Publications by authors named "Yan Zeng"

700 Publications

Changes in , and oral health conditions following Prenatal Total Oral Rehabilitation among underserved pregnant women.

Heliyon 2021 Aug 26;7(8):e07871. Epub 2021 Aug 26.

Eastman Institute for Oral Health, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY, USA.

Objectives: To assess the oral health condition and oral microbial outcomes from receiving an innovative treatment regimen - Prenatal Total Oral Rehabilitation (PTOR).

Methods: This prospective cohort study included 15 pregnant women in the PTOR group who had a baseline visit before PTOR and three follow-up visits (immediate after, 2 weeks and 2 months) after receiving PTOR. A historical control group of additional 15 pregnant women was matched from a separate study based on a propensity score. Along with demographic and medical background, oral health conditions and perinatal oral health literacy were assessed. Oral samples (saliva and plaque) were analyzed to identify and quantify and species by culturing-dependent and -independent methods.

Results: Significant reductions of salivary were observed following PTOR, the effect remained until 2-month follow-up ( < 0.05). The carriage of salivary and plaque at the 2-month visit of the PTOR group was significantly lower than that of the control group ( < 0.05). Oral health conditions reflected by BOP and PI were significantly improved upon receiving PTOR ( < 0.05). Receiving PTOR significantly improved the perinatal oral health literacy score, and the knowledge retained until 2-month follow-up ( < 0.05).

Conclusions: PTOR is associated with an improvement in oral health conditions and perinatal oral health literacy, and a reduction in carriage, within a 2-month follow-up period. Future clinical trials are warranted to comprehensively assess the impact of PTOR on the maternal oral flora other than and , birth outcomes, and their offspring's oral health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2021.e07871DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8405901PMC
August 2021

Nonlinear Causal Discovery for High-Dimensional Deterministic Data.

IEEE Trans Neural Netw Learn Syst 2021 Sep 3;PP. Epub 2021 Sep 3.

Nonlinear causal discovery with high-dimensional data where each variable is multidimensional plays a significant role in many scientific disciplines, such as social network analysis. Previous work majorly focuses on exploiting asymmetry in the causal and anticausal directions between two high-dimensional variables (a cause-effect pair). Although there exist some works that concentrate on the causal order identification between multiple variables, i.e., more than two high-dimensional variables, they do not validate the consistency of methods through theoretical analysis on multiple-variable data. In particular, based on the asymmetry for the cause-effect pair, if model assumptions for any pair of the data are violated, the asymmetry condition will not hold, resulting in the deduction of incorrect order identification. Thus, in this article, we propose a causal functional model, namely high-dimensional deterministic model (HDDM), to identify the causal orderings among multiple high-dimensional variables. We derive two candidates' selection rules to alleviate the inconvenient effects resulted from the violated-assumption pairs. The corresponding theoretical justification is provided as well. With these theoretical results, we develop a method to infer causal orderings for nonlinear multiple-variable data. Simulations on synthetic data and real-world data are conducted to verify the efficacy of our proposed method. Since we focus on deterministic relations in our method, we also verify the robustness of the noises in simulations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TNNLS.2021.3106111DOI Listing
September 2021

Low serum Maresin-1 levels are associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a cross-sectional study.

Lipids Health Dis 2021 Aug 30;20(1):96. Epub 2021 Aug 30.

Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, the Affiliated Hospital of Southwest Medical University, 25 Taiping Street, Jiangyang District, Luzhou, 646000, Sichuan, China.

Background: Maresin-1 (MaR1) is an anti-inflammatory pro-resolving mediator and is considered a potential regulator of metabolic diseases. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a very common metabolic liver disease. However, little information is available on the relationship between MaR1 and NAFLD in humans. Therefore, the study explored the association between serum MaR1 levels and NAFLD.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 240 Chinese people, including 116 non-NAFLD subjects and 124 NAFLD patients. Serum MaR1 levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The association between MaR1 and NAFLD was assessed.

Results: Circulating MaR1 levels in NAFLD patients were markedly lower than those in non-NAFLD subjects (63.63 [59.87-73.93] vs 73.11 [65.12-84.50] pg/mL, P = 0.000). The percentages of patients with NAFLD gradually decreased with the increase of MaR1 quartiles (P < 0.001). Furthermore, serum MaR1 levels were positively associated with aspartate aminotransferase/alanine aminotransferase (AST/ALT), albumin, the albumin-globulin-ratio, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (all P < 0.05) and negatively associated with body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, hip circumference, the waist-to-hip ratio, ALT, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), uric acid, triglyceride (TG), and fasting blood glucose (FBG) (all P < 0.05) after adjusting for sex and age. Binary logistic regression analysis revealed that serum MaR1 levels were significantly associated with NAFLD.

Conclusions: Circulating MaR1 levels were decreased in patients with NAFLD, and a negative correlation was identified between NAFLD and serum MaR1 concentrations. Decreased MaR1 might be involved in the development of NAFLD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12944-021-01518-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8406751PMC
August 2021

Urban-Rural Disparities in the Association Between Body Mass Index and Cognitive Impairment in Older Adults: A Cross-Sectional Study in Central China.

J Alzheimers Dis 2021 Aug 24. Epub 2021 Aug 24.

Brain Science and Advanced Technology Institute, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

Background: Some studies have demonstrated an association between low and high body mass index (BMI) and an increased risk of dementia. However, only a few of these studies were performed in rural areas.

Objective: This cross-sectional study investigated the associations between BMI and cognitive impairment among community-dwelling older adults from rural and urban areas.

Methods: 8,221 older persons enrolled in the Hubei Memory & Ageing Cohort Study (HMACS) were recruited. Sociodemographic and lifestyle data, comorbidities, physical measurements, and clinical diagnoses of cognitive impairment were analyzed. Logistic regression was performed to assess the associations of BMI categories with cognitive impairment. A series of sensitivity analyses were conducted to test whether reverse causality could influence our results.

Results: Being underweight in the rural-dwelling participants increased the risk of cognitive impairment. Being overweight was a protective factor in rural-dwelling participants aged 65-69 years and 75-79 years, whereas being underweight was significantly associated with cognitive impairment (OR, 1.37; 95% CI: 1.03-1.83; p < 0.05). Sensitivity analyses support that underweight had an additive effect on the odds of cognitive impairment and was related to risk of dementia. Interaction test revealed that the differences between urban/rural in the relationship between BMI and cognitive impairment are statistically significant.

Conclusion: Associations between BMI and cognitive impairment differ among urban/rural groups. Older people with low BMI living in rural China are at a higher risk for dementia than those living in urban areas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/JAD-210295DOI Listing
August 2021

Stabilization of Motin family proteins in NF2-deficient cells prevents full activation of YAP/TAZ and rapid tumorigenesis.

Cell Rep 2021 Aug;36(8):109596

Institute of Pediatrics, Children's Hospital of Fudan University, and Shanghai Key Laboratory of Medical Epigenetics, International Co-laboratory of Medical Epigenetics and Metabolism, Institutes of Biomedical Sciences, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

Germline alterations of the NF2 gene cause neurofibromatosis type 2, a syndrome manifested with benign tumors, and Nf2 deletion in mice also results in slow tumorigenesis. As a regulator of the Hippo signaling pathway, NF2 induces LATS1/2 kinases and consequently represses YAP/TAZ. YAP/TAZ oncoproteins are also inhibited by motin family proteins (Motins). Here, we show that the Hippo signaling is fine-tuned by Motins in a NF2-dependent manner, in which NF2 recruits E3 ligase RNF146 to facilitate ubiquitination and subsequent degradation of Motins. In the absence of NF2, Motins robustly accumulate to restrict full activation of YAP/TAZ and prevent rapid tumorigenesis. Hence, NF2 deficiency not only activates YAP/TAZ by inhibiting LATS1/2 but also stabilizes Motins to keep YAP/TAZ activity in check. The upregulation of Motins upon NF2 deletion serves as a strategy for avoiding uncontrolled perturbation of the Hippo signaling and may contribute to the benign nature of most NF2-mutated tumors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2021.109596DOI Listing
August 2021

Autophagic degradation of CCN2 (cellular communication network factor 2) causes cardiotoxicity of sunitinib.

Autophagy 2021 Aug 25:1-22. Epub 2021 Aug 25.

Center for Drug Safety Evaluation and Research of Zhejiang University, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, P.R.China.

Excessive macroautophagy/autophagy is one of the causes of cardiomyocyte death induced by cardiovascular diseases or cancer therapy, yet the underlying mechanism remains unknown. We and other groups previously reported that autophagy might contribute to cardiomyocyte death caused by sunitinib, a tumor angiogenesis inhibitor that is widely used in clinic, which may help to understand the mechanism of autophagy-induced cardiomyocyte death. Here, we found that sunitinib-induced autophagy leads to apoptosis of cardiomyocyte and cardiac dysfunction as the cardiomyocyte-specific heterozygous mice are resistant to sunitinib. Sunitinib-induced maladaptive autophagy selectively degrades the cardiomyocyte survival mediator CCN2 (cellular communication network factor 2) through the TOLLIP (toll interacting protein)-mediated endosome-related pathway and cardiomyocyte-specific knockdown of through adeno-associated virus serotype 9 (AAV9) mimics sunitinib-induced cardiac dysfunction , suggesting that the autophagic degradation of CCN2 is one of the causes of sunitinib-induced cardiotoxicity and death of cardiomyocytes. Remarkably, deletion of (high mobility group box 1) inhibited sunitinib-induced cardiomyocyte autophagy and apoptosis, and the HMGB1-specific inhibitor glycyrrhizic acid (GA) significantly mitigated sunitinib-induced autophagy, cardiomyocyte death and cardiotoxicity. Our study reveals a novel target protein of autophagic degradation in the regulation of cardiomyocyte death and highlights the pharmacological inhibitor of HMGB1 as an attractive approach for improving the safety of sunitinib-based cancer therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15548627.2021.1965712DOI Listing
August 2021

Cost-Benefit Analysis of Using A Single Dose of Tranexamic Acid in Degenerative Lumbar Scoliosis Patients Undergoing Long-Segment Spinal Fusion Surgery: A Retrospective Study.

Med Sci Monit 2021 Aug 23;27:e930352. Epub 2021 Aug 23.

Department of Orthopedics, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing, China (mainland).

BACKGROUND Degenerative lumbar scoliosis (DLS) patients undergoing posterior long-segment spinal fusion surgery often require perioperative blood transfusions, and previous studies have reported that increased complications and additional costs accompany these transfusions. One method for decreasing transfusions is the administration of tranexamic acid (TXA). We sought to evaluate the costs and benefits of preoperative administration of 1 g of intravenous TXA, without maintenance, in DLS patients undergoing long-segment spinal fusion surgery. MATERIAL AND METHODS Patients who received TXA (TXA group) were compared with patients who did not receive TXA (NTXA group) with regard to blood loss, units of packed red blood cells (PRBC) transfused, hemostasis costs, and perioperative complications. The benefits and costs were estimated through analysis of the spending on NTXA and TXA patients, and were compared. The difference between the cost per patient in the 2 groups was designated as the net cost-benefit. Then, both groups were substratified into non-osteotomy and osteotomy subgroups for further analysis. RESULTS Of the 173 patients who met the inclusion criteria, 54 TXA patients had significantly reduced perioperative blood loss and total hemostasis costs compared with NTXA patients (n=119). In the group without osteotomy (n=72), TXA (n=13) reduced perioperative blood loss but did not significantly decrease PRBC units and hemostasis costs. However, in patients undergoing osteotomy (n=101), a remarkable net cost savings of ¥648.77 per patient was shown in the TXA group (n=41) (P<0.001). This was because patients undergoing osteotomy in the TXA group received fewer PRBC units (3.7 vs 5.7, P=0.001). CONCLUSIONS A single dose of TXA significantly decreased perioperative blood loss and total hemostasis costs for DLS patients undergoing osteotomy. Furthermore, TXA led to no additional net costs in patients without osteotomy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12659/MSM.930352DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8394591PMC
August 2021

First-line treatment with chemotherapy plus cetuximab in Chinese patients with recurrent and/or metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck: Efficacy and safety results of the randomised, phase III CHANGE-2 trial.

Eur J Cancer 2021 Aug 18;156:35-45. Epub 2021 Aug 18.

Department of Medical Oncology, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Background: The EXTREME regimen (chemotherapy [CT; cisplatin/carboplatin and 5-fluorouracil]) plus cetuximab is a standard-of-care first-line (1L) treatment for patients with recurrent and/or metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (R/M SCCHN), as supported by international guidelines. The phase III CHANGE-2 trial assessed the efficacy and safety of a modified CT regimen (with a reduced dose of both components) and cetuximab versus CT for the 1L treatment of Chinese patients with R/M SCCHN.

Methods: Patients were randomised to receive up to six cycles of CT plus cetuximab followed by cetuximab maintenance until progressive disease or CT alone. The primary end-point was the progression-free survival (PFS) time assessed by the independent review committee (IRC).

Results: Overall, 243 patients were randomised (164 to CT plus cetuximab; 79 to CT). The hazard ratios for PFS by IRC and overall survival (OS) were 0.57 (95% CI: 0.40-0.80; median: 5.5 versus 4.2 months) and 0.69 (95% CI: 0.50-0.93; median: 11.1 versus 8.9 months), respectively, in favour of CT plus cetuximab. The objective response rates (ORR) by IRC were 50.0% and 26.6% with CT plus cetuximab and CT treatment, respectively. Treatment-emergent adverse events of maximum grade 3 or 4 occurred in 61.3% (CT plus cetuximab) and 48.7% (CT) of patients.

Conclusions: CHANGE-2 showed an improved median PFS, median OS and ORR with the addition of cetuximab to a modified platinum/5-fluorouracil regimen, with no new or unexpected safety findings, thereby confirming CT plus cetuximab as an effective and safe 1L treatment for Chinese patients with R/M SCCHN.

Clinical Trial Registration Number: NCT02383966.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejca.2021.06.039DOI Listing
August 2021

Lactobacillus plantarum surface-displayed ASFV (p54) with porcine IL-21 generally stimulates protective immune responses in mice.

AMB Express 2021 Aug 12;11(1):114. Epub 2021 Aug 12.

College of Veterinary Medicine, College of Animal Science and Technology, Jilin Provincial Engineering Research Center of Animal Probiotics, Key Laboratory of Animal Production and Product Quality Safety of the Ministry of Education, Jilin Agricultural University, 2888 Xincheng Street, Changchun, 130118, China.

African classical swine fever virus (ASFV) has spread seriously around the world and has dealt with a heavy blow to the pig breeding industry due to the lack of vaccines. In this study, we produced recombinant Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum) expressing an ASFV p54 and porcine IL-21 (pIL-21) fusion protein and evaluated the immune effect of NC8-pSIP409-pgsA'-p54-pIL-21 in a mouse model. First, we verified that the ASFV p54 protein and p54-pIL-21 fusion protein were anchored on the surface of L. plantarum NC8 by flow cytometry, immunofluorescence and Western blotting. Then, the results were verified by flow cytometry, ELISA and MTT assays. Mouse-specific humoral immunity and mucosal and T cell-mediated immune responses were induced by recombinant L. plantarum. The results of feeding mice recombinant L. plantarum showed that the levels of serum IgG and mucosal secreted IgA (SIgA), the number of CD4 and CD8 T cells, and the expression of IFN-γ in CD4 and CD8 T cells increased significantly, and lymphocyte proliferation occurred under stimulation with the ASFV p54 protein. Our data lay a foundation for the development of oral vaccines against ASFV in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13568-021-01275-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8360262PMC
August 2021

[A pedigree analysis of a rare RhD 336-1G>A intron variant].

Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi 2021 Aug;38(8):803-806

Shaoxing Women and Children's Hospital, Shaoxing, Zhejiang 312000, China.

Objective: To explore the molecular mechanism of a case where RhD genotyping did not match serological results.

Methods: The serological results of 8 members from two generations of this family were analyzed. And according to Mendelian law of inheritance, RhD genotyping, zygotic type determination and gene sequencing were performed for the family members.

Results: The proband and one of her cousins have the same RhD alleles, both of them have a 336-1G>A intron variant RhD allele and a complete RhD deletion allele. The variant alleles are inherited from two of their parents with blood relationship, while the complete-deleted alleles come from the other. 336-1G>A means that the last base G of the second intron of the RhD gene is mutated to A, which leads to a negative RhD serology and a positive genotype in the proband.

Conclusion: There was a rare 336-1G> A intron variant gene (RhD * 01N.25) in this family, which was a recessive gene relative to the RhD gene and resulted in RhD phenotype negative.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.cn511374-20200316-00166DOI Listing
August 2021

MicroRNA and circRNA Expression Analysis in a Zbtb1 Gene Knockout Monoclonal EL4 Cell Line.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2021 5;11:706919. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Jilin Agricultural University, Changchun, China.

Zinc finger and BTB domain containing 1(Zbtb1) is a transcriptional suppressor protein, and a member of the mammalian Zbtb gene family. Previous studies have shown that Zbtb1 is essential for T-cell development. However, the role of Zbtb1 in T-cell lymphoma is undetermined. In this study, an EL4 cell line with Zbtb1 deletion was constructed using the CRISPR-Cas9 technique. The expression profiles of microRNA and circRNA produced by the control and gene deletion groups were determined by RNA-seq. In general, 24 differentially expressed microRNA and 16 differentially expressed circRNA were found between normal group and gene deletion group. Through further analysis of differentially expressed genes, GO term histogram and KEGG scatter plot were drawn, and three pairs of miRNA and circRNA regulatory relationships were found. This study describes the differentially expressed microRNA and circRNA in normal and Zbtb1-deficient EL4 cell lines, thus providing potential targets for drug development and clinical treatment of T-cell lymphoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcimb.2021.706919DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8287301PMC
July 2021

Comparative analysis of the genetic diversity of the neutral microsatellite loci and second exon of the goat MHC-DQB1 gene.

Anim Biotechnol 2021 Jul 21:1-8. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

College of Animal Science and Technology, Chongqing Key Laboratory of Forage & Herbivore, Chongqing Engineering Research Centre for Herbivores Resource Protection and Utilization, Southwest University, Chongqing, China.

This study compared and analyzed the genetic diversity and population structure of exon 2 of the gene and 13 autosomal neutral microsatellite markers from 14 Chinese goat breeds to explore the potential evolutionary mechanism of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). A total of 287 haplotypes were constructed from MHC-DQB1 exon 2 from 14 populations, and 82 nucleotide polymorphic sites (SNPs, 31.78%) and 172 heterozygous individuals (79.12%) were identified. The values of the microsatellites and MHC-DQB ranged between 0.01831-0.26907 and 0.00892-0.38871, respectively. Furthermore, 14 goat populations showed rich genetic diversity in the microsatellite loci and MHC-DQB1 exon 2. However, the population structure and phylogenetic relationship represented by the two markers were different. Positive selection and Tajima's D test results showed the occurrence of a diversified selection mechanism, which was primarily based on a positive and balancing selection in goat DQB. This study also found that the DQB sequences of bovines exhibited trans-species polymorphism (TSP) among species and families. In brief, this study indicated that positive and balancing selection played a major role in maintaining the genetic diversity of DQB, and TSP of MHC in bovines was common, which enhanced the understanding of the MHC evolution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10495398.2021.1935980DOI Listing
July 2021

Different combinations of high-frequency rTMS and cognitive training improve the cognitive function of cerebral ischemic rats.

Brain Res Bull 2021 Oct 16;175:16-25. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, The Third Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, 510630, China. Electronic address:

Poststroke cognitive impairment (PSCI) occurs frequently after stroke, but lacks effective treatments. Previous studies have revealed that high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has a beneficial effect on PSCI and is often used with other cognitive training methods to improve its effect. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of different combinations of rTMS and cognitive training (rTMS-COG) on PSCI and identify the optimal combination protocol. A cerebral infarction rat model was established by transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO). The Morris water maze test was conducted to assess the cognitive function of rats. RNA sequencing and bioinformatics analysis were employed to study the underlying mechanisms. rTMS, COG and rTMS-COG all had beneficial effects on PSCI, while cognitive training immediately after rTMS (rTMS-COG) achieved a better effect than cognitive training 1 h and 4 h after rTMS, rTMS and COG. We identified 179 differentially expressed genes (DEGs), including 24 upregulated and 155 downregulated genes, between the rTMS-COG and rTMS groups. GO analysis revealed that the major categories associated with the DEGs were antigen procession and presentation, regulation of protein phosphorylation and axoneme assembly. KEGG analysis showed that the DEGs were enriched in processes related to phagosome, circadian entrainment, dopaminergic synapse, apelin signaling pathway, long-term depression, neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction, axon guidance and glucagon signaling pathway. PPI analysis identified Calb2, Rsph1, Ccdc114, Acta2, Ttll9, Dnah1, Dlx2, Dlx1, Ccdc40 and Ccdc113 as related genes. These findings prompt exploration of the potential mechanisms and key genes involved in the effect of rTMS-COG on PSCI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresbull.2021.07.012DOI Listing
October 2021

Altered Actinobacteria and Firmicutes Phylum Associated Epitopes in Patients With Parkinson's Disease.

Front Immunol 2021 2;12:632482. Epub 2021 Jul 2.

Department of Neurology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou, China.

Recent evidence suggests that inflammation was participated in the pathogenesis of PD, thus, to understand the potential mechanism of gut microbiota in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD), we performed a metagenomic analysis of fecal samples from PD patient and controls. Using a two-stage metagenome-wide association strategy, fecal DNA samples from 69 PD patients and 244 controls in three groups (comprising 66 spouses, 97 age-matched, and 81 normal samples, respectively) were analyzed, and differences between candidate gut microbiota and microbiota-associated epitopes (MEs) were compared. In the study, 27 candidate bacterial biomarkers and twenty-eight candidate epitope peptides were significantly different between the PD patients and control groups. Further, enriched 4 and 13 MEs in PD were positively associated with abnormal inflammatory indicators [neutrophil percentage (NEUT.1), monocyte count/percentage (MONO/MONO.1), white blood cell count (WBC)] and five candidate bacterial biomarkers (c_Actinobacteria, f_Bifidobacteriaceae, , o_Bifidobacteriales, p_Actinobacteria) from Actinobacteria phylum, and they were also positively associated with histidine degradation and proline biosynthesis pathways, respectively. Additionally, enriched 2 MEs and 1 ME in PD were positively associated with above inflammatory indicators and two bacteria (f_Lactobacillaceae, ) from Firmicutes phylum, and they were also positively associated with pyruvate fermentation to propanoate I and negatively associated with isopropanol biosynthesis, respectively. Of these MEs, two MEs from GROEL2, RPSC were derived from , triggered the T cell immune response, as previously reported. Additionally, other candidate epitope peptides derived from and may also have potential immune effects in PD. In all, the altered MEs in PD may relate to abnormalities in immunity and glutamate and propionate metabolism, which furthers our understanding of the pathogenesis of PD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2021.632482DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8284394PMC
July 2021

Evaluation of lumbar stiffness after long-level fusion for degenerative lumbar scoliosis via a chinese version of the lumbar stiffness disability index.

Spine J 2021 Jun 24. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Department of Orthopedics, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing 100191China; Beijing Key Laboratory of Spinal Disease Research, Beijing 100191, China.

Background Context: Long-level spinal fusion for degenerative lumbar scoliosis (DLS)seeks to eliminate spinal motion in an attempt to alleviate pain, improve deformity, and reduce disability. However, this surgery considerably impairs the performance of activities of daily living (ADL) due to the resulting stiffness. The lumbar stiffness disability index (LSDI) is a validated measure of the effect of lumbar stiffness on functional activity, but this index might not be fully applicable to the elderly Chinese population given several specific lifestyle characteristics.

Purpose: To evaluate lumbar stiffness in patients with DLS after long-level fusion by Chinese-LSDI (C-LSDI).

Study Design: A retrospective study.

Patient Sample: A total of 129 DLS patients who underwent long-level (≧4 levels) fusion surgery with at least one-year follow-up from June 2009 to September 2017 were retrospectively included.

Outcome Measures: The C-LSDI was designed by modifying LSDI and Korean-LSDI (K-LSDI) based on elderly Chinese lifestyles and the internal consistency and retest repeatability of the patient-reported outcome questionnaire in the measurement of the impact of lumbar stiffness on functional abilities was assessed.

Methods: The radiographic parameters including Cobb angle, apical vertebral translation (AVT), coronal vertical axis (CVA), sagittal vertical axis (SVA), thoracic kyphosis (TK), thoracolumbar kyphosis (TLK), pelvic tilt (PT), pelvic incidence (PI), sacral slope (SS), lumbar lordosis (LL), and PI-LL, and clinical symptoms including visual analogue scale (VAS) for back and low extremity pain; Oswestry disability index (ODI), Japanese Orthopedic Association-29 (JOA-29), Scoliosis Research Society⁃22 (SRS-22), 36⁃Item short form survey (SF-36), physical component scores (PCS) and mental component scores (MCS) were measured preoperatively and at the last follow-up.

Results: Compared with LSDI and K-LSDI, the C-LSDI demonstrated higher internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha=0.902) and retest reliability (Internal consistency coefficients, ICC=0.904) in the elderly Chinese population. All patients showed increased lumbar stiffness and significant improvement in pain and deformity postoperatively. Regarding items, such as performing personal hygiene after toileting and getting out of a car, people reported more inconvenience with increasingly fixed levels.

Conclusions: This study demonstrated that the C-LSDI questionnaire was a reliable and valid instrument for assessing functional limitations due to lumbar stiffness among elderly Chinese patients with DLS after long-level fusion. Although the effects of stiffness did trend toward greater impacts among patients who underwent longer fusions, most patients were satisfied with trade-offs of function and pain relief in exchange for perceived increases in lumbar stiffness.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.spinee.2021.06.017DOI Listing
June 2021

Reliability and validity of simplified Chinese version of the Italian spine youth quality of life questionnaire in adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis.

BMC Musculoskelet Disord 2021 Jun 21;22(1):568. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Peking University Third Hospital, 100191, Beijing, China.

Background: The Italian Spine Youth Quality of Life (ISYQOL) questionnaire is used to evaluate health-related quality of life in adolescents with Idiopathic Scoliosis. The study aimed to undertake the process of cultural adaptation of the ISYQOL questionnaire into Simplified Chinese.

Methods: Translate from Italian into Simplified Chinese. It involved 138 adolescents whose Cobb angle ranged between 20 and 40 degrees, 50 wearing the brace and 88 not wearing the brace. Statistical analysis calculated the reliability, floor effects, and ceiling effects of the ISYQOL. After that, construct validity was measured by analyzing the ISYQOL relationship Scoliosis Research Society-22 patient Questionnaire (SRS-22).

Results: There were no floor or ceiling effects in the ISYQOL questionnaire. Cronbach's alpha coefficient evaluated for Internal consistency was 0.75 in the no-treated group and 0.88 in the brace-treated group. Intraclass correlation coefficients assessed with the use of the test-retest method were 0.72 in the no-treated group and 0.80 in the brace-treated group. A strong relationship exists between the ISYQOL measure and SRS-22 scores (rho = 0.62; p < 0.01), reflecting the high validity of the questionnaires. Both ISYQOL and SRS-22 scores showed no statistical difference between groups wearing and not wearing the brace (p > 0.05).

Conclusions: Trans-cultural validation in Chinses language showed the reliability and validity of the ISYQOL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12891-021-04462-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8218420PMC
June 2021

Melatonin antagonizes ozone-exacerbated asthma by inhibiting the TRPV1 channel and stabilizing the Nrf2 pathway.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Jun 19. Epub 2021 Jun 19.

Brain Science and Advanced Technology Institute, School of Medicine, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430065, China.

Over the past few years, ozone has been identified as a potential risk factor for exacerbating asthma. However, few attempts have been made to prevent the progression of ozone-exacerbated asthma. This study investigated the attenuating effects of melatonin on ozone-aggravated allergic asthma, and explored the changes to the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1)-nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) pathway associated with melatonin treatment. The levels of TRPV1 and calcitonin gene-related peptides (CGRP) in lung tissue were detected by immunohistochemistry, western blot, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The Nrf2 signaling involved proteins and mRNA were evaluated by western blot and RT-qPCR. The change of Immunoglobulin E (IgE) and T helper (Th) 2 and Th17 cytokines in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was determined by ELISA. Recruitment of inflammatory cells in BALF, histopathological changes, and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) were also determined in lung tissues. Our results indicated that melatonin treatment significantly reduced oxidative stress, as indicated by levels of glutathione (GSH), malonaldehyde (MDA), and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG). Moreover, ozone-exacerbated asthma symptoms, such as inflammatory cell infiltration, levels of serum immunoglobulin, Th2 and Th17 cytokines in BALF, obvious changes in lung histology, and AHR, were all ameliorated by melatonin treatment. Interestingly, melatonin not only markedly decreased the protein levels of TRPV1 and CGRP, but also enhanced the expression of Nrf2, quinone oxidoreductase-1 (NQO-1), and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). Taken together, our results demonstrate that melatonin administration could antagonize ozone-exacerbated asthma by inhibiting the TRPV1 channel and stabilizing the Nrf2 pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-14945-9DOI Listing
June 2021

Adjuvant effects of bacterium-like particles in the intranasal vaccination of chickens against Newcastle disease.

Vet Microbiol 2021 Aug 4;259:109144. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Jilin Agricultural University, Changchun, China; Jilin Provincial Engineering Research Center of Animal Probiotics, Jilin Agricultural University, Changchun, China; Key Laboratory of Animal Production and Product Quality Safety of Ministry of Education, Jilin Agricultural University, Changchun, China. Electronic address:

Given that the respiratory mucosa is an important site for the initial replication of Newcastle disease virus (NDV), developing intranasal vaccines for chickens is an effective strategy to protect against this disease. The low immunogenicity of inactivated NDV administered by the mucosal route motivated us to identify a safe and potent adjuvant. Previous studies have shown that bacterium-like particles (BLPs), which serve as mucosal adjuvants, induce effective local and systemic immune responses through TLR2 signaling in both mammals and humans. Here, we report that BLPs could activate the innate immune system of chickens in a manner that was dependent on the combination of chicken TLR2 type 1 (chTLR2t1) and chicken TLR1 type 1 (chTLR1t1). The chicken macrophage-like HD11 cell line was stimulated with BLPs, resulting in the production of nitric oxide and the expression of the proinflammatory cytokines IFN-γ, IL-1β and IL-6. Chickens intranasally immunized with inactivated NDV vaccines mixed with BLP adjuvants exhibited significantly increased levels of local SIgA in their tracheal lavage fluid and as well as hemagglutination-inhibiting antibodies in serum samples. The strong systemic and local immune responses induced by BLP-adjuvanted vaccines provided 100 % protection against intranasal challenge with a lethal dose of virulent NDV without showing any signs of disease. These results indicate that BLPs should be considered for use as a potential mucosal adjuvant for inactivated NDV vaccines and other vaccines for poultry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2021.109144DOI Listing
August 2021

The biogenesis, function and clinical significance of circular RNAs in breast cancer.

Cancer Biol Med 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center; State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China; Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Guangzhou 510060, China.

Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are noncoding RNAs that form covalently closed loop structures. CircRNAs are dysregulated in cancer and play key roles in tumorigenesis, diagnosis, and tumor therapy. CircRNAs function as competing endogenous RNAs or microRNA sponges that regulate transcription and splicing, binding to proteins, and translation. CircRNAs may serve as novel biomarkers for cancer diagnosis, and they show potential as therapeutic targets in cancers including breast cancer (BC). In women, BC is the most common malignant tumor worldwide and the second leading cause of cancer death. Although evidence indicates that circRNAs play a critical role in BC, the mechanisms regulating the function of circRNAs in BC remain poorly understood. Here, we provide literature review aiming to clarify the role of circRNAs in BC and summarize the latest research. We provide a systematic overview of the biogenesis and biological functions of circRNAs, elaborate on the functional roles of circRNAs in BC, and highlight the value of circRNAs as diagnostic and therapeutic targets in BC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.20892/j.issn.2095-3941.2020.0485DOI Listing
June 2021

The impact of ultrasound-guided transmuscular quadratus lumborum block combined with local infiltration analgesia for arthroplasty on postoperative pain relief.

J Clin Anesth 2021 Oct 4;73:110372. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Department of Anesthesiology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, No. 37 Wainan Guoxue Road, Chengdu 610041, China. Electronic address:

Study Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of ultrasound-guided transmuscular quadratus lumborum block (QLB) combined with local infiltration analgesia (LIA) for pain management and recovery in patients who have undergone total hip arthroplasty (THA) via a posterolateral approach.

Design: This was a prospective, randomized controlled trial.

Setting: We collected data in the preoperative area, operating room, and bed ward.

Patients: A total of 80 patients with American Society of Anesthesiology functional status scores of II-III were included and assigned to two groups, and all 80 patients were included in the final analysis.

Interventions: All included patients were randomly assigned to the nerve block (group N) or the control group (group C). Patients in the group N received transmuscular QLB combined with LIA, while patients in the group C received only LIA.

Measurements: The primary outcome was postoperative pain during the first active motion: it was measured at six hours after surgery and assessed using a visual analog scale (VAS). Secondary outcomes were the resting VAS scores in the post-anesthesia care unit (PACU) and at 2, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h after surgery; VAS scores during motion at 12, 24, 48, and 72 h after surgery; intraoperative consumption of opioids; postoperative consumption of morphine hydrochloride; frequency of sleep interruption due to pain on the night of surgery; time until the first "walk out of the bed" after surgery; muscle strength of the quadriceps femoris; and postoperative adverse effects.

Main Results: Compared to the group C, patients in the group N had significantly lower VAS scores during motion at 6, 12, and 24 h after surgery, as well as lower resting VAS scores in the PACU and at 2, 6, 12, and 24 h after surgery. Patients in the group N also consumed significantly smaller amounts of intraoperative opioids and morphine after surgery. Patients in the group N reported significantly fewer interruptions in sleep due to pain on the night of surgery and were able to "walk out of the bed" significantly earlier than those in the group C. There was no significant difference between the two groups in muscle strength of the quadriceps femoris or incidence of postoperative adverse effects.

Conclusions: Compared to treatment with LIA alone, ultrasound-guided transmuscular QLB combined with LIA can provide better postoperative pain relief and enhance the recovery of THA patients, since it does not cause quadriceps femoris muscle weakness and is associated with significantly lower need for intraoperative opioids.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jclinane.2021.110372DOI Listing
October 2021

Efficacy of Two Unique Combinations of Nerve Blocks on Postoperative Pain and Functional Outcome After Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Prospective, Double-Blind, Randomized Controlled Study.

J Arthroplasty 2021 May 19. Epub 2021 May 19.

Department of Orthopaedics Surgery, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, People's Republic of China.

Background: This study aimed to explore the efficacy of two unique combinations of nerve blocks on postoperative pain and functional outcome after total knee arthroplasty (TKA).

Methods: Patients scheduled for TKA were randomized to receive a combination of adductor canal block (ACB) + infiltration between the popliteal artery and capsule of the posterior knee block (IPACK) + sham obturator nerve block (ONB) + sham lateral femoral cutaneous nerve block (LFCNB) (control group), or a combination of ACB + IPACK + ONB + sham LFCNB (triple nerve block group), or a combination of ACB + IPACK + ONB + LFCNB (quadruple nerve block group). All patients received local infiltration analgesia. Primary outcome was postoperative morphine consumption. Secondary outcomes were the time until first rescue analgesia, postoperative pain assessed on the visual analog scale (VAS), QoR-15 score, functional recovery of knee, and postoperative complications.

Results: Compared with the control group, the triple and quadruple nerve block groups showed significantly lower postoperative morphine consumption (17.2 ± 9.7 mg vs. 11.2 ± 7.0 mg vs. 11.4 ± 6.4 mg, P = .001). These two groups also showed significantly longer time until first rescue analgesia (P = .007 and .010, respectively, analyzed with Kaplan-Meier method), significantly lower VAS scores on postoperative day 1 (P < .01), significantly better QoR-15 scores on postoperative days 1 and 2 (P < .001), and significantly better functional recovery of knee including range of motion (P = .002 and .001 on postoperative days 1 and 2), and daily ambulation distance (P < .001 and P = .004 on postoperative days 1 and 2). However, the absolute change in morphine consumption, VAS scores, and QoR-15 scores did not exceed the reported minimal clinically important differences (MCIDs) (morphine consumption: 10 mg; VAS scores: 1.5 at rest and 1.8 during movement; QoR-15 scores: 8.0). The MCIDs of other outcomes have not been reported in literature. The triple and quadruple nerve block groups showed no significant differences in these outcomes between each other. The three groups did not show a significant difference in complication rates.

Conclusion: Adding ONB or ONB + LFCNB to ACB + IPACK can statistically reduce morphine consumption, improve early pain relief, and functional recovery. However, the absolute change in morphine consumption, VAS scores, and QoR-15 scores did not exceed the MCIDs. Based on our findings and considering the sample size of this study, there is not enough clinical evidence to support the triple or quadruple nerve block use within a multimodal analgesic pathway after TKA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arth.2021.05.014DOI Listing
May 2021

Naa10p and IKKα interaction regulates EMT in oral squamous cell carcinoma via TGF-β1/Smad pathway.

J Cell Mol Med 2021 Jul 31;25(14):6760-6772. Epub 2021 May 31.

Key Laboratory of Xinjiang Endemic and Ethnic Disease, School of Medicine, Shihezi University, Shihezi, China.

Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has been contributed to increase migration and invasion of cancer cells. However, the correlate of Naa10p and IKKα with EMT in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is not yet fully understood. In our present study, we found N-α-acetyltransferase 10 protein (Naa10p) and IκB kinase α (IKKα) were abnormally abundant in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Bioinformatic results indicate that the expression of Naa10p and IKKα is correlated with TGF-β1/Smad and EMT-related molecules. The Transwell migration, invasion, qRT-PCR and Western blot assay indicated that Naa10p repressed OSCC cell migration, invasion and EMT, whereas IKKα promoted TGF-β1-mediated OSCC cell migration, invasion and EMT. Mechanistically, Naa10p inhibited IKKα activation of Smad3 through the interaction with IKKα directly in OSCC cells after TGF-β1 stimulation. Notably, knockdown of Naa10p reversed the IKKα-induced change in the migration, invasion and EMT-related molecules in OSCC cells after TGF-β1 stimulation. These findings suggest that Naa10p interacted with IKKα mediates EMT in OSCC cells through TGF-β1/Smad, a novel pathway for preventing OSCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jcmm.16680DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8278082PMC
July 2021

Hirsutanol A inhibits T-acute lymphocytic leukemia Jurkat cell viability through cell cycle arrest and p53-dependent induction of apoptosis.

Exp Ther Med 2021 Jul 11;22(1):741. Epub 2021 May 11.

State Key Laboratory of Quality Research in Chinese Medicine, Macau University of Science and Technology, Macau 999078, Macau SAR, P.R. China.

Acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) is a type of childhood leukemia with the highest incidence; T-acute lymphocytic leukemia (T-ALL) is far more difficult to treat than B-acute lymphocytic leukemia (B-ALL) and has a poor long-term prognosis. Therefore, there is an urgent requirement to develop effective drugs for the treatment of T-ALL. Hirsutanol A is a natural sesquiterpenoid compound. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anticancer activity of hirsutanol A against T-acute lymphocytic leukemia Jurkat cells and investigate the mechanism of action. A Cell Counting Kit-8 assay demonstrated that hirsutanol A inhibited the viability of Jurkat cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. In addition, hirsutanol A induced cell cycle arrest at the G phase as determined via flow cytometry. Furthermore, Hoechst staining, Annexin V-FITC/propidium iodide double staining, mitochondrial membrane potential detection using JC-1 and western blot analysis of apoptotic proteins indicated that the inhibitory effect of hirsutanol A on Jurkat cells was associated with the induction of apoptosis. Of note, hirsutanol A induced the expression of the tumor suppressor p53, whereas simultaneous treatment with pifithrin-α, an inhibitor of p53, significantly reduced Jurkat cell apoptosis induced by hirsutanol A. In summary, the present study suggested that hirsutanol A inhibited Jurkat cell viability through induction of cell cycle arrest and p53-dependent initiation of apoptosis, thus hirsutanol may serve as a promising compound for the treatment of T-ALL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/etm.2021.10173DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8138276PMC
July 2021

Incidence, Risk, and Outcome of Pedicle Screw Loosening in Degenerative Lumbar Scoliosis Patients Undergoing Long-Segment Fusion.

Global Spine J 2021 May 21:21925682211017477. Epub 2021 May 21.

Department of Orthopedics, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing, China.

Study Design: Retrospective study.

Objective: To investigate the incidence, risk factors, and outcomes of pedicle screw loosening in degenerative lumbar scoliosis (DLS) undergoing long-segment spinal fusion surgery.

Methods: One hundred and thirty DLS patients who underwent long-segment fusion surgery with at least a 12-month follow-up were studied. The incidence and risk factors of screw loosening were investigated. VAS, SRS-22, and ODI scores were obtained preoperatively and at follow-up.

Results: One hundred and sixty-eight of 1784 (9.4%) screws showed evidence of loosening in 71 (54.6%) patients. Three patients required revision surgery. Screw loosening rates according to vertebral insertion level were lowest instrumented vertebra (LIV): 45.4%; uppermost instrumented vertebra (UIV):17.7%; one vertebra above the LIV: 0.5%; 2 vertebrae above the LIV: 0.4%. Multiple logistic regression analysis of possible risk factors indicated that preoperative lateral subluxation ≥8 mm (odds ratio [OR]: 2.68, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.16-6.20), osteopenia (OR: 5.52, 95% CI: 1.64-18.56), osteoporosis (OR: 8.19, 95% CI: 2.40-27.97), fusion to sacrum (OR: 2.55, 95% CI: 1.12-5.83), postoperative TLK greater than 10° (OR: 2.63, 95% CI: 1.14-6.04) and SVA imbalance (OR: 3.44, 95% CI: 1.17-10.14) were statistically significant. No difference was noted in preoperative, follow-up, and change of VAS, ODI, and SRS-22 scores.

Conclusions: Screw loosening in DLS underwent long-segment surgery is common and tends to occur in the LIV or UIV. Lateral subluxation ≥8 mm, osteopenia, osteoporosis, fusion to the sacrum, postoperative TLK greater than 10°, and SVA imbalance were the independent influencing factors. Screw loosening can be asymptomatic, while longer-term follow-up is required.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/21925682211017477DOI Listing
May 2021

The Effects of Inactive Platelet-rich Plasma at Different Injection Time on Prefabricated Flap Viability in Rabbits.

Ann Plast Surg 2021 06;86(6):701-706

From the Ninth Department of Plastic Surgery, Plastic Surgery Hospital (Institute), Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, P. R. China.

Purpose: To evaluate the effect of inactive form of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) at different injection time on the prefabricated flap viability in rabbits.

Methods: A thoracodorsal artery vascular bundle prefabricated flap was established on the back of 30 healthy male New Zealand white rabbits by 2 phases of operations. A total of 60 sides were randomly divided into the experimental side and the control side. The experimental side was injected with autologous inactive PRP around the thoracodorsal vascular bundle, and the control side was injected with the same amount of normal saline. According to preoperative (group A), intraoperative (group B), and postoperative (group C) injection of PRP, 30 rabbits were divided into 3 groups of 10 each. Histological and immunohistochemical observation, vascular density measurement, and lead oxide angiography were used to compare the differences in the survival of prefabricated flaps between the 3 groups of rabbits injected with inactive PRP at different injection time.

Results: The flap survival ratio, microvessels density, vascular endothelial growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 expression of PRP injection side were significantly improved compared with the control side. In the comparison of 3 injection time groups, we found that group A and group B could achieve better results, and especially group B had the most significant effect on the revascularization and flap viability.

Conclusion: Autologous inactive PRP can promote the survival of the prefabricated flap, and the intraoperative injection can significantly improve the survival rate of the prefabricated flap. It provides a theoretical guidance for obtaining a larger area of prefabricated axial flap in clinical practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SAP.0000000000002541DOI Listing
June 2021

Novel catalytic property of fructose-6-phosphate aldolase in directly conversion of two 1-hydroxyalkanones to diketones.

Enzyme Microb Technol 2021 Jun 18;147:109784. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100049, China; National Engineering Laboratory for Industrial Enzymes, Tianjin Institute of Industrial Biotechnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Tianjin, 300308, China; National Technology Innovation Center of Synthetic Biology, Tianjin 300308, China. Electronic address:

Asymmetric CC bond formation catalyzed by aldolases requires the supplementation of nucleophiles and receptors in the reaction medium. However, aldol condensation using a single ketone as substrate has never been reported yet. In this work, we discovered that d-fructose-6-phosphate aldolase (FSA) could convert two 1-hydroxyalkanones, such as hydroxyacetone (HA) and 1-hydroxy-2-butanone, into two type of diketones. The initial product synthesis rate increased 3-fold and the yield reached to 56 %, when pure oxygen was directly inputted into the reaction medium. The results confirmed that oxygen participated in this reaction and hydrogen peroxide was generated. Metal ions Co and Cu remarkably increased the conversion yield compared with the control. For this reaction mechanism, we conjectured that HA may be oxidized to methylglyoxal by enzyme FSA in the presence of oxygen in the medium, and then FSA catalyzes the aldol addition between HA and its oxidative product MG to form diketone products. The obtained diketones could serve as important precursors for preparing furans and pyrroles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.enzmictec.2021.109784DOI Listing
June 2021

Autophagy is a defense mechanism controlling Streptococcus suis serotype 2 infection in murine microglia cells.

Vet Microbiol 2021 Jul 9;258:109103. Epub 2021 May 9.

Brain Science and Advanced Technology Institute, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China; Hubei Province Key Laboratory of Occupational Hazard Identification and Control, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China. Electronic address:

Streptococcus suis (S. suis) is an important swine and human pathogen, causing severe meningitis with high morbidity and mortality worldwide. Microglial activation and inflammation are responsible for bacterial meningitis. S. suis has been identified to activate microglia, but the role of autophagy following S. suis infection in microglial cells remains elusive. In this study, using western blot, immunofluorescent staining and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), we demonstrated that S. suis serotype 2 (SS2) triggered autophagosome and enhanced autophagic flux in BV2 microglial cells. Autophagy activators, rapamycin, could further promote autophagy in S. suis-infected BV2 cells. Conversely, autophagy inhibitors including siRNA targeting ATG5, Beclin-1, ATG9a and ATG12 attenuated the autophagic process. Consistent with the in vitro results, autophagy was activated following S. suis infection in brain tissue including frontal cortex and hippocampus in a mouse model of meningitis. Further experiment showed that autophagy serves as a cellular defense mechanism to limit invaded bacteria and microglia inflammation in S. suis-infected BV2 cells. This is the first study reporting that the interaction between autophagy and microglia cells in response to S. suis infection. The possible mechanism involved could additionally suggest potential therapeutic approaches for bacterial meningitis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2021.109103DOI Listing
July 2021

Ferroptosis is involved in the progression of hepatocellular carcinoma through the circ0097009/miR-1261/SLC7A11 axis.

Ann Transl Med 2021 Apr;9(8):675

Department of Minimally Invasive Interventional Radiology, Liver Cancer Study and Service Group, Sun Yat-Sen University Cancer Center, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Guangzhou, Guangzhou, China.

Background: Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are a class of non-coding RNAs that have been demonstrated to play important roles in tumorigenesis. However, how circRNAs regulate the progression of hepatocellular cancer (HCC) remains unclear.

Methods: In the present study, circRNA microarray analyses were performed with HCC tissues to identify circRNAs that are differentially expressed. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis was conducted on HCC cell lines and tissues, and circ0097009 was found to be significantly upregulated. The functions of circ0097009 in HCC were investigated by a series of experiments, including cell proliferation, invasion, and mouse xenograft assays. Additionally, luciferase assays and RNA immunoprecipitation (RIP) assays were used to explore the interactions of circ0097009, microRNA-1261 (miR-1261), and solute carrier family 7 member 11 (SLC7A11) in HCC.

Results: Microarray analysis and qRT-PCR verified that circRNA, circ0097009, was significantly upregulated in HCC tissues and cell lines. Knockdown of circ0097009 inhibited the proliferation and invasion of HCC cells. Luciferase reporter assays showed that circ0097009 and SLC7A11 directly bound to miR-1261. Subsequent experiments showed that circ0097009 and SLC7A11 reciprocally regulated their expression via miR-1261 sponging by circ0097009.

Conclusions: Circ0097009 acts as a competing endogenous RNA to regulate the expression of SLC7A11, a key regulator of cancer cell ferroptosis, by sponging miR-1261 in HCC. Circ0097009 may be used as a diagnostic biomarker for HCC and as a potential target for HCC therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/atm-21-997DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8106082PMC
April 2021
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