Publications by authors named "Yan Zhang"

11,841 Publications

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Association between exposure to a mixture of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene, and styrene (BTEXS) and small airways function: A cross-sectional study.

Environ Res 2022 May 18:113488. Epub 2022 May 18.

Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Sun Yat-Sen University, No. 74 Zhongshan Road 2, Guangzhou, 510080, China; Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Food, Nutrition, and Health, School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, No. 74 Zhongshan Road 2, Guangzhou, 510080, Guangdong, China. Electronic address:

Background: The lung is one of the primary target organs of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene, and styrene (BTEXS). Small airways dysfunction (SAD) might be a sensitive indicator of early chronic respiratory disease. Here, we explored the relationships between exposure to BTEXS and small airways function, and identified the priority pollutants in BTEXS mixtures.

Methods: 635 petrochemical workers were recruited. Standard spirometry testing was conducted by physicians. The cumulative exposure dose (CED) of BTEXS for each worker was estimated. The peak expiratory flow (PEF), forced expiratory flow between 25 and 75% of forced vital capacity (FEF25∼75%), and the expiratory flow rate found at 25%, 50%, and 75% of the remaining exhaled vital capacity (MEF25%, MEF50%, and MEF75%) were measured, SAD was also evaluated based on measured parameters. The association between exposure to BTEXS individual or mixtures and small airways function was evaluated using generalized line regression models (GLMs) and quantile g-computation models (qgcomp). Meanwhile, the weights of each homolog in the association were estimated.

Results: The median CED of BTEXS are 9.624, 19.306, 24.479, 28.210, and 46.781 mg/m·years, respectively. A unit increase in ln-transformed styrene CED was associated with a decrease in FEF25∼75% and MEF50% based on GLMs. One quartile increased in BTEXS mixtures (ln-transformed) was significantly associated with a 0.325-standard deviation (SD) [95% confidence interval (CI): -0.464, -0.185] decline in FEF25∼75%, a 0.529-SD (95%CI: -0.691, -0.366) decline in MEF25%, a 0.176-SD (95%CI: -0.335, -0.017) decline in MEF75%, and increase in the risk of abnormal of SAD [risk ratios (95%CI): 1.520 (95%CI: 1.143, 2.020)]. Benzene and styrene were the major chemicals in BTEXS for predicting the overall risk of SAD.

Conclusion: Our novel findings demonstrate the significant association between exposure to BTEXS mixture and small airways function decline and the potential roles of key homologs (benzene and styrene) in SAD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2022.113488DOI Listing
May 2022

Genipin-Cross-Linked Thermophilic Histone-Polyethylenimine as a Hybrid Gene Carrier.

ACS Macro Lett 2015 May 4;4(5):575-578. Epub 2015 May 4.

Key Laboratory for Molecular Enzymology and Engineering of Ministry of Education, School of Life Sciences, Jilin University, Changchun 130012, China.

A hybrid gene carrier, HGP, has been successfully constructed through the genipin-mediated cross-linking of thermophilic histone and PEI25K. The thermophilic histone gene GK2215 was cloned from HTA426 and overexpressed in BL21. The thermophilic histone was systematically characterized and then cross-linked with PEI25K by genipin to obtain HGP. Notably, HGP exhibited superior transfection efficiency due to the synergistic effects between these two components: PEI25K mainly contributed to the condensation and transfer of pDNA, while thermophilic histone could enhance the endosomal escape and further nuclear location to achieve high gene expression. Meanwhile, HGP showed much lower cytotoxicity and hemolytic activity than PEI25K due to the introduction of nontoxic thermophilic histone. In addition, a strong intrinsic red fluorescence could be obviously observed in HGP. In conclusion, the protein-polymer hybrid carrier could potentially be used as a theranostic delivery system for achieving both efficient gene therapy and in vivo imaging.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsmacrolett.5b00141DOI Listing
May 2015

Intra-regional classification of Codonopsis Radix produced in Gansu province (China) by multi-elemental analysis and chemometric tools.

Sci Rep 2022 May 20;12(1):8549. Epub 2022 May 20.

School of Pharmacy @ the State Key Laboratory of Applied Organic Chemistry (SKLAOC), Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, 730000, China.

Multi-elemental analysis is widely used to identify the geographical origins of plants. The purpose of this study was to explore the feasibility of combining chemometrics with multi-element analysis for classification of Codonopsis Radix from different producing regions of Gansu province (China). A total of 117 Codonopsis Radix samples from 7 counties of Gansu province were collected. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used for the determination of 28 elements ( K,  Mg, Ca, Al, Ba, Fe, Na, Sr, Mn, Zn, Cu, Rb, Ni, Cr,  V, Li, Pb, Co, As, Cs,  Ga, Se, Tl, Cd, U, Ag, Be and Hg). Among macro elements,  K showed the highest level, whereas Na was found to have the lowest content value. Micro elements showed the concentrations order of: Sr > Mn > Zn > Rb > Cu. Among trace elements, Cr and Ni showed higher content and Be was not detected in all samples. Intra-regions differentiation was performed by principal component analysis (PCA), cluster analysis (CA) and supervised learning algorithms such as linear discriminant analysis (LDA), k-nearest neighbors (k-NN), support vector machines (SVM), and random forests (RF). Among them, the RF model performed the best with an accuracy rate of 78.79%. Multi-elemental analysis combined with RF was a reliable method to identify the origins of Codonopsis Radix in Gansu province.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-022-12556-zDOI Listing
May 2022

m6A methylated EphA2 and VEGFA through IGF2BP2/3 regulation promotes vasculogenic mimicry in colorectal cancer via PI3K/AKT and ERK1/2 signaling.

Cell Death Dis 2022 May 21;13(5):483. Epub 2022 May 21.

School of Life Science and Technology, State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, 150001, Heilongjiang, China.

Exploring the epigenetic regulation mechanism of colorectal cancer (CRC) from the perspective of N6-methyladenosine (m6A) modification may provide a new target for tumor therapy. Analysis using high-throughput RNA-seq profile from TCGA found that the gene expression of Methyltransferase-like 3 (METTL3) was significantly upregulated among 20 m6A binding proteins in CRC, which was also validated in CRC cancer tissues and cell lines. Moreover, transcriptome sequencing in METTL3 knockdown cells using CRISPR/Cas9 editing suggested that EphA2 and VEGFA were differential expression, which were enriched in the vasculature development, PI3K/AKT and ERK1/2 signal pathway through the functional enrichment analysis. The results in vitro revealed that METTL3 as the m6A "writers" participates the methylation of EphA2 and VEGFA, which were recognized by the m6A "readers", insulin-like growth factor 2 mRNA binding protein 2/3 (IGF2BP2/3), to prevent their mRNA degradation. In addition, EphA2 and VEGFA targeted by METTL3 via different IGF2BP-dependent mechanisms were found to promote vasculogenic mimicry (VM) formation via PI3K/AKT/mTOR and ERK1/2 signaling in CRC. The study suggests that intervention with m6A-binding proteins (METTL3 and IGF2BP2/3) may provide a potential diagnostic or prognostic target of VM-based anti-metastasis drugs for CRC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41419-022-04950-2DOI Listing
May 2022

Highly efficient removal of glyphosate from water by hierarchical-pore UiO-66: Selectivity and effects of natural water particles.

J Environ Manage 2022 May 17;316:115301. Epub 2022 May 17.

School of Resources and Environment, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei, 230036, PR China; Hefei Scientific Observing and Experimental Station of Agro-Environment, Ministry of Agriculture, PR China. Electronic address:

The selective removal of glyphosate (GP) from aqueous environments is crucial for ensuring human health and environmental sustainability. The preparation of hierarchical-pore MOFs and the reasonable regulation of the pore size are effective strategies for achieving selective removal. In this study, we applied hierarchical-pore UiO-66 analogues (HUiO-66s) synthesized by the template technique through a mild method for the removal of GP from water. The results showed that the maximum adsorption capacity of HUiO-66s was as high as 400 mg/g, which is higher than that of most reported adsorbents. Notably, HUiO-66s showed the highest adsorption rate and distribution coefficient for GP in a multivariate system containing different organophosphorus pesticides and antibiotics, exhibiting suitable selective adsorption performance for GP. Furthermore, GP adsorption onto HUiO-66-2 (prepared from 2 mL of MOF-5 template) did not affect the presence of competing anions and humic acids. Naturally occurring particles in the water body had an enhanced (i.e., AlO, sepiolite, and montmorillonite), reduced (i.e., illite and SiO), or insignificant (i.e., kaolin) effect on the GP adsorption rate of HUiO-66-2. Further analysis based on the bulk adsorption results and microscopic characterisation indicated that the pore structure synergistically occurred with metal-ligand bonding, hydrogen bonding, and electrostatic interactions, which together determined the GP adsorption. Overall, the high adsorption and apparent adsorption selectivity of HUiO-66s facilitated the rapid separation and removal of GP in complex aqueous environments. Our findings provide insights into the transport and fate of MOFs and contaminants in natural aquatic systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2022.115301DOI Listing
May 2022

Ghrelin is associated with anti-mullerian hormone levels in Chinese systemic lupus erythematosus.

Am J Reprod Immunol 2022 May 20. Epub 2022 May 20.

Department of Rheumatology and Immunology, Tangdu hospital of The Air, Force Medical University, 569 of Xinsi Road, Xi'an, China.

Problem: Ghrelin has been though of as a potential link between energy homeostasis and fertility. The aim of this study was to evaluate levels of ghrelin in obese and non-obese systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients, and to reveal a possible association between ghrelin and Anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) in SLE patients.

Method Of Study: One hundred SLE patients (50 obese and 50 non-obese subjects) at childbearing age and 100 age-matched healthy controls (50 obese and 50 non-obese subjects) were included. Ghrelin and leptin was examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. AMH was tested through electrochemiluminescence. Demographics, clinical and laboratory indicators were obtained from medical records.

Results: Ghrelin levels were significantly lower in obese SLE patients than non-obese SLE patients (P = 0.000) and obese controls (P = 0.002). Non-obese SLE patients and non-obese controls had similar ghrelin levels. Ghrelin levels were correlated positively with AMH (r = 0.2683, P = 0.0070) in SLE patients. And ghrelin were negatively associated with leptin (r = -0.1969, P = 0.0496) and BMI (r = - 0.2401, P = 0.0161) .

Conclusion: Our results provide evidence for a potential relationship between ghrelin and AMH in SLE patients, indicating that ghrelin may play a part in energy homeostasis and ovarian damage of SLE patients. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/aji.13579DOI Listing
May 2022

Genetic suppressors of Δgrx3 Δgrx4, lacking redundant multi-domain monothiol yeast glutaredoxins, rescue growth and iron homeostasis.

Biosci Rep 2022 May 20. Epub 2022 May 20.

Tianjin University, Nankai District, Tianjin, China.

Saccharomyces  cerevisiae Grx3 and Grx4 are multi-domain monothiol glutaredoxins that are redundant with each other. They can be efficiently complemented by heterologous expression of their mammalian ortholog, PICOT, which has been linked to tumor development and embryogenesis. PICOT is now believed to act as a chaperone distributing Fe-S clusters, although the first link to iron metabolism was observed with its yeast counterparts. Like PICOT, yeast Grx3 and Grx4 reside in the cytosol and nucleus where they form unusual Fe-S clusters coordinated by two glutaredoxins with CGFS motifs and two molecules of glutathione. Depletion or deletion of Grx3/Grx4 leads to functional impairment of virtually all cellular iron-dependent processes and loss of cell viability, thus making these genes the most upstream components of the iron utilization system. Nevertheless, the Δgrx3/4 double mutant in the BY4741 genetic background is viable and exhibits slow but stable growth under hypoxic conditions. Upon exposure to air, growth of the double deletion strain ceases, and suppressor mutants appear. Adopting a high copy-number library screen approach, we discovered novel genetic interactions: overexpression of ESL1, ESL2, SOK1, SFP1 or BDF2 partially rescues growth and iron utilization defects of Δgrx3/4. This genetic escape from the requirement for Grx3/Grx4 has not been previously described. Our study shows that even a far-upstream component of the iron regulatory machinery (Grx3/4) can be bypassed, and cellular networks involving RIM101 pH sensing, cAMP signaling, mTOR nutritional signaling, or bromodomain acetylation, may confer the bypassing activities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1042/BSR20212665DOI Listing
May 2022

Left atrial phasic function remodeling during its enlargement: a two-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography study.

BMC Cardiovasc Disord 2022 May 19;22(1):231. Epub 2022 May 19.

Department of Cardiology, Peking University First Hospital, 8 Xishiku St, Xicheng District, Beijing, 100034, China.

Background: Left atrial (LA) size is often used as a surrogate marker of LA function in clinical practice, with larger atrial thought to represent a "dysfunctioning" atrium, since there is no accepted 'gold' standard to evaluate LA function. The exact relationship between LA size and phasic function, and whether LA dysfunction occur before LA enlargement (LAE) may be of clinical interest while have not been fully studied. Two-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography (2D STE) was showed a promising method in measuring LA physical deformation.

Materials And Methods: A community cohort of 715 subjects at cardiovascular disease high risk accepted comprehensive echocardiography. LA longitudinal phasic strain Sa (absolute peak strain during atrial contraction), Se (peak strain at early diastole) and Stot (total atrial strain = Sa + Se), representing contractile, conduit, and reservoir function respectively, were measured using off-line 2D STE software in apical 4 chamber view, and data were compared among groups at different LA size and between subgroups in normal LA size with and without hypertension (HT).

Results: With LAE (from normal size, mild, moderate to severe LAE), the Stot (21.74 ± 5.97, 20.75 ± 4.99, 20.49 ± 5.27, 17.75 ± 4.71, respectively, ANOVA P = 0.003) and Sa (11.84 ± 3.92, 11.00 ± 3.29, 10.11 ± 2.57, 8.55 ± 2.88, respectively, ANOVA P < 0.001) reduced while Se had no change. Stot of Severe LAE group was significantly lower than that of Normal LA size group (P = 0.002). Sa of the three LAE groups were all significantly lower than that of Normal LA size group (P = 0.024, P = 0.002, P < 0.001, respectively). In normal sized LA subgroups, Stot (21.35 ± 5.91 vs. 23.01 ± 6.02, P = 0.008) and Se (9.51 ± 4.41 vs. 11.17 ± 4.89, P < 0.001) reduced in subjects with HT comparing with those without.

Conclusion: LA phasic function remodeling occurs before LAE and continues with LAE, with reservoir, conduit and contractile function being affected unparalleled.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12872-022-02672-zDOI Listing
May 2022

Doxycycline can reduce glycocalyx shedding by inhibiting matrix metalloproteinases in patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass: A randomized controlled trial.

Microvasc Res 2022 May 16:104381. Epub 2022 May 16.

Department of Anaesthesiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang Province, China. Electronic address:

Background: Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) leads to shedding of the glycocalyx of endothelial cells, resulting in a series of complications such as tissue edema and coagulatory and microcirculatory dysfunctions. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) can cause glycocalyx shedding in a variety of pathological processes, but their role in the process of CPB is still unclear. We hypothesized that the MMPs inhibitor doxycycline would reduce glycocalyx shedding by inhibiting MMPs during CPB.

Methods: Thirty-six patients were randomized to receive either 100 mg oral doxycycline (an MMPs inhibitor) or a matching placebo pill twice a day for three days before CPB. The primary outcome was the concentration of plasma syndecan-1. Secondary outcomes included heparan sulphate, MMP-2, MMP-9, ratio of urinary albumin to creatinine, and short-term clinical outcomes. In order to further prove that MMPs in plasma caused the glycocalyx shedding, human umbilical vein endothelial cells were cultured with plasma obtained from cardiac surgery patients before or after CPB (with or without MMPs inhibitor GM6001). The change in glycocalyx content was detected by immunofluorescence.

Results: CPB resulted in an increase of MMPs and shedding of the glycocalyx. Plasma syndecan-1 was higher in the control group than in the doxycycline group (median difference:15.04 μg/L; 95% CI: 9.14-20.94 μg/L; P < 0.001). Similar to syndecan-1, plasma heparan sulphate, MMP-2, and MMP-9 concentrations in the doxycycline group were significantly lower than those in the control group during CPB. Doxycycline was also correlated with a reduction in the ratio of urinary albumin to creatinine and improved the short-term clinical outcomes of patients. Endothelial cells cultured with plasma from patients after CPB showed significant shedding of syndecan-1 and heparan sulphate (post-CPB group vs pre-CPB group, P < 0.001). GM6001 was shown to reduce shedding of syndecan-1 and heparan sulphate by inhibiting MMPs (post-CPB + GM6001 group vs post-CPB group, P < 0.001).

Conclusion: Doxycycline can reduce glycocalyx shedding by inhibiting MMPs during CPB.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mvr.2022.104381DOI Listing
May 2022

Comparison of radiation doses between hepatic artery infusion chemotherapy and transarterial chemoembolization for liver cancer.

J Interv Med 2021 Nov 13;4(4):184-189. Epub 2021 Aug 13.

Department of Minimally Invasive Interventional Therapy, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou, 510060, People's Republic of China.

Objective: To analyze the radiation dose received by patients during hepatic artery infusion chemotherapy (HAIC) and transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) procedures and the related influencing factors.

Methods: Data of 162 cases in the HAIC group and 230 cases in the TACE group were collected. The included covariates were Age (<45/45-59/≥60 years), BMI levels (underweight/normal weight/obesity), focus Dye of tumor (present/absent), lesion size (<5cm/≥5cm), superselection (present/absent), hepatic vascular variation (present/absent). The endpoints were postoperative dose-area product (DAP), exposure time and Air kerma (AK).

Results: Of all included patients, the HAIC group patients were younger than those in the TACE group (P ​= ​0.028). The proportion of patients with large lesions in the HAIC group was higher than the TACE group (45.7% vs. 33.9%, P ​= ​0.019). The proportion of patients who had superselection was lower in the HAIC group as compared to the TACE group (61.7% vs. 82.2%, P ​< ​0.001). Generally, the HAIC group has lower DAP, exposure time and AK by 36.3% (P ​< ​0.001), 38.2% (P ​< ​0.001), and 41.3% (P ​< ​0.001) than the TACE group, respectively. Linear regression analysis showed the procedure method (HAIC/TACE, P ​< ​0.001), type of DSA machine (Pheno/FD20, P ​< ​0.001), BMI levels (P ​< ​0.001), age (P ​= ​0.021), lesion size (<5cm/≥5 ​cm, P ​= ​0.031) significantly correlated with low DAP. In the HAIC group, the type of DSA machine and BMI correlated with the radiation dose, while in the TACE group, the type of DSA machine, BMI, and lesion size correlated with the radiation dose.

Conclusion: Compared with TACE, HAIC enables doctors and patients to receive lower radiation doses. Obese patients in both HAIC and TACE groups increase the radiation exposure in interventional doctors and patients, but large lesions only affect the radiation dose in the TACE procedure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jimed.2021.08.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8947989PMC
November 2021

Characteristics of a capnophilic small colony variant of Escherichia coli co-isolated with two other strains from a patient with bacteremia in China.

Arch Microbiol 2022 May 18;204(6):333. Epub 2022 May 18.

Department of Laboratory Medicine, Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital, the Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing University Medical School, Nanjing, 210008, Jiangsu, China.

Small colony variants (SCVs) are a slow-growing subpopulation of bacteria characterized by their atypical colony morphology and distinct biochemical properties, which are known to cause chronic persistent infections. Here, we investigated the characteristics of three phenotypes of Escherichia coli, including a capnophilic SCV, co-isolated from a 64-year-old patient with bacteremia in China. The three strains were identified as a capnophilic strain (EC1), a capnophilic SCV (EC2), and a normal colony strain (EC3). The EC1 and EC2 strains did not grow in the absence of CO, while the EC2 colonies were pinpoint in appearance and had the ability to revert to the normal colony phenotype. The growth of the SCV was slow and not enhanced in the presence of thymidine, hemin, thiamine, and menadione. The results of antimicrobial susceptibility among the three strains showed similar sensitivity to cefoxitin and imipenem, but resistant to most of the other antimicrobials tested. Whole-genome sequencing showed that no genetic mutational variations associated with SCVs were observed, while EC1, EC2 and the revertible strains of EC2 lacked the can gene. Multi-locus sequence typing showed that all strains belonged to ST457 and nucleotide similarity analysis indicated that they had high homology. In conclusion, we report rarely described co-isolated forms of three phenotypes of E. coli that included a capnophilic SCV in a patient with bacteremia. The capnophilic SCV strain had atypical morphology and biochemical characteristics in the absence of can gene. Based on our findings, we have discussed the laboratory identification, characterization, mechanisms, and clinical treatment of capnophilic SCV strains.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00203-022-02932-8DOI Listing
May 2022

Novel abrasive-free jet polishing for Bulk single-crystal KDP with a low viscosity microemulsion.

Sci Rep 2022 May 18;12(1):8346. Epub 2022 May 18.

Institute of Machinery Manufacturing Technology, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang, 621900, China.

In present work, the abrasive-free jet polishing (AFJP) of bulk single-crystal KDP was first fulfilled, when using a newly-designed low-viscosity microemulsion as the AFJP fluid. The novel AFJP fluid shows a typical water-in-oil structure, in which the water cores uniformly distribute in the BmimPF6 IL, with a particle size of about 20-25 nm. What's more, the AFJP fluid is a controllable and selective non-abrasive jet fluid that the shape of the removal function is regular and smooth, presenting a similar Gaussian function, meanwhile, the dispersion coefficient of the removal rate is only 1.9%. Finally, the surface quality of the bulk single-crystal KDP is further improved by AFJP, meanwhile, the subsurface damage is first obviously mitigated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-022-12447-3DOI Listing
May 2022

Performance of gravity-driven membrane systems for algal water treatment: Effects of temperature and membrane properties.

Sci Total Environ 2022 May 15:155963. Epub 2022 May 15.

Key Lab of Smart Prevention and Mitigation of Civil Engineering Disasters of the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology, China.

Gravity-driven membrane (GDM) systems are promising for algal water treatment. However, the algae-bacteria interaction in the biofilm on the membrane, which is highly dependent on temperature and membrane properties, is still unclear. Therefore, this study investigated the effect of temperature on the performance of GDM systems during the filtration of algae-rich water for 50 days using two types of membranes. The results suggested that the combined effect of the microbial growth (controlled by temperature) and organic rejection (related to membrane properties) determined the membrane biofilm structure and its hydraulic resistance. Increasing the temperature from 10 to 35 °C gradually improved the foulant removal by both polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) membranes, corresponding to different microbial activities. The lowest removal observed at 10 °C was attributed to the algal cell rupture and limited bacteria growth. At 25 °C, the stimulated algae population was mainly responsible for nutrient removal, meanwhile the oxygenic environment encouraged the proliferation of heterotrophic bacteria for the organic removal. At a higher temperature of 35 °C, both the nutrient and organic removal were dominated by denitrification, accompanied by a strong increase in biological activity. Although PVDF membranes had 10 times higher initial fluxes than PVC membranes, they obtained comparable final fluxes. Unlike PVDF membranes exhibited the highest final flux at 10 °C (3.64 L/m/h), the PVC membrane permeability increased in the order: 10 °C (1.58 L/m/h) < 25 °C (2.20 L/m/h) < 35 °C (4.00 L/m/h). This is mainly because the PVDF membrane fouling was dominated by microbial biomass, while PVC membranes with smaller pores and higher hydrophilicity were more sensitive to changes in microbial metabolites. This study links temperature, membrane properties and biofilm physiology, with practical relevance for the hydraulic performance of GDM systems, hopefully leading to their wider application in algal water treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2022.155963DOI Listing
May 2022

Cyclic arginine-glycine-aspartic acid-modified red blood cells for drug delivery: Synthesis and evaluation.

J Pharm Anal 2022 Apr 12;12(2):324-331. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Pharmacy, Xiamen Xianyue Hospital, Xiamen, Fujian, 361012, China.

Red blood cells (RBCs) are an excellent choice for cell preparation research because of their biocompatibility, high drug loading, and long half-life. In this study, doxorubicin (DOX) was encapsulated with RBCs as the carrier. The biotin-avidin system binding principle was used to modify biotinylated cyclic arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (cRGD) onto RBC surfaces for accurate targeting, high drug loading, and sustained drug release. The RBC drug delivery system (DDS) was characterized, and the concentration of surface sulfur in the energy spectrum was 6.330%. The physical and chemical properties of RBC DDS were as follows: drug content, 0.857 mg/mL; particle size, 3339 nm; potential value, -12.5 mV; and cumulative release rate, 81.35%. There was no significant change in RBC morphology for up to seven days. The results of the targeting and cytotoxicity studies of RBC DDS showed that many RBCs covered the surfaces of U251 cells, and the fluorescence intensity was higher than that of MCF-7 cells. The IC value of unmodified drug-loaded RBCs was 2.5 times higher than that of targeted modified drug-loaded RBCs, indicating that the targeting of cancer cells produced satisfactory inhibition. This study confirms that the RBC DDS has the characteristics of accurate targeting, high drug loading, and slow drug release, which increases its likelihood of becoming a clinical cancer treatment in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpha.2021.06.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9091773PMC
April 2022

Towards Large-Scale and Privacy-Preserving Contact Tracing in COVID-19 Pandemic: A Blockchain Perspective.

IEEE Trans Netw Sci Eng 2022 Jan 23;9(1):282-298. Epub 2020 Oct 23.

Beijing National Research Center for Information Science and Technology Beijing 100084 China.

Activity-tracking applications and location-based services using short-range communication (SRC) techniques have been abruptly demanded in the COVID-19 pandemic, especially for automated contact tracing. The attention from both public and policy keeps raising on related practical problems, including To answer these questions, in this paper, we propose a decentralized and permissionless blockchain protocol, named . Specifically, 1) a privacy-preserving SRC protocol for activity-tracking and corresponding generalized block structure is developed, by connecting an interactive zero-knowledge proof protocol and the key escrow mechanism. As a result, connections between personal identity and the ownership of on-chain location information are decoupled. Meanwhile, the owner of the on-chain location data can still claim its ownership without revealing the private key to anyone else. 2) An artificial potential field-based incentive allocation mechanism is proposed to incentivize IoT witnesses to pursue the maximum monitoring coverage deployment. We implemented and evaluated the proposed blockchain protocol in the real-world using the Bluetooth 5.0. The storage, CPU utilization, power consumption, time delay, and security of each procedure and performance of activities are analyzed. The experiment and security analysis is shown to provide a real-world performance evaluation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TNSE.2020.3030925DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8905609PMC
January 2022

Deposition of Skin-Adhesive Liquid Metal Particles with Robust Wear Resistance for Epidermal Electronics.

Nano Lett 2022 May 17. Epub 2022 May 17.

Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Smart Healthcare Engineering, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Southern University of Science and Technology, No. 1088 Xueyuan Road, Nanshan District, Shenzhen, Guangdong 518055, P. R. China.

Comfort and mechanical stability are vital for epidermal electronics in daily use. deposition of circuitry without the protection of substrates or encapsulation can produce imperceptible, conformal, and permeable epidermal electronics. However, they are easily destroyed by daily wear because the binding force between deposited materials and skin is usually weak. Here, we deposited skin-adhesive liquid metal particles (ALMP) to fabricate epidermal electronics with robust wear resistance. It represents the most wear-resistant deposited epidermal electronic materials. It can withstand ∼1600 cm, 175 g loaded paper tape wearing by a standard abrasion wear tester. Stretchability, conformality, permeability, and thinness of the ALMP coating provide an imperceptible and comfortable wearing experience. Without degradation of electrical property caused by solvent evaporation, the dry ALMP coating possesses natural advantages over gel electrodes. deposited ALMP is an ideal material for fabricating comfortable epidermal electronics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.nanolett.2c01270DOI Listing
May 2022

Effectiveness and safety of oral anticoagulants in non-valvular atrial fibrillation patients with prior bleeding events: a retrospective analysis of administrative claims databases.

J Thromb Thrombolysis 2022 May 17. Epub 2022 May 17.

Department of Hospital Medicine, Ochsner Clinic Foundation, New Orleans, LA, USA.

Introduction: There are a paucity of real-world data examining effectiveness and safety of non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) and warfarin in nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) patients with prior bleeding.

Methods: This retrospective analysis included data from 5 insurance claims databases and included NVAF patients prescribed OACs with prior bleeding. One-to-one propensity score matching was conducted between NOACs and warfarin and between NOACs in each database. Cox proportional hazards models were used to evaluate the risk of stroke/systemic embolism (SE) and MB.

Results: A total of 244,563 patients (mean age 77; 50% female) with prior bleeding included 55,094 (22.5%) treated with apixaban, 12,500 (5.1%) with dabigatran, 38,246 (15.6%) with rivaroxaban, and 138,723 (56.7%) with warfarin. Apixaban (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.76 [95% CI: 0.70, 0.83]) and rivaroxaban (HR: 0.79 [95% CI: 0.71, 0.87]) had a lower risk of stroke/SE vs. warfarin. Apixaban (HR: 0.67 [95% CI: 0.64, 0.70]) and dabigatran (HR: 0.88 [95% CI: 0.81, 0.96]) had a lower risk of MB vs. warfarin. Apixaban patients had a lower risk of stroke/SE vs. dabigatran (HR: 0.70 [95% CI: 0.57, 0.86]) and rivaroxaban (HR: 0.85 [95% CI: 0.76, 0.96]) and a lower risk of MB than dabigatran (HR: 0.73 [95% CI: 0.67, 0.81]) and rivaroxaban (HR: 0.64 [95% CI: 0.61, 0.68]).

Conclusions: In this real-world analysis of a large sample of NVAF patients with prior bleeding, NOACs were associated with similar or lower risk of stroke/SE and MB vs. warfarin and variable risk of stroke/SE and MB against each other.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11239-022-02660-2DOI Listing
May 2022

2021 White Paper on Recent Issues in Bioanalysis: ISR for Biomarkers, Liquid Biopsies, Spectral Cytometry, Inhalation/Oral & Multispecific Biotherapeutics, Accuracy/LLOQ for Flow Cytometry ( - Recommendations on Biomarkers/CDx Assays Development & Validation, Cytometry Validation & Innovation, Biotherapeutics PK LBA Regulated Bioanalysis, Critical Reagents & Positive Controls Generation).

Bioanalysis 2022 May 17. Epub 2022 May 17.

Pfizer, Andover, MA, USA.

The 15th edition of the Workshop on Recent Issues in Bioanalysis (15th WRIB) was held on 27 September to 1 October 2021. Even with a last-minute move from in-person to virtual, an overwhelmingly high number of nearly 900 professionals representing pharma and biotech companies, contract research organizations (CROs), and multiple regulatory agencies still eagerly convened to actively discuss the most current topics of interest in bioanalysis. The 15th WRIB included three Main Workshops and seven Specialized Workshops that together spanned 1 week in order to allow exhaustive and thorough coverage of all major issues in bioanalysis, biomarkers, immunogenicity, gene therapy, cell therapy and vaccines. Moreover, in-depth workshops on biomarker assay development and validation (BAV) (focused on clarifying the confusion created by the increased use of the term "context of use" [COU]); mass spectrometry of proteins (therapeutic, biomarker and transgene); state-of-the-art cytometry innovation and validation; and critical reagent and positive control generation were the special features of the 15th edition. This 2021 White Paper encompasses recommendations emerging from the extensive discussions held during the workshop, and is aimed to provide the bioanalytical community with key information and practical solutions on topics and issues addressed, in an effort to enable advances in scientific excellence, improved quality and better regulatory compliance. Due to its length, the 2021 edition of this comprehensive White Paper has been divided into three parts for editorial reasons. This publication (Part 2) covers the recommendations on ISR for Biomarkers, Liquid Biopsies, Spectral Cytometry, Inhalation/Oral & Multispecific Biotherapeutics, Accuracy/LLOQ for Flow Cytometry. Part 1A (Endogenous Compounds, Small Molecules, Complex Methods, Regulated Mass Spec of Large Molecules, Small Molecule, PoC), Part 1B (Regulatory Agencies' Inputs on Bioanalysis, Biomarkers, Immunogenicity, Gene & Cell Therapy and Vaccine) and Part 3 (TAb/NAb, Viral Vector CDx, Shedding Assays; CRISPR/Cas9 & CAR-T Immunogenicity; PCR & Vaccine Assay Performance; ADA Assay Comparability & Cut Point Appropriateness) are published in volume 14 of Bioanalysis, issues 9 and 11 (2022), respectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4155/bio-2022-0080DOI Listing
May 2022

Structures of the endogenous peptide- and selective non-peptide agonist-bound SSTR2 signaling complexes.

Cell Res 2022 May 16. Epub 2022 May 16.

Department of General Surgery, Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41422-022-00669-zDOI Listing
May 2022

Inductive stimuli of the startle response and critical points of psychological treatment in a severe burn patient.

J Burn Care Res 2022 May 16. Epub 2022 May 16.

Doctor of Psychiatry, Chengdu Medical College, Sichuan Province, China.

Severe burn patients often have anxiety, depression, and stress-related disorders. The case we reported was very nervous and exhibited a long-term high-frequency startle response, which disrupted his sleep seriously and decreased treatment compliance. However, after psychological treatment, his startle response in the daytime and nervousness gradually improved, but the startle response at night remained unchanged. Furthermore, after his wife was given three sessions of psychological treatment to manage her fear of surgery, the startle response at night was significantly reduced. Herein, we summarize the inductive stimuli of the startle response and the critical points of psychological treatment in this case to provide the clinical experience for future research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jbcr/irac066DOI Listing
May 2022

Immune Checkpoint Protein Expression Defines the Prognosis of Advanced Thyroid Carcinoma.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2022 27;13:859013. Epub 2022 Apr 27.

Department of Oncology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Background: Patients with advanced thyroid carcinoma (TC), such as anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC), poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma (PDTC), and locally advanced papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), have poor prognoses and require novel treatments. Immune checkpoint (ICP) inhibitors have demonstrated encouraging and good results; nevertheless, their effect in advanced TCs remains largely unclear. Thus, we demonstrated ICP profiles and investigated their potential clinical significance.

Methods: A total of 234 TC patients were involved, with 22 ATCs, 44 PDTCs, and 168 PTCs, including 58 advanced PTCs. Immunohistochemistry was performed to evaluate nine ICPs [programmed cell death ligand 1 (PDL1), Programmed cell death 1 (PD1), cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA4), B and T lymphocyte attenuator (BTLA), T-cell immunoglobulin and immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif (ITIM) domain (TIGIT), lymphocyte activation gene 3 (LAG3), V-domain immunoglobulin suppressor of T-cell activation (VISTA), B7 homolog 3 (B7-H3), and T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain- 3 protein (TIM3)] expression tissue microarrays (TMAs), and clinical correlations were analyzed simultaneously.

Results: ATC had the highest positive rate of ICPs among the three pathological types, as well as relatively high ICP co-expression. ATC with high expression of PDL1 positivity had a poor prognosis. Shorter survival was associated with VISTA, B7H3, TIM3, and TIGIT expression in PDTC. The greater the co-expression of these four ICPs, the poorer the prognosis in PDTC patients. VISTA and B7H3 were the two most commonly expressed ICPs in advanced PTC, both of which were linked to a poor prognosis.

Conclusions: PDL1 is linked to the overall survival (OS) of ATC. A subset of PDTC is likely immunogenic with poor prognosis and co-expression of VISTA, B7H3, TIM3, and TIGIT. Furthermore, VISTA and B7H3 are prognostic biomarkers in advanced PTC. Single or combined blockade targeting these ICPs might be effective for advanced TCs in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2022.859013DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9094437PMC
May 2022

A Study on the Relationship between Mental Resilience, Work-Family Conflict, and Anxiety of Nurses in Shandong, China.

Biomed Res Int 2022 2;2022:4308618. Epub 2022 Mar 2.

The Second Affiliated Hospital of Shandong First Medical University, Taian, Shandong 271000, China.

Based on Freud's personality theory, 839 nurses from 5 public hospitals in Shandong Province were selected by the convenience sampling method. A cross-sectional survey was conducted to investigate the correlation among resilience, work-family conflict (WFC), and anxiety (SAS). The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship among resilience, WFC, and SAS of these nurses and to provide evidence with reducing WFC and SAS for the nurses. The results showed that the total score of resilience, WFC, and SAS was 58.00 ± 18.27, 53.46 ± 13.29, and 49.98 ± 14.73, respectively. There was 47.68% of the nurses that had anxiety, and 10.97% of the nurses had severe anxiety. There were significant differences in the score of SAS among the length of service, self-perceived health status, confidence in nursing professional development, WFC, and resilience ( < 0.05). This study draws the following conclusions: the proportion of anxiety is high, and the level of resilience is lower than the domestic norm. Length of service, self-perceived health status, confidence in nursing professional development, WFC, and resilience were the important influencing factors of anxiety. It is suggested that hospital managers should pay attention to the mental health of nurses, take active intervention measures according to the influencing factors of SAS, improve nurses' psychological resilience, reduce WFC and anxiety, improve nurses' mental health and well-being, and ensure nursing safety.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2022/4308618DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9095409PMC
May 2022

Multiomics Studies Investigating Recurrent Pregnancy Loss: An Effective Tool for Mechanism Exploration.

Front Immunol 2022 27;13:826198. Epub 2022 Apr 27.

Reproductive Medicine Center, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, China.

Patients with recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) account for approximately 1%-5% of women aiming to achieve childbirth. Although studies have shown that RPL is associated with failure of endometrial decidualization, placental dysfunction, and immune microenvironment disorder at the maternal-fetal interface, the exact pathogenesis remains unknown. With the development of high-throughput technology, more studies have focused on the genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics of RPL, and new gene mutations and new biomarkers of RPL have been discovered, providing an opportunity to explore the pathogenesis of RPL from different biological processes. Bioinformatics analyses of these differentially expressed genes, proteins and metabolites also reflect the biological pathways involved in RPL, laying a foundation for further research. In this review, we summarize the findings of omics studies investigating decidual tissue, villous tissue and blood from patients with RPL and identify some possible limitations of current studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2022.826198DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9094436PMC
May 2022

Trends and sex differences in atrial fibrillation hospitalization and catheter ablation at tertiary hospitals in China from 2013 to 2016.

J Geriatr Cardiol 2022 Apr;19(4):292-300

Department of Cardiology, Peking University First Hospital, Beijing, China.

Background: Catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation (AF) is commonly performed worldwide. However, the clinical characteristics of hospitalized patients with AF and national trends in catheter ablation at tertiary hospitals in China remain unreported.

Methods: This study used the Chinese national database (Hospital Quality Monitoring System) from 2013 to 2016, which is a mandatory database that collects the front page of patients' medical records for hospital accreditation, to describe the clinical characteristics of patients with AF as an overall cohort and as subgroups divided by catheter ablation and sex.

Results: Of 597,919 AF patients first admitted, 57,983 patients underwent catheter ablation [56,384 cases (97.2%) of radiofrequency ablation and 1599 cases (2.8%) of cryoablation] at 746 tertiary hospitals. Nearly 10% of patients hospitalized with AF at tertiary hospitals in China underwent catheter ablation, and the percentage of patients undergoing catheter ablation was on the rise between 2013 and 2016, and the number of cases increased by 2.5 times. Compared with AF patients who did not undergo catheter ablation, those who did were younger, more frequently male, and had fewer baseline comorbidities. Although the overall CHADSVASc score revealed over half of the patients were high-risk, patients who underwent catheter ablation were mostly low-risk (71.2% of males and 59.1% of females). Considering in-hospital adverse events, the overall pericardial tamponade and all-cause death incidences were 0.2% (0.6% in the ablation group) and 1.2% (0.1% in the ablation group), respectively; both of which were higher in females than males.

Conclusions: In this study, AF patients who underwent catheter ablation were relatively young, had a low thrombosis risk, and had few comorbidities and adverse events. Females were older and experienced more complications than males.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2022.04.006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9068587PMC
April 2022

Effects of Air Frying on French Fries: The Indication Role of Physicochemical Properties on the Formation of Maillard Hazards, and the Changes of Starch Digestibility.

Front Nutr 2022 27;9:889901. Epub 2022 Apr 27.

Tianjin Key Laboratory of Food Science and Health, School of Medicine, Nankai University, Tianjin, China.

This study focused on the formation of Maillard hazards in air fried fries, highlighting the correlation between the resultant physical properties of the fries and the formation of Maillard hazards. In the meantime, the effects of air frying on the starch digestibility of fries were explored. Potato strips were fried at various temperatures (180-200°C) and time (12-24 min). Results indicated that the extent of browning, hardness, and the contents of Maillard hazards (acrylamide, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, methylglyoxal, and glyoxal) all increased steadily with air frying temperature and time. Moisture content were negatively correlated ( < 0.001) with Maillard hazards content and physicochemical properties except for L with the correlation coefficients range from -0.53 to 0.94, and positively correlated with L value with correlation coefficient was 0.91, hence, reducing the Maillard hazard exposure while maintaining the desired product quality can be achieved by controlling the moisture content of the air fried French fries. Compared with deep frying (180°C-6 min), air frying decreased acrylamide and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural content with the maximum reduction rate were 47.31 and 57.04%, respectively. In addition, the digestion results suggested that air frying resulted in higher levels of slowly digestible starch (48.54-58.42%) and lower levels of resistant starch (20.08-29.34%) as compared to those from deep frying (45.59 ± 4.89 and 35.22 ± 0.65%, respectively), which might contribute to more balanced blood sugar levels after consumption. Based on the above results, it was concluded that air frying can reduce the formation of food hazards and was relatively healthier.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnut.2022.889901DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9097553PMC
April 2022

Comparison of the effects of perineural or intravenous dexamethasone on thoracic paravertebral block in Ivor-Lewis esophagectomy: A double-blind randomized trial.

Clin Transl Sci 2022 May 15. Epub 2022 May 15.

Department of Anesthesiology, Xuzhou Central Hospital, The Affiliated XuZhou Hospital of Nanjing Medical University.

Efforts to prolong thoracic paravertebral block (TPVB) analgesia include local anesthetic adjuvants such as dexamethasone (Dex). Previous studies showed that both perineural (PN) and intravenous (IV) routes could prolong analgesia. As perineural Dex is an off-label use, anesthesiologists should be fully informed of the clinical differences, if any, on block duration. This study was designed to evaluate the two administration routes of dexamethasone for duration of analgesia in TPVB. Ninety-five patients scheduled for Ivor-Lewis esophagectomy were randomized to receive TPVB (0.5% ropivacaine 15 ml), perineural or intravenous dexamethasone 8 mg. The primary endpoint was the duration of analgesia. The secondary endpoints included pain scores, analgesic consumption, adverse effects rate, and incidence of chronic pain at 3 months postoperation. The PN-Dex group showed better analgesic effects than the IV-Dex group ( P<0.05). Similarly, the visual analogue scale (VAS) scores in patients at 2 h, 4h, 8h, and 12h postoperation were lower in the PN-Dex group than the IV-Dex group (P<0.05).The analgesic consumption in both the PN-Dex and IV-Dex groups was significantly lower than that in the control group (P<0.05). Regarding the incidence of chronic pain, regardless of route, Dex decreased the incidence of chronic postsurgical pain (CPSP) and neuropathic pain (NP) at 3 months after surgery (P<0.05), but there were no clinical differences between the IV-Dex and PN-Dex groups. Perineural dexamethasone improved the magnitude and duration of analgesia compared to that of the IV-Dex group in TPVB in Ivor-Lewis esophagectomy. However, there were no clinically significant differences between the two groups in the incidence of chronic pain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cts.13304DOI Listing
May 2022

Interaction of HnRNP F with the guanine-rich segments in viral antigenomic RNA enhances porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus-2 replication.

Virol J 2022 May 15;19(1):82. Epub 2022 May 15.

Key Laboratory of Veterinary Biological Products, College of Veterinary Medicine, Henan University of Animal Husbandry and Economy, Zhengzhou, 450046, China.

Background: Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (HnRNP) F is a member of HnRNP family proteins that participate in splicing of cellular newly synthesized mRNAs by specifically recognizing tandem guanine-tracts (G-tracts) RNA sequences. Whether HnRNP F could recognize viral-derived tandem G-tracts and affect virus replication remain poorly defined.

Methods: The effect of HnRNP F on porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) propagation was evaluated by real-time PCR, western blotting, and plaque-forming unit assay. The association between HnRNP F and PRRSV guanine-rich segments (GRS) were analyzed by RNA pulldown and RNA immunoprecipitation. The expression pattern of HnRNP F was investigated by western blotting and nuclear and cytoplasmic fractionation.

Results: Knockdown of endogenous HnRNP F effectively blocks the synthesis of viral RNA and nucleocapsid (N) protein. Conversely, overexpression of porcine HnRNP F has the opposite effect. Moreover, RNA pulldown and RNA immunoprecipitation assays reveal that the qRMM1 and qRRM2 domains of HnRNP F recognize the GRS in PRRSV antigenomic RNA. Finally, HnRNP F is redistributed into the cytoplasm and forms a complex with guanine-quadruplex (G4) helicase DHX36 during PRRSV infection.

Conclusions: These findings elucidate the potential functions of HnRNP F in regulating the proliferation of PRRSV and contribute to a better molecular understanding of host-PRRSV interactions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12985-022-01811-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9107676PMC
May 2022

Molecular insights into ligand recognition and activation of chemokine receptors CCR2 and CCR3.

Cell Discov 2022 May 15;8(1):44. Epub 2022 May 15.

Key Laboratory of Respiratory Disease of Zhejiang Province, Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China.

Chemokine receptors are a family of G-protein-coupled receptors with key roles in leukocyte migration and inflammatory responses. Here, we present cryo-electron microscopy structures of two human CC chemokine receptor-G-protein complexes: CCR2 bound to its endogenous ligand CCL2, and CCR3 in the apo state. The structure of the CCL2-CCR2-G-protein complex reveals that CCL2 inserts deeply into the extracellular half of the transmembrane domain, and forms substantial interactions with the receptor through the most N-terminal glutamine. Extensive hydrophobic and polar interactions are present between both two chemokine receptors and the Gα-protein, contributing to the constitutive activity of these receptors. Notably, complemented with functional experiments, the interactions around intracellular loop 2 of the receptors are found to be conserved and play a more critical role in G-protein activation than those around intracellular loop 3. Together, our findings provide structural insights into chemokine recognition and receptor activation, shedding lights on drug design targeting chemokine receptors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41421-022-00403-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9108096PMC
May 2022

Closed reduction and posterior percutaneous internal fixation for simple displaced talar neck fracture: a retrospective comparative study.

Int Orthop 2022 May 16. Epub 2022 May 16.

Foot and Ankle Surgery Department, Honghui Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, Shanxi, 710054, China.

Purpose: Open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) is the most commonly used surgical technique for talar neck fracture, but there are high risks for complications and poor functional outcomes. In this study, we reported the closed reduction and percutaneous internal fixation (CRPIF) technique of the bilateral approach of the Achilles tendon for simple displaced talar neck fracture, in comparison with ORIF.

Methods: Data of 15 patients in the CRPIF group and 22 in the ORIF group were included. The American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) score, Visual Analog Scale (VAS) score, 12-item Short-Form Survey (SF-12) score, range of motion (ROM), complications, and radiographic results were recorded and compared.

Results: The mean follow-up in the CRPIF group was 33.9 months. Complications included two cases of avascular necrosis (AVN) and two cases of osteoarthritis. All patients achieved bony union and recovered their pre-operative mobility. The mean follow-up in the ORIF group was 39 months. Complications included two cases of bony nonunion, nine AVN, and seven cases of osteoarthritis. Moreover, the mobility of the ORIF group was significantly lower than the CRPIF group post-operatively. The AOFAS score, VAS score, and SF-12 physical component score (PCS) for the CRPIF group were better improved than those for the ORIF group (ALL, P < 0.05).

Conclusions: The CRPIF technique of the bilateral approach of the Achilles tendon was an effective method for the treatment of simple displaced talar neck fractures. Compared with the ORIF, the limited blood supply of the talus was protected, provide better functional outcomes and biomechanical fixation, and lower incidence of resurgery and complication in the CRPIF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00264-022-05432-yDOI Listing
May 2022

Association between triclosan exposure and obesity measures among 7-year-old children in northern China.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2022 May 12;239:113610. Epub 2022 May 12.

MOE and Shanghai Key Laboratory of Children's Environmental Health, Xin Hua Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200092, China; Department of Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200025, China. Electronic address:

Background: Triclosan (TCS) is a widely used synthetic antibacterial compound with ubiquitous human exposure. Animal studies have suggested the obesogenic effect of TCS exposure, but knowledge regarding its impacts on childhood obesity was limited.

Objective: To investigate the associations of TCS exposure with childhood obesity in northern China.

Methods: This study included 423 children who participated in the 7-year-old follow-up visits of Laizhou Wan Birth Cohort in Shandong, northern China. Children's TCS exposure were determined in spot urine samples via high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass. Their height, weight, waist circumference, body fat percentage, body mass index (BMI), and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) were measured or calculated. BMI z-score ≥ 85th percentile was defined as overweight/obesity, and WHtR ≥ 0.5 was considered to be abdominal obesity. Multivariable linear regressions, generalized linear models (GLMs), and multivariable logistic regressions were performed to examine the associations between TCS exposure and obesity measures in children.

Results: Linear regressions showed that TCS concentrations, when treated as continuous variables, were positively associated with BMI z-score (β = 0.12, 95% CI: 0.01, 0.24) and body fat percentage (β = 0.82, 95% CI: 0.13, 1.52). When TCS concentrations were categorized as a four-level ordinal variable, the results of GLMs were similar those of continuous variables and both of the positive trends were significant (p-trend = 0.049 for BMI z-score; p-trend = 0.023 for body fat percentage). Moreover, the higher TCS levels versus reference group were associated with an approximate 2-3 fold increased risk of abdominal obesity (p-trend = 0.044).

Conclusion: Exposure to TCS was positively associated with obesity measures among 7-year-old children in northern, China. Given to the cross-sectional study design, a large prospective study is warranted to confirm our findings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2022.113610DOI Listing
May 2022
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