Publications by authors named "Yan Zhao"

4,298 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Effect of postmastectomy radiotherapy on T1-2N1M0 triple-negative breast cancer.

PLoS One 2022 24;17(6):e0270528. Epub 2022 Jun 24.

Department of Breast Surgery, Sichuan Mianyang 404 Hospital, Mianyang, Sichuan, China.

Background: The effect of postmastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) on T1-2N1M0 triple-negative breast cancers (TNBC) remains unclear. The population-based study aimed to investigate the survival outcomes of T1-2N1M0 TNBC patients who underwent PMRT or not.

Methods: We selected 1743 patients with T1-2N1M0 TNBC who underwent mastectomy between 2010 and 2015 through the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database. After propensity score matching (PSM), the PMRT and no-PMRT groups consisted of 586 matched patients, respectively. The Kaplan-Meier method was applied to calculate breast cancer-specific survival (BCSS) and cox proportional hazard model was used to determine the prognostic factors of T1-2N1M0 TNBC.

Results: The 5-year BCSS for the PMRT and no-PMRT groups was 79.1% and 74.7%, respectively. Analysis showed that in patients with three nodes positive, radiotherapy could significantly improve BCSS (HR = 0.396, 95% CI = 0.175-0.900, P = 0.027), but it brought no significant advantage in BCSS in patients with one or two nodes positive (HR = 1.061, 95% CI = 0.725-1.552, P = 0.761; HR = 0.657, 95% CI = 0.405-1.065, P = 0.088). In addition, PMRT improves the BCSS in TNBC patients with T2 tumor concomitant with three positive lymph nodes (HR = 0.343, 95% CI = 0.132-0.890, P = 0.028).

Conclusion: TNBC patients with T2 tumor concomitant with three positive lymph nodes can benefit from PMRT.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0270528PLOS
June 2022

Surface Growth and Intergranular Separation of Polycrystalline Particles for Regeneration of Stable Single-Crystal Cathode Materials.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2022 Jun 24. Epub 2022 Jun 24.

Faculty of Metallurgy and Energy Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650093, China.

The direct regeneration technology has been developed because of its short-range, high efficiency, and green characteristics. However, the existing direct regeneration method is hardly applied in collaborative reconstruction of the damaged crystal and particle of spent polycrystalline layered materials. The single-crystal regeneration with restructuring the morphology and crystal structure was herein achieved for the first time by low-temperature lithium supplementation followed with high-temperature molten salt conversion, which could effectively solve the structural defects of spent polycrystalline layered materials. We found that the realization of single-crystal regeneration with the molten salt process is attributable to that the original crystal growth of primary particles in the polycrystal transfer to the subsequent division along the grain boundary. At the test conditions of 25 °C and 2.8-4.3 V, the capacity retention capacity of the regenerated single-crystal materials reach 83.3% after 200 cycles at 1 C, which is much higher than 20.0% for conventional direct lithiation regeneration and 61.6% for low-temperature molten salt regeneration. Interestingly, the regenerated single-crystal NCM622 in the graphite full-cell test displays a capacity retention rate of 85.24% after 800 cycles at a rate of 1 C at 2.5-4.35 V. This work opens up a new way for the direct regeneration of spent polycrystalline layered cathode materials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.2c06351DOI Listing
June 2022

Associations of blood pressure components with risks of cardiovascular events and all-cause death in a Chinese population: A Prospective Study.

J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich) 2022 Jun 24. Epub 2022 Jun 24.

Evidence-based Medical Center, Xuanwu Hospital Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

The associations of blood pressure components with cardiovascular risks and death remain unclear, and the definition of wide pulse pressure (PP) is still controversial. Using data from 1257 participants without a history of cardiovascular disease, who were followed for 4.84 years, we performed multivariable Cox regression analyses to assess how systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and PP contribute to risks of cardiovascular events and all-cause death. Among all participants, SBP and PP were significantly associated with the risks of cardiovascular events and all-cause death (all p < .05). DBP was not significantly associated with the risk of all-cause death; rather, it was only associated with a marginally significant 1% increased risk for cardiovascular events (p = 0.051). In participants aged < 65 years, DBP was significantly associated with a 3% increased risk for cardiovascular events (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.03, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 1.01-1.06). The association between PP and cardiovascular events appeared to be J-shaped in comparison to participants with the lowest-risk PP (50-60 mmHg), with adjusted HRs of 1.71 (95% CI: 1.03-2.85), 1.63 (95% CI: 1.00-2.68), and 2.13 (95% CI: 1.32-3.43) in the <50, 60.0-72.5, and ≥72.5 mmHg subgroups, respectively. The optimal cutoff points of a wide PP for predicting the risks of cardiovascular events and all-cause death were 70.25 and 76.25 mmHg, respectively. SBP and PP had a greater effect on cardiovascular risk, whereas DBP independently influenced cardiovascular events in middle-aged participants. Considerable PP alterations should be avoided in antihypertensive treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jch.14529DOI Listing
June 2022

Protective Effect of Mitophagy Regulated by mTOR Signaling Pathway in Liver Fibrosis Associated with Selenium.

Nutrients 2022 Jun 10;14(12). Epub 2022 Jun 10.

Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Health Science Center, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710061, China.

Background: As a central organ of energy metabolism, the liver is closely related to selenium for its normal function and disease development. However, the underlying roles of mitochondrial energy metabolism and mitophagy in liver fibrosis associated with selenium remain unclear.

Methods: 28 rats were randomly divided into normal, low-selenium, nano-selenium supplement-1, and supplement-2 groups for a 12-week intervention. We observed pathological and ultrastructural changes in the liver and analyzed the effects of selenium deficiency and nano-selenium supplementation on liver metabolic activities and crucial proteins expression of mammalian target of the rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway.

Results: Selenium deficiency caused liver pathological damage and fibrosis with the occurrence of mitophagy by disrupting normal metabolic activities; meanwhile, the mTOR signaling pathway was up-regulated to enhance mitophagy to clear damaged mitochondria. Furthermore, nano-selenium supplements could reduce the severity of pathological damage and fibrosis in livers and maintain normal energy metabolic activity. With the increased concentrations of nano-selenium supplement, swelling mitochondria and mitophagy gradually decreased, accompanied by the higher expression of mTOR and phosphorylation-modified mTOR proteins and lower expression of unc-51 like autophagy activating kinase 1 (ULK1) and phosphorylation-modified ULK1 proteins.

Conclusions: Mitophagy regulated by the mTOR signaling pathway plays a dual protective role on low-selenium inducing liver fibrosis and nano-selenium supplements preventing liver fibrosis. Mitochondrial energy metabolism plays an important role in these processes as well.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu14122410DOI Listing
June 2022

Experimental Study on Long-Term Mechanical Properties of Prestressed Glulam Continuous Beams.

Materials (Basel) 2022 Jun 13;15(12). Epub 2022 Jun 13.

Department of Civil Engineering, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040, China.

To study the effect of wood creep on the long-term performance of prestressed glulam continuous beams, a 180-day test was carried out on beams configured with different numbers of steel wires (2, 4, 6) and with different prestress values (0, 7, 14 kN). By investigating the stress loss of the steel wires in the beam and the change in the mid-span deflection over time, the factors influencing the creep of the continuous beam were analyzed. Three models were selected to fit the creep process of the test beams. Moreover, the creep deformation coefficient was introduced to reflect the influence of glulam creep on the deflection change in the test beams and to predict the total deflection of the beam within 50 years. The results showed that with increasing the number of steel wires and the prestress value on the beams, the total stress of the steel wires declined more and faster. Increasing the number of steel wires or decreasing the prestress force value could effectively restrain the change speed of the mid-span long-term deflection of the beam. Three models were compared, and the power-law equation was the most accurate. At familiar steel wire quantities and force levels, the value of the test beams within the design service life of 50 years was determined to be 1.28-2.29.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma15124182DOI Listing
June 2022

Preparation and Properties of Modified Phenylethynyl Terminated Polyimide with Neodymium Oxide.

Materials (Basel) 2022 Jun 10;15(12). Epub 2022 Jun 10.

School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191, China.

Modified phenylethynyl terminated polyimides (PIs) were successfully prepared by using neodymium oxide (NdO) via high-speed stirring and ultrasonic dispersion methods. In addition, the structure and properties of the NdO-modified imide oligomers as well as the thermo-oxidative stability of the modified polyimides (PI/NdO hybrid) and its modification mechanism were investigated in detail. The thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) results indicated that the 5% decomposition temperature (Td5%) of the PI/NdO hybrids improved from 557 °C to 575 °C, which was also verified by the TGA-IR tests. Meanwhile, the weight loss rate of the PI/NdO hybrids significantly decreased by 28% to 31% compared to that of pure PI under isothermal aging at 350 °C for 450 h when the added content of NdO was between 0.4 wt% and 1 wt%, showing outstanding thermo-oxidative stability. Moreover, the mechanism of the enhanced thermo-oxidative stability for the modified PIs was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma15124148DOI Listing
June 2022

Genome-Wide Identification of Switchgrass Laccases Involved in Lignin Biosynthesis and Heavy-Metal Responses.

Int J Mol Sci 2022 Jun 10;23(12). Epub 2022 Jun 10.

Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Energy Genetics, Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266101, China.

Plant laccase genes belong to a multigene family, play key roles in lignin polymerization, and participate in the resistance of plants to biotic and abiotic stresses. Switchgrass is an important resource for forage and bioenergy production, yet information about the switchgrass laccase gene family is scarce. Using bioinformatic approaches, a genome-wide analysis of the laccase multigene family in switchgrass was carried out in this study. In total, 49 laccase genes ( to ) were identified; these can be divided into five subclades, and 20 of them were identified as targets of miR397. The tandem and segmental duplication of laccase genes on Chr05 and Chr08 contributed to the expansion of the laccase family. The laccase proteins shared conserved signature sequences but displayed relatively low sequence similarity, indicating the potential functional diversity of switchgrass laccases. Switchgrass laccases exhibited distinct tissue/organ expression patterns, revealing that some laccases might be involved in the lignification process during stem development. All five of the laccase isoforms selected from different subclades responded to heavy metal. The immediate response of lignin-related laccases, as well as the delayed response of low-abundance laccases, to heavy-metal treatment shed light on the multiple roles of laccase isoforms in response to heavy-metal stress.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms23126530DOI Listing
June 2022

(), a Novel Reduced-Height () Gene in Wheat.

Genes (Basel) 2022 May 30;13(6). Epub 2022 May 30.

State Key Laboratory of Crop Biology, Tai'an 271018, China.

In wheat, a series of dwarf and semi-dwarf plant varieties have been developed and utilized worldwide since the 1960s and caused the 'Green Revolution'. To date, 25 reduced-height () genes have been identified, but only several genes for plant height (PH) have been isolated previously. In this study, we identified a candidate gene, (), for PH via QTL mapping and genome-wide association study (GWAS) methods. We knocked out this gene using the CRISPR/Cas9 system in variety 'Fielder'. Two homozygous mutant genotypes, (-5 bp) and (-1 bp), were obtained in the T generation. The PH values of (-5 bp) and (-1 bp) were significantly reduced compared with the wild-type (WT, 'Fielder'), indicating that is a novel gene that controls the PH. This is the first time that a PH gene of wheat has been isolated with a non-hormone pathway, providing a new insight into the genetic control of PH. The gene reduced the PH without a yield penalty. It could be used to improve the lodging resistance and yield in wheat breeding programs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/genes13060979DOI Listing
May 2022

Vanadium recovery by electrodialysis using polymer inclusion membranes.

J Hazard Mater 2022 Aug 8;436:129315. Epub 2022 Jun 8.

College of Environment and Safety Engineering, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, 53 Zhengzhou Road, Qingdao 266042, China.

Industrial applications and environmental awareness recently prompted vanadium recovery spell from secondary resources. In this work, a polymer inclusion membrane containing trioctylmethylammonium chloride as carrier was successfully employed in electrodialysis for vanadium recovery from acidic sulfate solutions. The permeability coefficient of V(V) increased from 0.29 µm·s (without electric field) to 4.10 µm·s (with the 20 mA·cm current density) The transport performance of VOSO, which was the predominant species containing V(V) in the acidic region (pH <3), was influenced by the aqueous pH value and sulfate concentration. Under an electric field, a low concentrated HSO solution (0.2 M) effectively stripped V(V) from the membranes, avoiding the requirement of a highly concentrated HSO without electric field. Under the optimum conditions, the permeability coefficient and flux reached 6.80 µm·s and 13.34 µmol·m·s, respectively. High selectivity was observed for the separation of V(V) and Mo(VI) from mixed solutions of Co (II), Ni (II), Mn (II), and Al (III). Additionally, the separation between Mo(VI) and V(V) was further improved by adjusting the acidity of the stripping solution. The V(V) selectivity for the resulting membrane was higher than that of commercial anion exchange membranes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2022.129315DOI Listing
August 2022

Human Encephalitis Caused by Pseudorabies Virus in China: A Case Report and Systematic Review.

Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 2022 Jun 23. Epub 2022 Jun 23.

The Fifth People's Hospital of Anyang, Anyang, China.

Pseudorabies virus (PRV) is a common pathogen found in pigs. The pathogenicity of PRV in humans is under researched and there are few confirmed cases of PRV infections in humans, which has led to a lack of clinical consensus. We presented a case of viral encephalitis caused by PRV in China. We performed a systematic review of the literature to investigate the clinical features and prognosis of PRV encephalitis and included 12 patients with PRV encephalitis. All the patients had a history of direct or indirect contact with living pigs or pork before the onset of the disease, accompanied by prodromal symptoms, such as fever and headache. They presented with a series of lesions involving the central nervous system (CNS) and respiratory system, such as acute encephalitis syndrome, respiratory failure, retinitis, or endophthalmitis. The differential diagnosis of an acute attack of CNS infection should include PRV encephalitis, which should be diagnosed by a head magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), fundus examination, and cerebrospinal fluid next-generation sequencing. Intravenous immunoglobulin, glucocorticoid, antiviral, and symptomatic support treatment should be administered as early as possible to improve the prognosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2022.0002DOI Listing
June 2022

Modeling and Structural Optimization of MSF-RO Desalination System.

Membranes (Basel) 2022 May 24;12(6). Epub 2022 May 24.

School of Automation, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou 310018, China.

Based on the mathematical modeling and operational optimization studies of reverse osmosis (RO) and multistage flash (MSF) desalination, the structural optimization of the hybrid process was specially studied in this work with the consideration of reducing comprehensive expenses under given operational conditions. Firstly, according to the process mechanism and flowchart of the RO and MSF seawater desalination technologies, seven hybrid structures with different feed conditions were designed, and their connection equations were established for numerical calculation. Then, in order to evaluate the economic performance of the hybrid systems with different structures, the hourly average operational cost equations of RO and MSF processes were established and formulated as the comprehensive evaluation indicators. Next, with a given water production requirement, simulation calculations of the hybrid system with seven different structures were performed. The results show that the hybrid system with the fourth structure has the lowest operational cost of 4.6834 CNY/m, and at the same time it has the lowest blowdown. However, if we take GOR or production water temperature as the target, the optimal structure of the hybrid system is the fifth or the seventh option. The obtained results are helpful in structural optimization of the hybrid system with aspects of operational cost reduction, maximum GOR, or minimizing the wastewater discharge.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/membranes12060545DOI Listing
May 2022

Effect of peer videorecording feedback CPR training on students' practical CPR skills: a randomized controlled manikin study.

BMC Med Educ 2022 Jun 22;22(1):484. Epub 2022 Jun 22.

Emergency Center, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, 169 Donghu Road, Hubei, 430071, Wuhan, China.

Background: The aim of this study was to compare one-month acquisition and half-a-year quality retention of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) skills after initial training of medical students between peer videorecording feedback training (PVF) and traditional peer verbal feedback training (TVF).

Methods: Participants were randomly assigned to the PVF group (n = 62) and the TVF group (n = 65). All participants received a 45-min CPR training program performed by an American Heart Association basic life support-certified instructor, and then they began two hours of practice in groups. During interactive peer learning, students cooperated in couples of a doer and a helper to realize maximization of each other's learning. In the PVF group, training performance feedback came from peers based on practice videorecording. In the TVF group, feedback came from peers verbally without videorecording. CPR quality was tested at 1 and 6 months after training.

Results: After 1 month of initial training, the PVF group had a better presentation of CPR skills acquisition than the TVF group. Compared to the TVF group, the PVF group had significantly higher total scores, compression depth, appropriate compression depth, and complete chest recoil (p < 0.05). Moreover, compression interruption was a significantly positive change in the PVF group compared to the TVF group (p < 0.05). However, after 6 months, proportions of appropriate compression depth in the PVF group were better than those in the TVF group (p < 0.05). The differences in total scores, compression depth, appropriate compression depth, complete chest recoil and compression interruption were non-significant (all p > 0.05).

Conclusions: Compared to TVF, PVF is more effective in enhancing CPR skill acquisition at 1 month. After half a year, CPR skill quality was obviously reduced in both groups, and no difference in CPR quality was found between the two groups.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12909-022-03563-9DOI Listing
June 2022

Linking oxidative DNA lesion 8-OxoG to tumor development and progression.

Yi Chuan 2022 Jun;44(6):466-477

The Key Laboratory of Molecular Epigenetics of Ministry of Education, College of Life Sciences, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024, China.

Cells of the aerobic metabolic organism are inevitably subjected to the damage from reactive oxygen species (ROS). ROS cause multiple forms of DNA damage, among which the oxidation product of guanine G 8-hydroxyguanine (8-oxoG) is the most frequent DNA oxidative damage, recognized by the specific glycosidase OGG1 that initiates the base excision repair pathway. If left unrepaired, 8-oxoG may pair with A instead of C, leading to a mutation of G: C to T: A during replication. Thus, the accumulation of 8-oxoG or the abnormal OGG1 repair is thought to affect gene function, which in turn leads to the development of tumor or aging-related diseases. However, a series of recent studies have shown that 8-oxoG tends to be produced in regulatory regions of the genome. 8-oxoG can be regarded as an epigenetic modification, while OGG1 is a specific reader of this information. Substrate recognition, binding or resection by OGG1 can cause DNA conformation changes or affect histone modifications, causing up-regulation or down-regulation of genes with different properties. Thus, in addition to the potential genotoxicity, the association of guanine oxidative damage with development of tumors is closely related to its aberrant initiation of gene expression through epigenetic mechanisms. In this review, we summarize the underlying mechanism of 8-oxoG and repair enzyme OGG1 in tumor development and progression, with aims to interpret the relationship between DNA oxidative damage and tumor from a new perspective, and provide new ideas and targets for tumor treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.16288/j.yczz.22-067DOI Listing
June 2022

From plant immunity to crop disease resistance.

J Genet Genomics 2022 Jun 18. Epub 2022 Jun 18.

State Key Laboratory of Plant Genomics, Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China; CAS Center for Excellence in Biotic Interactions, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China; Hainan Yazhou Bay Seed Laboratory, Sanya, Hainai 572025, China. Electronic address:

Plant diseases caused by diverse pathogens lead to serious reduction in crop yield and threaten food security worldwide. Genetic improvement of plant immunity is considered as the most effective and sustainable approach to control crop diseases. In the last decade, our understanding of plant immunity at both molecular and genomic levels has improved greatly. Combined with advances in biotechnologies, particularly CRISPR/Cas9-based genome editing, we can now rapidly identify new resistance genes and engineer disease resistance crop plants like never before. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of plant immunity and outline existing and new strategies for disease resistance improvement in crop plants. We also discuss existing challenges in this field and suggest directions for future studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jgg.2022.06.003DOI Listing
June 2022

Role of MST1 in the regulation of autophagy and mitophagy: implications for aging-related diseases.

J Physiol Biochem 2022 Jun 21. Epub 2022 Jun 21.

Exercise Physiology and Biochemistry Laboratory, College of Physical Education and Health, Wenzhou University, Wenzhou, China.

As a key mechanism to maintain cellular homeostasis under stress conditions, autophagy/mitophagy is related to the occurrence of metabolic disorders, neurodegenerative diseases, cancer, and other aging-related diseases, but the relevant signal pathways regulating autophagy have not been clarified. Mammalian sterile 20-like kinase 1 (MST1) is a central regulatory protein of many metabolic pathways involved in the pathophysiological processes of aging and aging-related diseases and has become a critical integrator affecting autophagic signaling. Recent studies show that MST1 not only suppresses autophagy through directly phosphorylating Beclin-1 and/or inhibiting the protein expression of silent information regulator 1 (SIRT1) in the cytoplasm, but also inhibits BCL2/adenovirus E1B protein-interacting protein 3 (BNIP3)-, FUN14 domain containing 1 (FUNDC1)-, and Parkin (Parkinson protein 2)-mediated mitophagy by interacting with factors such as Ras association domain family 1A (RASSF1A). Indeed, a common pharmacological strategy for anti-aging is to induce autophagy/mitophagy through MST1 inhibition. This article reviews the role and mechanism of MST1 in regulating autophagy during aging, to provide evidence for the development of drugs targeting MST1.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13105-022-00904-6DOI Listing
June 2022

A novel polysaccharide from Lonicerae Japonicae Caulis: Characterization and effects on the function of fibroblast-like synoviocytes.

Carbohydr Polym 2022 Sep 28;292:119674. Epub 2022 May 28.

College of Pharmacy, Shandong University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Jinan 250355, PR China. Electronic address:

A novel polysaccharide (LJCP-2b) was isolated from Lonicerae Japonicae Caulis, and its structural features were identified by molecular weight distribution, infrared spectrum, monosaccharide composition, methylation analysis and NMR. LJCP-2b was a homogeneous heteropolysaccharide with a molecular weight of 7.0 kDa and composed of glucose, galacturonic acid, galactose, arabinose, rhamnose, xylose, mannose and glucuronic acid. Structural analysis revealed that LJCP-2b was mainly consisted of 1,3,6-β-D-Galp, 1,4-α-D-Glcp, 1,4,6-α-D-Glcp, 1,4-β-D-Galp, 1,2,4-α-L-Rhap and 1,4-α-D-GalpA. In vitro experiments showed that LJCP-2b could affect the function of TNF-α-induced rheumatoid arthritis fibroblast-like synoviocytes (RA-FLS), including weakening cell viability, increasing apoptosis rate, decreased migration number and adhesion capacity, and reduced the levels of IL-6 and IL-1β. These results indicated that LJCP-2b exhibited the activity of inhibiting the hyperproliferation and inflammatory response of RA-FLS, which may be developed for prevention or treatment of RA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2022.119674DOI Listing
September 2022

Soybean F-Box-Like Protein GmFBL144 Interacts With Small Heat Shock Protein and Negatively Regulates Plant Drought Stress Tolerance.

Front Plant Sci 2022 2;13:823529. Epub 2022 Jun 2.

College of Life Sciences, Jilin Agricultural University, Changchun, China.

The gene family is one of the largest gene families in plants. These genes regulate plant growth and development, as well as biotic and abiotic stress responses, and they have been extensively researched. Drought stress is one of the major factors limiting the yield and quality of soybean. In this study, bioinformatics analysis of the soybean gene family was performed, and the role of soybean gene in drought stress adaptation was characterized. We identified 507 genes in the soybean genome database, which were classified into 11 subfamilies. The expression profiles showed that was highly expressed in plant roots. Overexpression of increased the sensitivity of transgenic to drought stress. Under drought stress, the hydrogen peroxide (HO) and malonaldehyde (MDA) contents of transgenic were higher than those of the wild type (WT) and empty vector control, and the chlorophyll content was lower than that of the control. Y2H and bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) assays showed that GmFBL144 can interact with GmsHSP. Furthermore, our results showed that GmFBL144 can form SCF (E3 ubiquitin ligase) with GmSkp1 and GmCullin1. Altogether, these results indicate that the soybean F-box-like protein GmFBL144 may negatively regulate plant drought stress tolerance by interacting with sHSP. These findings provide a basis for molecular genetics and breeding of soybean.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2022.823529DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9201338PMC
June 2022

Development of a Quantum Dot-Based Fluorescence-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for Puerarin.

J Biomed Nanotechnol 2022 Mar;18(3):917-921

Beijing Institute of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing 100029, China.

In this study, a rapid and highly sensitive fluorescence-linked immunosorbent assay for puerarin determination was developed by the conjugation of quantum dots with an antibody against puerarin. The linear range and detection limit of the fluorescence-linked immunosorbent assay were validated. The detection curve ( = -1041ln()+5366, ² = 0.999) was linear in the range of 7.8-125 ng/mL. The 50% inhibitory concentration determined by fluorescence-linked immunosorbent assay was 33.8 ng/mL puerarin in water. The limit of detection for PUE was 6.1 ng/mL. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the quantitative detection of a natural product using quantum dots as fluorescent markers. Furthermore, the newly developed fluorescence-linked immunosorbent assay was successfully applied to determine puerarin in several commercial Gegen Qinlian tablets, with a higher sensitivity than that of conventional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1166/jbn.2022.3285DOI Listing
March 2022

Expression patterns and functional analysis of porcine lnc-34015.

Anim Biotechnol 2022 Jun 17:1-11. Epub 2022 Jun 17.

Department of Animal Sciences, Shanxi Agricultural University, Taigu, China.

Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) play important roles in immune regulation in humans and animals. The lnc-34015 was discovered to be critical for the development of muscles, based on the muscle transcriptome of pigs; however, the underlying molecular mechanism requires better understanding. Here, the sequence characteristics of lnc-34015 were analyzed and a competitive endogenous RNA regulatory network of lncRNA was predicted. The developmental expression trend and tissue expression profiles of lnc-34015 were investigated using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The lnc-34015 sequence is overlapped with introns 11 and 12 of , while , , and were identified as cis-regulatory genes of lnc-34015. Bioinformatics analyses revealed that lnc-34015 binds to 15 microRNAs (miRNAs), including miR-3646, miR-377-3p, and miR-190b-3p, to regulate downstream gene expression. GO and KEGG enrichment results show that lnc-34015 was mainly involved in cell proliferation, stress response, transcriptional regulation, and alternative splicing. The expression trend of lnc-34015 in muscle was similar to that of target genes and opposite to that of miRNAs. The expression of lnc-34015 was significantly higher in the porcine small intestine and IPEC-J2 cells. Our findings suggest that lnc-34015 regulates , , and gene expression by competing with endogenous RNAs to regulate porcine inflammatory responses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10495398.2022.2085112DOI Listing
June 2022

How does digital economy affect green total factor productivity at the industry level in China: from a perspective of global value chain.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2022 Jun 17. Epub 2022 Jun 17.

School of Economics and Management, Harbin Engineering University (HEU), Harbin, China.

The digital economy is an important way to relieve current pressure on resources and the environment. Based on ecological modernization theory and global value chain theory, this paper adopts panel data of 17 manufacturing industries from 2000 to 2014, uses the non-radial directional distance function and the meta-frontier method to measure China's green total factor productivity (GTFP) and its sub-indices, and takes the embedding degree and embedding position as moderating variables and threshold variables to construct an econometric model to explore the relationship among the digital economy, global value chain, and GTFP. The results show that (1) the digital economy has a positive effect on GTFP in both time and space. And in terms of time, the digital economy mainly enhances GTFP by improving technical efficiency and narrowing the technology gap. (2) Global value chain embedding position positively moderates the relationship between the digital economy and GTFP; In terms of sub-samples, labor-intensive and capital-intensive industries show the same impact characteristics as the total sample. (3) Further, it is found that the digital economy and GTFP have nonlinear characteristics. There is a single threshold effect on the embedding position. When the embedding position is low, the digital economy is positively correlated with GTFP but not significant; when the threshold value is crossed, the digital economy can significantly promote GTFP. The conclusions of this paper are helpful to realize the digital economy to promote the green development of the manufacturing industry, and provide an effective reference for the realization mechanism of China's green economy transformation and ecological civilization construction in the post-pandemic era.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-022-21434-0DOI Listing
June 2022

Derivative Matrix-Isopotential Synchronous Spectrofluorimetry and Hantzsch Reaction: A Direct Route to Simultaneous Determination of Urinary δ-Aminolevulinic Acid and Porphobilinogen.

Front Chem 2022 31;10:920468. Epub 2022 May 31.

Department of Chemistry and the MOE Key Laboratory of Spectrochemical Analysis and Instrumentation, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen, China.

Early and sensitive detection of δ-aminolevulinic acid (δ-ALA) and porphobilinogen (PBG) is the cornerstone of diagnosis and effective treatment for acute porphyria. However, at present, the quantifying strategies demand multiple solvent extraction steps or chromatographic approaches to separate δ-ALA and PBG prior to quantification. These methods are both time-consuming and laborious. Otherwise, in conventional spectrofluorimetry, the overlapping spectra of the two analytes cause false diagnosis. To overcome this challenge, we present a two-step approach based on derivative matrix-isopotential synchronous fluorescence spectrometry (DMISFS) and the Hantzsch reaction, realizing the simple and simultaneous detection of δ-ALA and PBG in urine samples. The first step is chemical derivatization of the analytes by Hantzsch reaction. The second step is the determination of the target analytes by combining MISFS and the first derivative technique. The proposed approach accomplishes following advantages: 1) The MISFS technique improves the spectral resolution and resolves severe spectral overlap of the analytes, alleviating tedious and complicated pre-separation processes; 2) First derivative technique removes the background interference of δ-ALA on PBG and vice versa, ensuring high sensitivity; 3) Both the analytes can be determined simultaneously via single scanning, enabling rapid detection. The obtained detection limits for δ-ALA and PBG were 0.04 μmol L and 0.3 μmol L, respectively. Within-run precisions (intra and inter-day CVs) for both the analytes were <5%. Further, this study would serve to enhance the availability of early and reliable quantitative diagnosis for acute porphyria in both scientific and clinical laboratories.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fchem.2022.920468DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9194443PMC
May 2022

L. and L. Improve Erectile Dysfunction in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats through Suppression of Oxidative Stress.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2022 6;2022:4187359. Epub 2022 Jun 6.

Institute of Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430030, China.

Background: Diabetes mellitus-induced erectile dysfunction (DMED) is one of the most common complications of diabetes and is mainly attributed to oxidative stress. Hu-Lu-Ba-Wan (HLBW) is a classic Chinese formulation consisting of L. (TFG) and L. (PC). HLBW has been used not only for the treatment of diabetes but also for the treatment of erectile dysfunction in clinics. This study aimed to explore the efficacy and underlying mechanism of HLBW in ameliorating erectile function in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

Methods: The diabetic model was established by tail vein injection of streptozotocin (26 mg/kg), and then DMED rats screened by the apomorphine test were randomly divided into two groups: the model group and the HLBW group. The rats in the HLBW group were administered HLBW granules daily for 12 weeks. Fasting blood glucose and fasting insulin were tested by a commercial kit. Intracavernous pressure (ICP) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were measured by cavernous nerve electrostimulation before the rats were killed. Erectile function was evaluated with ICP/MAP. The markers of oxidative stress in the corpus cavernosum (CC) were assayed by assay kits. Apoptosis in cavernosal tissue was detected by Western blotting (WB). The expression levels of vascular endothelial marker (vWF), -smooth muscle actin (-SMA), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), and NADPH oxidase subunit P47 were determined by WB and PCR. Furthermore, the structure of the CC was further confirmed by Masson's trichrome staining.

Results: The results showed that HLBW significantly reduced blood glucose and increased insulin sensitivity. HLBW reduced oxidative stress and apoptosis. In addition, we observed that the expression levels of vWF, -SMA, and eNOS as well as the ratio of smooth muscle to collagen increased in the HLBW group.

Conclusions: Our results demonstrated that HLBW could reduce oxidative stress damage in CC to improve diabetes mellitus-induced erectile dysfunction in rats by inhibiting NADPH oxidase.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2022/4187359DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9192318PMC
June 2022

Incidence and Risk Factors for Surgical Site Infection after Femoral Neck Fracture Surgery: An Observational Cohort Study of 2218 Patients.

Biomed Res Int 2022 6;2022:5456616. Epub 2022 Jun 6.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, The 3rd Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, 050051 Hebei, China.

Background: Surgical site infection (SSI) was a formidable challenge for surgical management of femoral neck fractures; however, there was a lack of studies with comprehensive variables. We conducted this study to investigate the incidence and risk factors of SSI in elderly patients with femoral neck fractures.

Methods: This was a retrospective study of patients who presented with femoral neck fractures and underwent surgery in our institution between January 2016 and April 2020. All data were collected from a previously validated database. Patients were divided into SSI and non-SSI groups. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify the risk factors for SSI.

Results: A total of 2218 patients with femoral neck fractures were enrolled in the study, of whom 22 (1%) developed SSI, including 15 (0.7%) superficial and 7 (0.3%) deep SSIs. After multivariable adjustment for confounding factors, patients with and without SSI significantly differ in terms of gender, prolonged time to surgery, CHE < 5 U/L, and injury mechanism.

Conclusions: Our results were helpful for stratification of SSI risk and improved management of hip fracture. Clinicians should be alert to patients with these factors and improve modifiable factors such as preoperative waiting time.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2022/5456616DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9192207PMC
June 2022

Transcriptome-Wide N6-Methyladenosine Methylome Alteration in the Rat Spinal Cord After Acute Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury.

Front Neurosci 2022 30;16:848119. Epub 2022 May 30.

Emergency Center, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, China.

Recent studies showed that RNA N6-methyladenosine (m6A) plays an important role in neurological diseases. We used methylated RNA immunoprecipitation sequencing (MeRIP-Seq) technology to generate the m6A modification map after traumatic spinal cord injury (TSCI). A total of 2,609 differential m6A peaks were identified after TSCI. Our RNA sequencing results after TSCI showed 4,206 genes with significantly altered expression. Cross-link analysis of m6A sequencing results and RNA sequencing results showed that 141 hyper-methylated genes were upregulated, 53 hyper-methylated genes were downregulated, 57 hypo-methylated genes were upregulated, and 197 hypo-methylated genes were downregulated. Among these, the important inflammatory response factor and the important member of the neurotrophin family were both upregulated and hyper-methylated after TSCI. This study provides that in the future, the epigenetic modifications of the genes could be used as an indicator of TSCI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2022.848119DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9189298PMC
May 2022

The effect of endostatin on angiogenesis and osteogenesis of steroid-induced osteonecrosis of the femoral head in a rabbit model.

Acta Orthop Traumatol Turc 2022 May;56(3):178-186

Department of Orthopaedics, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, Shaanxi Province, P.R. China.

Objective: This study aimed to investigate whether endostatin, a crucial anti-angiogenic factor, plays a negative role in angiogenesis and osteogenesis and aggravates the progression of osteonecrosis of the femoral head induced by steroid use in a rabbit model.

Methods: 66 New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into four groups: glucocorticoid model (GC) group (GC group, n = 18), glucocorticoid model and endostatin group (GC;ES group, n = 18), ES group (ES group, n = 18), and blank control group (CON group, n = 12). In the GC group, 10 μg/ kg lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was intravenously injected into the ear margin, and 24h after LPS injection, 20 mg/kg GC methylprednisolone (MPS) was injected into the gluteus muscle three times, each time at an interval of 24h. The animals of the GC;ES group were given as same treatment as the GC group, except for the addition of ES. MPS was not used in the ES group and CON group. ES group was only given ES, while the CON group was only given the same amount of normal saline. All animals successfully established models of femoral head necrosis, and then the difference among the Immunohistochemistry, Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analysis, Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Biomechanical test, etracyclline-calcein double labeling, and Van Gieson staining indices were compared among the four groups.

Results: The combination of MPS and LPS was successful in establishing the femoral head necrosis model in New Zealand white rabbits. The incidence of osteonecrosis after MPS and LPS intervention was 70% (7/10), while that plus ES was 100% (10/10). At the same time, after MPS and LPS intervention, while the empty bone lacuna rate of the femoral head was significantly increased, the number of osteo- blasts was decreased. Also, the expressions of CD31 positive cells, Runx2, Osterix, COL1A1, and VEGF mRNA in the femoral head were decreased, and the levels of osteogenesis-related protein b-ALP, OCN, and angiogenic factor VEGF in the femoral head were decreased. The percentage of the trabecular bone area (%Tb.Ar), trabecular thickness (Tb.Th), trabecular number (Tb.N), labeled perimeter percent (%L.Pm), mineral apposition rate (MAR), and bone formation rate (BFR/BS) in the femoral head after MPs and LPS intervention detected by tetracycline calcein double labeling and Van Gieson staining decreased significantly, except trabecular separation (Tb.Sp) increased significantly. The compressive strength (CS), elastic modulus (EM), and strain energy (SE) of the femoral head examed by biomechanical measurement decreased significantly. All the above changes were more obvious after adding ES intervention. ES mRNA in the femoral head was undifferentiated and increased in the GC, ES, and GC;ES group compared with group CON.

Conclusion: This study has revealed that ES can inhibit angiogenesis and osteogenesis in the femoral head and aggravate the occurrence and development of femoral head necrosis. Thus, antiangiogenic factors may play an important role in the pathogenesis of ONFH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5152/j.aott.2022.21248DOI Listing
May 2022

Advances in The Application of Regenerative Medicine in Prevention of Post-endoscopic Submucosal Dissection for Esophageal Stenosis.

J Transl Int Med 2022 Mar 2;10(1):28-35. Epub 2022 Apr 2.

Department of Gastroenterology, Beijing Friendship Hospital, Capital Medical University, National Clinical Research Center for Digestive Diseases, Beijing Digestive Disease Center, Beijing 10050, China.

Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is a curative treatment for superficial esophageal cancer with distinct advantages. However, esophageal stenosis after ESD remains a tough problem, especially after large circumferential proportion of esophageal mucosa is removed, which limits the wide use of ESD, especially in circumferential lesions. In this scenario, preventive procedures are highly recommended against post-ESD esophageal stenosis. However, the efficacy and safety of traditional prophylactic methods (steroids, metal and biodegradable stents, balloon dilation, radial incision, .) are not satisfactory and novel strategies need to be developed. Regenerative medicine has been showing enormous potential in the reconstruction of organs including the esophagus. In this review, we aimed to describe the current status of regenerative medicine in prevention of post-ESD esophageal stenosis. Cell injection, cell sheet transplantation, and extracellular matrix implantation have been proved effective. However, numerous obstacles still exist and further studies are necessary.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2478/jtim-2022-0011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8997800PMC
March 2022

Nano-zirconia supported by graphitic carbon nitride for enhanced visible light photocatalytic activity.

RSC Adv 2019 Dec 2;10(1):524-532. Epub 2020 Jan 2.

School of Materials Science and Engineering, China University of Petroleum (East China) QingDao 266580 China

Graphitic carbon nitride (g-CN) was prepared by high-temperature calcination of urea. A mixture of g-CN and nano-ZrO precursor was directly calcined to prepare g-CN/ZrO hybrid photocatalysts. The photocatalytic properties of the sample were characterized by degradation of rhodamine B (RhB) under visible light. The g-CN/ZrO hybrid photocatalysts have better degradation performance than the pure g-CN and ZrO. The prepared catalysts were characterized by various techniques including X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL) and electrochemical tests. The reasons for the improvement of catalytic activity were investigated from the aspects of crystal structure, surface morphology and photoelectric properties, and the catalytic mechanism were studied. The results show that the ZrO nanoparticles were coated with g-CN to form a heterostructure. Compared with the pure g-CN and ZrO, the g-CN/ZrO hybrids reduce the charge transfer resistance and inhibit the recombination of electron-holes well. In addition, it affects the band structure and improves the absorption of visible-light. At the same time, the study found that the main active species in the catalytic process were h and ·O .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c9ra08540hDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9096917PMC
December 2019

Staged Versus Synchronous Carotid Endarterectomy and Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting: A Meta-Analysis and Systematic Review.

Ann Vasc Surg 2022 Jun 11. Epub 2022 Jun 11.

Department of Neurosurgery, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, Tianjin, the People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Background: There are several treatment options for patients with concomitant carotid and coronary artery disease, and it is difficult to identify an optimal treatment strategy that has consensus. Here, we performed a meta-analysis to compare the early and long-term outcomes of staged and synchronous carotid endarterectomy and coronary artery bypass grafting approaches.

Methods: We performed a meta-analysis that compared staged and synchronous carotid endarterectomy and coronary artery bypass grafting approaches between July 1976 and September 2021. PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library were systematically searched for related articles.

Results: Nineteen studies were identified with a total of 39269 and 30066 patients in the synchronous and staged groups, respectively. Early mortality was lower in the staged group than in the synchronous group (OR 1.256, 95% CI 1.006-1.569, P= P<0.05, I=54.5%), and stroke rates were significantly higher in the synchronous group (OR 1.356, 95% CI 1.232-1.493, P<0.05, I=33.3%). The rate of myocardial ischemia was significantly higher in the staged group than in the synchronous group (OR 0.757, 95% CI 0.635-0.903, P<0.05, I=51.5%), and this meta-analysis also showed a significantly higher risk of transient ischemic attacks (TIAs) in the synchronous group (OR 1.335, 95% CI 1.055-1.688, P<0.05, I=0.00%). The secondary outcomes, including the rate of reoperation, were significantly lower for the staged procedure than for the synchronous procedure (OR 1.177, 95% CI 1.052-1.318, P<0.05, I=4.2%), and the rate of wound infection was significantly higher in the synchronous group than in the staged group (OR 0.457, 95% CI 0.403-0.519, P<0.05, I=0.0%). There was no significant difference in the rate of cardiac arrhythmia between the two groups (OR 0.544, 95% CI 0.265-1.117, P>0.05, I=12.7%). There was also no statistical significance in the long-term results regarding the incidence of stroke, myocardial ischemia, and mortality between the synchronous and staged groups (P>0.05).

Conclusions: Patients treated with the synchronous approach had a significantly higher risk of early mortality, stroke, TIA, wound infection, and reoperation and a lower risk of myocardial ischemia than those treated with the staged approach. There was no significant difference in the long-term results between the two groups.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.avsg.2022.05.027DOI Listing
June 2022

Ubiquitin-Specific Protease 22 Promotes Neural Stem Cells Stemness Maintenance and Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis, Contributing to Cognitive Recovery Following Traumatic Brain Injury.

Neuroscience 2022 Jun 11. Epub 2022 Jun 11.

Department of Neurosurgery, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, Tianjin, China. Electronic address:

Ubiquitin-specific protease 22 (USP22), a potential marker of cancer stem cells, significantly influences stem cell fate choices. However, its functions in neural stem cells (NSCs) and adult neurogenesis, especially following traumatic brain injury (TBI), remain only partially understood. Here, we found that aberrant USP22 expression could affect NSC proliferation and stemness maintenance, as assessed by the generation of neurospheres, cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) and immunofluorescence staining in vitro. Moreover, USP22 depletion promotes the differentiation of NSCs, both in vitro and in vivo. In contrast, USP22 overexpression inhibits NSC differentiation into neurons. Interestingly, our data showed that USP22 promotes the proliferation but inhibits the differentiation of NSCs in the dentate gyrus (DG)of the hippocampus soon after TBI. The Morris water maze (MWM) test was adopted to evaluate neurological function, which confirmed that USP22 could improve the learning and memory capacity that was already compromised following TBI. Overall, this study uncovers a potentially novel regulatory role of USP22 in the proliferation and differentiation ability of NSCs, contributing to the hippocampus-dependent cognitive function of TBI mice and may be a novel target for future therapeutic approaches.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroscience.2022.06.014DOI Listing
June 2022

Genetic diversity of Plasmodium vivax reticulocyte binding protein 2b in global parasite populations.

Parasit Vectors 2022 Jun 13;15(1):205. Epub 2022 Jun 13.

Department of Immunology, College of Basic Medical Science, China Medical University, Shenyang, 110122, Liaoning, China.

Background: Plasmodium vivax reticulocyte binding protein 2b (PvRBP2b) plays a critical role in parasite invasion of reticulocytes by binding the transferrin receptor 1. PvRBP2b is a vaccine candidate based on the negative correlation between antibody titers against PvRBP2b recombinant proteins and parasitemia and risk of vivax malaria. The aim of this study was to analyze the genetic diversity of the PvRBP2b gene in the global P. vivax populations.

Methods: Near full-length PvRBP2b nucleotide sequences (190-8349 bp) were obtained from 88 P. vivax isolates collected from the China-Myanmar border (n = 44) and Thailand (n = 44). An additional 224 PvRBP2b sequences were retrieved from genome sequences from parasite populations worldwide. The genetic diversity, neutral selection, haplotype distribution and genetic differentiation of PvRBP2b were examined.

Results: The genetic diversity of PvRBP2b was distributed unevenly, with peak diversity found in the reticulocyte binding region in the N-terminus. Neutrality analysis suggested that this region is subjected to balancing selection or population bottlenecks. Several amino acid variants were found in all or nearly all P. vivax endemic regions. However, the critical residues responsible for reticulocyte binding were highly conserved. There was substantial population differentiation according to the geographical separation. The distribution of haplotypes in the reticulocyte binding region varied among regions; even the two major haplotypes Hap_6 and Hap_8 were found in only five populations.

Conclusions: Our data show considerable genetic variations of PvRBPb in global parasite populations. The geographic divergence may pose a challenge to PvRBP2b-based vaccine development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13071-022-05296-6DOI Listing
June 2022
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