Publications by authors named "Yan Yu"

1,998 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Resveratrol Induces Autophagy and Apoptosis in Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Cells by Activating the NGFR-AMPK-mTOR Pathway.

Nutrients 2022 Jun 10;14(12). Epub 2022 Jun 10.

Physical Examination Department, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710061, China.

Resveratrol (RSV) has been reported to induce autophagy and apoptosis in non-small-cell lung cancer A549 cells, and the nerve growth factor receptor (NGFR) regulates autophagy and apoptosis in many other cells. However, the effect of NGFR on autophagy and apoptosis induced by RSV in A549 cells remains unclear. Here, we found that RSV reduced the cell survival rate in time- and concentration-dependent manners, activating autophagy and apoptosis. Lethal autophagy was triggered by RSV higher than 55 μM. The relationship between autophagy and apoptosis depended on the type of autophagy. Specifically, mutual promotion was observed between apoptosis and lethal autophagy. Conversely, cytoprotective autophagy facilitated apoptosis but was unaffected by apoptosis. RSV enhanced NGFR by increasing mRNA expression and prolonging the lifespan of NGFR mRNA and proteins. RSV antagonized the enhanced autophagy and apoptosis caused by NGFR knockdown. As the downstream pathway of NGFR, AMPK-mTOR played a positive role in RSV-induced autophagy and apoptosis. Overall, RSV-induced autophagy and apoptosis in A549 cells are regulated by the NGFR-AMPK-mTOR signaling pathway.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu14122413DOI Listing
June 2022

Achieving Good Temperature Stability of Dielectric Constant by Constructing Composition Gradient in (Pb,La)(Zr,Ti)O Multilayer Thin Films.

Materials (Basel) 2022 Jun 10;15(12). Epub 2022 Jun 10.

Frontier Institute of Science and Technology, and State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049, China.

Ferroelectrics with a high dielectric constant are ideal materials for the fabrication of miniaturized and integrated electronic devices. However, the dielectric constant of ferroelectrics varies significantly with the change of temperature, which is detrimental to the working stability of electronic devices. This work demonstrates a new strategy to design a ferroelectric dielectric with a high temperature stability, that is, the design of a multilayer relaxor ferroelectric thin film with a composition gradient. As a result, the fabricated up-graded (Pb,La)(Zr,Ti)O multilayer thin film showed a superior temperature stability of the dielectric constant, with variation less than 7% in the temperature range from 30 °C to 200 °C, and more importantly, the variation was less than 2.5% in the temperature range from 75 °C to 200 °C. This work not only develops a dielectric material with superior temperature stability, but also demonstrates a promising method to enhance the temperature stability of ferroelectrics.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma15124123DOI Listing
June 2022

Bergamottin, a bioactive component of bergamot, inhibits SARS-CoV-2 infection in golden Syrian hamsters.

Antiviral Res 2022 Jun 19;204:105365. Epub 2022 Jun 19.

State Key Laboratory of Virology, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Center for Biosafety Mega-Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, 430071, China; University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100049, China. Electronic address:

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused an ongoing pandemic, coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19), which has become a major global public health event. Antiviral compounds remain the predominant means of treating COVID-19. Here, we reported that bergamottin, a furanocoumarin originally found in bergamot, exhibited inhibitory activity against SARS-CoV-2 in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo. Bergamottin interfered with multiple stages of virus life cycles, specifically blocking the SARS-CoV-2 spike-mediated membrane fusion and effectively reducing viral RNA synthesis. Oral delivery of bergamottin to golden Syrian hamsters at dosages of both 50 mg/kg and 75 mg/kg reduced the SARS-CoV-2 load in nasal turbinates and lung tissues. Pathological damage caused by viral infection was also ameliorated after bergamottin treatment. Overall, our study provides evidence of bergamottin as a promising natural compound, with broad-spectrum anti-coronavirus activity, that could be further developed in the fight against COVID-19 infection during the current pandemic.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.antiviral.2022.105365DOI Listing
June 2022

Long noncoding RNA ST8SIA6-AS1 promotes cell proliferation and metastasis in triple-negative breast cancer by targeting miR-145-5p/CDCA3 to inactivate the p53/p21 signaling pathway.

Environ Toxicol 2022 Jun 22. Epub 2022 Jun 22.

Department of Breast Surgery, the First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, China.

Background: Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), the most aggressive subtype of breast cancer, always exhibits a poor prognosis due to high risk of early recurrence and distant metastasis. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been reported as crucial regulators in breast cancer. However, the functions and action mechanisms of lncRNA ST8SIA6-AS1 in TNBC are largely unknown.

Methods: Quantitative real-time PCR and western blot assays were used to measure the expression levels of different genes and proteins. Cell proliferation ability was monitored by CCK-8, colony forming and flow cytometry assays. Wound healing and transwell assays were performed to evaluate cell migration and invasion. The regulatory mechanisms of ST8SIA6-AS1 in TNBC were confirmed by dual luciferase reporter and RIP assays. A mouse xenograft model was established to investigate the role of ST8SIA6-AS1 in TNBC tumor growth.

Results: ST8SIA6-AS1 displayed a higher expression in TNBC cells. Silencing ST8SIA6-AS1 impaired cell proliferation, cell cycle progression, migration, and invasion in vitro, and slowed tumor growth in vivo. Mechanistically, ST8SIA6-AS1 could facilitate the expression of its target CDCA3 (cell division cycle associated protein 3) and inactivate the p53/p21 signaling by inhibiting miR-145-5p. Moreover, miR-145-5p exerted a tumor-suppressive activity by targeting CDCA3. The tumor-suppressive effects induced by ST8SIA6-AS1 knockdown were abated by the down-regulation of miR-145-5p or the up-regulation of CDCA3.

Conclusion: ST8SIA6-AS1 exerts an oncogenic role in TNBC by interacting with miR-145-5p to up-regulate CDCA3 expression and inactivate the p53/p21 signaling, highlighting ST8SIA6-AS1 as a promising molecular target to combat TNBC.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/tox.23605DOI Listing
June 2022

Isolated diastolic hypertension in childhood and risk of adult subclinical target organ damage: a 30-year prospective cohort study.

J Hypertens 2022 Jun 22. Epub 2022 Jun 22.

Department of Cardiology, First Affiliated Hospital of Medical School, Xi'an Jiaotong University.

Background: Data on the association of isolated diastolic hypertension (IDH) in childhood with adult cardiovascular risk are scarce. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of IDH in adolescents and to explore the impact of IDH in childhood on adult subclinical target organ damage (STOD).

Methods: This longitudinal study consisted of 1738 school children (55.4% boys) aged 6-15 years from rural areas of Hanzhong, Shaanxi, who were followed for 30 years. Their blood pressure was recorded to define the hypertension subtypes: normotension, IDH, isolated systolic hypertension (ISH) and mixed hypertension. Tracked STOD included arterial stiffness (n = 1738), albuminuria (n = 1652) and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) (n = 1429).

Results: Overall, the prevalence of IDH, ISH and mixed hypertension was 5.4, 2.2 and 3%, respectively, and there was no gender difference. Over 30 years, 366 (21.1%) of participants developed arterial stiffness, 170 (10.3%) developed albuminuria and 68 (4.8%) developed LVH. Compared with normotensive participants, IDH in childhood had higher risk ratio (RR) of experiencing arterial stiffness (RR, 1.66; 95% CI, 1.01-2.76) and albuminuria (RR, 2.27; 95% CI, 1.35-4.16) in adults after being fully adjusted but not LVH. However, if the elevated blood pressure in children was used as the reference standard, IDH in childhood was associated with adult LVH (RR, 2.48; 95% CI, 1.28-4.84).

Conclusion: IDH accounts for a higher proportion of adolescent hypertension subtypes and can increase the risk of adult STOD. These results highlight the necessity of improving the prevention, detection and treatment of IDH in adolescents.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HJH.0000000000003183DOI Listing
June 2022

Autophagy, ferroptosis, pyroptosis, and necroptosis in tumor immunotherapy.

Signal Transduct Target Ther 2022 Jun 20;7(1):196. Epub 2022 Jun 20.

Department of Medical Oncology, Harbin Medical University Cancer Hospital, Harbin, 150081, China.

In recent years, immunotherapy represented by immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) has led to unprecedented breakthroughs in cancer treatment. However, the fact that many tumors respond poorly or even not to ICIs, partly caused by the absence of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs), significantly limits the application of ICIs. Converting these immune "cold" tumors into "hot" tumors that may respond to ICIs is an unsolved question in cancer immunotherapy. Since it is a general characteristic of cancers to resist apoptosis, induction of non-apoptotic regulated cell death (RCD) is emerging as a new cancer treatment strategy. Recently, several studies have revealed the interaction between non-apoptotic RCD and antitumor immunity. Specifically, autophagy, ferroptosis, pyroptosis, and necroptosis exhibit synergistic antitumor immune responses while possibly exerting inhibitory effects on antitumor immune responses. Thus, targeted therapies (inducers or inhibitors) against autophagy, ferroptosis, pyroptosis, and necroptosis in combination with immunotherapy may exert potent antitumor activity, even in tumors resistant to ICIs. This review summarizes the multilevel relationship between antitumor immunity and non-apoptotic RCD, including autophagy, ferroptosis, pyroptosis, and necroptosis, and the potential targeting application of non-apoptotic RCD to improve the efficacy of immunotherapy in malignancy.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41392-022-01046-3DOI Listing
June 2022

Phylogenomics and evolutionary history of Oreocnide (Urticaceae) shed light on recent geological and climatic events in SE Asia.

Mol Phylogenet Evol 2022 Jun 17:107555. Epub 2022 Jun 17.

Germplasm Bank of Wild Species, Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, Yunnan 650201, China. Electronic address:

Climate change and geological events have long been known to shape biodiversity, implying that these can likewise be viewed from a biological perspective. To study whether plants can shed light on this, and how they responded to climate change there, we examined Oreocnide, a genus widely distributed in SE Asia. Based on broad geographic sampling with genomic data, we employed an integrative approach of phylogenomics, molecular dating, historical biogeography, and ecological analyses. We found that Oreocnide originated in mainland East Asia and began to diversify ∼6.06 Ma, probably in response to a distinct geographic and climatic transition in East Asia at around that time, implying that the last important geological change in mainland SE Asia might be 1 Ma older than previously suggested. Around four immigration events to the islands of Malesia followed, indicating that immigration from the mainland could be an underestimated factor in the assembly of biotic communities in the region. Two detected increases of diversification rate occurred 3.13 and 1.19 Ma, which strongly implicated climatic rather than geological changes as likely drivers of diversification, with candidates being the Pliocene intensification of the East Asian monsoons, and Pleistocene climate and sea level fluctuations. Distribution modelling indicated that Pleistocene sea level and climate fluctuations were inferred to enable inter-island dispersal followed by allopatric separation, underpinning radiation in the genus. Overall, our study, based on multiple lines of evidence, linked plant diversification to the most recent climatic and geological events in SE Asia. We highlight the importance of immigration in the assembly and diversification of the SE Asian flora, and underscore the utility of plant clades, as independent lines of evidence, for reconstructing recent climatic and geological events in the SE Asian region.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2022.107555DOI Listing
June 2022

Body Weight Is a Valid Predictor of the Long-Term Prognosis of Cervical Cancer.

Comput Math Methods Med 2022 8;2022:5613350. Epub 2022 Jun 8.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 2nd Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, China.

Objective: To identify and validate effective clinical predictors for the long-term prognosis of patients with cervical cancer.

Methods: Cervical cancer patients were retrieved from the TCGA database, and patients' clinical data were collected and analyzed for the predictive value of long-term prognosis. In the other branch of the study, patients with cervical cancer and admitted to our hospital between January 1, 2016, and December 31, 2016, were retrieved and followed up for prognosis analysis.

Results: In the database patient cohort of our study, 607 cases with cervical cancer were analyzed. Aneuploidy score ( = 0.012), Buffa hypoxia score ( = 0.013), histologic grade ( = 0.01), fraction genome altered >0.4 ( < 0.001), weight > 60 kg ( < 0.001), height > 160 cm ( = 0.047), BMI <18.5 ( = 0.023), Winter hypoxia score ( = 0.002), and adjuvant postoperative radiotherapy were good predictors for disease-free survival (DFS), while aneuploidy score ( = 0.001), MSI sensor score > 0.5 ( = 0.035), person neoplasm status ( < 0.001), race ( = 0.006), Ragnum hypoxia score ( = 0.012), weight ( < 0.001), height ( < 0.001), and BMI < 18.5 ( = 0.04) were good predictors for overall survival (OS). In the admitted patient cohort, age over 60 years old at the time of diagnosis was the only clinical factor influencing the long-term DFS ( = 0.004). TNM stage above III ( = 0.004), body weight > 70 kg ( < 0.001), and complicated with other cancer ( < 0.001) were clinical factor influencing the long-term OS.

Conclusions: Clinical factors, especially common to both cohorts, could be used to show the long-term prognosis of cervical cancer.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2022/5613350DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9200589PMC
June 2022

Room-Temperature Sodium-Sulfur Batteries: Rules for Catalyst Selection and Electrode Design.

Adv Mater 2022 Jun 14:e2204214. Epub 2022 Jun 14.

State Key Laboratory of Bio-Fibers and Eco-Textiles & Institute of Marine Biobased Materials & Collage of Materials Science and Engineering, Qingdao University, Qingdao, 266071, P. R. China.

Seeking an optimal catalyst to accelerate conversion reaction kinetics of room-temperature sodium-sulfur (RT Na-S) batteries is crucial for improving their electrochemical performance and promoting the practical applications. Herein, we propose systematically theoretical calculations of interfacial interactions of catalysts and polysulfides in terms of the surface adsorption state, interfacial ions migration and electronic concentration around the Fermi level as guiding principles of catalyst selection for RT Na-S batteries. As a case, MoN catalyst is accurately selected from transition metal nitrides with different d orbital electrons, and for experiment, it is introduced into the carbon nanofibers as a dual-functioning host ([email protected]). The [email protected] can effectively anchor polysulfides and accelerate their conversion reaction. In addition, for the sodium anode, the [email protected] can also induce uniform deposition of Na and inhibit dendrite growth, which are supported by in situ characterizations and finite element simulation technique. As a result, the as-prepared RT Na-S battery displays high reversible capacity of 990 mAh g at 0.2 A g after 100 cycles and long lifespan over 1500 cycles at 2 A g . Even with high S loading of 5 mg cm , the RT Na-S battery still exhibits a high areal capacity of 2.5 mAh cm . This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adma.202204214DOI Listing
June 2022

Surface-Preferred Crystal Plane Growth Enabled by Underpotential Deposited Monolayer toward Dendrite-Free Zinc Anode.

ACS Nano 2022 Jun 13. Epub 2022 Jun 13.

College of Materials and Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chengdu University of Technology, 1# Dongsanlu, Erxianqiao, Chengdu 610059, Sichuan, People's Republic of China.

Aqueous Zn batteries with ideal energy density and absolute safety are deemed the most promising candidates for next-generation energy storage systems. Nevertheless, stubborn dendrite formation and notorious parasitic reactions on the Zn metal anode have significantly compromised the Coulombic efficiency (CE) and cycling stability, severely impeding the Zn metal batteries from being deployed in the proposed applications. Herein, instead of random growth of Zn dendrites, a guided preferential growth of planar Zn layers is accomplished via atomic-scale matching of the surface lattice between the hexagonal close-packed (hcp) Zn(002) and face-centered cubic (fcc) Cu(100) crystal planes, as well as underpotential deposition (UPD)-enabled zincophilicity. The underlying mechanism of uniform Zn plating/stripping on the Cu(100) surface is demonstrated by ab initio molecular dynamics simulations and density functional theory calculations. The results show that each Zn atom layer is driven to grow along the exposed closest packed plane (002) in hcp Zn metal with a low lattice mismatch with Cu(100), leading to compact and planar Zn deposition. In situ optical visualization inspection is adopted to monitor the dynamic morphology evolution of such planar Zn layers. With this surface texture, the Zn anode exhibits exceptional reversibility with an ultrahigh Coulombic efficiency (CE) of 99.9%. The MnO//[email protected](100) full battery delivers long cycling stability over 548 cycles and outstanding specific energy and power density (112.5 Wh kg even at 9897.1 W kg). This work is expected to address the issues associated with Zn metal anodes and promote the development of high-energy rechargeable Zn metal batteries.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsnano.2c01380DOI Listing
June 2022

Apolipoprotein C1 (APOC1), A Candidate Diagnostic Serum Biomarker for Breast Cancer Identified by Serum Proteomics Study.

Crit Rev Eukaryot Gene Expr 2022 ;32(4):1-9

Department of Respiratory Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710061, Shaanxi, China.

Purpose - The present study aimed to identify differently expressed peptides involved in BC as potential biomarkers. Experimental Design - The serum proteomic profiling of 128 serum samples from 64 BC patients and 64 healthy controls (HC), using magnetic beads based immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography (MB-IMAC-Cu) separation followed by MALDI-TOF MS. ClinProTools software identified a number of distinct markers. Then, we performed liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) to identify the candidate serum biomarker based on serum proteomics analysis. Finally, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) were used to verify the expression of the candidate serum biomarker in BC patients. Results - BC patients could be identified with sensitivity of 87.32% and specificity of 89.46%. Of 41 m/z peaks that differed between BC and HC, six peaks were significantly different between BC and HC (P < 0.01, fold change > 1.5), with peak 1 upregulated and peaks 2-6 downregulated in the BC group. The upregulated peak 1 (m/z: 6638.63) is identified as a region of apolipoprotein C1 (APOC1), and validation showed that APOC1 expression increased from healthy controls to those with FA as well as mastopathy, and finally BC patients. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance - The present study indicates that APOC1 could serve as a candidate serum diagnostic biomarker for BC.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1615/CritRevEukaryotGeneExpr.2021040967DOI Listing
January 2022

L-Carnitine Alleviates the Myocardial Infarction and Left Ventricular Remodeling through Bax/Bcl-2 Signal Pathway.

Cardiovasc Ther 2022 23;2022:9615674. Epub 2022 May 23.

Department of Pharmacy & Institute of Clinical Medical Sciences, China-Japan Friendship Hospital, Beijing 100029, China.

Purpose: L-carnitine (LC) is considered to have good therapeutic potential for myocardial infarction (MI), but its mechanism has not been clarified. The aim of the study is to elucidate the cardioprotective effects of LC in mice following MI and related mechanisms.

Methods: ICR mice were treated with LC for 2 weeks after induction of MI with ligation of left anterior descending artery. Electrocardiographic (ECG) recording and echocardiography were used to evaluate cardiac function. H&E staining, TTC staining, and Masson staining were performed for morphological analysis and cardiac fibrosis. ELISA and immunofluorescence were utilized to detect biomarkers and inflammatory mediators. The key proteins in the Bax/Bcl-2 signaling pathway were also examined by Western blot.

Results: Both echocardiography and histological measurement showed an improvement in cardiac function and morphology. Biomarkers such as LDH, NT-proBNP, cTnT, and AST, as well as the inflammatory cytokines IL-1, IL-6, and TNF-, were decreased in plasma of mice receiving LC treatment after myocardial injury. In addition, the expression of -SMA as well as the key proteins in the Bax/Bcl-2 signaling pathway in cardiac myocardium were much lower in mice with LC treatment compared to those without after MI.

Conclusions: Our data suggest that LC can effectively ameliorate left ventricular (LV) remodeling after MI, and its beneficial effects on myocardial function and remodeling may be attributable at least in part to anti-inflammatory and inhibition of the Bax/Bcl-2 apoptotic signaling pathway.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2022/9615674DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9150988PMC
June 2022

Triple-Wavelength Lasing with a Stabilized β-LaBSiO:Nd Crystal.

J Am Chem Soc 2022 Jun 9. Epub 2022 Jun 9.

Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, Illinois 60208-3113, United States.

Multi-wavelength lasers, especially the triple-wavelength laser around 1060 nm, could be produced by the F → I transition of Nd and present numerous challenges and opportunities in the field of optoelectronics. The Nd-doped high-temperature phase of LaBSiO (β-LBSO) is an ideal crystal to produce triple-wavelength lasers; however, the crystal growth is challenging because of the phase transition from β-LBSO to low-temperature phase (α-LBSO) at 162 °C. This phase transition is successfully suppressed when the doping content of Nd is larger than 6.3 at. %, and the Nd-doped β-LBSO is stable at room temperature. The local disorder of BO tetrahedra due to Nd doping is essential to the stabilization of β-LBSO. For the first time, the β-LBSO:8%Nd crystal with a dimension of 1.8 × 1.8 × 1.8 cm is obtained through the top-seeded solution method. The crystal shows strong optical absorption in the range of 785-815 nm, matching well with the commercial laser diode pumping source. The optical emission of F → I splits into four peaks with the highest optical emission cross section of 2.14 × 10 cm at 1068 nm. The continuous-wave triple-wavelength generation of coherent light at 1047, 1071, and 1092 nm is achieved with the highest output power of 235 mW and efficiency of 12.1%.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jacs.2c04331DOI Listing
June 2022

Single-Atom Iron Anchored Tubular g-C N Catalysts for Ultrafast Fenton-Like Reaction: Roles of High-Valent Iron-Oxo Species and Organic Radicals.

Adv Mater 2022 Jun 9:e2202891. Epub 2022 Jun 9.

Hefei National Research Center for Physical Sciences at the Microscale, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, CAS Key Laboratory of Materials for Energy Conversion, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui, 230026, China.

Single-atom catalysts have emerged as an efficient oxidant activator for eliminating organic pollutants in Fenton-like systems. However, the complex preparation, single active site, lack of fundamental mechanism understanding, and harsh pH conditions currently limit their practical applications. In this work, single-atom iron anchored nitrogen-rich g-C N nanotubes (FeCN) were designed and synthesized by a facile approach, and an eco-friendly peracetic acid (PAA) was selected as the oxidant for Fenton-like reactions. The constructed heterogeneous system achieves an enhanced degradation of various organic contaminants over a wide pH range of 3.0-9.0, exhibiting an ultrahigh and stable catalytic activity. This performance outperforms equivalent quantities of pristine g-C N by 75 times. The O isotope-labeling technique, probe method, and theoretical calculations demonstrate that the efficient catalytic activity relies on the high-valent iron-oxo species coupled with organic radicals generated by PAA. An increase in electron transport from the contaminant to the formed "metastable PAA/FeCN catalyst surface complex" was detected. A double driving mechanism for the tubular g-C N regulated by a single Fe site and PAA activation was proposed. This work opens an avenue for developing novel catalysts with the coexistence of multiple active units and providing opportunities for significantly improving catalytic efficiency. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adma.202202891DOI Listing
June 2022

A sodiophilic VN interlayer stabilizing a Na metal anode.

Nanoscale Horiz 2022 Jun 9. Epub 2022 Jun 9.

Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the Microscale, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Key Laboratory of Materials for Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026, China.

Sodium (Na) metal is a very encouraging anode material for next-generation rechargeable batteries owing to its high specific capacity, earth-abundance and low-cost. However, the application of Na metal anodes (SMAs) is hampered by dendrite growth and "dead" Na formation caused by the uncontrollable Na deposition, leading to poor cycle life and even safety concerns. Herein, a high-performance Na anode is designed by introducing an artificial VN interlayer on the Na metal surface (Na/VN) by a simple mechanical rolling process to regulate Na nucleation/deposition behaviors. The density functional theory (DFT) and experiment results uncover that the VN possesses high "sodiophilicity", which can facilitate the initially homogeneous Na nucleation and cause Na to distribute evenly on the VN interlayer. Therefore, uniform Na deposition with dendrite-free morphology and prolonged cycling lifespan (over 1060 h at 0.5 mA cm/1 mA h cm) can be realized. Moreover, the full cell assembled by coupling a NaV(PO) (NVP) cathode and Na/VN anode presents superior cycling performance (, 96% capacity retention even after 800 cycles at 5C). This work provides a promising direction for regulating Na nucleation and deposition to achieve dendrite-free metal anodes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d2nh00152gDOI Listing
June 2022

Bioaccessibility of microplastic-associated heavy metals using an in vitro digestion model and its implications for human health risk assessment.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2022 Jun 8. Epub 2022 Jun 8.

Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Huaqiao University, Xiamen, 361021, China.

Microplastics can act as carriers of heavy metals and may enter humans through ingestion and threaten human health. However, the bioaccessibility of heavy metals associated with microplastics and its implications for human health risk assessments are poorly understood. Therefore, in this study, four typical heavy metals (As(V), Cr(VI), Cd(II), and Pb(II)) and one typical microplastic (polyvinyl chloride, PVC) were chosen to estimate the human health risk of microplastic-associated heavy metals by incorporating bioaccessibility. Significant adsorption of heavy metals was observed with the following order for adsorption capacity: Pb(II) > Cr(VI) > Cd(II) > As(V); the efficiencies for desorption of these four heavy metals from PVC microplastics were all below 10%. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy results indicated that the functional groups on the surface of the virgin PVC microplastics did not play an important role in the capture process. Heavy metals in both gastric and small intestinal phases were prone to release from PVC microplastics when bioaccessibility was evaluated with the in vitro SBRC (Soluble Bioavailability Research Consortium) digestion model. In addition, Pb(II) bioaccessibility in the gastric phase was significantly higher than those in the other phases, while As(V), Cr(VI), and Cd(II) bioaccessibilities showed the opposite trend. After incorporating bioaccessibility adjustments, the noncarcinogenic hazards and carcinogenic risks determined were lower than those based on total metal contents. The individual hazard quotients (HQ) and carcinogenic risks (CR) for ingestion of these four heavy metals from PVC microplastics were all lower than the threshold values for adults and children. In summary, this study will provide a new view of the human health risks of heavy metals associated with microplastics.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-022-20983-8DOI Listing
June 2022

The effect of 0.01% atropine on ocular axial elongation for myopia children: A protocol for systematic review and meta-analysis.

Authors:
Yue Gao Yan Yu

Medicine (Baltimore) 2022 Jun 3;101(22):e29409. Epub 2022 Jun 3.

Ophthalmology Department of the First Affiliated Hospital of Dalian Medical University, Dalian City, Liaoning Province, China.

Background: Orthokeratology (OK) has a significant effect on the control of myopia progression, and has been accepted by doctors and patients. A small number of studies have shown that the combination of OK and atropine can enhance myopia control. However, owing to individual differences, research groups, drug concentrations, and research design differences, the safety and effectiveness of the combined treatment still need to be verified. Therefore, the present meta-analysis aimed to determine the effect of 0.01% atropine on ocular axial elongation in myopic children.

Methods: We searched the PubMed, Cochrane Library, and CBM databases from inception to March 1, 2022. Meta-analysis will be conducted using STATA version 14.0 and Review Manager version 5.3 softwares. We calculated the weighted mean differences (WMD) to analyze the change in ocular axial length (AL) between orthokeratology combined with 0.01% atropine (OKA) and OK alone. Cochran's Q-statistic and I2 test were used to evaluate the potential heterogeneity between studies. A sensitivity analysis was performed to evaluate the influence of single studies on the overall estimate. We will also perform subgroup and meta-regression analyses to investigate potential sources of heterogeneity. We will conduct Begger's funnel plots and Egger's linear regression tests to investigate the publication bias.

Results: This systematic review aimed to determine the effect of 0.01% atropine on ocular axial elongation in children with myopia.

Conclusions: These findings provide helpful evidence for the effect of 0.01% atropine on ocular axial elongation in myopic children.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000029409DOI Listing
June 2022

Sodium selenite promotes neurological function recovery after spinal cord injury by inhibiting ferroptosis.

Neural Regen Res 2022 Dec;17(12):2702-2709

School of Rehabilitation Medicine, Capital Medical University; China Rehabilitation Science Institute; Center of Neural Injury and Repair, Beijing Institute for Brain Disorders; Department of Spinal and Neural Functional Reconstruction, China Rehabilitation Research Center; Beijing Key Laboratory of Neural Injury and Rehabilitation, Beijing, China.

Ferroptosis is a recently discovered form of iron-dependent cell death, which occurs during the pathological process of various central nervous system diseases or injuries, including secondary spinal cord injury. Selenium has been shown to promote neurological function recovery after cerebral hemorrhage by inhibiting ferroptosis. However, whether selenium can promote neurological function recovery after spinal cord injury as well as the underlying mechanism remain poorly understood. In this study, we injected sodium selenite (3 µL, 2.5 µM) into the injury site of a rat model of T10 vertebral contusion injury 10 minutes after spinal cord injury modeling. We found that sodium selenite treatment greatly decreased iron concentration and levels of the lipid peroxidation products malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxynonenal. Furthermore, sodium selenite increased the protein and mRNA expression of specificity protein 1 and glutathione peroxidase 4, promoted the survival of neurons and oligodendrocytes, inhibited the proliferation of astrocytes, and promoted the recovery of locomotive function of rats with spinal cord injury. These findings suggest that sodium selenite can improve the locomotive function of rats with spinal cord injury possibly through the inhibition of ferroptosis via the specificity protein 1/glutathione peroxidase 4 pathway.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/1673-5374.339491DOI Listing
December 2022

Exploring the situational motivation of medical students through clinical medicine level test: a cross-sectional study.

Adv Physiol Educ 2022 Jun 6. Epub 2022 Jun 6.

Division of Histology and Embryology, Key Laboratory for Regenerative Medicine of the Ministry of Education, Medical College, Jinan University, Guangzhou, China.

China's Clinical Medicine Level Test (CMLT) was designed to evaluate the key factors that affect the learning outcome of medical students prior to entering clinical practice. In this study, we systemically analyzed the performance of a cohort of medical students at Jinan University School of Medicine participating in the recent CMLT. The analytical results of the medical students' written and objective structure clinical examination (OSCE) scores showed that their academic performance was predominantly associated with students' internship allocations, although other demographic characteristics such as gender, age, geographical origin of students, Grade Point Average (GPA) might be sporadically related to the students' OSCE performance at different OSCE stations. In order to explore the inherent reasons behind this, a survey was implemented among the medical students who participated in the examination, to further interpret the factors influencing the students' learning outcome. The finding of this questionnaire manifested that intrinsic motivation and identified regulation acted as the major motivational profiles for the medical students from three different internship sites, while the external regulation emerged as the crucial factor to make the students perform well academically in the CMLT. The result of this study suggested that strengthening the quality control of the clinical learning environment and improving medical administration may still be the most effective approaches to ensure the quality of clinical medical education.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/advan.00009.2022DOI Listing
June 2022

Simple Synthesis of CeO Nanoparticle Composites Grown on Carbon Nanotubes for Phenol Detection.

Front Chem 2022 17;10:907777. Epub 2022 May 17.

Jiangxi Provincial Key Laboratory of Functional Molecular Materials Chemistry, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jiangxi University of Science and Technology, Ganzhou, China.

simple hydrothermal method, CeO was grown onto the CNTs to form CeO/CNTs nanocomposites were synthesized with cerium nitrate as Ce resource. The morphology and structure were characterized by transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The characterizations reveal that CeO nanoparticles are uniformly dispersed onto the surface of the pre-acidified CNTs. The electrochemical property of the synthesized nanocomposite was investigated in 0.1 M KCl electrolyte containing 2 mM [Fe(CN)]. The nanocomposites were employed to fabricate electrochemical sensor for phenol detection. The linear range for phenol detection measured by the differential pulse voltammetry method is 1-500 μM. The sensor also exhibits good selectivity, reproducibility and stability. When applied for the river and tap water analysis, it shows good recovery rate.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fchem.2022.907777DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9152013PMC
May 2022

Ketamine exerts its sustained antidepressant effects via cell-type-specific regulation of Kcnq2.

Neuron 2022 May 25. Epub 2022 May 25.

Institute of Computational Biology, Helmholtz Zentrum München, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Neuherberg, 85764 Bavaria, Germany.

A single sub-anesthetic dose of ketamine produces a rapid and sustained antidepressant response, yet the molecular mechanisms responsible for this remain unclear. Here, we identified cell-type-specific transcriptional signatures associated with a sustained ketamine response in mice. Most interestingly, we identified the Kcnq2 gene as an important downstream regulator of ketamine action in glutamatergic neurons of the ventral hippocampus. We validated these findings through a series of complementary molecular, electrophysiological, cellular, pharmacological, behavioral, and functional experiments. We demonstrated that adjunctive treatment with retigabine, a KCNQ activator, augments ketamine's antidepressant-like effects in mice. Intriguingly, these effects are ketamine specific, as they do not modulate a response to classical antidepressants, such as escitalopram. These findings significantly advance our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the sustained antidepressant effects of ketamine, with important clinical implications.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2022.05.001DOI Listing
May 2022

Coexistence of Light- and Heavy-Chain Deposition Disease and Immunotactoid Glomerulopathy in a Patient with Multiple Myeloma: A Case Report.

Case Rep Nephrol Dial 2022 Jan-Apr;12(1):50-56. Epub 2022 Mar 21.

Department of Nephrology, Peking University People's Hospital, Beijing, China.

Multiple myeloma is a malignant neoplasm leading to a variety of renal diseases. Although most patients have only one pattern of renal pathology, two or more patterns can exist in some patients. Here, we report a 61-year-old man with multiple myeloma developed proteinuria, hematuria, hypertension, and renal insufficiency. A combined presentation of light- and heavy-chain deposition disease and immunotactoid glomerulopathy was proved by kidney biopsy. Treatment of multiple myeloma resulted in a complete resolution of the renal manifestations. This case illustrates the complexity of paraprotein associated renal lesions and emphasizes that further studies examining the physiologic properties and pathologic effects of monoclonal immunoglobulin are needed.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000522513DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9082185PMC
March 2022

Estimate of hydrochlorofluorocarbon emissions during 2011-2018 in the Yangtze River Delta, China.

Environ Pollut 2022 Aug 21;307:119517. Epub 2022 May 21.

Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, University of Nottingham Ningbo China, Ningbo, China; Nottingham Ningbo China Beacons of Excellence Research and Innovation Institute, Ningbo, China.

Hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) are used as temporary substitutes for chlorofluorocarbons and other ozone-depleting substances because they have reduced ozone depletion and global warming potentials. The consumption and production of HCFCs are regulated via the Montreal Protocol and its amendments till 2013, with a complete phase-out being scheduled by 2030 for Article 5 parties (developing countries). To better understand the characteristics and emissions of HCFCs in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD), which is the largest metropolitan area in China, weekly flask samples were collected at the Lin'an regional background station located in the YRD from 2011 to 2018 and measured for four HCFCs (HCFC-22, HCFC-141b, HCFC-142b, and HCFC-124). The HCFC-132b and HCFC-133a measurements began in 2018. The ambient mixing ratios of the HCFCs exhibited higher concentrations and larger variabilities than those at the Shangri-la regional background station at similar latitudes in southwest China. The HCFC emissions in the YRD were estimated based on the tracer ratio method using CO and HFC-134a as tracers, and were comparable within the uncertainties. Our results are generally consistent with previous estimates obtained using top-down approaches. HCFC-22 and HCFC-141b contributed 52% ± 23% and 41% ± 24% of the total ODP-weighted (CFC-11-equivalent) HCFC emissions from the YRD, respectively, whereas HCFC-22 contributed the most (83% ± 36%) to the total CO-equivalent HCFC emissions from the YRD. The cumulative ODP-weighted and CO-equivalent emissions of HCFCs from the YRD accounted for 25% ± 15% and 20% ± 11% of the national corresponding totals, respectively, for 2011-2017. The HCFC-141b emissions from the YRD contributed approximately half of the total Chinese emissions. HCFC-133a emissions in the YRD accounted for approximately one-fifth of the global total in 2018. Thus, the YRD is an important contributor of HCFC emissions on national and global scales.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2022.119517DOI Listing
August 2022

Current state and future perspectives of cytochrome P450 enzymes for C-H and C=C oxygenation.

Synth Syst Biotechnol 2022 Sep 8;7(3):887-899. Epub 2022 May 8.

School of Life Sciences and Health Engineering, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, 214122, China.

Cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs) catalyze a series of C-H and C=C oxygenation reactions, including hydroxylation, epoxidation, and ketonization. They are attractive biocatalysts because of their ability to selectively introduce oxygen into inert molecules under mild conditions. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the C-H and C=C oxygenation reactions catalyzed by CYPs and the various strategies for achieving higher selectivity and enzymatic activity. Furthermore, we discuss the application of C-H and C=C oxygenation catalyzed by CYPs to obtain the desired chemicals or pharmaceutical intermediates in practical production. The rapid development of protein engineering for CYPs provides excellent biocatalysts for selective C-H and C=C oxygenation reactions, thereby promoting the development of environmentally friendly and sustainable production processes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.synbio.2022.04.009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9112060PMC
September 2022

Phytochemistry, synthesis, analytical methods, pharmacological activity, and pharmacokinetics of loganin: A comprehensive review.

Phytother Res 2022 Jun 18;36(6):2272-2299. Epub 2022 May 18.

Department of Pharmacy & Institute of Clinical Medical Sciences, China-Japan Friendship Hospital, Beijing, People's Republic of China.

Iridoid glycosides (IGs) are found in many medicinal and edible plants, such as Gardenia jasminoides, Cistanche tubulosa, Eucommia ulmoides, Rehmanniae Radix, Lonicera japonica, and Cornus officinalis. Loganin, an IG, is one of the main active ingredient of Cornus officinalis Sieb. et Zucc., which approved as a medicinal and edible plant in China. Loganin has been widely concerned due to its extensive pharmacological effects, including anti-diabetic, antiinflammatory, neuroprotective, and anti-tumor activities, etc. Studies have shown that these underlying mechanisms include anti-oxidation, antiinflammation and anti-apoptosis by regulating a variety of signaling pathways, such as STAT3/NF-κB, JAK/STAT3, TLR4/NF-κB, PI3K/Akt, MCP-1/CCR2, and RAGE/Nox4/p65 NF-κB signaling pathways. In order to better understand the research status of loganin and promote its application in human health, this paper systematically summarized the phytochemistry, analysis methods, synthesis, pharmacological properties and related mechanisms, and pharmacokinetics based on the research in the past decades.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ptr.7347DOI Listing
June 2022

The Overexpression of Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 and Neurotrophin-3 Promote Functional Recovery and Alleviate Spasticity After Spinal Cord Injury.

Front Neurosci 2022 29;16:863793. Epub 2022 Apr 29.

School of Rehabilitation, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Objective: This study was conducted to investigate the effects of the exogenous overexpression of nerve growth factors NT-3 and IGF-1 on the recovery of nerve function after spinal cord injury (SCI) and identify the potential mechanism involved.

Methods: Sixty-four female SD rats were randomly divided into four groups: an SCI group, an adeno-associated viral (AAV)-RFP and AAV-GFP injection group, an AAV-IGF-1 and AAV-NT-3 injection group, and a Sham group. After grouping, the rats were subjected to a 10-week electrophysiological and behavioral evaluation to comprehensively evaluate the effects of the intervention on motor function, spasticity, mechanical pain, and thermal pain. Ten weeks later, samples were taken for immunofluorescence (IF) staining and Western blot (WB) detection, focusing on the expression of KCC2, 5-HT2A, and 5-HT2C receptors in motor neurons and the spinal cord.

Results: Electrophysiological and behavioral data indicated that the AAV-IGF-1 and AAV-NT-3 groups showed better recovery of motor function ( < 0.05 from D14 compared with the AAV-RFP + AAV-GFP group; < 0.05 from D42 compared with SCI group) and less spasticity (4-10 weeks, at 5 Hz all < 0.05 compared with SCI group and AAV- RFP + AAV-GFP group) but with a trend for more pain sensitivity. Compared with the SCI group, the von Frey value result of the AAV-IGF-1 and AAV-NT-3 groups showed a lower pain threshold ( < 0.05 at 4-8 weeks), and shorter thermal pain threshold ( < 0.05 at 8-10 weeks). IF staining further suggested that compared with the SCI group, the overexpression of NT-3 and IGF-1 in the SCI-R + G group led to increased levels of KCC2 ( < 0.05), 5-HT2A ( < 0.05), and 5-HT2C ( < 0.001) in motor neurons. WB results showed that compared with the SCI group, the SCI-R + G group exhibited higher expression levels of CHAT ( < 0.01), 5-HT2A ( < 0.05), and 5-HT2C ( < 0.05) proteins in the L2-L6 lumbar enlargement.

Conclusion: Data analysis showed that the overexpression of NT-3 and IGF-1 may improve motor function after SCI and alleviate spasms in a rat model; however, these animals were more sensitive to mechanical pain and thermal pain. These behavioral changes may be related to increased numbers of KCC2, 5-HT2A, and 5-HT2C receptors in the spinal cord tissue. The results of this study may provide a new theoretical basis for the clinical treatment of SCI.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2022.863793DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9099063PMC
April 2022

High Dietary Salt Intake Is Associated With Histone Methylation in Salt-Sensitive Individuals.

Front Nutr 2022 28;9:857562. Epub 2022 Apr 28.

Department of Cardiology, First Affiliated Hospital of Medical School, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, China.

Background: High salt diet is one of the important risk factors of hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. Increasingly strong evidence supports epigenetic mechanisms' significant role in hypertension. We aimed to explore associations of epigenetics with high salt diet, salt sensitivity (SS), and SS hypertension.

Methods: We conducted a dietary intervention study of chronic salt loading in 339 subjects from northern China in 2004 and divided the subjects into different salt sensitivity phenotypes. A total of 152 participants were randomly selected from the same cohort for follow-up in 2018 to explore the effect of a high-salt diet on serum monomethylation of H3K4 (H3K4me1), histone methyltransferase Set7, and lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD-1).

Results: Among SS individuals, the blood pressure (SBP: 140.8 vs. 132.9 mmHg; MAP: 104.2 vs. 98.7 mmHg) and prevalence of hypertension (58.8 vs. 32.8%) were significantly higher in high salt (HS) diet group than in normal salt (NS) diet group, but not in the salt-resistant (SR) individuals ( > 0.05). Serum H3K4me1 level (287.3 vs. 179.7 pg/ml, < 0.05) significantly increased in HS group of SS individuals, but not in SR individuals. We found daily salt intake in SS individuals was positively correlated with serum H3K4me1 ( = 0.322, = 0.005) and Set7 ( = 0.340, = 0.005) levels after adjusting for age and gender, but not with LSD-1 ( = -0.137, = 0.251). In addition, positive correlation between the serum H3K4me1 level and Set7 level ( = 0.326, = 0.007) was also found in SS individuals. These correlations were not evident in SR individuals.

Conclusion: Our study indicates that high salt diet increases the serum H3K4me1 and Set7 levels in SS individuals.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnut.2022.857562DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9097549PMC
April 2022

Clinical Characteristics in the Prediction of Posttreatment Survival of Patients with Ovarian Cancer.

Dis Markers 2022 5;2022:3321014. Epub 2022 May 5.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 2nd Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, China.

Objective: To determine the efficacy of clinical characteristics in the prediction of prognosis in patients with ovarian cancer.

Methods: Clinical data were collected from 3 datasets from TCGA database, including 1680 cases of ovarian serous cystadenocarcinoma, and were analyzed. Patients with ovarian cancer admitted to our hospital in 2016 were retrieved and followed up for prognosis analysis.

Results: From the datasets, for patients > 75 years old at the time of diagnosis, histologic grade and mutation count were good predictors for disease-free survival, while for patients > 50 years old at the time of diagnosis, histologic grade, race, fraction genome altered, and mutation count were good predictors for overall survival. In the patients ( = 38) retrieved from our hospital, the longest dimension of lesion (cm) and body weight at admission were good predictors for overall survival.

Conclusions: Those clinical factors, together with the two predictive equations, could be used to comprehensively predict the long-term prognosis of patients with ovarian cancer.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2022/3321014DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9098309PMC
May 2022

Surgical management of concurrent lateral ankle instability and osteochondral lesions of the talus increases dynamic sagittal ankle range of motion.

Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc 2022 May 14. Epub 2022 May 14.

Department of Orthopedics, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, No.12, Middle Wulumuqi Road, Jingan District, Shanghai, China.

Purpose: A biomechanical study, in which imaging modalities are used to strictly include patients with concurrent lateral ankle instability (LAI) and osteochondral lesions of the talus (OLT), is needed to demonstrate the static and dynamic ankle range of motion (ROM) restriction in these patients, and determine whether ankle ROM restriction can be corrected postoperatively.

Methods: Eight patients with concurrent LAI and OLT treated with the arthroscopic modified Broström procedure and microfracture were recruited from June 2019 to January 2020. Patients were assessed using outcome scales, static ankle ROM, and a stair descent gait analysis for dynamic ankle ROM, a day prior to surgery and one year postoperatively. Eight healthy subjects were assessed using the same modalities upon recruitment. Operative outcomes and variables during stair descent were documented and compared among the preoperative, postoperative, and healthy groups. A curve analysis, one-dimensional statistical parametric mapping, was performed to compare the dynamic ankle kinematics and muscle activation curves over the entire normalised time series.

Results: The functional outcomes of patients with concurrent LAI and OLT were significantly worse than those of healthy subjects preoperatively, but were partially improved postoperatively. Patients had decreased static and dynamic ROM preoperatively, and static ROM did not significantly increase postoperatively (preoperative, 39.6 ± 11.3; postoperative, 44.9 ± 7.1; healthy, 52.0 ± 4.6; p = 0.021). Patients showed increased dynamic ankle flexion ROM (preoperative, 41.2 ± 11.6; postoperative, 53.6 ± 9.0; healthy, 53.9 ± 3.4; p = 0.012) postoperatively, as well as increased peroneus longus activation (preoperative, 35.8 ± 12.0; postoperative, 55.4 ± 25.1; healthy, 71.9 ± 13.4; p = 0.002) and muscle co-contraction of the tibialis anterior and peroneus longus (preoperative, 69.4 ± 23.4; postoperative, 88.4 ± 9.3; healthy, 66.2 ± 18.1; p = 0.045).

Conclusions: Patients with concurrent LAI and OLT had decreased static and dynamic sagittal ankle ROM and altered neuromuscular activation patterns. The arthroscopic modified Broström procedure and microfracture did not significantly increase the static sagittal ankle ROM. However, the dynamic sagittal ankle ROM, peroneus longus activation and muscle co-contraction of the tibialis anterior and peroneus longus increased postoperatively.

Level Of Evidence: IV.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00167-022-06993-6DOI Listing
May 2022

Comparative Analysis of the Metabolome and Transcriptome between the Green and Yellow-Green Regions of Variegated Leaves in a Mutant Variety of the Tree Species .

Int J Mol Sci 2022 Apr 29;23(9). Epub 2022 Apr 29.

Beijing Key Laboratory of Ornamental Plants Germplasm Innovation & Molecular Breeding, National Engineering Research Center for Floriculture, Beijing Laboratory of Urban and Rural Ecological Environment, Key Laboratory of Genetics and Breeding in Forest Trees and Ornamental Plants of Ministry of Education, School of Landscape Architecture, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083, China.

In nature, many different factors cause plants to develop variegated leaves. To explore the mechanism of variegated leaf formation in , a mutant variety ('Jinyuyuan'), which was induced by ethylmethylsulfone, was selected, and its morphological structure, physiology, biochemistry, transcription and metabolism were analysed. According to differences in colour values, the colours were divided into two regions: a green region and a yellow-green region. The chlorophyll content of the two regions was significantly different. Moreover, the yellow-green regions of the leaves were significantly thinner than the green regions. The chloroplast ultrastructure in the yellow-green region revealed small chloroplasts, large vacuoles, small starch grains, obviously increased numbers of osmophilic grains, loose lamellae of the inner capsule and thin lamellae. Moreover, the yellow-green region was accompanied by oxidative stress, and the activity of the oxidative phosphorylation pathway related to oxidative activity in the transcriptome showed an upward trend. Vitamin B6 and proline contents also increased, indicating that the antioxidant activity of cells in the yellow-green region increased. Transcriptomic and metabolomic analysis showed that the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) related to chlorophyll synthesis and metabolism led to a decrease in the photosynthesis and then a decrease in the assimilation ability and contents of sucrose, starch and other assimilates. Amino acid synthesis and metabolism, lipid synthesis and the activity of metabolic pathways were obviously downregulated, and the contents of differentially accumulated metabolites associated with amino acids and lipids were also reduced. At the same time, 31 out of 32 DEGs involved in the flavonoid synthesis pathway were downregulated, which affected leaf colour. We hypothesized that the variegated leaves of 'Jinyuyuan' are caused by transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation. Mutations in pigment and flavonoid synthesis pathway genes and transcription factor genes directly affect both pigment and flavonoid synthesis and degradation rate, which in turn affect carbon assimilation, carbon fixation, related protein synthesis and enzyme activity, lipid synthesis and degradation and the activity of other metabolic pathways, eventually leading to the formation of different colour regions.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms23094950DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9101679PMC
April 2022
-->