhATG5 by increasing the concentration of calcium and stimulated the transition from autophagy to apoptosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0009074DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7875341PMC
January 2021

Superconductivity in topological insulator β-PdBi under pressure.

J Phys Condens Matter 2021 Jan 29;33(13):135702. Epub 2021 Jan 29.

Research Institute for Interdisciplinary Science, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530, Japan.

The topological insulator PdBi exhibits two different crystal phases at ambient pressure, i.e., 'α-PdBi' and ' -PdBi'. The pressure dependence of crystal structure and superconductivity of α-PdBi has been fully elucidated thus far. However, the physical properties of β-PdBi crystals under pressure have not been sufficiently investigated. In this study, we fully investigate the crystal structure and superconductivity of β-PdBi under pressure based on synchrotron x-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns. The temperature dependence of β-PdBi indicates its superconductivity with a superconducting transition temperature (T ) as high as 4.10 K, and its crystal structure is tetragonal [space group of I4/mmm (no. 139)]. The XRD patterns at 0-22.0 GPa indicate no structural phase transitions, and the unit cell volume shrinks monotonically with pressure, unlike the behavior of α-PdBi. Furthermore, α-PdBi transformed to β-PdBi under pressure. This suggests that β-PdBi is stable under pressure. The superconductivity is clearly observed at 0-11.8 GPa, and the value of T is almost constant at ∼4.4 K. The temperature dependence of the upper critical field at ambient pressure and 10.7 GPa indicates that the superconductivity is not attributed to a simple s-wave dirty limit but an s-wave clean or p-wave polar model. This is the first systematic study of superconductivity of topological insulator β-PdBi under pressure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-648X/abd99cDOI Listing
January 2021

Gly-Pro-Ala peptide and FGSHF3 exert protective effects in DON-induced toxicity and intestinal damage via decreasing oxidative stress.

Food Res Int 2021 Jan 26;139:109840. Epub 2020 Oct 26.

Department of Animal Nutrition and Feed Science, College of Animal Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, 430070 Wuhan, China; The Cooperative Innovation Center for Sustainable Pig Production, Wuhan 430070, Hubei, China. Electronic address:

Deoxynivalenol (DON), a common mycotoxin, usually induces oxidative stress and intestinal injury of humans and animals. This study aims to investigate the protective effect of Gly-Pro-Ala (GPA) peptide, isolated from fish skin gelatin hydrolysate fraction 3 (FGSHF3), on alleviating the toxicity and oxidative stress induced by DON in the mice and IPEC-J2 cells. DON treatment decreases average daily gain and feeds intake, which causes enlargement of the liver and spleen. FGSHF3 (200 mg/kg) and GPA (200 mg/kg) treatment significantly increase average daily gain and inhibits enlargement of the liver and spleen. Furthermore, FGSHF3 and GPA treatment significantly alleviates intestinal injury and maintains tight junction in mice and IPEC-J2 cells. FGSHF3 and GPA treatment significantly inhibits ROS and MDA production and enhances antioxidant enzyme activity, such as CAT, SOD-1, GCLM, GCLC, and GSH-PX. Furthermore, FGSHF3 and GPA treatment promote Nrf2 migration from the cytoplasm to the nucleus, resulting in exerting antioxidant effects. And its effects are abolished after Nrf2 is knockdown by siRNA. Overall, our results suggest GPA peptide may be a promising candidate for the alleviation of DON-induced toxicity in humans and animals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2020.109840DOI Listing
January 2021

The novel GLP-1/GIP dual agonist DA3-CH is more effective than liraglutide in reducing endoplasmic reticulum stress in diabetic rats with cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury.

Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 2021 01 12;31(1):333-343. Epub 2020 Sep 12.

Second Hospital, Neurology Department, Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan 030001, Shanxi province, PR China; Research and Experimental Center, Henan University of Chinese Medicine, Zhengzhou 450046, Henan province, PR China.

Background And Aims: Diabetes is one of the most important risk factors and comorbidities of ischemic stroke. Endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) is considered to be the major injury mechanism of ischemic stroke with diabetes. Studies have found that incretin can inhibit ERS in ischemia-reperfusion injury of the liver and heart. We aimed to explore the effects of GLP-1/GIP double agonist DA3-CH and GLP-1 single agonist liraglutide on ERS and apoptosis in diabetic rats with cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury.

Methods And Results: 72 Sprague-Dawley (SD) male rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: ① blank group (Sham group, n = 18); model group (Saline group, n = 18); DA3 treatment group (DA3 group, n = 18); liraglutide treatment group (Lir group, n = 18). The Sham group was not given any treatment and was only raised in the same environment as the other groups. The remaining 3 groups used STZ-induced diabetes models. After the successful membrane formation of diabetes, DA3-CH and liraglutide (10 mmol/kg, once-daily for 14 days) were injected intraperitoneally. Thereafter, rats were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion followed by 24-h reperfusion. Animals were evaluated for neurologic deficit score, infarct volume, and biomarker analyses of the brain after ischemia. The DA3-CH-treated and liraglutide-treated groups showed significantly reduced scores of neurological dysfunction and cerebral infarction size, and reduced the expression of ERS markers GRP78, CHOP and Caspase-12, and the expression of apoptosis marker bax. Anti-apoptotic markers bcl-2 and neuronal numbers increased significantly.

Conclusions: DA3-CH and liraglutide have obvious neuroprotective effects in a rat model of cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury with diabetes, which can reduce the infarct size and the neurological deficit score. Their exert neuroprotective effects in a rat model of cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury with diabetes by inhibiting endoplasmic reticulum stress and thereby reducing apoptosis. DA3 is better than liraglutide.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.numecd.2020.09.002DOI Listing
January 2021

Inhibition of Dot1L Alleviates Fulminant Hepatitis Through Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells.

Cell Mol Gastroenterol Hepatol 2021 Jan 23. Epub 2021 Jan 23.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

Background & Aims: Fulminant hepatitis (FH) is a clinical syndrome characterized by sudden and severe liver dysfunction. Dot1L, a histone methyltransferase, is implicated in various physiologic and pathologic processes, including transcription regulation and leukemia. However, the role of Dot1L in regulating inflammatory responses during FH remains elusive.

Methods: Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes)-primed, lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-induced FH was established in C57BL/6 mice and was treated with the Dot1L inhibitor EPZ-5676. Myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) were depleted by anti-Gr-1 antibody to evaluate their therapeutic roles in Dot1L treatment of FH. Moreover, peripheral blood of patients suffered with FH and healthy controls was collected to determine the expression profile of Dot1L-SOCS1-iNOS axis in their MDSCs.

Results: Here we identified that EPZ-5676, pharmacological inhibitor of Dot1L, attenuated the liver injury of mice subjected to FH. Dot1L inhibition led to decreased T helper 1 cell response and expansion of regulatory T cells (Tregs) during FH. Interestingly, Dot1L inhibition didn't directly target T cells, but dramatically enhanced the immunosuppressive function of MDSCs. Mechanistically, Dot1L inhibition epigenetically suppressed SOCS1 expression, thus inducing inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression in a STAT1-dependent manner. Moreover, in human samples, the levels of Dot1L and SOCS1 expression were upregulated in MDSCs, accompanied by decreased expression of iNOS in patients with FH, compared with healthy controls.

Conclusions: Altogether, our findings established Dot1L as a critical regulator of MDSC immunosuppressive function for the first time, and highlighted the therapeutic potential of Dot1L inhibitor for FH treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcmgh.2021.01.013DOI Listing
January 2021

Interleukin-8 as a Biomarker for Disease Prognosis of Coronavirus Disease-2019 Patients.

Front Immunol 2020 8;11:602395. Epub 2021 Jan 8.

Center for Systems Medicine, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China.

The widespread prevalence of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) which is caused by severe respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, has resulted in a severe global public health emergency. However, there are no sensitive biomarkers to predict the disease prognosis of COVID-19 patients. Here, we have identified interleukin-8 (IL-8) as a biomarker candidate to predict different disease severity and prognosis of COVID-19 patients. While serum IL-6 become obviously elevated in severe COVID-19 patients, serum IL-8 was easily detectible in COVID-19 patients with mild syndromes. Furthermore, lL-8 levels correlated better than IL-6 levels with the overall clinical disease scores at different stages of the same COVID-19 patients. Thus, our studies suggest that IL-6 and IL-8 can be respectively used as biomarkers for severe COVID-19 patients and for COVID-19 disease prognosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2020.602395DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7820901PMC
February 2021

Protease Biosensor by Conversion of a Homogeneous Assay into a Surface-Tethered Electrochemical Analysis Based on Streptavidin-Biotin Interactions.

ACS Sens 2021 Jan 22. Epub 2021 Jan 22.

Henan Province of Key Laboratory of New Optoelectronic Functional Materials, Anyang Normal University, Anyang, Henan 455000, People's Republic of China.

This work proposed a new sensing strategy for protease detection by converting a homogeneous assay into a surface-tethered electrochemical analysis. Streptavidin (SA), a tetramer protein, was used as the sensing unit based on the SA-biotin coupling chemistry. Caspase-3 was used as the model analyte, and a biotinylated peptide with a sequence of biotin-GDEVDGK-biotin was designed as the substrate. Specifically, the peptide substrate could induce an assembly of SA to form (SA-biotin-GDEVDGK-biotin) aggregates through SA-biotin interactions, which was confirmed by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The peptide substrate-induced assembly of SA was facilely initiated on an electrode-liquid surface by modification of the electrode with SA. The in situ formation of (SA-biotin-GDEVDGK-biotin) aggregates created an insulating layer, thus limiting the electron transfer of ferricyanide. Once the peptide substrate was cleaved into two shorter fragments (biotin-GDEVD and GK-biotin) by caspase-3, the resulting products would compete with biotin-GDEVDGK-biotin to bind SA proteins immobilized on the electrode surface and distributed in a solution, thus preventing the in situ formation of (SA-biotin-GDEVDGK-biotin) assemblies. With the simple principle of the substrate-induced assembly of SA, a dual-signal amplification was achieved with improved sensitivity. Taking advantage of high sensitivity, simple principle, and easy operation, this method can be augmented to design various surface-tethered biosensors for practical applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acssensors.0c02415DOI Listing
January 2021

[Study on the mechanism of Flos Puerariae and Semen Hoveniae in treatment of alcoholic liver injury based on network pharmacology and molecular docking].

Zhejiang Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban 2020 Dec;49(6):714-724

School of Pharmacy, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Shenyang 110016, China.

Objective: To explore the mechanism of Flos Puerariae and Semen Hoveniae in treatment of alcoholic liver injury (ALI) based on network pharmacology and molecular docking.

Methods: The information of chemical constituents and targets of Flos Puerariae and Semen Hoveniae was collected from TCMSP and Swiss databases, and the threshold values of oral bioavailability (OB) ≥ 30%, drug likeness (DL) ≥0.18 were used to screen the potential active compounds. The GeneCard and DrugBank databases were used to obtain the targets corresponding to ALI. The common targets were queried using Venn Diagram, and the network of PPI and Gene Ontology (GO) functional enrichment analysis and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analysis were performed through DAVID and Reactome database. Autodock Vina software was used for molecular docking of potential ingredients and key targets.

Results: A total of 21 potential active compounds and 431 therapeutic targets were gathered in Flos Puerariae and Semen Hoveniae, which involved 273 biological functions, 90 KEGG pathways and 362 Reactome pathways. The GO functions involved protein binding, ATP binding, etc.; the KEGG pathways mainly included PI3K-Akt signaling pathway and TNF signaling pathway; the Reactome pathways contained signal transduction and immune system, etc. The results of molecular docking showed that 21 potential active ingredients had good affinity with the core targets Akt1, TP53 and IL-6.

Conclusions: The network pharmacology and molecular docking analysis demonstrate the synergetic effect of Flos Puerariae and Semen Hoveniae with multi-compounds, multi-targets and multi-pathways in the treatment of ALI; and also predict the possible medicinal substance, key targets and pathways, which provides clues for the new drug development and mechanism research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3785/j.issn.1008-9292.2020.12.06DOI Listing
December 2020

Recent advances of nanomedicine-based strategies in diabetes and complications management: Diagnostics, monitoring, and therapeutics.

J Control Release 2021 Feb 6;330:618-640. Epub 2021 Jan 6.

Key Laboratory of Marine Chemistry Theory and Technology, Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Ocean University of China. Electronic address:

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disorder characterized by the presence of chronic hyperglycemia driven by insulin deficiency or resistance, imposing a significant global burden affecting 463 million people worldwide in 2019. This review has comprehensively summarized the application of nanomedicine with accurate, patient-friendly, real-time properties in the field of diabetes diagnosis and monitoring, and emphatically discussed the unique potential of various nanomedicine carriers (e.g., polymeric nanoparticles, liposomes, micelles, microparticles, microneedles, etc.) in the management of diabetes and complications. Novel delivery systems have been developed with improved pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, excellent drug biodistribution, biocompatibility, and therapeutic efficacy, long-term action safety, as well as the improved production methods. Furthermore, the effective nanomedicine for the treatment of several major diabetic complications with significantly improved life qualities of diabetic patients were discussed in detail. Going through the literature review, several critical issues of the nanomedicine-based strategies applications need to be addressed such as stabilities and long-term safety effects in vivo, the deficiency of standard for formulation administration, feasibility of scale-up, etc. Overall, the review provides an insight into the design, advantages and limitations of novel nanomedicine application in the diagnostics, monitoring, and therapeutics of DM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jconrel.2021.01.002DOI Listing
February 2021

Superconductivity in topological insulator β-PdBiunder pressure.

J Phys Condens Matter 2021 Jan 7. Epub 2021 Jan 7.

Research Laboratory for Surface Science, Okayama University, Tsushima-naka 3-1-1, Kita-ku, Okayama, Okayama, 700-8530, JAPAN.

The topological insulator PdBiexhibits two different crystal phases at ambient pressure, i.e., "α-PdBi" and "β-PdBi." The pressure dependence of crystal structure and superconductivity of α-PdBihas been fully elucidated thus far. However, the physical properties of β-PdBicrystals under pressure have not been sufficiently investigated. In this study, we fully investigate the crystal structure and superconductivity of β-PdBiunder pressure based on synchrotron X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns. The temperature dependence of β-PdBiindicates its superconductivity with a superconducting transition temperature () as high as 4.10 K, and its crystal structure is tetragonal (space group of4/mmm (No. 139)). The XRD patterns at 0 - 22.0 GPa indicate no structural phase transitions, and the unit cell volume shrinks monotonically with pressure, unlike the behavior of α-PdBi. Furthermore, α-PdBitransformed to β-PdBiunder pressure. This suggests that β-PdBiis stable under pressure. The superconductivity is clearly observed at 0 - 11.8 GPa, and the value ofis almost constant at ~4.4 K. The temperature dependence of the upper critical field at ambient pressure and 10.7 GPa indicate that the superconductivity is not attributed to a simple-wave dirty limit but an-wave clean or-wave polar model. This is the first systematic study of superconductivity of topological insulator β-PdBiunder pressure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-648X/abd99cDOI Listing
January 2021

Mesenchymal stem cell-derived exosome miR-542-3p suppresses inflammation and prevents cerebral infarction.

Stem Cell Res Ther 2021 Jan 6;12(1). Epub 2021 Jan 6.

Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Shenzhen Longhua District Central Hospital, Shenzhen, Guangdong Province, China.

Background: Cerebral infarction ranks as the second leading cause of disability and death globally, and inflammatory response of glial cells is the main cause of brain damage during cerebral infarction.

Methods: Studies have shown that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can secrete exosomes and contribute to cerebral disease. Here, we would explore the function of MSC-derived exosome in cerebral infarction.

Results: Microarray indicated a decrease of miR-542-3p and an increase of Toll-Like Receptor 4 (TLR4) in middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) mice comparing with sham mice. And luciferase and RIP analysis indicated a binding of miR-542-3p and TLR4. Then, we injected AAV9-miR-542-3p into paracele of sham or MCAO mice. Functional analysis showed that AAV9-miR-542-3p inhibited infarction area and the number of degenerating neurons and suppressed inflammatory factors' expression and inflammatory cell infiltration. As well, transfection of miR-542-3p mimics into HA1800 cells underwent oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD). Similarly, overexpression of miR-542-3p alleviated OGD induced cell apoptosis, ROS, and activation of inflammation response. Moreover, miR-542-3p could be packaged into MSCs and secreted into HA1800 cells. The extractive exosome-miR-21-3p treatment relieved MCAO- or OGD-induced cerebral injury and inflammation through targeting TLR4.

Conclusion: These results confirmed that MSC-derived exosome miR-542-3p prevented ischemia-induced glial cell inflammatory response via inhibiting TLR4. These results suggest possible therapeutic strategies for using exosome delivery of miR-542-3p to cure cerebral ischemic injury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13287-020-02030-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7786953PMC
January 2021

Comparative genomic analysis of mobile colistin resistance gene mcr-9 in Salmonella enterica.

J Infect 2021 Jan 3. Epub 2021 Jan 3.

CAS Key Laboratory of Pathogenic Microbiology and Immunology, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China; Beijing Key Laboratory of Antimicrobial Resistance and Pathogen Genomics, Beijing 100101, China; Department of Pathogenic Biology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Southwest Medical University, Luzhou, Sichuan 646000, China. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jinf.2020.12.029DOI Listing
January 2021

Spatial analysis of factors affecting fertilizer use efficiency in China: an empirical study based on geographical weighted regression model.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Jan 3. Epub 2021 Jan 3.

College of Economics & Management, Northwest A&F University, No. 3 Taicheng Road, Yangling, Shaanxi, China.

Improving fertilizer use efficiency (FUE) is an effective means to reduce fertilizer use and environmental contamination. Few studies have considered spatial effects of FUE and its determinants. This paper calculates the FUE of agricultural production by adopting panel data on 31 provinces in China from 2007 to 2017 using a stochastic frontier method and discusses the spatial distribution and characteristics. Furthermore, the geographical weighted regression (GWR) model is employed to examine the spatial impact of education level, non-agricultural employment ratio, disaster ratio, and farmers' income on FUE and reveal the spatial dispersion and agglomeration effect of different provinces in 2007, 2010, 2013, 2015, and 2017. The results show that the average FUE in China is 0.747 and has a significant decreasing trend, and FUE has a significant regional difference and spatial positive correlation in different provinces. Non-agricultural employment ratio is the most leading factor for increasing FUE for all provinces in studied years, and its influence degree shows a decreasing trend from southeastern to northwestern in each year. The different agricultural industry development modes, planting structure adjustment, and policy incentive systems for increasing non-agricultural employment ratio should be developed for different regions. Farmers' income has a significant negative impact on FUE, but the influence degree decreases annually, indicating that improving income to higher than turning point of the environmental Kuznets curve plays a critical role in improving FUE. The influence of education level on FUE is positive but relatively weak, and the influence degree declines from the western to eastern areas. It should strengthen the exploration of scientific and rational education and a training policy system to improve the educational level in different regions on the basis of local characteristics. Disaster ratio has a positive impact on FUE but is unstable. For the neighboring provinces, coordinated weather and possible disaster forecasting and release mechanism should be carried out based on the extent of the disaster.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-12246-1DOI Listing
January 2021

Facile synthesis of the Z-scheme graphite-like carbon nitride/silver/silver phosphate nanocomposite for photocatalytic oxidative removal of nitric oxides under visible light.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2021 Apr 31;588:110-121. Epub 2020 Dec 31.

School of Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210094, PR China. Electronic address:

In this study, a novel ternary Z-scheme Graphite-like Carbon Nitride (g-CN)/Silver (Ag)/Silver Phosphate (AgPO) photocatalyst was designed and prepared using a two-step method (sodium chloride (NaCl) template-assisted strategy plus selective deposition). Its photocatalysts performance against removing 400 ppm of Nitric Oxides (NOx) was then investigated. We found 50 wt% g-CN/Ag/AgPO(AP-CN 2:1) catalyst removes up to 74% of NO in 90 min under the illumination of visible light (>420 nm), which is respectively 3.5 and 1.8 times higher than using g-CN or AgPO, alone. This improved performance was attributed to the formation of Z-scheme g-CN/Ag/AgPO heterojunction, driven by the built-in electric field across the g-CN/Ag/AgPO interface. These separated the electron-hole but enhanced the original strong oxidation and reduction performance of related components. The superior performance is also attributed to the improved surface area, enhanced hydrophilicity (HO) and better visible-light-harvesting capability of the composite compound. More importantly, the AP-CN 2:1 sample maintained a NO removal rate of more than 73% even after four rounds of recycling. The photocatalytic oxidation removal mechanism was evaluated using the radical-capture experiments, electron spin resonance (ESR) and ion-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. The findings of this work offer a simple but effective design of a highly reactive and practical ternary Z-scheme heterojunction photocatalysts for the removal of toxic NO.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2020.12.063DOI Listing
April 2021

Surface Tuning to Promote the Electrocatalysis for Oxygen Evolution Reaction: From Metal-Free to Cobalt-Based Carbon Electrocatalysts.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Jan 29;13(1):503-513. Epub 2020 Dec 29.

Shanghai Electrochemical Energy Devices Research Center, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China.

Heterogeneous electrocatalytic reactions only occur at the interface between the electrocatalyst and reactant. Therefore, the active sites are only necessary to be distributed on the surface of the electrocatalyst. Based on this motivation, here, we demonstrate a systematic study on surface tuning for a carbon-based electrocatalyst from metal-free (with the heteroatoms N and S, NS/C) to metal-containing surfaces (with Co, N, and S, CoNS/C). The CoNS/C electrocatalyst was obtained by pyrolyzing the Co precoordinated and -toluenesulfonate-doped polypyrrole (PPy). It was found that the coordination of Co on the PPy ring tuned the final carbon electrocatalyst into a catalyst with a CoN moiety-rich surface. In addition, the as-synthesized CoNS/C was determined to have a very high loading of cobalt up to 2.02 wt %. The pyrolysis of the cobalt-containing precursor tends to proceed toward a characteristic of a higher sp carbon content, a higher surface area, and more nitrogen as well as active nitrogen sites than its metal-free counterpart. The most distinguished feature for such a catalyst is that the truly most active component is only distributed on the surface, in contrast with that of the conventional metal-N-based catalyst present throughout the bulky structure. Especially, the electrocatalytic activity toward oxygen evolution reaction (OER) has been investigated experimentally and theoretically. The results showed that the OER performance of the carbon-based electrocatalyst was remarkably boosted after the introduction of Co with an overpotential decrease from 678 to 345 mV at 10 mA cm. Furthermore, CoNS/C displayed an excellent durability upon a long-term measurement. The apparent activation energy measurements revealed that the metal-rich surface contributed to overcome the energy barrier for OER. In addition, density functional theory calculations have been conducted to explain the correlated OER mechanism. This study is expected to provide an effective strategy for the design and the synthesis of highly active metal-nitrogen-type electrocatalysts with a high metal loading for various electrocatalytic reactions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.0c17599DOI Listing
January 2021

First report of the complete mitochondrial genome and phylogenetic analysis of (Aphroditidae, Annelida).

Mitochondrial DNA B Resour 2019 Nov 20;4(2):4116-4117. Epub 2019 Nov 20.

Marine Ecology Research Center of First Institute Oceanography, Ministry of Natural Resources, Qingdao, PR China.

In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome of the was sequenced. The complete mitochondrial genome was circular and 15,288 bp in length, consisted of a typical set of 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 2 ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, and 1 non-coding control region. All these genes are in the heavy strand. The non-coding control region is 672 bp in length, and located between tRNA-Ser and tRNA-Leu. The overall nucleotides base composition of the heavy strand is 31.02% for A, 22.76% for C, 12.49% for G, and 33.73% for T, with a slight A + T-rich feature (64.75%). All of the PCGs begin with ATG as their start codon and the , and are terminated with TAA, , , , and are terminated with TAG, while others are terminated by incomplete codon T. Seen from the phylogenetic tree, has a more close relationship with than other species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23802359.2019.1692712DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7707694PMC
November 2019