Publications by authors named "Yana Y Toporkova"

19 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Detection of the First Epoxyalcohol Synthase/Allene Oxide Synthase (CYP74 Clan) in the Lancelet (, Chordata).

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Apr 29;22(9). Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Kazan Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics, FRC Kazan Scientific Center of RAS, P.O. Box 30, 420111 Kazan, Russia.

The CYP74 clan cytochromes (P450) are key enzymes of oxidative metabolism of polyunsaturated fatty acids in plants, some Proteobacteria, brown and green algae, and Metazoa. The CYP74 enzymes, including the allene oxide synthases (AOSs), hydroperoxide lyases, divinyl ether synthases, and epoxyalcohol synthases (EASs) transform the fatty acid hydroperoxides to bioactive oxylipins. A novel CYP74 clan enzyme CYP440A18 of the Asian (Belcher's) lancelet (, Chordata) was biochemically characterized in the present work. The recombinant CYP440A18 enzyme was active towards all substrates used: linoleate and α-linolenate 9- and 13-hydroperoxides, as well as with eicosatetraenoate and eicosapentaenoate 15-hydroperoxides. The enzyme specifically converted α-linolenate 13-hydroperoxide (13-HPOT) to the oxiranyl carbinol (9,11,12,13,15)-11-hydroxy-12,13-epoxy-9,15-octadecadienoic acid (EAS product), α-ketol, 12-oxo-13-hydroxy-9,15-octadecadienoic acid (AOS product), and -12-oxo-10,15-phytodienoic acid (AOS product) at a ratio of around 35:5:1. Other hydroperoxides were converted by this enzyme to the analogous products. In contrast to other substrates, the 13-HPOT and 15-HPEPE yielded higher proportions of α-ketols, as well as the small amounts of cyclopentenones, -12-oxo-10,15-phytodienoic acid and its higher homologue, dihomo--12-oxo-3,6,10,15-phytotetraenoic acid, respectively. Thus, the CYP440A18 enzyme exhibited dual EAS/AOS activity. The obtained results allowed us to ascribe a name " EAS/AOS" (BbEAS/AOS) to this enzyme. BbEAS/AOS is a first CYP74 clan enzyme of Chordata species possessing AOS activity.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms22094737DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8124189PMC
April 2021

The CYP74B and CYP74D divinyl ether synthases possess a side hydroperoxide lyase and epoxyalcohol synthase activities that are enhanced by the site-directed mutagenesis.

Phytochemistry 2020 Nov 11;179:112512. Epub 2020 Sep 11.

Kazan Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics, FRC Kazan Scientific Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 30, Kazan, 420111, Russia. Electronic address:

The CYP74 family of cytochromes P450 includes four enzymes of fatty acid hydroperoxide metabolism: allene oxide synthase (AOS), hydroperoxide lyase (HPL), divinyl ether synthase (DES), and epoxyalcohol synthase (EAS). The present work is concerned with catalytic specificities of three recombinant DESs, namely, the 9-DES (LeDES, CYP74D1) of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), 9-DES (NtDES, CYP74D3) of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), and 13-DES (LuDES, CYP74B16) of flax (Linum usitatissimum), as well as their alterations upon the site-directed mutagenesis. Both LeDES and NtDES converted 9-hydroperoxides of linoleic and α-linolenic acids to divinyl ethers colneleic and colnelenic acids (respectively) with only minorities of HPL and EAS products. In contrast, LeDES and NtDES showed low efficiency towards the linoleate 13-hydroperoxide, affording only the low yield of epoxyalcohols. LuDES exhibited mainly the DES activity towards α-linolenate 13-hydroperoxide (preferred substrate), and HPL activity towards linoleate 13-hydroperoxide, respectively. In contrast, LuDES converted 9-hydroperoxides primarily to the epoxyalcohols. The F291V and A287G mutations within the I-helix groove region (SRS-4) of LuDES resulted in the loss of DES activity and the acquirement of the epoxyalcohol synthase activity. Thus, the studied enzymes exhibited the versatility of catalysis and its qualitative alterations upon the site-directed mutagenesis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phytochem.2020.112512DOI Listing
November 2020

Epoxyalcohol synthase activity of the CYP74B enzymes of higher plants.

Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Biol Lipids 2020 09 25;1865(9):158743. Epub 2020 May 25.

Kazan Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics, FRC Kazan Scientific Center of RAS, P.O. Box 30, 420111 Kazan, Russia. Electronic address:

The CYP74B subfamily of fatty acid hydroperoxide transforming cytochromes P450 includes the most common plant enzymes. All CYP74Bs studied yet except the CYP74B16 (flax divinyl ether synthase, LuDES) and the CYP74B33 (carrot allene oxide synthase, DcAOS) are 13-hydroperoxide lyases (HPLs, synonym: hemiacetal synthases). The results of present work demonstrate that additional products (except the HPL products) of fatty acid hydroperoxides conversion by the recombinant StHPL (CYP74B3, Solanum tuberosum), MsHPL (CYP74B4v1, Medicago sativa), and CsHPL (CYP74B6, Cucumis sativus) are epoxyalcohols. MsHPL, StHPL, and CsHPL converted the 13-hydroperoxides of linoleic (13-HPOD) and α-linolenic acids (13-HPOT) primarily to the chain cleavage products. The minor by-products of 13-HPOD and 13-HPOT conversions by these enzymes were the oxiranyl carbinols, 11-hydroxy-12,13-epoxy-9-octadecenoic and 11-hydroxy-12,13-epoxy-9,15-octadecadienoic acid. At the same time, all enzymes studied converted 9-hydroperoxides into corresponding oxiranyl carbinols with HPL by-products. Thus, the results showed the additional epoxyalcohol synthase activity of studied CYP74B enzymes. The 13-HPOD conversion reliably resulted in smaller yields of the HPL products and bigger yields of the epoxyalcohols compared to the 13-HPOT transformation. Overall, the results show the dualistic HPL/EAS behaviour of studied CYP74B enzymes, depending on hydroperoxide isomerism and unsaturation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbalip.2020.158743DOI Listing
September 2020

Catalysis by allene oxide synthases (CYP74A and CYP74C): Alterations by the Phe/Leu mutation at the SRS-1 region.

Phytochemistry 2020 Jan 10;169:112152. Epub 2019 Oct 10.

Kazan Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics, FRC Kazan Scientific Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 30, Kazan, 420111, Russia. Electronic address:

The CYP74 family of cytochromes P450 includes four fatty acid hydroperoxide metabolizing enzymes: allene oxide synthase (AOS), hydroperoxide lyase (HPL), divinyl ether synthase, and epoxyalcohol synthase (EAS). All P450s have six substrate recognition sites (SRSs) in their structures. Some CYP74 mutations in SRSs leading to their interconversions including substitutions in "F/L toggle" (SRS-1 region) were reported before. For further elucidation of the role of this site in CYP74 catalysis, the effect of Phe/Leu mutation on the specificity of selected AOSs was studied in the present work. Mutant forms of ZmAOS1 (CYP74A19, Zea mays), LeAOS3 (CYP74C3, Lycopersicon esculentum), and PpAOS2 (CYP74A8, Physcomitrella patens) acquired partial EAS activity. Mutant forms of ZmAOS1 and PpAOS2 possessed additional HPL activities. The results validate the significance of the "F/L toggle" as a catalytic determinant of CYP74s, as well as the importance of the conserved Phe at this site for the AOS catalysis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phytochem.2019.112152DOI Listing
January 2020

Detection of unprecedented allene oxide synthase member of CYP74B subfamily: CYP74B33 of carrot (Daucus carota).

Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Biol Lipids 2019 11 19;1864(11):1580-1590. Epub 2019 Jul 19.

Kazan Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics, FRC Kazan Scientific Center of RAS, P.O. Box 30, 420111, Kazan, Russia. Electronic address:

Enzymes of CYP74 family widespread in higher plants control the metabolism of fatty acid hydroperoxides to numerous bioactive oxylipins. Hydroperoxide lyases (HPLs, synonym: hemiacetal synthases) of CYP74B subfamily belong to the most common CYP74 enzymes. HPLs isomerize the hydroperoxides to the short-lived hemiacetals, which are spontaneously decomposed to aldehydes and aldoacids. All CYP74Bs studied yet except the CYP74B16 (flax divinyl ether synthase, LuDES) possessed the 13-HPL activity. Present work reports the cloning of the expressed CYP74B33 gene of carrot (Daucus carota L.) and studies of catalytic properties of the recombinant CYP74B33 protein. In contrast to all CYP74B proteins studied yet, CYP74B33 behaved differently in few respects. Firstly, the preferred substrates of CYP74B33 are 9-hydroperoxides. Secondly and most importantly, CYP74B33 exhibits the 9-allene oxide synthase (AOS) activity. For example, the 9(S)-hydroperoxide of linoleic acid (9-HPOD) underwent the conversion to α-ketol via the short-lived allene oxide. Uncommonly, the 9-HPOD conversion affords a minority of cis-10-oxo-11-phytoenoic acid, which is also produced by CYP74C but not the CYP74A AOSs. The similar product patterns were observed upon the incubations of CYP74B33 with 9(S)-hydroperoxide of α-linolenic acid. The enzyme possessed a mixed HPL, AOS, and the epoxyalcohol synthase activity toward the 13-hydroperoxides, but the total activity was much lower than toward 9-hydroperoxides. Thus, the obtained results show that CYP74B33 is an unprecedented 9-AOS within the CYP74B subfamily.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbalip.2019.07.004DOI Listing
November 2019

Detection of the first higher plant epoxyalcohol synthase: Molecular cloning and characterisation of the CYP74M2 enzyme of spikemoss Selaginella moellendorffii.

Phytochemistry 2018 Dec 6;156:73-82. Epub 2018 Sep 6.

Kazan Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Russian Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 30, Kazan, 420111, Russia. Electronic address:

The CYP74M2 gene of a model plant, the spikemoss Selaginella moellendorffii Hieron, was cloned and the catalytic properties of corresponding recombinant protein were studied. The recombinant CYP74M2 protein was active towards 13-hydroperoxides of linoleic and a-linolenic acids (13-HPOD and 13-HPOT, respectively). In contrast to previously studied CYP74M1 and CYP74M3, which possessed the divinyl ether synthase activity, CYP74M2 behaved as a dedicated epoxyalcohol synthase (EAS). For instance, the 13-HPOD was converted to three epimeric oxiranyl carbinols 1-3 (formed at a ratio ca. 4:2:1), namely the (11R,12S,13S), (11R,12R, 13S), and (11S,12S,13S) epimers of (9Z)-11-hydroxy-12,13-epoxy-9-octadecenoic acid. Besides these products, a minority of oxiranyl vinyl carbinols like (10E)-11-hydroxy-12,13-epoxy-9-octadecenoic acid was formed. The 13-HPOT conversion by CYP74M2 afforded two stereoisomers of 11-hydroxy-12,13-epoxy-9,15-octadecadienoic acid. Individual oxylipins were purified by HPLC and finally identified by their NMR data, including the H-NMR, 2D-COSY, HSQC, and HMBC. Thus, the CYP74M2 is the dedicated epoxyalcohol synthase. To our knowledge, no enzymes of this type have been detected in higher plants yet.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phytochem.2018.08.010DOI Listing
December 2018

Double function hydroperoxide lyases/epoxyalcohol synthases (CYP74C) of higher plants: identification and conversion into allene oxide synthases by site-directed mutagenesis.

Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Biol Lipids 2018 Apr 8;1863(4):369-378. Epub 2018 Jan 8.

Kazan Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Russian Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 30, Kazan 420111, Russia. Electronic address:

The CYP74C subfamily of fatty acid hydroperoxide transforming enzymes includes hydroperoxide lyases (HPLs) and allene oxide synthases (AOSs). This work reports a new facet of the putative CYP74C HPLs. Initially, we found that the recombinant CYP74C13_MT (Medicago truncatula) behaved predominantly as the epoxyalcohol synthase (EAS) towards the 9(S)-hydroperoxide of linoleic acid. At the same time, the CYP74C13_MT mostly possessed the HPL activity towards the 13(S)-hydroperoxides of linoleic and α-linolenic acids. To verify whether this dualistic behaviour of CYP74C13_MT is occasional or typical, we also examined five similar putative HPLs (CYP74C). These were CYP74C4_ST (Solanum tuberosum), CYP74C2 (Cucumis melo), CYP74C1_CS and CYP74C31 (both of Cucumis sativus), and CYP74C13_GM (Glycine max). All tested enzymes behaved predominantly as EAS toward 9-hydroperoxide of linoleic acid. Oxiranyl carbinols such as (9S,10S,11S,12Z)-9,10-epoxy-11-hydroxy-12-octadecenoic acids were the major EAS products. Besides, the CYP74C31 possessed an additional minor 9-AOS activity. The mutant forms of CYP74C13_MT, CYP74C1_CS, and CYP74C31 with substitutions at the catalytically essential domains, namely the "hydroperoxide-binding domain" (I-helix), or the SRS-1 domain near the N-terminus, showed strong AOS activity. These HPLs to AOSs conversions were observed for the first time. Until now a large part of CYP74C enzymes has been considered as 9/13-HPLs. Notwithstanding, these results show that all studied putative CYP74C HPLs are in fact the versatile HPL/EASs that can be effortlessly mutated into specific AOSs.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbalip.2018.01.002DOI Listing
April 2018

Identification of CYP443D1 (CYP74 clan) of Nematostella vectensis as a first cnidarian epoxyalcohol synthase and insights into its catalytic mechanism.

Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Biol Lipids 2017 Oct 1;1862(10 Pt A):1099-1109. Epub 2017 Aug 1.

Kazan Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Russian Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 30, Kazan 420111, Russia. Electronic address:

The CYP74 clan enzymes are responsible for the biosynthesis of numerous bioactive oxylipins in higher plants, some Proteobacteria, brown and green algae, and Metazoa. A novel putative CYP74 clan gene CYP443D1 of the starlet sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis, Cnidaria) has been cloned, and the properties of the corresponding recombinant protein have been studied in the present work. The recombinant CYP443D1 was incubated with the 9- and 13-hydroperoxides of linoleic and α-linolenic acids (9-HPOD, 13-HPOD, 9-HPOT, and 13-HPOT, respectively), as well as with the 9-hydroperoxide of γ-linolenic acid (γ-9-HPOT) and 15-hydroperoxide of eicosapentaenoic acid (15-HPEPE). The enzyme was active towards all C-hydroperoxides with some preference to 9-HPOD. In contrast, 15-HPEPE was a poor substrate. The CYP443D1 specifically converted 9-HPOD into the oxiranyl carbinol 1, (9S,10R,11S,12Z)-9,10-epoxy-11-hydroxy-12-octadecenoic acid. Both O atoms from [O-hydroperoxy]9-HPOD were virtually quantitatively incorporated into product 1. Thus, the CYP443D1 exhibited epoxyalcohol synthase (EAS) activity. The O labelling data demonstrated that the reaction mechanism included three sequential steps: (1) hydroperoxyl homolysis, (2) oxy radical rearrangement into epoxyallylic radical, (3) hydroxyl rebound, resulting in oxiranyl carbinol formation. The 9-HPOT and γ-9-HPOT were also specifically converted into the oxiranyl carbinols, 15,16- and 6,7-dehydro analogues of compound 1, respectively. The 13-HPOD was converted into erythro- and threo-isomers of oxiranyl carbinol, as well as oxiranyl vinyl carbinols. The obtained results allow assignment of the name "N. vectensis EAS" (NvEAS) to CYP443D1. The NvEAS is a first EAS detected in Cnidaria.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbalip.2017.07.015DOI Listing
October 2017

NMR structure, conformational dynamics, and biological activity of PsDef1 defensin from Pinus sylvestris.

Biochim Biophys Acta Proteins Proteom 2017 Aug 17;1865(8):1085-1094. Epub 2017 May 17.

Department of Physics and Optical Science, University of North Carolina, 9201 University City Blvd., Charlotte, NC 28223, USA; Center for Biomedical Engineering and Science, University of North Carolina, 9201 University City Blvd., Charlotte, NC 28223, USA. Electronic address:

Plants have developed a complex defense response system against pests and pathogens. Defensins, produced by plants as part of their innate immune response, form the family of small, basic, cysteine-rich proteins with activity primarily directed against fungal pathogens. In addition, plant defensins can show antibacterial activity and protease and insect amylase inhibitory activities. However, in gymnosperms, only antifungal activity of defensins has been described thus far. Here, we report antibacterial and insect α-amylase inhibition activities for defensin PsDef1 from P. sylvestris, the first defensin from gymnosperms with a broad range of biological activities described. We also report the solution NMR structure of PsDef1 and its dynamics properties assessed by a combination of experimental NMR and computational techniques. Collectively, our data provide an insight into structure, dynamics, and functional properties of PsDef1 that could be common between defensins from this taxonomic group.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbapap.2017.05.012DOI Listing
August 2017

Epoxyalcohol synthase of Ectocarpus siliculosus. First CYP74-related enzyme of oxylipin biosynthesis in brown algae.

Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Biol Lipids 2017 Feb 15;1862(2):167-175. Epub 2016 Nov 15.

Kazan Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Russian Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 30, Kazan 420111, Russia. Electronic address:

Enzymes of CYP74 family play the central role in the biosynthesis of physiologically important oxylipins in land plants. Although a broad diversity of oxylipins is known in the algae, no CYP74s or related enzymes have been detected in brown algae yet. Cloning of the first CYP74-related gene CYP5164B1 of brown alga Ectocarpus siliculosus is reported in present work. The recombinant protein was incubated with several fatty acid hydroperoxides. Linoleic acid 9-hydroperoxide (9-HPOD) was the preferred substrate, while linoleate 13-hydroperoxide (13-HPOD) was less efficient. α-Linolenic acid 9- and 13-hydroperoxides, as well as eicosapentaenoic acid 15-hydroperoxide were inefficient substrates. Both 9-HPOD and 13-HPOD were converted into epoxyalcohols. For instance, 9-HPOD was turned primarily into (9S,10S,11S,12Z)-9,10-epoxy-11-hydroxy-12-octadecenoic acid. Both epoxide and hydroxyl oxygen atoms of the epoxyalcohol were incorporated mostly from [O]9-HPOD. Thus, the enzyme exhibits the activity of epoxyalcohol synthase (EsEAS). The results show that the EsEAS isomerizes the hydroperoxides into epoxyalcohols via epoxyallylic radical, a common intermediate of different CYP74s and related enzymes. EsEAS can be considered as an archaic prototype of CYP74 family enzymes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbalip.2016.11.007DOI Listing
February 2017

Oxylipin biosynthesis in spikemoss Selaginella moellendorffii: Molecular cloning and identification of divinyl ether synthases CYP74M1 and CYP74M3.

Biochim Biophys Acta 2016 Apr 9;1861(4):301-9. Epub 2016 Jan 9.

Kazan Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Russian Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 30, Kazan 420111, Russia. Electronic address:

Nonclassical P450s of CYP74 family control the secondary conversions of fatty acid hydroperoxides to bioactive oxylipins in plants. At least ten genes attributed to four novel CYP74 subfamilies have been revealed by the recent sequencing of the spikemoss Selaginella moellendorffii Hieron genome. Two of these genes CYP74M1 and CYP74M3 have been cloned in the present study. Both recombinant proteins CYP74M1 and CYP74M3 were active towards the 13(S)-hydroperoxides of α-linolenic and linoleic acids (13-HPOT and 13-HPOD, respectively) and exhibited the activity of divinyl ether synthase (DES). Products were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Individual oxylipins were purified by HPLC and finally identified by their NMR data, including the (1)H NMR, 2D-COSY, HSQC and HMBC. CYP74M1 (SmDES1) specifically converted 13-HPOT to (11Z)-etherolenic acid and 13-HPOD to (11Z)-etheroleic acid. CYP74M3 (SmDES2) turned 13-HPOT and 13-HPOD mainly to etherolenic and etheroleic acids, respectively. CYP74M1 and CYP74M3 are the first DESs detected in non-flowering plants. The obtained results demonstrate the existence of the sophisticated oxylipin biosynthetic machinery in the oldest taxa of vascular plants.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbalip.2016.01.001DOI Listing
April 2016

Structure of Scots pine defensin 1 by spectroscopic methods and computational modeling.

Int J Biol Macromol 2016 Mar 11;84:142-52. Epub 2015 Dec 11.

Department of Physics and Optical Science and Center for Biomedical Engineering and Science, University of North Carolina, Charlotte, NC, USA. Electronic address:

Defensins are part of the innate immune system in plants with activity against a broad range of pathogens, including bacteria, fungi and viruses. Several defensins from conifers, including Scots pine defensin 1 (Pinus sylvestris defensin 1, (PsDef1)) have shown a strong antifungal activity, however structural and physico-chemical properties of the family, needed for establishing the structure-dynamics-function relationships, remain poorly characterized. We use several spectroscopic and computational methods to characterize the structure, dynamics, and oligomeric state of PsDef1. The three-dimensional structure was modeled by comparative modeling using several programs (Geno3D, SWISS-MODEL, I-TASSER, Phyre(2), and FUGUE) and verified by circular dichroism (CD) and infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Furthermore, FTIR data indicates that the structure of PsDef1 is highly resistant to high temperatures. NMR diffusion experiments show that defensin exists in solution in the equilibrium between monomers and dimers. Four types of dimers were constructed using the HADDOCK program and compared to the known dimer structures of other plant defensins. Gaussian network model was used to characterize the internal dynamics of PsDef1 in monomer and dimer states. PsDef1 is a typical representative of P. sylvestris defensins and hence the results of this study are applicable to other members of the family.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2015.12.011DOI Listing
March 2016

Stereospecific biosynthesis of (9S,13S)-10-oxo-phytoenoic acid in young maize roots.

Biochim Biophys Acta 2015 Sep 22;1851(9):1262-70. Epub 2015 May 22.

Kazan Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Russian Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 30, Kazan, 420111 Russia. Electronic address:

Profiling of oxylipins from young maize roots revealed complex patterns of products mainly originating from the combined actions of 9- and 13-lipoxygenases and allene oxide synthase (AOS). A distinctive feature was the high content of the cyclopentenone 10-oxo-11-phytoenoic acid (10-oxo-PEA). Incubations with [1-14C]linoleic acid led to the formation of the α-ketols 13-hydroxy-12-oxo-9-octadecenoic acid and 9-hydroxy-10-oxo-12-octadecenoic acid as well as the cyclopentenones 12-oxo-10-phytoenoic acid (12-oxo-PEA) and 10-oxo-PEA in a ratio of 10:2:1:3. Chiral phase radio-HPLC showed that the labeled 10-oxo-PEA was mainly (93%) due to the 9S,13S-enantiomer, whereas 12-oxo-PEA was racemic. Recombinant maize AOS CYP74A19 (ZmAOS2) converted linoleic acid 9(S)-hydroperoxide (9-HPOD) into an allene oxide, 9,10-epoxy-10,12-octadecadienoic acid (9,10-EOD), which did not undergo cyclization but was solely hydrolyzed into the α-ketol. A cyclase activity promoting the conversion of 9,10-EOD into (9S,13S)-10-oxo-PEA was detected in the 10(5)×g supernatant prepared by differential centrifugation of the maize root homogenate. The data obtained suggested the existence of a new type of allene oxide cyclase, which is active towards an allene oxide formed from a 9-lipoxygenase-derived hydroperoxide.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbalip.2015.05.004DOI Listing
September 2015

Detection and molecular cloning of CYP74Q1 gene: identification of Ranunculus acris leaf divinyl ether synthase.

Biochim Biophys Acta 2014 Sep 24;1841(9):1227-33. Epub 2014 May 24.

Kazan Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Russian Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 30, 420111 Kazan, Russia. Electronic address:

Enzymes of the CYP74 family, including the divinyl ether synthase (DES), play important roles in plant cell signalling and defence. The potent DES activities have been detected before in the leaves of the meadow buttercup (Ranunculus acris L.) and few other Ranunculaceae species. The nature of these DESs and their genes remained unrevealed. The PCR with degenerate primers enabled to detect the transcript of unknown P450 gene assigned as CYP74Q1. Besides, two more CYP74Q1 isoforms with minimal sequence variations have been found. The full length recombinant CYP74Q1 protein was expressed in Escherichia coli. The preferred substrates of this enzyme are the 13-hydroperoxides of α-linolenic and linoleic acids, which are converted to the divinyl ether oxylipins (ω5Z)-etherolenic acid, (9Z,11E)-12-[(1'Z,3'Z)-hexadienyloxy]-9,11-dodecadienoic acid, and (ω5Z)-etheroleic acid, (9Z,11E)-12-[(1'Z)-hexenyloxy]-9,11-dodecadienoic acid, respectively, as revealed by the data of mass spectrometry, NMR and UV spectroscopy. Thus, CYP74Q1 protein was identified as the R. acris DES (RaDES), a novel DES type and the opening member of new CYP74Q subfamily.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbalip.2014.05.005DOI Listing
September 2014

Structure-function relationship in the CYP74 family: conversion of divinyl ether synthases into allene oxide synthases by site-directed mutagenesis.

FEBS Lett 2013 Aug 2;587(16):2552-8. Epub 2013 Jul 2.

Kazan Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Russian Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 30, Kazan 420111, Russia.

Non-classical P450s of CYP74 family control several enzymatic conversions of fatty acid hydroperoxides to bioactive oxylipins in plants, some invertebrates and bacteria. The family includes two dehydrases, namely allene oxide synthase (AOS) and divinyl ether synthase (DES), and two isomerases, hydroperoxide lyase (HPL) and epoxyalcohol synthase. To study the interconversion of different CYP74 enzymes, we prepared the mutant forms V379F and E292G of tobacco (CYP74D3) and flax (CYP74B16) divinyl ether synthases (DESs), respectively. In contrast to the wild type (WT) enzymes, both mutant forms lacked DES activity. Instead, they produced the typical AOS products, α-ketols and (in the case of the flax DES mutant) 12-oxo-10,15-phytodienoic acid. This is the first demonstration of DES into AOS conversions caused by single point mutations.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.febslet.2013.06.030DOI Listing
August 2013

Green leaf divinyl ether synthase: gene detection, molecular cloning and identification of a unique CYP74B subfamily member.

Biochim Biophys Acta 2012 Feb 23;1821(2):287-94. Epub 2011 Nov 23.

Kazan Institute of Biochemisty and Biophysics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Lobachevsky Street 2/31, P.O. Box 30, 420111 Kazan, Russia.

Enzymes of the CYP74 family (P450 superfamily) play a key role in the plant lipoxygenase signalling cascade. Recently we detected a pathogen inducible divinyl ether synthase (DES) in flax leaves [Chechetkin, Blufard, Hamberg, Grechkin, 2008]. This prompted us to examine the CYP74 genes in the flax leaf transcriptome. Since the flax genome is not sequenced, we used the PCR approach with degenerate primers related to the conserved domains of selected CYP74 genes; this revealed several CYP74 transcripts in flax leaves. One transcript belongs to the previously described allene oxide synthase (LuAOS, CYP74A, GenBank ID: U00428.1). Another one contains the ORF (1473 bp) of an unknown CYP74B16 gene. Three more nearly identical sequences, including one expressed pseudogene, were also identified. The recombinant CYP74B16 protein expressed in Escherichia coli had 491 amino acid residues and MW of 56 kDa. The preferred substrate of this enzyme is the 13-hydroperoxide of α-linolenic acid, and the reaction product was identified by mass spectrometry, NMR and UV spectroscopy as the divinyl ether (9Z,11E)-12-[(1'Z,3'Z)-hexadienyloxy]-9,11-dodecadienoic acid, (ω5Z)-etherolenic acid. All previously known CYP74B subfamily enzymes are hydroperoxide lyases. The novel flax enzyme CYP74B16 (LuDES) is an unprecedented DES member of the CYP74B subfamily.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbalip.2011.11.003DOI Listing
February 2012

Novel allene oxide synthase products formed via Favorskii-type rearrangement: mechanistic implications for 12-oxo-10,15-phytodienoic acid biosynthesis.

Chembiochem 2011 Nov 16;12(16):2511-7. Epub 2011 Sep 16.

Kazan Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Kazan, Russia.

The allene oxide synthase (AOS) pathway is widespread in plants. Its products, such as cyclopentenone 12-oxo-10,15-phytodienoic acid (12-oxo-PDA) and related jasmonates, play important biological roles in plants. We found that 12-oxo-PDA in some plant tissues co-occur with an unknown minor oxylipin 1. In vitro incubations of AOSs with α-linolenic acid 13(S)-hydroperoxide reliably afforded 1 along with 12-oxo-PDA and α-ketol. A similar oxylipin 3 was formed during the AOS conversions of γ-linolenic acid 9(S)-hydroperoxide. Linoleic acid hydroperoxides formed neither products similar to 1 and 3 nor cyclopentenones. Oxylipins 1 and 3 were purified and identified as the products of Favorskii-type rearrangement, (2'Z,4Z)-2-(2'-pentenyl)-4-tridecene-1,13-dioic acid and (2'Z,4Z)-2-(2'-octenyl)-4-decene-1,10-dioic acid, respectively. Detection of Favorskii products 1 and 3 demonstrates that cyclopropanones are short-lived AOS products along with allene oxides. The observed parallels between the Favorskii product 1 and 12-oxo-PDA formation suggests that cyclopropanone is either a byproduct or a precursor of 12-oxo-PDA.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cbic.201100346DOI Listing
November 2011

Determinants governing the CYP74 catalysis: conversion of allene oxide synthase into hydroperoxide lyase by site-directed mutagenesis.

FEBS Lett 2008 Oct 18;582(23-24):3423-8. Epub 2008 Sep 18.

Kazan Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Russian Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 30, 420111 Kazan, Russia.

Bioinformatics analyses enabled us to identify the hypothetical determinants of catalysis by CYP74 family enzymes. To examine their recognition, two mutant forms F295I and S297A of tomato allene oxide synthase LeAOS3 (CYP74C3) were prepared by site-directed mutagenesis. Both mutations dramatically altered the enzyme catalysis. Both mutant forms possessed the activity of hydroperoxide lyase, while the allene oxide synthase activity was either not detectable (F295I) or significantly reduced (S297A) compared to the wild-type LeAOS3. Thus, both sites 295 and 297 localized within the "I-helix central domain" ("oxygen binding domain") are the primary determinants of CYP74 type of catalysis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.febslet.2008.09.005DOI Listing
October 2008

Tomato CYP74C3 is a multifunctional enzyme not only synthesizing allene oxide but also catalyzing its hydrolysis and cyclization.

Chembiochem 2008 Oct;9(15):2498-505

Kazan Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Kazan, Russia.

The mechanism of the recombinant tomato allene oxide synthase (LeAOS3, CYP74C3) was studied. Incubations of linoleic acid (9S)-hydroperoxide with dilute suspensions of LeAOS3 (10-20 s, 0 degrees C) yield mostly the expected allene oxide (12Z)-9,10-epoxy-10,12-octadecadienoic acid (9,10-EOD), which was detected as its methanol-trapping product. In contrast, the relative yield of 9,10-EOD progressively decreased when the incubations were performed with fourfold, tenfold, or 80-fold larger amounts of LeAOS3, while alpha-ketol and the cyclopentenone rac-cis-10-oxo-11-phytoenoic acid (10-oxo-PEA) became the predominant products. Both the alpha-ketol and 10-oxo-PEA were also produced when LeAOS3 was exposed to preformed 9,10-EOD, which was generated by maize allene oxide synthase (CYP74A). LeAOS3 also converted linoleic acid (13S)-hydroperoxide into the corresponding allene oxide, but with about tenfold lower yield of cyclopentenone. The results indicate that in contrast to the ordinary allene oxide synthases (CYP74A subfamily), LeAOS3 (CYP74C subfamily) is a multifunctional enzyme, catalyzing not only the synthesis, but also the hydrolysis and cyclization of allene oxide.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cbic.200800331DOI Listing
October 2008