Publications by authors named "Yanan Huang"

58 Publications

Quantitative interrogation of protein co-aggregation using multi-color fluorogenic protein aggregation sensors.

Chem Sci 2021 May 20;12(24):8468-8476. Epub 2021 May 20.

CAS Key Laboratory of Separation Science for Analytical Chemistry, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences 457 Zhongshan Road Dalian 116023 China

Co-aggregation of multiple pathogenic proteins is common in neurodegenerative diseases but deconvolution of such biochemical process is challenging. Herein, we developed a dual-color fluorogenic thermal shift assay to simultaneously report on the aggregation of two different proteins and quantitatively study their thermodynamic stability during co-aggregation. Expansion of spectral coverage was first achieved by developing multi-color fluorogenic protein aggregation sensors. Orthogonal detection was enabled by conjugating sensors of minimal fluorescence crosstalk to two different proteins sortase-tag technology. Using this assay, we quantified shifts in melting temperatures in a heterozygous model protein system, revealing that the thermodynamic stability of wild-type proteins was significantly compromised by the mutant ones but not . We also examined how small molecule ligands selectively and differentially interfere with such interplay. Finally, we demonstrated these sensors are suited to visualize how different proteins exert influence on each other upon their co-aggregation in live cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1sc01122gDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8221170PMC
May 2021

Quantitative perfusion histogram parameters of dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI to identify different pathological types of uterine leiomyoma.

Zhejiang Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban 2021 02;50(1):97-105

Department of Radiology,Shaoxing People's Hospital,Shaoxing 312000,Zhejiang Province,China.

:To explore the value of quantitative perfusion histogram parameters of dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) in pathological classification of uterine leiomyoma and its correlation with Ki-67 protein expression. Thirty five patients with uterine leiomyoma confirmed by operation and pathology at Shaoxing People's Hospital from October 2015 to September 2017 were analyzed retrospectively,including 15 cases of ordinary type,8 cases of cellular type and 12 cases of degenerative type. All patients were examined by pelvic DCE-MRI before operation,and the histogram parameters (median,mean,skewness,kurtosis,energy,entropy) of various quantitative perfusion parameters,including volume transport constant (K),rate constant (K),extravascular extracellular space distribute volume per unit tissue volume (V),blood plasma volume per unit volume of tissue (V) were calculated,and the efficacy of different parameters in pathological classification of uterine leiomyoma was evaluated by ROC curve. The expression of Ki-67 protein in uterine leiomyoma was detected by immunohistochemical method,and the correlation between histogram parameters and Ki-67 protein expression was analyzed by Pearson and Spearman correlation analysis. The median and mean values of K,K,V and V in the cellular group were higher than those in the degenerative group and the ordinary group(<0.05 or <0.01),while the skewness of V,the skewness and kurtosis of K in the cellular group were lower than those in the ordinary group (all <0.05). The entropy of K in the cellular group was higher than that in the degenerative group and the ordinary group (all < 0.05). The entropy of V in the cellular group was higher than that in the ordinary group (<0.01). The median,mean,skewness of K,median and mean of K,median and mean of V,median,mean,energy and entropy of V were correlated with Ki-67 expression(all <0.05). The results of ROC curve analysis showed that the median threshold of K was 0.994/min,the sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of cellular uterine leiomyoma were 100.0% and 77.8% respectively,and the area under the ROC curve was 0.949. When the mean threshold of K was 1.170/min,the sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing cellular uterine leiomyoma were 100.0% and 77.8% respectively,and the area under the ROC curve was 0.958. The area under the ROC curve of K (entropy),K (median,mean),V (median,mean,entropy) in the diagnosis of cellular uterine leiomyoma were 0.755-0.907. :DCE-MRI quantitative perfusion histogram parameters have high diagnostic value in differentiating pathological types of uterine leiomyoma,especially for cellular uterine leiomyoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3724/zdxbyxb-2021-0036DOI Listing
February 2021

Distinguishing between benign and malignant breast lesions using diffusion weighted imaging and intravoxel incoherent motion: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Eur J Radiol 2021 Aug 6;141:109809. Epub 2021 Jun 6.

Department of Radiology, Shaoxing People's Hospital (Shaoxing Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine), Key Laboratory of Functional Molecular Imaging of Tumor and Interventional Diagnosis and Treatment of Shaoxing City, Shaoxing 312000, China. Electronic address:

Purpose: We sought to evaluate the diagnostic performance of diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) and intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) for distinguishing between benign and malignant breast tumors by performing a meta-analysis.

Methods: We comprehensively searched the electronic databases PubMed and Embase from January 2000 to April 2020 for studies in English. Studies were included if they reported the sensitivity and specificity for identifying benign and malignant breast lesions using DWI or IVIM. Studies were reviewed according to QUADAS-2. The data inhomogeneity and publication bias were also assessed. In order to explore the influence of different field strengths and different b values on diagnostic efficiency, we conducted subgroup analysis.

Results: We analyzed 79 studies, which included a total of 6294 patients with 4091 malignant lesions and 2793 benign lesions. Overall, the pooled sensitivity and specificity of ADC for detecting malignant breast tumors were 0.87 (0.86-0.88) and 0.80 (0.78-0.81), respectively. The PLR was 5.09 (4.16-6.24); the NLR was 0.15 (0.13-0.18); and the DOR was 38.95 (28.87-52.54). The AUC value was 0.9297. The highest performing parameter for IVIM was tissue diffusivity (D), and the pooled sensitivity and specificity was 0.85 (0.82-0.88) and 0.87(0.83-0.90), respectively; the PLR was 5.65 (3.91-8.18); the NLR was 0.17 (0.12-0.26); and the DOR was 38.44 (23.57-62.69). The AUC value was 0.9265. Most of parameters demonstrated considerable statistically significant heterogeneity (P < 0.05, I>50 %) except the pooled DOR, PLR of D and the pooled DOR and NLR of D*.

Conclusions: Our meta-analysis indicated that DWI and IVIM had high sensitivity and specificity in the differential diagnosis of breast lesions; and compared with DWI, IVIM could not further increase the diagnostic performance. There was no significant difference in diagnostic accuracy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejrad.2021.109809DOI Listing
August 2021

MRI-Based Radiomics Models for Predicting Risk Classification of Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors.

Front Oncol 2021 10;11:631927. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Radiology, Shaoxing People's Hospital, Shaoxing Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Shaoxing, China.

Background: We conduct a study in developing and validating four MRI-based radiomics models to preoperatively predict the risk classification of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs).

Methods: Forty-one patients (low-risk = 17, intermediate-risk = 13, high-risk = 11) underwent MRI before surgery between September 2013 and March 2019 in this retrospective study. The Kruskal-Wallis test with Bonferonni correction and variance threshold was used to select appropriate features, and the Random Forest model (three classification model) was used to select features among the high-risk, intermediate-risk, and low-risk of GISTs. The predictive performance of the models built by the Random Forest was estimated by a 5-fold cross validation (5FCV). Their performance was estimated using the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, summarized as the area under the ROC curve (AUC). Area under the curve (AUC), accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity for risk classification were reported. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) was used to assess the discriminative ability of these radiomics models.

Results: The high-risk, intermediate-risk, and low-risk of GISTs were well classified by radiomics models, the micro-average of ROC curves was 0.85, 0.81, 0.87 and 0.94 for T1WI, T2WI, ADC and combined three MR sequences. And ROC curves achieved excellent AUCs for T1WI (0.85, 0.75 and 0.82), T2WI (0.69, 0.78 and 0.78), ADC (0.85, 0.77 and 0.80) and combined three MR sequences (0.96, 0.92, 0.81) for the diagnosis of high-risk, intermediate-risk, and low-risk of GISTs, respectively. In addition, LDA demonstrated the different risk of GISTs were correctly classified by radiomics analysis (61.0% for T1WI, 70.7% for T2WI, 83.3% for ADC, and 78.9% for the combined three MR sequences).

Conclusions: Radiomics models based on a single sequence and combined three MR sequences can be a noninvasive method to evaluate the risk classification of GISTs, which may help the treatment of GISTs patients in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.631927DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8141866PMC
May 2021

Rational Design of Crystallization-Induced-Emission Probes To Detect Amorphous Protein Aggregation in Live Cells.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2021 07 14;60(29):16067-16076. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

CAS Key Laboratory of Separation Science for Analytical Chemistry, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 457 Zhongshan Road, Dalian, 116023, China.

Unlike amyloid aggregates, amorphous protein aggregates with no defined structures have been challenging to target and detect in a complex cellular milieu. In this study, we rationally designed sensors of amorphous protein aggregation from aggregation-induced-emission probes (AIEgens). Utilizing dicyanoisophorone as a model AIEgen scaffold, we first sensitized the fluorescence of AIEgens to a nonpolar and viscous environment mimicking the interior of amorphous aggregated proteins. We identified a generally applicable moiety (dimethylaminophenylene) for selective binding and fluorescence enhancement. Regulation of the electron-withdrawing groups tuned the emission wavelength while retaining selective detection. Finally, we utilized the optimized probe to systematically image aggregated proteome upon proteostasis network regulation. Overall, we present a rational approach to develop amorphous protein aggregation sensors from AIEgens with controllable sensitivity, spectral coverage, and cellular performance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.202103674DOI Listing
July 2021

The effect of the HRB linker of Newcastle disease virus fusion protein on the fusogenic activity.

J Microbiol 2021 May 29;59(5):513-521. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Department of Virology, School of Public Health, Cheeloo College of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan, 250014, China.

Newcastle disease, designated a class A disease of poultry by the Office international des epizooties (OIE), is an acute infection caused by Newcastle disease virus (NDV). The merging of the envelope of NDV with the membrane of a target host cell is the key step in the infection pathway, which is driven by the concerted action of two glycoproteins: haemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) and fusion (F) protein. When the HN protein binds to the host cell surface receptor, the F protein is activated to mediate fusion. The three-dimensional structure of the F protein has been reported to have low electron density between the DIII domain and the HRB domain, and this electron-poor region is defined as the HRB linker. To clarify the contributing role of the HRB linker in the NDV F protein-mediated fusion process, 6 single amino acid mutants were obtained by site-directed mutagenesis of the HRB linker. The expression of the mutants and their abilities to mediate fusion were analysed, and the key amino acids in the HRB linker were identified as L436, E439, I450, and S453, as they can modulate the fusion ability or expression of the active form to a certain extent. The data shed light on the crucial role of the F protein HRB linker in the acquisition of a normal fusogenic phenotype.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12275-021-0539-4DOI Listing
May 2021

Covalent Probes for Aggregated Protein Imaging via Michael Addition.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2021 05 9;60(20):11335-11343. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

CAS Key Laboratory of Separation Science for Analytical Chemistry, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 457 Zhongshan Road, Dalian, 116023, China.

Covalent chemical reactions to modify aggregated proteins are rare. Here, we reported covalent Michael addition can generally occur upon protein aggregation. Such reactivity was initially discovered by a bioinspired fluorescent color-switch probe mimicking the photo-conversion mechanism of Kaede fluorescent protein. This probe was dark with folded proteins but turned on red fluorescence (620 nm) when it non-covalently bound to misfolded proteins. Supported by the biochemical and mass spectrometry results, the probe chemoselectively reacted with the reactive cysteines of aggregated proteins via covalent Michael addition and gradually switched to green fluorescence (515 nm) upon protein aggregation. Exploiting this Michael addition chemistry in the malachite green dye derivatives demonstrated its general applicability and chemical tunability, resulting in different fluorescence color-switch responses. Our work may offer a new avenue to explore other chemical reactions upon protein aggregation and design covalent probes for imaging, chemical proteomics, and therapeutic purposes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.202015988DOI Listing
May 2021

Compound TDB (Tricyclic decyl benzoxazole) induces autophagy-dependent apoptosis in the gastric cancer cell line MGC-803 by regulating PI3K/AKT/mTOR.

Am J Transl Res 2021 15;13(1):73-87. Epub 2021 Jan 15.

Hainan Medical College Preclinical Pharmacology Laboratory Hainan, P. R. China.

Objective: Gastric cancer is a potential malignant tumor. Extensive research has shown that apoptosis and autophagy are important mechanisms of cancer pathogenesis. This study aimed to explore the role and mechanism of TDB in apoptosis and autophagy in MGC-803 cells.

Methods: In cell experiments, the proliferation, apoptosis and autophagy of MGC-803 cells were evaluated by the MTT assay, TUNEL, flow cytometry, MDC, and TEM. Through molecular experiments, the TDB-induced apoptosis and autophagy effects were evaluated by examining the levels of Cleaved-PARP/PARP, Cleaved-caspase3/procaspase3, Beclin-1, p62 and the ratio of LC3-II/LC3-I. At the animal level, the anti-tumor effect of TDB was evaluated by assessing tumor volume and bioluminescence value.

Results: Regarding mechanism, TDB induces apoptosis and autophagy through PI3K/AKT/mTOR. At the same time, more importantly, TDB promotes 3-methyladenine or autophagy activator rapamycin-mediated. The induced proliferation inhibition and pro-apoptosis effect, which inhibit autophagy and induce an increase in apoptosis.

Conclusion: TDB may up-regulate PARP, Cleaved Caspase-3, Beclin1 and LC3B and down-regulate the expression of P62 and other apoptosis and autophagy genes through the activation of PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway signalling proteins, leading to autophagy-dependent apoptosis. At the animal level, TDB has good anti-tumor efficacy in vivo. In summary, TDB has potential anti-tumor efficacy and .
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7847516PMC
January 2021

Role of key amino acids in the transmembrane domain of the Newcastle disease virus fusion protein.

Biosci Trends 2021 Mar 27;15(1):16-23. Epub 2021 Jan 27.

Department of Virology, School of Public Health, Cheeloo College of Medicine, Shandong University, Ji'nan, Shandong, China.

Newcastle disease (ND), caused by the Newcastle disease virus (NDV), is transmitted by poultry with severe infectivity and a high fatality rate. The fusion (F) protein on the NDV envelope facilitates the merger of the viral and host cell membranes with the help of the homologous hemagglutinin-neuraminidase protein (HN). The transmembrane (TM) domains of viral fusion proteins are typically required for fusion, but the key amino acids in NDV F TM domains have not been identified. Site-directed mutagenesis was utilized to change the conserved amino acids at 500, 501, 502, 505, 510, 513, 516, 519, and 520 to alanine. It was found that mutants L519 and V520 had an interrupted protein expression, decreased to below 10%, and mutants A500, I505, V513, and V516 had a hypoactive impact on fusion activity, decreased to 85.38%, 67.05%, 55.38% and 51.13% of wt F, respectively. The results indicated that the TM domain plays a vital part in the fusion activity of the NDV F protein.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5582/bst.2020.03317DOI Listing
March 2021

Iron, thermal stratification, Eucalyptus sp., and hypoxia: drivers to water blackening in southern China reservoirs.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Jun 25;28(21):26717-26731. Epub 2021 Jan 25.

Key Laboratory of Integrated Regulation and Resources Development of Shallow Lakes of Ministry of Education, College of Environment, Hohai University, Nanjing, 210098, China.

The management of black water depends primarily on the knowledge of the dynamics of organic matter (OM), iron (Fe), sulfide (S), and manganese (Mn), at the water-sediment boundary (WSB). However, the mechanistic path of these substances leading to black water remains unsettled. In this study, a 35-day field study was conducted using the thin-film diffusion gradient technology (DGT) and the planar optrode to address the unknown combined effects of Fe, Mn, OM, S, and tannins from Eucalyptus species on Tianbao reservoir.Our results indicated that the hypolimnion was hypoxic due to thermal stratification, which caused the reduction of insoluble Fe and Mn from sediments to bottom water. Correlation analysis (Fe:S (r:0.5-0.9); Mn:S (r:0.2-0.8)) and elevated fluxes (Fe, Mn, S) connoted that these parameters interacted chemically to give black matter. The content of OM, Fe, and tannic acid in the benthic region diminished remarkably (p < 0.05) from day 1 (strong stratification) to day 35 (weak stratification), connoting that these parameters also interacted chemically to give black matter. The turbidity (clarity of the water) increased from day 1 to 35 with a significant difference (p < 0.05) recorded on day 14 confirming that black water was formed on this day when the thermal structure of the reservoir was annihilated. Correlation analysis supported the assertion that the variability in oxygen and redox conditions caused changes in Fe, Mn, and OM content at the WSB.The finding from the field research provides useful information to stakeholders on how to improve the quality of freshwater management designs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-12500-0DOI Listing
June 2021

Equilibrium and Kinetic Study of l- and d-Valine Adsorption in Supramolecular-Templated Chiral Mesoporous Materials.

Molecules 2021 Jan 11;26(2). Epub 2021 Jan 11.

Department of Molecular Sciences, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109, Australia.

Adsorption kinetic studies are conducted to investigate the potential to use chiral mesoporous materials nanoporous guanosine monophosphate material-1 (NGM-1) and nanoporous folic acid material-1 (NFM-1) for the enantiomeric separation of l- and d-valine. A pseudo-second-order (PSO) kinetic model is applied to test the experimental adsorption equilibrium isotherms, according to both the Langmuir and Freundlich models and the characteristic parameters for each model are determined. The calcined versions of both NGM-1 and NFM-1 fit the Langmuir model with maximum sorption capacities of 0.36 and 0.26 g/g for the preferred adsorption enantiomers, d-valine and l-valine, respectively. Experimental results and the analysis of adsorption models suggest a strong adsorbate-adsorbent interaction, and the formation of a monolayer of tightly packed amino acid on the internal mesopore surface for the preferred enantiomers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules26020338DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7827360PMC
January 2021

Monitoring the Dynamics of Proteome Aggregation in Live Cells Using a Solubilized and Noncovalent Analogue of Fluorescent Protein Chromophores.

Anal Chem 2021 01 31;93(3):1717-1724. Epub 2020 Dec 31.

CAS Key Laboratory of Separation Science for Analytical Chemistry, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 457 Zhongshan Road, Dalian 116023, China.

Stress-induced intracellular proteome aggregation is a hallmark and a biomarker of various human diseases. Current sensors requiring either cellular fixation or covalent modification of the entire proteome are not suitable for live-cell applications and dynamics study. Herein, we report a noncovalent, cell-permeable, and fluorogenic sensor that can reversibly bind to proteome amorphous aggregates and monitor their formation, transition, and clearance in live cells. This sensor was structurally optimized from previously reported fluorescent protein chromophores to enable noncovalent and reversible binding to aggregated proteins. Unlike all previous sensors, the noncovalent and reversible nature of this probe allows for dynamic detection of both the formation and clearance of aggregated proteome in one live-cell sample. Under different cellular stresses, this sensor reveals drastic differences in the morphology and location of aggregated proteome. Furthermore, we have shown that this sensor can detect the transition from proteome liquid-to-liquid phase separation to liquid-to-solid phase separation in a two-color imaging experiment. Overall, the sensor reported here can serve as a facile tool to screen therapeutic drugs and identify cellular pathways that ameliorate pathogenic proteome aggregation in live-cell models.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.analchem.0c04309DOI Listing
January 2021

Orchestration of biomimetic membrane coating and nanotherapeutics in personalized anticancer therapy.

Biomater Sci 2021 Feb;9(3):590-625

Tumor Precision Targeting Research Center, School of Medicine & School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444, China. and Institution of Nanochemistry and Nanobiology, School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444, China.

Nanoparticle-based therapeutic and detectable modalities can augment anticancer efficiency, holding potential in capable target and suppressive metastases post administration. However, the individual discrepancies of the current "one-size-fits-all" strategies for anticancer nanotherapeutics have heralded the need for "personalized therapy". Benefiting from the special inherency of various cells, diverse cell membrane-coated nanoparticles (CMCNs) were established on a patient-by-patient basis, which would facilitate the personalized treatment of individual cancer patients. CMCNs in a complex microenvironment can evade the immune system and target homologous tumors with a suppressed immune response, as well as a prolonged circulation time, consequently increasing the drug accumulation at the tumor site and anticancer therapeutic efficacy. This review focuses on the emerging strategies and advances of CMCNs to synergistically integrate the merit of source cells with nanoparticulate delivery systems for the orchestration of personalized anticancer nanotherapeutics, thus discussing their rationalities in facilitating chemotherapy, imaging, immunotherapy, phototherapy, radiotherapy, sonodynamic, magnetocaloric, chemodynamic and gene therapy. Furthermore, the mechanism, challenges and opportunities of CMCNs in personalized anticancer therapy were highlighted to further boost cooperation from different fields, including materials science, chemistry, medicine, pharmacy and biology for the lab-to-clinic translation of CMCNs combined with the individual advantages of source cells and nanotherapeutics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0bm01617aDOI Listing
February 2021

Alprazolam and clarithromycin interaction induced lethargy and short-term memory loss in an elderly patient: a case report.

Psychogeriatrics 2021 01 10;21(1):137-138. Epub 2020 Dec 10.

Department of Geriatrics, The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/psyg.12646DOI Listing
January 2021

Ordered long polyvinyl alcohol fiber-reinforced thermoplastic starch composite having comparable mechanical properties with polyethylene and polypropylene.

Carbohydr Polym 2020 Dec 14;250:116913. Epub 2020 Aug 14.

Agricultural and Forest Products Processing Academician Workstation of Henan Province, Luohe, 462600, China; Post-Doctoral Research Center of Henan Nanjiecun Group, Luohe, 462600, China.

A novel strategy is proposed to fabricate ordered long polyvinyl alcohol fiber (PVAF)-reinforced thermoplastic starch (TPS) composites with significantly improved mechanical properties. The PVAFs were uniformly fixed on two rods first; then sandwich-like TPS/fibers/TPS composite films were prepared by hot pressing, and PVAFs (0-4.08 wt%) with the same orientation were added to the composite films. The tensile test demonstrated that the tensile strength of the PVAF/TPS composite film improved from 2.13 MPa for TPS to 20.98 MPa with 4.08 wt% PVAFs, which is higher than the tensile strength of polyethylene (PE) (11.88 MPa) and polypropylene (PP) (19.29 MPa) and ten times higher than that of TPS. The sandwich-like cross-section of the composite film was observed by scanning electron microscopy to prove the better compatibility between PVAF and TPS. The nanoindentation test revealed that the addition of fibers improved the elastic modulus and hardness of the surface of the material. The strengthening mechanism for different PVAF contents was simulated by finite element analysis and attributed to the reduced maximum von Mises stress at the interface between the fiber and the TPS matrix, avoiding the stress concentration and corresponding fracture. This study provides a new way to prepare degradable composite films with suitable mechanical properties to replace PE or PP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2020.116913DOI Listing
December 2020

Impacts of water temperature on phosphorus release of sediments under flowing overlying water.

J Contam Hydrol 2020 Nov 23;235:103717. Epub 2020 Sep 23.

State Key Laboratory of Hydraulics and Mountain River Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065, China; POWERCHINA Chengdu Engineering Corporation Limited, Chengdu 610072, China.

River sediment typically acts a 'sink' or 'source' of phosphorus for the overlying water owing to the adsorption of phosphorous by the sediment or release of phosphorous to the water, respectively. In this study, a method is proposed for the determination of the equilibrium concentration of the total phosphorus (EC) and total phosphorus release rate (R). Phosphorus release experiments were conducted on natural river sediments in flowing water with a low velocity under different water temperatures. An empirical equation was established for the correlation between EC and R at an arbitrary temperature and at 20 °C. The results indicate that an increase in the water temperature significantly enhances the phosphorus release. In comparison with total phosphorus, dissolved phosphorus and particulate phosphorus in the overlying water do not change with the water temperature. Thus, the results of this study aid in understanding the contaminant exchange between sediments and water in flowing rivers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jconhyd.2020.103717DOI Listing
November 2020

Evaluating the phytoplankton, nitrate, and ammonium interactions during summer bloom in tributary of a subtropical reservoir.

J Environ Manage 2020 Oct 23;271:110971. Epub 2020 Jun 23.

Division of Hydrologic Sciences, Desert Research Institute, Las Vegas, NV, USA.

The rational eutrophication management largely depends on the knowledge of the dynamics in the dissolved inorganic nutrients especially nitrogen forms which trigger exponential primary productivity in eutrophic systems. The present study investigated the phytoplankton interactions with the dissolved N forms, nitrate (NO) and ammonium (NH) in a sub-tropical Yangtze River tributary, China vulnerable to multiple anthropogenic stressors following the impoundment of the largest hydraulic structure, the Three Gorges Dam. Results indicated strong NO inhibition by the low NH pool exerting toxic effects on the major phytoplankton groups, particularly the Bacilliariophyta (relative abundance < 1%) while significant Cyanophyta proliferation prevailed (relative abundance ≥ 90%). Strong N limitation exacerbated by NH deficit and P replete condition characterizes the summer bloom in the tributary. The biomass attenuation kinetics revealed significantly fast NH metabolism, half-life (t= 1.4 d, K = 0.00750 ± 0.004 d) as the first-order rate adequately fitted into the experimental data although, the second-order rate also demonstrated considerable goodness of fit. The growth responses induced by the Si enrichment potentially suggested possible secondary limitation by Si with the likelihood of intensification should the ecosystem phytoplankton community dominance shifts from Cyanophyta to the Bacilliariophyta. The response of P enrichment on growth was attributed to luxury consumption rather than limitation as responses only became significant towards the end of the study. The study, therefore, presents the first report of biomass ageing rate worthy of incorporation into the recent bloom management protocol for the development of predictive ecosystem dynamics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2020.110971DOI Listing
October 2020

Study on the dynamic change law and correlation between CT imaging manifestations and cellular immunity of 2019 novel coronavirus disease.

Jpn J Radiol 2020 Oct 12;38(10):942-952. Epub 2020 Jun 12.

Department of Radiology, Shaoxing People's Hospital (Shaoxing Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine), Shaoxing, Zhejiang, China.

Purpose: To explore the dynamic changes and correlation between CT imaging manifestations and cellular immunity of COVID-19.

Materials And Methods: This retrospective review analyzed 23 patients with COVID-19, including 13 males and 10 females aged 27-70 years, with an average age of 48 years. Patients were divided into two groups: group A with 11 critical-severe patients, and group B with 12 common-mild patients. Clinical, laboratory, and radiological data were collected and analyzed.

Results: LYM, LYM (%), CD3+, CD4+, and CD8+ decreased, while NEU (%), CRP, and CT scores increased in all patients, WBC in group A increased. In group A, on day 10-12 after disease onset, CT scores and CRP reached the highest point, and day 13-15 LYM, LYM (%) reached the lowest but NEU (%) and WBC reached the highest, CD3+, CD4+ and CD8+ were at the lowest on day 10-15. In group B, on day 7-9, CT scores, NEU (%) and CRP reached the peak, but LYM, LYM (%), CD3+, CD4+ and CD8+ reached the lowest. In all patients, CT scores had a significantly negative correlation with CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, LYM (%), and LYM (p = 0.001, r = - 0.797; p = 0.008, r = - 0.698; p = 0.002, r = - 0.775; p < 0.001, r = - 0.785; p = 0.021, r = - 0.571, respectively), and a significantly positive correlation with WBC and NEU (%) (p < 0.001, r = 0.785; p = 0.003, r = 0.691, respectively).

Conclusion: Dynamic changes of CT manifestations and cellular immunity of patients with COVID-19 were regular and correlation was high between these two parameters.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11604-020-00997-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7289933PMC
October 2020

Anti-Rheumatic Properties of Gentiopicroside Are Associated With Suppression of ROS-NF-κB-NLRP3 Axis in Fibroblast-Like Synoviocytes and NF-κB Pathway in Adjuvant-Induced Arthritis.

Front Pharmacol 2020 4;11:515. Epub 2020 May 4.

School of Pharmacy, Key Laboratory of Molecular Pharmacology and Drug Evaluation, Ministry of Education, Yantai University, Yantai, China.

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is among the most prevalent forms of autoimmunity. Gentiopicroside (Gent) is an iridoid glucoside derived from the which is used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat RA. The present study was designed to explore the ability of Gent to combat RA and to explore the molecular basis for such anti-RA activity both using tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)-stimulated human RA fibroblast-like synoviocytes (RA-FLS) and using a rat adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA) model. We found that Gent was able to significantly reduce the swelling of joints and arthritic index scores, with corresponding reductions in synovial inflammatory cell infiltration, synovial hyperplasia, and bone erosion in treated AIA rats. Importantly, Gent 200 mg/kg reduced thymus index in AIA rats, but had no effect on spleen index and body weight, it revealed that Gent was relatively safe at the dose we chose. We further found that Gent was able to suppress the TNF-α-induced proliferation and migration of RA-FLS cells. This suppression was attributed to the ability of Gent to block NOD-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3), apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD (ASC), and caspase-1, thereby disrupting the activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome. Consistent with such suppression, Gent led to a significant decrease in IL-1β secretion by treated cells. Furthermore, this reduction in NLRP3 inflammasome activation was also associated with decreases in the activation of nuclear factor (NF-κB), the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and the expression of inflammatory IL-6. Together these findings indicate that Gent can suppress the ROS-NF-κB-NLRP3 axis to alleviate RA symptoms.

Chemical Compounds Studied In This Article: Gentiopicroside (PubChem CID: 88708).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2020.00515DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7232611PMC
May 2020

High resolution evidence of iron-phosphorus-sulfur mobility at hypoxic sediment water interface: An insight to phosphorus remobilization using DGT-induced fluxes in sediments model.

Sci Total Environ 2020 Jul 28;724:138204. Epub 2020 Mar 28.

Key Laboratory of Integrated Regulation and Resources Development of Shallow Lakes of Ministry of Education, College of Environment, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098, China.

The deterioration of reservoirs in southern China due to the kinetics of Iron (Fe), Phosphorus (P) and sulphide (S) at the sediment-water interface (SWI) is a major problem that needs urgent attention. Studies on the biogeochemistry of Fe, P, and S using high-resolution profile techniques in reservoirs in this region are limited. The diffusive gradient in thin films (DGT) technique, high-resolution dialysis, DGT-computer imaging densitometry (CID), DGT-induced fluxes in sediments (DIFS) and planar optode (PO) device were used to describe the dynamics Fe-P-S in SWI during hypoxia. The results showed the release of Fe-P-S in SWI was due to sulfate reduction and iron reduction influenced greatly by hypoxia. Positive apparent fluxes were recorded indicating that the sediments release Fe-P-S to the overlying water. High positive correlations (r > 0.7) for DGT-labile Fe and DGT-labile P in sediments revealed that iron-bound P controlled the release of P at SWI during reductive dissolution. The low correlation between DGT-labile Fe and DGT-labile S (r < 0.4) disclosed the combative nature between sulfate reduction and iron reduction process. The low correlation occurred because of the co-precipitation between Fe and S, forming black materials such as monosulfide (FeS) and pyrite (FeS) in a hypoxic environment. The DIFS model showed the resupply ability (R-values) of P in sediments belonged to the partially sustained case with a steady state case of resupply at TB3 (Tc = 1088s, Kd = 1005.61 cm/g R = 0.72, K = 0.19 day) and TB4 (Tc = 712 s, Kd = 712.53 cm/g, R = 0.78, K = 0.46 day). The resupply rate belonged to the non-steady state case at TB1 (Tc = 10,990 s, Kd = 396.3 cm/g, R = 0.35, K = 0.07 day) and TB2 (Tc = 6097 s, Kd = 578.5 cm/g, R = 0.45, K = 0.10 day). The DGT-CID-PO-DIFS provided a deep insight on the mechanism of Fe-P-S and remobilization of P at SWI leading to Blackwater events and eutrophication.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.138204DOI Listing
July 2020

Nitrate repletion during spring bloom intensifies phytoplankton iron demand in Yangtze River tributary, China.

Environ Pollut 2020 Sep 29;264:114626. Epub 2020 Apr 29.

Institute of Marine Sciences, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Morehead City, NC, USA.

Most aquatic systems show characteristic seasonal fluctuations in the total nutrient pool supporting primary productivity. The nutrient dynamics essentially exacerbate critical demand for the counterpart micronutrients towards achieving ecosystem equilibrium. Herein, the phytoplankton demand for iron (Fe) uptake under high concentration of nitrate-nitrogen during spring in Xiangxi Bay, China, was studied. Our result confirmed that significant Fe concentrations (P = 0.01) in both autumn (0.62 ± 0.02 mgL) and winter (0.06 ± 0.03 mgL) relative to spring (0.004 ± 0.01 mgL) are linked to the low NON paradigms during autumn and winter. As NON showed a sharp increase in spring, a dramatic reduction in the Fe pool was observed in the entire tributary, driving the system to a critical Fe limited condition. Bioassay study involving Fe additions both alone and in combinations led to maximum growth stimulation with biomass as chla (16.44 ± 0.82 μgL) and phytoplankton cell density (6.75 × 10 cellsL) which differed significantly (P = 0.03) with the control. Further, the study demonstrated that Fe additions triggered biomass productions which increased linearly with cell densities. The P alone addition caused biomass production (15.26 ± 2.51 μgL) greater than both NON (9.15 ± 0.66 μgL) and NHN (13.65 ± 1.68 μgL) separate additions but reported a low aggregate cell density (3.18 × 10 cellsL). This indicates that nutrient and taxonomic characteristics e.g., high cell pigment contents rather than just the cell bio-volume also determine biomass. The Bacilliarophyta, Chlorophyta, and Cryptophyta with the total extinction of Cyanophyta characterized the bloom in spring. The anthropogenic NON input into XXB would have driven to higher NON than NHN situation, and incapacitated the Cyanophyta that preferentially utilize NHN. Our study provides a useful report for incorporation into the monitoring programs for prudent management of phytoplankton bloom and pollution across the eutrophic systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2020.114626DOI Listing
September 2020

Internal ammonium excess induces ROS-mediated reactions and causes carbon scarcity in rice.

BMC Plant Biol 2020 Apr 7;20(1):143. Epub 2020 Apr 7.

State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 71, East Beijing Road, Nanjing, 210008, China.

Background: Overuse of nitrogen fertilizers is often a major practice to ensure sufficient nitrogen demand of high-yielding rice, leading to persistent NH excess in the plant. However, this excessive portion of nitrogen nutrient does not correspond to further increase in grain yields. For finding out the main constraints related to this phenomenon, the performance of NH excess in rice plant needs to be clearly addressed beyond the well-defined root growth adjustment. The present work isolates an acute NH excess condition in rice plant from causing any measurable growth change and analyses the initial performance of such internal NH excess.

Results: We demonstrate that the acute internal NH excess in rice plant accompanies readily with a burst of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and initiates the downstream reactions. At the headstream of carbon production, photon caption genes and the activity of primary CO fixation enzymes (Rubisco) are evidently suppressed, indicating a reduction in photosynthetic carbon income. Next, the vigorous induction of glutathione transferase (GST) genes and enzyme activities along with the rise of glutathione (GSH) production suggest the activation of GSH cycling for ROS cleavage. Third, as indicated by strong induction of glycolysis / glycogen breakdown related genes in shoots, carbohydrate metabolisms are redirected to enhance the production of energy and carbon skeletons for the cost of ROS scavenging. As the result of the development of these defensive reactions, a carbon scarcity would accumulatively occur and lead to a growth inhibition. Finally, a sucrose feeding cancels the ROS burst, restores the activity of Rubisco and alleviates the demand for the activation of GSH cycling.

Conclusion: Our results demonstrate that acute NH excess accompanies with a spontaneous ROS burst and causes carbon scarcity in rice plant. Therefore, under overuse of N fertilizers carbon scarcity is probably a major constraint in rice plant that limits the performance of nitrogen.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12870-020-02363-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7140567PMC
April 2020

Study on nutrient limitation of phytoplankton growth in Xiangxi Bay of the Three Gorges Reservoir, China.

Sci Total Environ 2020 Jun 19;723:138062. Epub 2020 Mar 19.

Key Laboratory of Integrated Regulation and Resource Development on Shallow Lakes, Ministry of Education, College of Environment, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098, China.

After the impoundment of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR), algal blooms in the sidearm tributaries have resulted from increasing nutrient loads along the major tributaries. Field sampling and in situ nutrient addition bioassay were implemented to examine the nutrient limitation of phytoplankton growth and bloom initiation during autumn in Xiangxi Bay of the TGR. Result shows that P is the primary limiting nutrient for algal growth and bloom in Xiangxi Bay during autumn. The treatment involving the combination of N, P and Si had a significant (p < .05) additional effect on the growth of phytoplankton. The N, P, Si combined treatment increased growth by 10-50% relative to the N and P treatments from day 1 to day 4, respectively. Trace metal additions involving Fe, Zn, Mn, and Cu and/or in combination with N, P, and Si initially resulted in an extremely low growth rate which later increased significantly (p < .05) towards the end of the study. The present study provides an insight into the responses of different phytoplankton taxa in autumn under nutrient conditions in the tributary bay. The nutrient limitation study is recognized as the first step to mitigating the bloom while proposing an effective nutrient control strategy. The outcome of which can provide the basis for formulating sustainable watershed management. Multiple nutrients reductions with P as primary concern are required for a lasting management solution to the risk of bloom in the TGR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.138062DOI Listing
June 2020

Nutrient addition bioassay and phytoplankton community structure monitored during autumn in Xiangxi Bay of Three Gorges Reservoir, China.

Chemosphere 2020 May 20;247:125960. Epub 2020 Jan 20.

Institute of Marine Sciences, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Morehead City, NC, USA.

The increasing freshwater ecosystem nutrient budget is a critical anthropogenic factor promoting freshwater eutrophication and episodic bloom of harmful algae which threaten water quality and public health. To understand how the eutrophic freshwater ecosystem responds in term of phytoplankton community structure dynamics to a sudden rise in nutrient concentrations, a microcosm study by nutrient addition bioassay was implemented in Xiangxi Bay (XXB) of Three Gorges Reservoir, China. Our results showed that dissolved trace elements supply adequately altered the phytoplankton community structure creating a regime shift from cyanobacteria-dominated to essentially Chlorophytes-dominated system, relative abundance (>70%). Combined N, P, and Si led to maximum growth stimulation accompanied by the highest chlorophyll yield (82.7 ± 14.01 μgL) and growth rate (1.098 ± 0.12 μgLd). N separate additions resulted in growth responses which did not differ while P -addition differed significantly (p∠0.05) with the control justifying a P limited system. Si enrichment stimulated diatom growth, relative abundance (20.62%) and maximum utility rate (U = 83.37 ± 0.33%). This study also reveals that increasing nutrient loading from anthropogenic sources adequately decrease the ecological diversity (H < 1) and community overlap (CC ≤ 0.5) intensifying competition and succession which then select the fast-growing taxa to dominate and expand. Result points to the need for multiple nutrient control of N, P and Si loading into XXB through a prudent nutrient management protocol for lasting bloom mitigation in the tributary bay.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.125960DOI Listing
May 2020

Achieving Macroscopic VCT MXene by Selectively Etching Al from VAlC Single Crystals.

Inorg Chem 2020 Mar 18;59(5):3239-3248. Epub 2020 Feb 18.

Key Laboratory of Materials Physics, Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031, People's Republic of China.

Hexagon-like MAX-phase VAlC single crystals grown by a high-temperature flux method were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). We report, for the first time, the first-order Raman spectra (RS) of VAlC single crystals experimentally and theoretically. Via the combination of the results of thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, XRD, FE-SEM, and EDX, the oxidation performance and mechanism of VAlC single crystals between 300 and 1473 K in air were clarified. Importantly, we carefully investigated the room-temperature corrosion behaviors of VAlC single crystals in concentrated acids [HCl, HSO, hydrofluoric acid (HF), and HNO] and alkalis (NaOH and KOH). VAlC single crystals are stable in concentrated HCl, HSO, and NaOH but unstable and even dissolved completely in concentrated KOH and HNO. In particular, our XRD, RS, FE-SEM, and EDX results have confirmed that HF can dissolve the Al layers of VAlC single crystals but cannot corrode VC layers at room temperature, which eventually led to the formation of macroscopic VCT MXene. This reported approach of macro-sized VCT MXene can be adapted for obtaining other macroscopic MXenes and will inspire plenty of theoretical and experimental investigations to explore their intrinsic nature and applications, especially for electronic and photonic applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.inorgchem.9b03625DOI Listing
March 2020

[Value of myocardial scar in predicting malignant ventricular arrhythmia in patients with chronic myocardial infarction].

Zhejiang Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban 2019 Jul;48(5):511-516

Department of Radiology, Shaoxing People's Hospital, Shaoxing 312000, Zhejiang Province, China.

Objective: To assess the predictive value of myocardial scar mass in malignant ventricular arrhythmia (MVA) after myocardial infarction.

Methods: Thirty myocardial infarction patients with complete electrophysiology and cardiac MRI data admitted from January 2012 to August 2017 were enrolled in the study. According to the results of intracavitary electrophysiological study, MVA developed in 16 patients (MVA group) and not developed in 14 patients (non-MVA group). The qualitative and quantitative analysis of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVFE) and scar mass was performed with CV post-processing software and predictive value of myocardial scar and LVEF for MVA after myocardial infarction was analyzed using ROC curves.

Results: LVEF in MVA group was significantly lower than that in non-MVA group, and scar mass in MVA group was significantly higher than that in non-MVA group (all <0.05). Regression analysis showed that LVEF (=1.580) and scar mass (=6.270) were risk factors for MVA after myocardial infarction. For predicting MVA, the area under ROC curve () of LVEF was 0.696 with a sensitivity of 0.786 and the specificity of 0.685; the of the scar mass was 0.839 with a sensitivity was 0.618 and the specificity of 0.929; the of LVEF combined with scar mass was 0.848 with a sensitivity of 0.688 and specificity of 0.857.

Conclusions: Myocardial scar assessed by late gadolinium enhancement MRI is more effective than LVEF in predicting MVA after myocardial infarction.
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July 2019

Harmful algal blooms under changing climate and constantly increasing anthropogenic actions: the review of management implications.

3 Biotech 2019 Dec 14;9(12):449. Epub 2019 Nov 14.

Key Laboratory of Integrated Regulation and Resource Development on Shallow Lakes, Ministry of Education, College of Environment, Hohai University, Nanjing, 210098 Jiangsu People's Republic of China.

The present review reports all management approaches (physical, chemical, and biological) traditionally adopted in mitigating the global impact of harmful cyanobacterial blooms (cyanoHABs). It recognizes that each mitigation strategy shows characteristic associated limitations and notes that no remedial step has provided a sustainable solution to HABs on a global scale. It emphasizes that the putative anthropogenic N&P inputs reduction through improved wastewater treatment and regulation of point and non-point sources-agricultural fertilizers only offer a short term solution. These approaches are rather preventive than curative hence, do not address concerns relating to the recovery of already-eutrophic and hypereutrophic systems. It raises new concerns on the implications of non-agricultural pollutants such as hydrocarbon fractions in bloom accretions often neglected while addressing HAB triggers. It also accesses the global impacts of HABs as it pertains to socio-economic implications in the geographically diverse world. It, therefore, proposes that Integrated Management Intervention involving the merging of two or more mitigation steps be administered across the aquatic continua as a prudent management solution to complement the current N&P dual management paradigm. It stresses that the contemporaneous adoption of management options with both preventive and curative measures is a key to sustainable HAB management. This review provides sufficient advances and current scenarios for approaching cyanoHABs. Further, it advocates that future research perspectives tackle the mitigation design beyond the short-term nutrient regulations and the parochial attention to the point and non-point N&P input sources.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13205-019-1976-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6856243PMC
December 2019

Highly Stretchable Conductor by Self-Assembling and Mechanical Sintering of a 2D Liquid Metal on a 3D Polydopamine-Modified Polyurethane Sponge.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2019 Dec 11;11(51):48321-48330. Epub 2019 Dec 11.

State Key Laboratory of Organic-Inorganic Composites , Beijing University of Chemical Technology , Beijing 100029 , China.

A highly stretchable conductor was fabricated through dip-coating a new liquid metal (LM) electric ink on a polydopamine (PDA)-modified three-dimensional (3D) polyurethane sponge (PUS) followed by mechanical sintering. The LM was first sonicated to nanodroplets to reduce the consumption of LM and then modified by 3-mercaptopropionic acid (LMNPS-MPA) to improve the interfacial adhesion between LM and PUS. The denser and even distribution of LMNPS-MPA self-assembling on PDA-treated PUS (PUS-PDA) was successfully prepared via hydrogen bonding interactions. Mechanical sintering of 3D PUS-PDA coated by a two-dimensional (2D) LM layer was then conducted to obtain a continuous conductive network. Comparing with those of the reported 3D conductors, the resulting PUS-PDA-LM composite conductor shows both high electrical conductivity (478 S cm) under a low LM consumption of 10 vol% and excellent conductivity stability with the relative resistance change, Δ/, of 2% at 50% strain under stretching deformation. The as-prepared PUS-PDA-LM composites were then successfully applied as flexible and stretchable light-emitting diode (LED) arrays with excellent conductivity and conductivity stability at different deformations. We believe that the 3D stretchable PUS-PDA-LM conductor has many potential applications in flexible sensors, flexible circuits, rollable displays, etc.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.9b15776DOI Listing
December 2019

Additive Printed All-Cellulose Membranes with Hierarchical Structure for Highly Efficient Separation of Oil/Water Nanoemulsions.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2019 Nov 18;11(47):44375-44382. Epub 2019 Nov 18.

School of Industrial Engineering , Purdue University , West Lafayette , Indiana 47906 , United States.

To expand the application of commercial membranes in oily wastewater separation, in this work, all-cellulose membranes were fabricated by depositing cellulose nanocrystals onto the surface of mixed-cellulose esters via a large-scale additive printing strategy. The thickness, pore size, surface wettability, and water flux of all-cellulose membranes can be well tuned by controlling the printing cycles of cellulose nanocrystal inks. Under optimal printing conditions, the resultant all-cellulose membranes with nanoporous architecture (76-91 nm) exhibit superhydrophilicity and underwater superoleophobicity, which benefits the separation of oil/water nanoemulsions with a high water flux (>1500 L m h bar) and an ultrahigh efficiency (>99%). Moreover, these all-cellulose membranes exhibit excellent stability and reusability for long-term separation and retains their inherent properties under various acidic, basic, and salty conditions, as well as mechanical abrasion. The presented scalable additive printing is a facile, economical, and sustainable strategy to construct all-cellulose membranes with excellent separation performance for oil/water nanoemulsions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.9b16647DOI Listing
November 2019

Tumor Targeting Strategies of Smart Fluorescent Nanoparticles and Their Applications in Cancer Diagnosis and Treatment.

Adv Mater 2019 Oct 1;31(40):e1902409. Epub 2019 Aug 1.

Tumor Precision Targeting Research Center, School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai, 200444, P. R. China.

Advantages such as strong signal strength, resistance to photobleaching, tunable fluorescence emissions, high sensitivity, and biocompatibility are the driving forces for the application of fluorescent nanoparticles (FNPs) in cancer diagnosis and therapy. In addition, the large surface area and easy modification of FNPs provide a platform for the design of multifunctional nanoparticles (MFNPs) for tumor targeting, diagnosis, and treatment. In order to obtain better targeting and therapeutic effects, it is necessary to understand the properties and targeting mechanisms of FNPs, which are the foundation and play a key role in the targeting design of nanoparticles (NPs). Widely accepted and applied targeting mechanisms such as enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect, active targeting, and tumor microenvironment (TME) targeting are summarized here. Additionally, a freshly discovered targeting mechanism is introduced, termed cell membrane permeability targeting (CMPT), which improves the tumor-targeting rate from less than 5% of the EPR effect to more than 50%. A new design strategy is also summarized, which is promising for future clinical targeting NPs/nanomedicines design. The targeting mechanism and design strategy will inspire new insights and thoughts on targeting design and will speed up precision medicine and contribute to cancer therapy and early diagnosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adma.201902409DOI Listing
October 2019
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