Publications by authors named "Yana Cavanagh"

11 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

A Case of a gastropancreatic fistula in the setting of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms.

Radiol Case Rep 2022 Aug 11;17(8):2874-2877. Epub 2022 Jun 11.

St. Joseph's University Medical Center, Department of Gastroenterology, 703 Main Street, Paterson, NJ 07503 USA.

Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMN) are mucin producing tumors which arise from epithelial cells of the main pancreatic duct, pancreatic branch ducts, or both. They are characterized by mucin-producing columnar cells, papillary ductal proliferation, cyst formation, and varying degrees of dysplasia. IPMNs are classified as main duct or branch duct based upon the pancreatic duct anatomy which the IPMN is arising from. Additionally, they can be classified based on their histologic subtypes, which carry varying associations with dysplasia and/or malignancy. Many patients have incidentally identified IPMNs, which are asymptomatic. However, patients may also present with pancreatitis, elevation of liver enzymes, dilation of the pancreatic duct or bile duct as well as distention of the ampullary pancreatic orifice(s), due to impaction and obstruction with mucus. This is known as an endoscopically visualized "fish eye" sign. Patients may also develop exocrine and endocrine pancreatic insufficiency and maldigestion. Some studies also suggest that patients with IPMNs may also be at increased risk for gastric, colorectal, biliary, renal cell, and thyroid malignancies. Rarely, IPMNs can be complicated by fistulation between the main pancreatic duct and neighboring organs. Herein, we present an unusual case of simultaneous fistulation to both the gastric body and the duodenum.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.radcr.2022.05.046DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9198267PMC
August 2022

Isolated IgG4 Autoimmune Cholangitis in the Absence of Pancreatitis.

Cureus 2022 Mar 1;14(3):e22754. Epub 2022 Mar 1.

Interventional Gastroenterology, St. Joseph's Regional Medical Center, Paterson, USA.

The IgG4-related disease is an uncommon immune-mediated condition affecting multiple organ systems concomitantly; however, it is very rare for a patient to have isolated IgG4 autoimmune cholangitis or IgG4-related disease confined to the hepatobiliary system. The majority of cases are associated with pancreatitis and are incidentally discovered in the workup of acute or chronic pancreatitis. When it affects the hepatobiliary system, it develops as inflammatory fibrosclerosing cholangitis, which can mimic other hepatobiliary diseases such as primary sclerosing cholangitis. Herein, we present a case of type 1 IgG4 autoimmune cholangitis in the absence of pancreatitis. Our case is particularly unique because type 1 is the most common type associated with autoimmune pancreatitis; however, our patient had type 1 without any evidence of pancreatic involvement. Additionally, like most cases of isolated IgG4 autoimmune cholangitis, our patient was refractory to standard therapy. This case highlights the clinical significance, rarity and severity of isolated IgG4 autoimmune cholangitis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.22754DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8970977PMC
March 2022

Perivesicular Abscess Drainage with Lumen-Apposing Self-Expanding Metal Stents.

Middle East J Dig Dis 2020 Jul;12(3):206-210

Department of Medicine, St. Joseph's University Medical Center, Paterson NJ, USA.

Abdominal and pelvic abscesses can occur due to a number of reasons, the most common being surgery. They are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The treatment approach for these types of collections is often the initiation of broad-spectrum antibiotics, accompanied by drainage. Multiple diagnostic and therapeutic modalities have been described, including; percutaneous, transvaginal, endoscopic, and surgicaldrainage. Due to the complexity of pelvic anatomy, minimally invasive approaches such as percutaneous drainage are usually difficult. Pelvic abscesses have been historically drained through surgery. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided interventions have emerged as an alternative for the management of difficult abdominal and pelvic abscesses. Endoscopic interventions have classically included diagnostic and therapeutic aspiration, utilizing drainage catheters with or without placement of plastic stents. More recently, the use of lumen apposing self-expanding metal stents has become a treatment option for deep pelvic abscesses. Lumen opposing metal stents (LAMS) have a saddle-shaped design with two large-diameter flanges on both ends of the stent to anchor the stent edges within the respective lumens as well asa central waist that allows for communication between the two lumens. LAMS were originally designed for transmural pancreatic fluid collection drainage; however,they have been successfully implemented for numerous other off-label uses, including the drainage of pelvic and abdominal abscesses. We present the case of a 34-year-old womanwho presented with a septated abscess located between the urinary bladder and the rectum, which was successfully and definitively drained with LAMS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.34172/mejdd.2020.183DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7548090PMC
July 2020

Hybrid Argon Plasma Coagulation for Treatment of Gastric Intestinal Metaplasia.

Cureus 2020 Mar 26;12(3):e7427. Epub 2020 Mar 26.

Interventional Gastroenterology, St. Joseph's University Medical Center, Paterson, USA.

Hybrid argon plasma coagulation (HybridAPC® [HAPC]) is an evolution of the standard argon plasma coagulation (APC) technology, where the application of APC is preceded by high-pressure needleless submucosal injection. APC is indicated for the ablation of benign and dysplastic mucosal lesions, such as vascular malformations or Barrett's mucosa. HAPC offers safety and efficacy advantages over standard APC because the submucosal injection acts as a heat sink that disperses energy. This ensures that the underlying muscularis propria remains unaffected, and only the mucosal layer is coagulated in its entirety. An 81-year-old Hispanic male was found to have a 1.2-cm mucosal nodule along the incisura of the stomach. Pathology of the biopsy specimen revealed high-grade dysplasia, and he subsequently underwent endoscopic ultrasound examination, which confirmed the presence of an isolated gastric nodule with no deep invasion of the muscularis propria, consistent with a uT1N0Mx endosonographic staging. He then underwent endoscopic submucosal dissection of the lesion. Pathology of the excised specimen confirmed the presence of multifocal high-grade dysplasia, arising in the background of extensive intestinal metaplasia. The deep margin was clear; however, the lateral resection margins showed focal involvement of intestinal metaplasia with low-grade dysplasia. Surveillance endoscopy confirmed the persistence of diffuse intestinal metaplasia. He was then treated with widespread HAPC due to the presence of underlying diffuse intestinal metaplasia in the stomach. HAPC is an effective and efficient treatment modality for mucosal lesions. In one series of 50 patients, 96% achieved complete macroscopic remission of Barrett's mucosa after a median of 3.5 APC sessions, and 85% achieved complete histological remission. HAPC is a promising therapeutic modality as a thermal injury is targeted, and the depth of injury is contained. This provides immediate procedural efficacy and safety benefits, and reduces subsequent complications when compared with standard APC. We anticipate that the applications of HAPC will continue to grow, as this modality is adopted into common procedural parlance. This case appears to be the first to describe the use of HAPC for definitive treatment of diffuse intestinal metaplasia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.7427DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7182158PMC
March 2020

Upper Gastrointestinal Crohn's Disease: Literature Review and Case Presentation.

Case Rep Gastrointest Med 2019 20;2019:2708909. Epub 2019 May 20.

Department of Gastroenterology, St. Joseph's University Medical Center, Paterson, New Jersey, USA.

Upper gastrointestinal tract predominant Crohn's Disease (CD) remains an elusive clinical entity, manifesting limited or vague symptomatology, eluding clinical suspicion, and delaying subsequent diagnostic evaluation. As a result, it has not been widely described and there is a lack of clear recommendations for diagnosis or management. Standard IBD evaluation including serologic testing, imaging, and endoscopy may initially not be fruitful. Furthermore, endoscopic evaluation may be grossly normal in patients without long standing-disease. We describe an 18-year-old male who presented with only unexplained, persistent iron-deficiency anemia. Extensive outpatient testing including multiple endoscopic evaluations with standard biopsies was unfruitful. Ultimately, a positive fecal calprotectin prompted enteroscopy with endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) in an effort to obtain a larger, deeper tissue specimen. Grossly cobblestoned mucosa along with histopathology revealing focal crypt abscesses, chronic inflammation in the lamina propria, and superficial foveolar epithelial regenerative changes were consistent with CD. This patient's case illustrates the need for a high degree of suspicion for CD in patients with unexplained or persistent iron deficiency anemias. Persistent investigation yielded an elevation in fecal calprotectin suggesting underlying gastrointestinal inflammation and prompted advanced endoscopic evaluation with EMR. Waxing and waning tissue findings are characteristic of CD and pose a unique challenge in patients with upper gastrointestinal predominant pathology. As such, diligent workup including laboratory evaluation, imaging, and serial endoscopy is critical to establish pathology and dictate subsequent management in IBD, especially upper gastrointestinal tract predominant CD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2019/2708909DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6545755PMC
May 2019

Pancreatic Solid Pseudopapillary Tumor Associated with Elevated DHEA and Testosterone.

Case Rep Gastrointest Med 2019 28;2019:8128376. Epub 2019 Mar 28.

Department of Gastroenterology, St. Joseph's University Medical Center-New York Medical College, USA.

Solid pseudopapillary neoplasms (SPN) of the pancreas are extremely rare epithelial tumors with low malignant potential. They account for only 1-2% of pancreatic lesions. These masses often go unnoticed and when they become symptomatic it is often due to mass effect on neighboring structures. We encountered an unusual presentation in a healthy 34-year-old female who was found to have elevated dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and testosterone levels during the evaluation of irregular menses. Subsequent abdominal imaging revealed an enhancing 2.7 cm pancreatic tail mass that was concerning for a pancreatic neoplasm. The patient underwent endoscopic ultrasound which confirmed the presence of a hypoechoic, 2.3 x 1.7 cm mass in the pancreatic tail. An intact interface was seen between the mass and adjacent structures, suggesting the absence of local invasion. Fine needle biopsy was performed and cytology was consistent with SPN. The patient later underwent curative distal pancreatectomy, with subsequent normalization of her menses. SPN are generally inactive on laboratory screening modalities (i.e., AFP, CEA, CA 19-9, and CA 125) and our patient showed no evidence of pancreatic insufficiency, pancreatic parenchymal injury, abnormal liver function, or cholestasis. Similarly to our patient, most SPN are asymptomatic. One retrospective study (spanning 15 years) reported vague abdominal pain in ~70% of patients, on initial presentation. Symptoms of tumor mass effect were the second most common. To our knowledge, this is the first reported presentation of elevated DHEA and testosterone levels associated with a solid pseudopapillary tumor in the absence of an underlying adrenal lesion or dysfunction. Despite extensive workup, no alternate etiology or correlatable medical condition could be elucidated for our patient's hormonal dysregulation. We, therefore, recommend further review and investigation into this potential correlative relationship in an effort to guide the future diagnosis and management of this unusual neoplasm.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2019/8128376DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6458863PMC
March 2019

Acute Gastric Volvulus Causing Splenic Avulsion and Hemoperitoneum.

Case Rep Gastrointest Med 2018 1;2018:2961063. Epub 2018 Apr 1.

Department of Gastroenterology, New York Medical College at St. Joseph's Regional Medical Center, Paterson, NJ, USA.

Gastric volvulus is an abnormal, potentially life-threatening, torsion of the stomach. The presence of complications such as hemoperitoneum increases the diagnostic urgency; however it can also mask the presentation of gastric volvulus. We encountered a 66-year-old female who presented with symptomatic gastric outlet obstruction and was found to have hemoperitoneum and splenic avulsion on imaging. In our case, hemoperitoneum was a clinical red herring as initial imaging concentrated on the presence of hemoperitoneum and was nondiagnostic of gastric volvulus. Interestingly, our patient experienced complete resolution of her presenting symptomatology following placement of a nasogastric tube. Furthermore, endoscopic evaluation revealed no overt pathology to explain outlet obstruction. In light of these findings, gastric torsion was strongly suspected. A repeat CT scan was confirmatory, elucidated reduction of the stomach to its anatomic position, retroactively diagnosing a gastric volvulus. This case is unusual in its presentation and setting. The patient presented with two rare complications of gastric volvulus, hemoperitoneum and splenic avulsion. Additionally, ten years prior to this presentation the patient had a temporary gastrostomy tube. Gastropexy with a gastrostomy is the treatment for gastric volvulus and should have been preventative of her presentation with torsion. Furthermore, the gastric volvulus was not initially recognized radiographically due to the presence of masking radiographic findings. This case serves to highlight the utility of clinical acumen and maintain a high index of suspicion for gastric volvulus in all cases presenting with Borchardt's triad.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2018/2961063DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5899864PMC
April 2018

Pancreatic Lesion: Malignancy or Abscess?

Am J Case Rep 2016 May 18;17:337-9. Epub 2016 May 18.

Department of Gastroenterology, Saint Joseph Medical Center, Paterson, NJ, USA.

Background: Pancreatic abscesses are rare. They may be seen in patients with pancreatic inflammation or pancreatitis. Patients with pancreatic abscesses may have abdominal pain, fever, chills, and nausea/vomiting or an inability to eat. Presentation with alternate symptomatology is extremely unusual.

Case Report: A 67-year-old Asian male presented with painless, afebrile obstructive jaundice and a CA 19-9 of 1732 IU. He was found to have a 3.1×2.4 cm low-density lesion in the head of the pancreas and the right lobe of the liver, suggesting malignancy. Surgical management was considered, however additional diagnostic workup, including an endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), was performed to complete staging of the presumed mass. A smooth, 3-cm-long, tapering stricture was found it the common bile duct. It was stented from the common hepatic duct to the duodenum. Subsequent endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) evaluation of the pancreatic head lesion revealed a drainable fluid collection that was aspirated and found to contain pyogenic material on pathology. The patient's symptoms resolved, and he was subsequently managed conservatively. A repeat ERCP confirmed complete resolution of the previously visualized cystic lesion. Interestingly, laboratory values showed concomitant normalization of CA 19-9 to 40 IU.

Conclusions: EUS-guided biopsy is not widely regarded as a required step before surgery, in the management of patients with pancreatic masses. It is generally reserved for determination of resectability or staging, and only utilized when clinically indicated. However, this practice may be associated with an inherently significant risk of misdiagnosis and subsequent unnecessary surgery, as illustrated by this case. Malignancy was initially suspected in our patient and surgical resection was recommended. Endoscopic measures were only pursued to complete staging. We propose that EUS-guided biopsy may be a crucial diagnostic step in the management algorithm of pancreatic lesions in selected patients. In addition, we encourage consideration of nonmalignant pancreatic collections in the differential diagnosis of pancreatic masses, especially when present in patients with diabetes mellitus.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4913726PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.12659/ajcr.895621DOI Listing
May 2016

Pancreaticoureteral Fistula: A Rare Complication of Chronic Pancreatitis.

N Am J Med Sci 2016 Mar;8(3):163-6

Department of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology, St. Joseph's Regional Medical Center, Paterson, New Jersey, USA.

Context: Chronic pancreatitis is an inflammatory condition that may result in progressive parenchymal damage and fibrosis which can ultimately lead to destruction of pancreatic tissue. Fistulas to the pleura, peritoneum, pericardium, and peripancreatic organs may form as a complications of pancreatitis. This case report describes an exceedingly rare complication, pancreaticoureteral fistula (PUF). Only two additional cases of PUF have been reported. However, they evolved following traumatic injury to the ureter or pancreatic duct. No published reports describe PUF as a complication of pancreatitis.

Case Report: A 69-year-old Hispanic female with a past medical history of cholecystectomy, pancreatic pseudocyst, and recurrent episodes of pancreatitis presented with severe, sharp, and constant abdominal pain. Upon imaging, a fistulous tract was visualized between the left renal pelvis (at the level of an upper pole calyx) and the pancreatic duct and a ureteral stent was placed to facilitate fistula closure. Following the procedure, the patient attained symptomatic relief and oral intake was resumed. A left retrograde pyelogram was repeated 2 months after the initial stent placement and demonstrating no evidence of a persistent fistulous tract.

Conclusion: Due to PUF's unclear etiology and possible variance of presentation, it is important for physicians to keep this rare complication of pancreatitis in mind, especially, when evaluating a patient with recurrent pancreatitis, urinary symptoms and abnormal imaging within the urinary collecting system and pancreas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/1947-2714.179134DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4821096PMC
March 2016

Development of hyperplastic polyps following argon plasma coagulation of gastric antral vascular ectasia.

J Nat Sci Biol Med 2015 Jul-Dec;6(2):479-82

Department Gastroenterology, Saint Joseph's Regional Medical Center, NJ, USA ; New York Medical College, NY, USA.

The etiology of gastric antral vascular ectasia (GAVE) syndrome or gastric hyperplastic polyps (HPs) is not fully understood. We report a case of gastric HP arising in a patient treated with argon plasma coagulation (APC) for GAVE syndrome. Despite unclear etiologic progression, this and previously reported cases suggest a temporal relationship between the treatment of GAVE and HP. A 68-year-old male with a history of coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure and diabetes type II who initially presented with symptomatic anemia 2 weeks after starting aspirin and clopidogrel therapy. Diagnostic esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) demonstrated diffuse GAVE. He was treated with 5 APC treatments, at 6-week intervals, over a 30 weeks period. 16 months after the initial APC treatment, an EGD performed secondary to persistent anemia demonstrated innumerable, large, bleeding polyps in the gastric antrum. Biopsy performed at that time confirmed hyperplastic gastric polyps. It has been proposed that HPs are regenerative lesions that arise at sites of severe mucosal injury. Our patient's treatment of GAVE with APC created significant mucosal injury, resulting in HP. Technique and genetic factors may have promoted hyperplastic changes during the regeneration of mucosa, at sites previously treated with APC. This case highlights the potential progression of GAVE to HP in a patient with persistent anemia after APC therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0976-9668.160048DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4518440PMC
August 2015

An unusual initial presentation of hepatocellular carcinoma as a sellar mass.

J Nat Sci Biol Med 2015 Jul-Dec;6(2):471-4

Department of Gastroenterology, St Michael's Medical Center, Newark, NJ, USA.

Sellar masses are frequently adenomatous pituitary tumors. Metastatic disease is unusual, often mimicking the presentations of adenomas. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary hepatic malignancy but unusual to have a pituitary metastasis (PM). A 65-year-old man presented with headache, diplopia, ptosis, decreased vision in the right eye and unintentional weight loss of 32lbs. Preliminary out-patient work-up revealed a mass in the pituitary region. Cranial imaging showed 3.1 cm × 3.2 cm × 4.4 cm lesion. Abdominal imaging (computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging) demonstrated a lobulated, nodular and heterogeneous right lobe of the liver. Trans-sphenoidal resection of the sellar mass favored metastatic HCC on histology. Liver biopsy confirmed HCC. We recommend maintaining an increased clinical suspicion upon evaluation of nonclassical clinical and radiological presentations of suspected PM/malignancy; as well as pursuing additional investigations in all early cases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0976-9668.160045DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4518437PMC
August 2015
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