Publications by authors named "Yan Yu"

1,646 Publications

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Bispecific Estrogen Receptor α Degraders Incorporating Novel Binders Identified Using DNA-Encoded Chemical Library Screening.

J Med Chem 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

X-Chem Inc., 100 Beaver Street, Waltham, Massachusetts 02453, United States.

Bispecific degraders (PROTACs) of ERα are expected to be advantageous over current inhibitors of ERα signaling (aromatase inhibitors/SERMs/SERDs) used to treat ER+ breast cancer. Information from DNA-encoded chemical library (DECL) screening provides a method to identify novel PROTAC binding features as the linker positioning, and binding elements are determined directly from the screen. After screening ∼120 billion DNA-encoded molecules with ERα WT and 3 gain-of-function (GOF) mutants, with and without estradiol to identify features that enrich ERα competitively, the off-DNA synthesized small molecule exemplar exhibited nanomolar ERα binding, antagonism, and degradation. Click chemistry synthesis on an alkyne E3 ligase engagers panel and an azide variant of rapidly generated bispecific nanomolar degraders of ERα, with PROTACs and inhibiting ER+ MCF7 tumor growth in a mouse xenograft model of breast cancer. This study validates this approach toward identifying novel bispecific degrader leads from DECL screening with minimal optimization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jmedchem.1c00127DOI Listing
April 2021

How does health literacy affect the utilization of basic public health services in Chinese migrants?

Health Promot Int 2021 Apr 11. Epub 2021 Apr 11.

Department of Social Medicine and Health Management, School of Health Sciences, Wuhan University, No.115 Donghu Road, Wuhan City 430071, China.

Previous studies have focused on the determinants of basic public health services utilization, such as socioeconomic status and mobility characteristics, rather than on health literacy. Thus, this study aimed to estimate the effect of health literacy on the utilization of basic public health services among Chinese migrants. Based on the 2016 China Migrants Dynamic Survey data (N = 2335), this study used propensity score matching approach to estimate the effect of health literacy on the utilization of basic public health services, including the establishment of health records and receipt of health education, and to explore heterogeneity in this effect based on educational attainment and urban-rural status. The findings show that high levels of health literacy increased the probability of establishing health records and receiving more health education. Also, high levels of health literacy had a positive effect on the utilization of basic public health services among Chinese migrants, especially those with less education or living in urban areas. Policy makers should more carefully consider the actual situation and needs of migrants who are living in urban areas or have less education, constructing more targeted service programs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/heapro/daab040DOI Listing
April 2021

Comprehensive Analysis of the Prognostic Role and Mutational Characteristics of m6A-Related Genes in Lung Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 25;9:661792. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Department of Thoracic Surgery, Shanghai Chest Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China.

Background: There have been limited treatment therapies for lung squamous cell carcinoma (LUSC). M6A-related genes may be the next therapeutic targets for LUSC. In this study, we explored the prognostic role and mutational characteristics of m6A-related genes in LUSC.

Methods: LUSC gene expression data, mutational data, and corresponding clinical information were extracted from The Cancer Genome Atlas database. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified, and the mutation characteristics of LUSC patients were explored. Then, m6A-related genes were extracted and the correlations among the genes were detected. Finally, the prognostic roles of the genes were investigated and the nomogram model was developed. Besides, the protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was used to explore the potential interactions among the genes.

Results: In total, there are 551 LUSC samples enrolled in our study, containing 502 LUSC tumor samples and 49 adjacent normal LUSC samples, respectively. There were 2970 upregulated DEGs and 1806 downregulated DEGs were further explored. IGF2BP1 and RBM15 had significant co-occurrence frequency ( < 0.05). Besides, METTL14 and ZC3H13 or YTHDF3 also had significant co-occurrence frequency ( < 0.05). All the m6A-related genes represent the positive correlation. WTAP was identified as a prognostic gene in the TCGA database while YTHDC1 and YTHDF1 were identified as prognostic genes. In multivariate Cox analysis, YTHDF1, age, pN stage, pTNM stage, and smoking were all identified as significant prognostic factors for OS.

Conclusion: We investigated the expression patterns and mutational characteristics of LUSC patients and identified three potential independent prognostic m6A-related genes (WTAP, YTHDC1, and YTHDF1) for OS in LUSC patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2021.661792DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8027321PMC
March 2021

Predictive Role of Child-To-Adult Blood Pressure Trajectories for Incident Metabolic Syndrome: 30-Year Hanzhong Adolescent Hypertension Study.

Endocr Pract 2020 Dec 15. Epub 2020 Dec 15.

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, China; Key Laboratory of Molecular Cardiology of Shaanxi Province, Xi'an, China.

Objective: The relationship between child-to-adult blood pressure (BP) trajectories and metabolic syndrome (MetS) is unknown. We aimed to determine the predictive role of BP trajectories for incident MetS and its components.

Methods: The prospective Hanzhong Adolescent Hypertension study began in 1987 and included 2692 participants free of MetS at baseline with at least 3 BP measurements available from 1987 to 2017.

Results: The systolic BP (SBP) trajectory patterns were grouped as normal (class 1, 18.7%), high normal (class 2, 60.3%), prehypertensive (class 3, 13.1%), stage 1 hypertensive (class 4, 5.7%), and stage 2 hypertensive (class 5, 2.2%). Compared with those in the normal group, individuals in classes 2 to 5 had significantly higher risks of MetS (all Ps < .05), and those with hypertension had more than an 8-fold higher risk of MetS (both P < .05). The fully adjusted risk ratios (RRs) of central obesity increased significantly in a stepwise manner as the SBP trajectory group increased from class 1 to class 5 (P < .05). Compared with those with a normal SBP trajectory, participants in the prehypertensive group and stage 1 and stage 2 hypertensive groups had significantly higher RRs for high-risk triglycerides after full adjustment (RR = 1.89 [1.22-2.94]; RR = 3.61 [2.16-6.02]; and RR = 3.22 [1.52-6.84], respectively).

Conclusion: Our study suggests that BP trajectories are predictive of incident MetS outcomes. Early detection of hypertension or modest elevations in BP is crucial. The stage of hypertension based on SBP level showed a greater association with central obesity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eprac.2020.09.010DOI Listing
December 2020

Effects of inverted photoperiods on the blood pressure and carotid artery of spontaneously hypertensive rats and Wistar-Kyoto rats.

J Hypertens 2021 May;39(5):871-879

Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of inverted photoperiods on the blood pressure and carotid arteries in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats (homologous control group).

Methods And Results: This study used two inverted photoperiods [inverted light:dark (ILD)16 : 8 and ILD12 : 12] to create the model. A total of 27 male SHR and 27 male WKY rats were randomly divided into six groups (nine rats per group): SHR (LD12 : 12), SHR (ILD16 : 8), SHR (ILD12 : 12), WKY (LD12 : 12), WKY (ILD16 : 8) and WKY (ILD12 : 12). We recorded the trajectory of the activity rhythm of the rats and performed carotid vascular ultrasound examination, MRI (arterial spin labelling) analysis and carotid biopsy. The results showed that inverted photoperiods increased the blood pressure, carotid intima-media thickness, resistance index and blood flow velocity. In addition, inverted photoperiods led to the development of carotid arterial thrombosis, significantly reduced cerebral blood flow and increased the number of collagen fibres. Moreover, it increased the expression of angiotensin receptor and low-density lipoprotein receptor in the carotid arteries, leading to decreased expression of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-Coenzyme A reductase and nitric oxide synthase. Inverted photoperiods induced the formation of atherosclerotic plaque. Multiple results of SHR were worse than those of WKY rats.

Conclusion: Taken together, inverted photoperiods can produce a series of adverse consequences on blood pressure and carotid arteries. Hypertension can aggravate the adverse effects of inverted photoperiods.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HJH.0000000000002732DOI Listing
May 2021

High BASP1 Expression is Associated with Poor Prognosis and Promotes Tumor Progression in Human Lung Adenocarcinoma.

Cancer Invest 2021 Apr 4:1-20. Epub 2021 Apr 4.

Department of Medical Oncology, Harbin Medical University Cancer Hospital, Harbin, P.R. China.

BASP1 is involved in signal transduction and cytoskeleton formation and plays a tumor-promoting or tumor-suppressing role in cancers. We found BASP1 was overexpressed in lung adenocarcinoma tissues and promoted the proliferation and migration of lung adenocarcinoma cells. The mechanism may be related to inhibition of cell apoptosis and abnormal activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway and epithelial mesenchymal transformation. BASP1 is associated with poor prognosis in lung adenocarcinoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07357907.2021.1910290DOI Listing
April 2021

[The Influence of Glutamic Pyruvate Transaminase 2 to Biological Characteristics of Acute Myeloid Leukemia Cell HL-60].

Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi 2021 Apr;29(2):408-415

Department of Hematology and Hematology Research Laboratory, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, Sichuan Province, China,E-mail:

Objective: To investigate the influence of GPT2(glutamic pyruvate transaminase 2)to biological characteristics of human acute myeloid leukemia cell line HL-60.

Methods: The expression of GPT2 in hematological tumor and AML cell was detected. The lentvirus-mediated of short-hairpin RNA (shRNA) was constricted, and the knock-down efficiency of HL-60 in AML cell after infected by lentvirus-mediated was detected by Western blot and Q-PCR. CCK-8 assay and soft agar colony formation assay were used to detect the effect of GPT2 gene deletion to the cell proliferation potential. Fluorescence activated cell sorting(FACS) was used to analyze the effect of gene deletion to the cell cycle and Caspase 3/7 Activity Assay Kit was used to analyze the effect of GPT2 gene deletion to the cell apoptosis.

Results: GPT2 showed mRNA high expression in AML patients. CCK-8, soft agar assay, and Caspase 3/7 Activity Assay Kit results showed that compared with shCtrl group, the cells in shGPT2-1、shGPT2-2、shGPT2-3 group showed the slowing down on proliferation, decreasing on colony ability, and the apoptosis of the cells was increasing significantly. FACS showed that GPT2 gene was related to the cycle of HL-60 cell.

Conclusion: GPT2 appears to involve the proliferation, cycle distribution and apoptosis of AML cell HL-60. The deletion of GPT gene can lead to the inhibitation of cells proliferation and increase apoptosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.19746/j.cnki.issn.1009-2137.2021.02.016DOI Listing
April 2021

Air Pollution Status in 10 Mega-Cities in China during the Initial Phase of the COVID-19 Outbreak.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 03 19;18(6). Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Health Science Center, School of Public Health, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710061, China.

Over the past decades, urbanization and industrialization have led to a change in air quality, bringing researchers to a full realization of the damaging effects of human activities on the environment. This study focused on describing air quality during the initial phase of the Novel Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic (since there were fewer anthropogenic activities) in 10 Chinese mega-cities. Using the independent -test, the means of air quality index (AQI) scores and individual air pollutants concentration during the outbreak were compared with the means before the outbreak. Cohen's d was estimated to quantify how much difference was observed. Based on the AQI score, the air quality in these 10 cities ranged from excellent (Shenzhen) to light pollution (Xi'an) with 44.8 μg m and 119.7 μg m, respectively. In comparison to the 2019 air quality, Guangzhou and Wuhan noted major differences in air quality during the outbreak. Indicators of traffic pollution, particularly NO, were significantly lower during the outbreak in all cities. Particulate matter pollution varied, with some cities observing lower concentrations and other higher concentrations during the outbreak. There was a significant decrease in air pollution levels during the outbreak. More researchers should observe changes in air quality during peculiar or major events. Implementation of stringent regulation on vehicle use should be considered in mega-cities. Relevant findings should be employed in emphasizing the detrimental effects of anthropogenic activities and support the need for stringent emission control regulations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18063172DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8003380PMC
March 2021

Euphorbia ebracteolata Hayata (Euphorbiaceae): A systematic review of its traditional uses, botany, phytochemistry, pharmacology, toxicology, and quality control.

Phytochemistry 2021 Mar 31;186:112736. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Institute of Clinical Medical Sciences & Department of Pharmacy, China-Japan Friendship Hospital, Beijing, 100029, PR China. Electronic address:

Euphorbia ebracteolata Hayata, as a traditional medicine, is widely distributed in China, Korea and Japan. In China, the dried root of this plant is named 'langdu'. It is traditionally used to treat oedema, skin ulcers, abdominal distension, cough, asthma, tuberculosis swelling and other diseases. Previous studies have found that the chemical constituents of E. ebracteolata are mainly concentrated in terpenoids, acetophenones, and flavonoids. Both extracts and pure compounds from E. ebracteolata were found to possess many pharmacological activities, such as anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, and antimicrobial effects. In addition, it was reported that E. ebracteolata shows toxicity. To provide inspiration for further in-depth studies on this plant, this review will provide a timely and systematic summary of E. ebracteolata in traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacology toxicology, and quality control.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phytochem.2021.112736DOI Listing
March 2021

Tislelizumab Plus Chemotherapy vs Chemotherapy Alone as First-line Treatment for Advanced Squamous Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: A Phase 3 Randomized Clinical Trial.

JAMA Oncol 2021 Apr 1. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Medical Oncology, Lung Cancer and Gastrointestinal Unit, Hunan Cancer Hospital/The Affiliated Cancer Hospital of Xiangya School of Medicine, Central South University, Changsha, China.

Importance: This study demonstrates that tislelizumab in combination with chemotherapy is associated with improved progression-free survival (PFS) in patients with advanced squamous non-small-cell lung cancer (sq-NSCLC).

Objective: To assess the efficacy and safety/tolerability of tislelizumab plus chemotherapy vs chemotherapy alone as first-line treatment for patients with advanced sq-NSCLC.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This open-label, randomized phase 3 clinical trial was conducted at 46 sites in China between July 2018 and June 2019 and included patients with treatment-naive, histologically confirmed stage IIIB/IV sq-NSCLC. The data cutoff for these analyses was December 6, 2019; data extraction occurred on January 7, 2020.

Interventions: Patients were randomized (1:1:1) to receive 1 of the following regimens intravenously on a 21-day cycle: tislelizumab (200 mg, day 1) plus paclitaxel (175 mg/m2, day 1) and carboplatin (area under the concentration of 5, day 1) (arm A); tislelizumab plus nab-paclitaxel (100 mg/m2, days 1, 8, and 15) and carboplatin (arm B); and paclitaxel and carboplatin (arm C). Patients were stratified by disease stage and tumor programmed cell death 1 ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression (<1% vs 1%-49% vs ≥50%).

Main Outcomes And Measures: The primary end point was progression-free survival (PFS) assessed by an independent review committee (IRC). Secondary end points included overall survival, investigator-assessed (INV) PFS, IRC-assessed objective response rate (ORR), and IRC-assessed duration of response, as well as the incidence and severity of adverse events (AEs).

Results: Overall, 355 patients (median [range] age, 62 [34-74] years; 330 men [91.7%]) with sq-NSCLC received treatment. After a median study follow-up of 8.6 months (95% CI, 8.1-9.0 months), IRC-assessed PFS was significantly improved with tislelizumab plus chemotherapy (arm A, 7.6 months; arm B, 7.6 months) vs chemotherapy alone (arm C, 5.5 months; hazard ratios were 0.524 (95% CI, 0.370-0.742; P < .001 [A vs C]) and 0.478 (95% CI, 0.336-0.679; P < .001 [B vs C]). Higher IRC-assessed ORR and longer IRC-assessed duration of response were observed in arms A (72.5%; 8.2 months) and B (74.8%; 8.6 months) vs C (49.6%; 4.2 months). No association was observed between PD-L1 expression and IRC-assessed PFS or ORR. Discontinuation of any treatment because of AEs was reported in 15 (12.5%; arm A), 35 (29.7%; arm B), and 18 (15.4%; arm C) patients. In each arm, the most common grade of 3 or greater AE was decreased neutrophil levels, which aligned with known chemotherapy toxic effects. Six treatment-related AEs leading to death occurred; however, no deaths were solely attributed to tislelizumab.

Conclusions And Relevance: In this phase 3 randomized clinical trial, adding tislelizumab to chemotherapy was associated with significantly prolonged IRC-assessed PFS, higher IRC-assessed ORRs, and a manageable safety/tolerability profile in patients with advanced sq-NSCLC, regardless of PD-L1 expression.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03594747.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaoncol.2021.0366DOI Listing
April 2021

Risk factors for electrocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy in a young Chinese general population: the Hanzhong adolescent cohort study.

BMC Cardiovasc Disord 2021 Mar 31;21(1):159. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, People's Republic of China.

Background: Electrocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy (ECG-LVH) is a common manifestation of preclinical cardiovascular disease. The present study aimed to investigate risk factors for ECG-LVH and its prevalence in a cohort of young Chinese individuals.

Methods: (1) A total of 1515 participants aged 36-45 years old from our previously established cohort who were followed up in 2017 were included. Cross-sectional analysis was used to examine risk factors for ECG-LVH and its prevalence. (2) A total of 235 participants were recruited from the same cohort in 2013 and were followed up in 2017. Longitudinal analysis was used to determine the predictors of LVH occurrence over the 4-year period. We used multivariable logistic regression models to calculate OR and 95% CIs and to analyze risk factors for ECG-LVH.

Results: In the cross-sectional analysis, the prevalence of LVH diagnosed by the Cornell voltage-duration product in the overall population and the hypertensive population was 4.6% and 8.8%, respectively. The logistic regression results shown that female sex [2.611 (1.591-4.583)], hypertension [2.638 (1.449-4.803)], systolic blood pressure (SBP) [1.021 (1.007-1.035)], serum uric acid (SUA) [1.004 (1.001-1.006)] and carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) [67.670 (13.352-342.976)] were significantly associated with the risk of LVH (all P < 0.05). In the longitudinal analysis, fasting glucose [1.377 (1.087-1.754)], SBP [1.046 (1.013-1.080)] and female sex [1.242 (1.069-1.853)] were independent predictors for the occurrence of LVH in the fourth year of follow-up.

Conclusions: Our study suggested that female sex, hypertension, SBP, SUA and CIMT were significantly associated with the risk of LVH in young people. In addition, fasting glucose, SBP and female sex are independent predictors of the occurrence of LVH in a young Chinese general population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12872-021-01966-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8011382PMC
March 2021

Identification of a novel GPR143 mutation in a large Chinese family with isolated foveal hypoplasia.

BMC Ophthalmol 2021 Mar 30;21(1):156. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Department of Ophthalmology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, 210029, China.

Background: Pathogenic variants of G-protein coupled receptor 143 (GPR143) gene often leads to ocular albinism type I (OA1) characterized by nystagmus, iris and fundus hypopigmentation, and foveal hypoplasia. In this study, we identified a novel hemizygous nonsense mutation in GPR143 that caused an atypical manifestation of OA1.

Case Presentation: We reported a large Chinese family in which all affected individuals are afflicted with poor visual acuity and foveal hypoplasia without signs of nystagmus. Fundus examination of patients showed an absent foveal reflex and mild hypopigmentation. The fourth grade of foveal hypoplasia and the reduced area of blocked fluorescence at foveal region was detected in OCT. OCTA imaging showed the absence of foveal avascular zone. In addition, the amplitude of multifocal ERG was reduced in the central ring. Gene sequencing results revealed a novel hemizygous mutation (c.939G > A) in GPR143 gene, which triggered p.W313X. However, no iris depigmentation and nystagmus were observed among both patients and carriers.

Conclusions: In this study, we reported a novel nonsense mutation of GPR143 in a large family with poor visual acuity and isolated foveal hypoplasia without nystagmus, which further expanded the genetic mutation spectrum of GPR143.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12886-021-01905-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8011130PMC
March 2021

Regional citrate anticoagulation versus low molecular weight heparin for CRRT in hyperlactatemia patients: A retrospective case-control study.

Int J Artif Organs 2021 Mar 30:3913988211003586. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Department of Nephrology, Xijing Hospital, the Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, Shaanxi, China.

Introduction: There were controversial opinions on the use of regional citrate anticoagulation (RCA) versus low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) for continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) in hyperlactatemia patients, which was considered as one of the contraindications of citrate. The aim of our present study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of RCA versus LMWH for CRRT in hyperlactatemia patients.

Methods: Adult patients with hyperlactatemia who underwent RCA or LMWH CRRT in our center between January 2014 and March 2018 were retrospectively recruited. Filter lifespan, ultrafiltration, purification, bleeding, citrate accumulation, filter clot, and the infusion of blood production were evaluated as endpoints.

Results: Of the 127 patients included in the original cohort, 81 and 46 accepted RCA and LMWH CRRT, respectively. The filter lifespan was significantly prolonged in the RCA group compared to the LMWH group (44.25 h [2 -83] vs. 24 h [4 -67],  < 0.001). The accumulated filter survival proportions were significantly improved in the RCA group compared to the LMWH group in the original cohort ( < 0.001) as well as the matched group ( < 0.001). The filters clotted more frequently in the LMWH group than in the RCA group in both of the original (52.2% vs 26.8%,  = 0.001) and matched cohort (58.6% vs 19.4%,  = 0.001). The bleeding complication was significantly reduced in the RCA group than in the LMWH group in the matched cohort (28.6% vs 4.5%,  = 0.04).

Conclusion: In critically ill patients with hyperlactatemia requiring CRRT, RCA is superior to LMWH in terms of filter lifespan and bleeding risk without significantly increased risk of citrate accumulation and citrate related metabolic complications. RCA most likely is a safe and effective anticoagulation method for CRRT in patients with hyperlactatemia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/03913988211003586DOI Listing
March 2021

Associations of plasma PAPP-A2 and genetic variations with salt sensitivity, blood pressure changes and hypertension incidence in Chinese adults.

J Hypertens 2021 Mar 26. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University Key Laboratory of Molecular Cardiology of Shaanxi Province Department of Cardiology, Xi'an No. 1 Hospital Key Laboratory of Biomedical Information Engineering of Ministry of Education, Biomedical Informatics & Genomics Center, School of Life Science and Technology, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an Department of Cardiac Surgery, First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University Department of Science and Technology, First Affiliated Hospital of Medical School, Xi'an Jiaotong University Department of Ophthalmology, Xi'an People's Hospital Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Xi'an Jiaotong University Health Science Center Department of Cardiology, Xi'an People's Hospital Department of Rheumatology, First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, China Department of Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut Department of Medicine, Veterans Administration Healthcare System, West Haven, Connecticut, USA.

Objective: Pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A2 (PAPP-A2) is the homolog of PAPP-A in the vertebrate genome and its role in protecting against salt-induced hypertension in salt-sensitive rats has been confirmed. We sought to examine the associations of plasma PAPP-A2 levels and its genetic variants with salt sensitivity, blood pressure (BP) changes and hypertension incidence in humans.

Methods: Eighty participants (18-65 years old) sequentially consuming a usual diet, a 7-day low-salt diet (3.0 g/day) and a 7-day high-salt diet (18 g/day). In addition, we studied participants of the original Baoji Salt-Sensitive Study, recruited from 124 families in Northern China in 2004 who received the same salt intake intervention, and evaluated them for the development of hypertension over 14 years.

Results: The plasma PAPPA2 levels significantly decreased with the change from baseline to a low-salt diet and decreased further when converting from the low-salt to high-salt diet. SNP rs12042763 in the PAPP-A2 gene was significantly associated with systolic BP responses to both low-salt and high-salt diet while SNP rs2861813 showed a significant association with the changes in SBP and pulse pressure at 14-year follow-up. Additionally, SNPs rs2294654 and rs718067 demonstrated a significant association with the incidence of hypertension over the 14-year follow-up. Finally, the gene-based analysis found that Pappa2 was significantly associated with longitudinal SBP changes and the incidence of hypertension over the 14-year follow-up.

Conclusions: This study shows that dietary salt intake affects plasma PAPP-A2 levels and that PAPP-A2 may play a role in salt sensitivity, BP progression and development of hypertension in the Chinese populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HJH.0000000000002846DOI Listing
March 2021

Exploring the influence of human mobility factors and spread prediction on early COVID-19 in the USA.

BMC Public Health 2021 03 29;21(1):615. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Key Laboratory of Geospatial Technology for Middle and Lower Yellow River Region / College of Environment and Planning Henan University, Jinming Road, Kaifeng, 475004, China.

Background: COVID-19 is still spreading rapidly around the world. In this context, how to accurately predict the turning point, duration and final scale of the epidemic in different countries, regions or cities is key to enabling decision makers and public health departments to formulate intervention measures and deploy resources.

Methods: Based on COVID-19 surveillance data and human mobility data, this study predicts the epidemic trends of national and state regional administrative units in the United States from July 27, 2020, to January 22, 2021, by constructing a SIRD model considering the factors of "lockdown" and "riot".

Results: (1) The spread of the epidemic in the USA has the characteristics of geographical proximity. (2) During the lockdown period, there was a strong correlation between the number of COVID-19 infected cases and residents' activities in recreational areas such as parks. (3) The turning point (the point of time in which active infected cases peak) of the early epidemic in the USA was predicted to occur in September. (4) Among the 10 states experiencing the most severe epidemic, New York, New Jersey, Massachusetts, Texas, Illinois, Pennsylvania and California are all predicted to meet the turning point in a concentrated period from July to September, while the turning point in Georgia is forecast to occur in December. No turning points in Florida and Arizona were foreseen for the forecast period, with the number of infected cases still set to be growing rapidly.

Conclusions: The model was found accurately to predict the future trend of the epidemic and can be applied to other countries. It is worth noting that in the early stage there is no vaccine or approved pharmaceutical intervention for this disease, making the fight against the pandemic reliant on non-pharmaceutical interventions. Therefore, reducing mobility, focusing on personal protection and increasing social distance remain still the most effective measures to date.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-021-10682-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8006890PMC
March 2021

TPCA-1 negatively regulates inflammation mediated by NF-κB pathway in mouse chronic periodontitis model.

Mol Oral Microbiol 2021 Mar 25. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

School of Public Health, Xi'an Jiaotong University Health Science Center, Xi'an, Shaanxi, China.

The dysregulation of immune system plays a crucial function in periodontitis development. Pro-inflammatory cytokines are thought to be critical for the generation and development of periodontitis. The enhanced activity of osteoclasts contributes to periodontitis pathogenesis. Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling pathway directly enhances osteoclast differentiation and maturation. 2-[(aminocarbonyl)amino]-5-(4-fluorophenyl)-3-thiophenecarboxamide (TPCA-1) is a IκB kinases (IKK) inhibitor. This research aimed to investigate whether TPCA-1 had influence on the pathogenesis of chronic periodontitis. Mouse chronic periodontitis was induced by an in vivo ligature-induced periodontitis model. TPCA-1 was intravenously injected into mice after chronic periodontitis induction. Bone marrow-derived macrophages were cultured in macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF)-conditioned media with receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand (RANKL) induce in vitro osteoclast differentiation. Western blot was used to analyze protein levels and mRNA levels were analyzed through qRT-PCR. TPCA-1 promoted osteoclastogenesis and osteoclast-related gene expression in vitro. The production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in osteoclasts induced by lipopolysaccharides was inhibited by TPCA-1 in vitro. In vitro TPCA-1 treatment inhibited Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (A.a)-induced expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and NF-κB signal activation in osteoclasts. The induction of chronic periodontitis was inhibited by the absence of IKKb in mice. This research demonstrates that the treatment of TPCA-1 negatively regulates inflammation response and inhibits the osteoclastogenesis through the inactivation of NF-κB pathway in mouse chronic periodontitis model.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/omi.12335DOI Listing
March 2021

Architectural Engineering Achieves High-Performance Alloying Anodes for Lithium and Sodium Ion Batteries.

Small 2021 Mar 18:e2005248. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

State Key Laboratory of Materials Processing and Die & Mould Technology, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430074, China.

Tremendous efforts have been dedicated to the development of high-performance electrochemical energy storage devices. The development of lithium- and sodium-ion batteries (LIBs and SIBs) with high energy densities is urgently needed to meet the growing demands for portable electronic devices, electric vehicles, and large-scale smart grids. Anode materials with high theoretical capacities that are based on alloying storage mechanisms are at the forefront of research geared towards high-energy-density LIBs or SIBs. However, they often suffer from severe pulverization and rapid capacity decay due to their huge volume change upon cycling. So far, a wide variety of advanced materials and electrode structures are developed to improve the long-term cyclability of alloying-type materials. This review provides fundamentals of anti-pulverization and cutting-edge concepts that aim to achieve high-performance alloying anodes for LIBs/SIBs from the viewpoint of architectural engineering. The recent progress on the effective strategies of nanostructuring, incorporation of carbon, intermetallics design, and binder engineering is systematically summarized. After that, the relationship between architectural design and electrochemical performance as well as the related charge-storage mechanisms is discussed. Finally, challenges and perspectives of alloying-type anode materials for further development in LIB/SIB applications are proposed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.202005248DOI Listing
March 2021

Endoplasmic reticulum stress-related calcium imbalance plays an important role on Zinc oxide nanoparticles-induced failure of neural tube closure during embryogenesis.

Environ Int 2021 Mar 14;152:106495. Epub 2021 Mar 14.

Division of Histology & Embryology, Key Laboratory for Regenerative Medicine of the Ministry of Education, Medical College, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632, China. Electronic address:

Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) have been increasingly and widely utilized in various fields, such as agriculture, food and cosmetics. However, various levels of adverse impacts of ZnO NPs on the ecological environment and public health have been associated with each stage of their production, use and disposal. ZnO NPs can be ingested by pregnant women and transferred to developing embryos/foetus through the placental barrier, however, the potential toxicity of ZnO NPs to embryonic and foetal development is largely unclear. In this study, we discovered that ZnO NPs exposure caused growth proportional failure of neural tube closure in mouse and chicken embryos and a simultaneous increase in apoptosis in the developing neural tubes of chicken embryos, which was verified in an in vitro experiment using the SH-SY5Y cell line. Furthermore, removal of free Zn ions with EDTA or inhibition of Zn ion absorption by CaCl partially alleviated the neurotoxicity induced by ZnO NPs, implying that ZnO NPs-induced developmental neurotoxicity is probably due to both ZnO NPs and the Zn ions released from ZnO NPs. In addition, we found that ZnO NPs exposure caused endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated apoptosis driven mainly by an increase in intracellular calcium (Ca) concentrations, rather than by the activation of three membrane protein receptors (ATF6, IRE-1 and PERK). Thus, Ca imbalance-mediated apoptosis in the context of ZnO NPs exposure may lead to cellular dysfunctions in developing neural precursors, such as, abnormalities involved in neural tube closure, ultimately leading to neural tube defects (NTDs) during embryogenesis. In sum, our results revealed that ZnO NPs exposure greatly increases the risk of failure of neural tube closure through endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated neural cell death in the developing embryos, which may further lead to the NTD in fetal stage, including failure of neural tube closure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2021.106495DOI Listing
March 2021

Circulating Exosomal miR-96 as a Novel Biomarker for Radioresistant Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer.

J Oncol 2021 27;2021:5893981. Epub 2021 Feb 27.

Department of Oncology, Nanjing Second Hospital, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing 210003, Jiangsu, China.

Patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) frequently develop radioresistance, resulting in poor response to radiation and unfavourable prognosis. Early detection of radioresistance hence can guide the adjustment of treatment regimens in time. Exosomes are lipid bilayer-enclosed vesicles with sub-micrometer size that are released by various cells. Exosomes contain a tissue-specific signature wherein a variety of proteins and nucleic acids are selectively packaged. Growing evidence shows exosomes are involved in cancer pathophysiology and exosomes as the latest addition to the liquid biopsy portfolio have been used in cancer diagnosis. Compared to cell free RNA, exosomal lipid envelope can effectively protect RNA cargo against degradation. Therefore, exosomes may hold great promise for the identification of radioresistance. Here, we report six plasma exosomal miRNAs could be used to distinguish radioresistant NSCLC patients from radiosensitive NSCLC patients and to evaluate the prognosis of NSCLC. Samples were obtained from 52 NSCLC patients with or without radioresistance and 45 age-matched healthy volunteers. Exosomes in 1 ml plasma were isolated followed by extraction of small RNA. The expression levels of miRNAs were determined by quantitative real-time PCR. Potential miRNA markers were further evaluated in additional 52 NSCLC patients. We found exosomal miR-1246 and miR-96 are significantly overexpressed in NSCLC patients. Moreover, exosomal miR-96 in patients with radioresistant NSCLC is significantly higher than that of controls. Exosomal miR-96 also demonstrates a significant correlation with vascular invasion and poor overall survival. Altogether, our results indicate that exosomal miR-96 could be a non-invasive diagnostic and prognostic marker of radioresistant NSCLC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/5893981DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7937465PMC
February 2021

Efficient Access to 3D Mesoscopic Prisms in Polymeric Soft Materials.

Macromol Rapid Commun 2021 Mar 15:e2100064. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Key Laboratory of Advanced Materials Technologies, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou, 350108, China.

The preparation of 3D functional isolated mesoscopic assemblies remains a challenge in the self-assembly of polymers. Here, well-defined 3D hexagonal and hexagram prisms with uniform dimensions are acquired by the crystallization of the inclusion complex composed of a crystalline molecule tris-o-phenylenedioxycyclotriphosphazene (TPP) and a block copolymer. The crystalline TPP plays an important role in the self-assembling process. The faceted morphologies of the hexagonal and hexagram prisms are infrequent in the self-assembly field of soft materials. The formation of the prisms experiences a 3D growth mechanism. The epitaxial growth, accompanied by the heterogeneous nucleation in the edges, yields the growth of inclusion crystals. This study provides a path to construct well-defined polymeric soft materials with broad utility based on numerous supramolecular complexes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/marc.202100064DOI Listing
March 2021

The perceptions of anatomy teachers for different majors during the COVID-19 pandemic: a national Chinese survey.

Med Educ Online 2021 Dec;26(1):1897267

During the spring semester of 2020, medical school anatomists in China were forced by the COVID-19 pandemic to transition from face-to-face educators or part-time online educators to full-time online educators. This nationwide survey was conducted to assess online anatomy education during the pandemic for medical students from nonclinical medicine and clinical medicine majors at medical schools in China via WeChat. The total of 356 responders included 293 responders from clinical medicine and 63 respondents from nonclinical medicine majors (i.e., 21 from preventive medicine, 13 from stomatology, and 29 from traditional Chinese medicine). The survey results showed that several aspects of online anatomy education were quite similar in clinical and nonclinical majors' classes, including theoretical and practical sessions, active learning, assessments and evaluations. However, there were statistically significant differences in class size, implementation of active learning activities prior to the pandemic, and the evaluation of the effectiveness of online learning during the pandemic, between clinical and nonclinical medicine majors. These results indicated that, compared with teachers of anatomy courses in clinical medicine, teachers of nonclinical medicine majors using online learning in medical schools in China had relatively poor preparation for online learning in response to the unforeseen pandemic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10872981.2021.1897267DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7971280PMC
December 2021

Equivalent efficacy study of QL1101 and bevacizumab on untreated advanced non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer patients: a phase 3 randomized, double-blind clinical trial.

Cancer Biol Med 2021 Mar 12. Epub 2021 Mar 12.

Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Shanghai Chest Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200030, China.

Objective: This phase 3 study aimed to test equivalence in efficacy and safety for QL1101, a bevacizumab analogue in Chinese patients with untreated locally advanced non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).

Methods: Eligible patients were randomly assigned 1:1 to receive carboplatin and paclitaxel in combination with either QL1101 or bevacizumab, 15 mg/kg every 3-week for 6 cycles. This was followed by maintenance treatment with single agent QL1101 every 3-week. The primary end-point was objective response rate (ORR), with secondary end-points being progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), disease control rate (DCR), and adverse events (AEs).

Results: Of 675 patients, 535 eligible patients were randomized to the QL1101 group ( = 269) and bevacizumab group ( = 266). ORRs were 52.8% and 56.8%, respectively, for the QL1101 and bevacizumab groups, with an ORR hazard ratio 0.93 (95% confidence interval: 0.8-0131.1). The PFS, OS, DCR, and AEs were comparable between the 2 groups, which remained the same after stratification according to epidermal growth factor receptor mutation or smoking history.

Conclusions: QL1101 showed similar efficacy and safety profiles as compared to bevacizumab among Chinese patients with untreated locally advanced non-squamous NSCLC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.20892/j.issn.2095-3941.2020.0212DOI Listing
March 2021

Upregulating the Expression of LncRNA ANRIL Promotes Osteogenesis via the miR-7-5p/IGF-1R Axis in the Inflamed Periodontal Ligament Stem Cells.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 22;9:604400. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

Institute of Stomatology, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China.

Background: Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) antisense non-coding RNA in the INK4 locus (ANRIL) is a base length of about 3.8 kb lncRNA, which plays an important role in several biological functions including cell proliferation, migration, and senescence. This study ascertained the role of lncRNA ANRIL in the senescence and osteogenic differentiation of inflamed periodontal ligament stem cells (iPDLSCs).

Methods: Healthy periodontal ligament stem cells (hPDLSCs) and iPDLSCs were isolated from healthy/inflamed periodontal ligament tissues, respectively. The proliferation abilities were determined by CCK-8, EdU assay, and flow cytometry (FCM). The methods of Western blot assay (WB), quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), alizarin red staining, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) staining, ALP activity detection, and immunofluorescence staining were described to determine the biological influences of lncRNA ANRIL on iPDLSCs. Senescence-associated (SA)-β-galactosidase (gal) staining, Western blot analysis, and qRT-PCR were performed to determine cell senescence. Dual-luciferase reporter assays were conducted to confirm the binding of lncRNA ANRIL and miR-7-5-p, as well as miR-7-5p and insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-1R).

Results: HPDLSCs and iPDLSCs were isolated and cultured successfully. LncRNA ANRIL and IGF-1R were declined, while miR-7-5p was upregulated in iPDLSCs compared with hPDLSCs. Overexpression of ANRIL enhanced the osteogenic protein expressions of OSX, RUNX2, ALP, and knocked down the aging protein expressions of p16, p21, p53. LncRNA ANRIL could promote the committed differentiation of iPDLSCs by sponging miR-7-5p. Upregulating miR-7-5p inhibited the osteogenic differentiation of iPDLSCs. Further analysis identified IGF-1R as a direct target of miR-7-5p. The direct binding of lncRNA ANRIL and miR-7-5p, miR-7-5p and the 3'-UTR of IGF-1R were verified by dual-luciferase reporter assay. Besides, rescue experiments showed that knockdown of miR-7-5p reversed the inhibitory effect of lncRNA ANRIL deficiency on osteogenesis of iPDLSCs.

Conclusion: This study disclosed that lncRNA ANRIL promotes osteogenic differentiation of iPDLSCs by regulating the miR-7-5p/IGF-1R axis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2021.604400DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7937634PMC
February 2021

Effect of fecal microbiota transplantation on neurological restoration in a spinal cord injury mouse model: involvement of brain-gut axis.

Microbiome 2021 03 7;9(1):59. Epub 2021 Mar 7.

Center of Neural Injury and Repair, Beijing Institute for Brain Disorders, Beijing, China.

Background: Spinal cord injury (SCI) patients display disruption of gut microbiome, and gut dysbiosis exacerbate neurological impairment in SCI models. Cumulative data support an important role of gut microbiome in SCI. Here, we investigated the hypothesis that fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) from healthy uninjured mice into SCI mice may exert a neuroprotective effect.

Results: FMT facilitated functional recovery, promoted neuronal axonal regeneration, improved animal weight gain and metabolic profiling, and enhanced intestinal barrier integrity and GI motility in SCI mice. High-throughput sequencing revealed that levels of phylum Firmicutes, family Christensenellaceae, and genus Butyricimonas were reduced in fecal samples of SCI mice, and FMT remarkably reshaped gut microbiome. Also, FMT-treated SCI mice showed increased amount of fecal short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), which correlated with alteration of intestinal permeability and locomotor recovery. Furthermore, FMT downregulated IL-1β/NF-κB signaling in spinal cord and NF-κB signaling in gut following SCI.

Conclusion: Our study demonstrates that reprogramming of gut microbiota by FMT improves locomotor and GI functions in SCI mice, possibly through the anti-inflammatory functions of SCFAs. Video Abstract.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40168-021-01007-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7937282PMC
March 2021

Effects of prolonged photoperiod on growth performance, serum lipids and meat quality of Jinjiang cattle in winter.

Anim Biosci 2021 Feb 15. Epub 2021 Feb 15.

Department of Animal Science and Technology, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China.

Objective: This study was conducted to investigate the potential effects of prolonged photoperiod on the serum lipids, carcass traits, and meat quality of Jinjiang cattle during winter.

Methods: Thirty-four Jinjiang bulls aged between 14 and 16 months were randomly assigned to two groups that were alternatively subjected to either natural daylight +4 h supplemental light (long photoperiod, LP) or natural daylight (natural photoperiod, NP) for 96 days. The potential effects on the levels of serum lipids, carcass traits, meat quality, and genes regulating lipid metabolism in the intramuscular fat (IMF) of the cattle were evaluated.

Results: Jinjiang cattle kept under LP showed significant increase in both dry matter intake (DMI) and backfat thickness. the serum glucose (Glu) and the plasma leptin levels were significantly reduced, while that of melatonin and insulin were observed to be increased. The crude fat contents of biceps femoris muscle and longissimus dorsi muscle were higher in LP than in NP group. In longissimus dorsi muscle, the proportions of C17:0 and C18:0 were significantly higher but that of the C16:1 was found to be significantly lower in LP group. The relative mRNA expressions in IMF of longissimus dorsi muscle, the lipid synthesis genes(proliferator-activated receptor gamma, PPAR γ; fatty acid-binding protein,FABP4) and the fatty acid synthesis genes(Acetyl-coa carboxylase, ACACA; fatty acid synthetase, FASN; 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase, AGPAT) were significantly up-regulated in LP group(P < 0.05); whereas the hormone-sensitive lipase(HSL) and stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1(SCD1) were significantly down-regulated in LP than in NP group.

Conclusion: Prolonged photoperiod significantly altered the growth performance, hormonal levels, gene expression and fat deposition in Jinjiang cattle. It suggested that the LP improved the fat deposition by regulating the levels of different hormones and genes related to lipid metabolism, thereby improving the fattening of Jinjiang cattle during winter.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5713/ab.20.0750DOI Listing
February 2021

The anterior and traverse cage can provide optimal biomechanical performance for both traditional and percutaneous endoscopic transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion.

Comput Biol Med 2021 Apr 19;131:104291. Epub 2021 Feb 19.

Department of Spine Surgery, Tongji Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai, 200065, China; Key Laboratory of Spine and Spinal Cord Injury Repair and Regeneration (Tongji University), Ministry of Education, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai, 200065, China.

Background: Transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) is a well-established surgical treatment for patients with lumbar degenerative disc disease; however, the optimal position for the interbody fusion cage in TLIF procedures for reducing cage-related complications remains uncertain. The present study aims to compare the biomechanical effects between different cage positions in TLIF and percutaneous endoscopic-TLIF (PE-TLIF).

Method: An intact finite element model of L3-L5 from computed tomography images of a 25-year-old healthy male without any lumbar disease was reconstructed and validated. TLIF and PE-TLIF were performed on L4-L5 with bilateral pedicle screws fixation. Two surgical finite element models were subjected to loads with six degrees of freedom. The range of motion (ROM) and von Mises stress of the implantations and endplates were measured for the anterior, middle, and posterior district and the traverse or oblique direction of the cage respectively.

Results: As the cage was implanted forward, the ROMs in the fused L4-L5 segments and the von Mises stress of the cage and endplates decreased while the von Mises stress of the screws increased; this was also shown in the traverse cage when compared with the oblique cage (A-90-compared with A-45- had a 31.3%, 1.7%, 12.6%, and 5.7% decrease in FL, EX, LB and AR). The ROMs (TLIF A-45 increase of 80.8%, 23.8%, and 12.2% in FL, EX, and LB when compared with PE-TLIF), cage stress, and endplate stress of PE-TLIF were lower than those of TLIF.

Conclusions: Considering the ROM of the fusion segments, implanting the cage in the anterior district in the traverse direction can effectively enhance the fusion segment stiffness, thus contributing to the stability of the lumbar spine after fusion. It can also cause less cage stress and endplate stress, which indicates its beneficial effect in avoiding cage injury or subsidence. However, the higher stress of the pedicle screws and rods indicates higher failure risk. PE-TLIF had better biomechanical performance than TLIF. Therefore, it is recommended that the surgeon implant the cage in the anterior district of the L5 vertebra's upper endplate in the traverse direction using the PE-TLIF technique.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compbiomed.2021.104291DOI Listing
April 2021

Do air pollutants as well as meteorological factors impact Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)? Evidence from China based on the geographical perspective.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Mar 5. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

School of Public Health, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, Shaanxi, China.

The COVID-19 is still a huge challenge that seriously threatens public health globally. Previous studies focused on the influence of air pollutants and probable meteorological parameters on confirmed COVID-19 infections via epidemiological methods, whereas the findings of relations between possible variables and COVID-19 incidences using geographical perspective were scarce. In the present study, data concerning confirmed COVID-19 cases and possible affecting factors were collected for 325 cities across China up to May 27, 2020. The geographically weighted regression (GWR) model was introduced to explore the impact of probable determinants on confirmed COVID-19 incidences. Some results were obtained. AQI, PM, and PM demonstrated significantly positive impacts on COVID-19 during the most study period with the majority lag group (P< 0.05). Nevertheless, the relation of temperature with COVID-19 was significantly negative (P< 0.05). Especially, CO exhibited a negative effect on COVID-19 in most study period with the majority lag group. The impacts of each possible determinant on COVID-19 represented significantly spatial heterogeneity. The obvious influence of the majority of possible factors on COVID-19 was mainly detected during the after lockdown period with the lag 21 group. Although the COVID-19 spreading has been effectively controlled by tough measures taken by the Chinese government, the study findings remind us to address the air pollution issues persistently for protecting human health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-12934-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7935479PMC
March 2021

Mortality Resulting from Undesirable Behaviours in Dogs Aged Three Years and under Attending Primary-Care Veterinary Practices in Australia.

Animals (Basel) 2021 Feb 13;11(2). Epub 2021 Feb 13.

Sydney School of Veterinary Science, Faculty of Science, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia.

There is increasing evidence that undesirable behaviours (UBs) in dogs can compromise the welfare of both canine companions and their carers. Veterinarians are regularly consulted about affected animals and may be asked to euthanase the more severely affected individuals. A recent study of veterinary records showed that UBs were the predominant cause of mortality in young dogs in the UK. This companion study from Australia reports the proportion of mortality due to UBs among dogs aged three years and under that attended veterinary practices from 2013 to 2018. Deidentified patient records were extracted from the VetCompass Australia database and manually assessed to reveal the prevalence and type of UBs reported. The results reveal that 29.7% of the 4341 dogs that died at three years of age or under had deaths ascribed to at least one UB, and that the most commonly reported UB was aggression. Neutered dogs had 2.5× the odds of death due to an UB compared to intact dogs, and crossbred dogs were found to have 1.43× the odds of a UB related death compared to purebred dogs. The breeds at highest risk were Australian cattle dogs (odds ratio (OR) 4.77) and American Staffordshire terriers (OR 4.69). The attending veterinarian referred behaviour cases to a behaviourist or dog trainer in 11.0% of all UB cases, and attempted pharmacological therapy in 5.9% of cases. The results reveal how often UBs affect dogs and their owners in Australia, and infer the beneficial impact that educating dog owners and veterinary professionals in modifying and managing UBs may have.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani11020493DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7918417PMC
February 2021