Publications by authors named "Yan Yin"

365 Publications

Objective and Subjective Outcomes in Patients with Hearing Aids: A Cross-Sectional, Comparative, Associational Study.

Audiol Neurootol 2021 Jul 28:1-9. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Hearing Center/Hearing and Speech Laboratory, Department of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.

Introduction: Outcome assessment for hearing aids (HAs) is an essential part of HA fitting and validation. There is no consensus about the best or standard approach for evaluating HA outcomes. And, the relationship between objective and subjective measures is ambiguous. This study aimed to determine the outcomes after HA fitting, explore correlations between subjective benefit and acoustic gain improvement as well as objective audiologic tests, and investigate several variables that may improve patients' perceived benefits.

Methods: Eighty adults with bilateral symmetrical hearing loss using HAs for at least 1 month were included in this study. All subjects completed the pure tone average (PTA) threshold and word recognition score (WRS) tests in unaided and aided conditions. We also administered the Chinese version of International Outcome Inventory for Hearing Aids (IOI-HA), to measure participants' subjective benefits. Objective HA benefit (acoustic gain improvement) was defined as the difference in thresholds or scores between aided and unaided conditions indicated with ΔPTA and ΔWRS. Thus, patients' baseline hearing levels were taken into account. Correlations were assessed among objective audiologic tests (PTA and WRS), acoustic gain improvement (ΔPTA and ΔWRS), multiple potential factors, and IOI-HA overall scores.

Results: PTA decreased significantly, but WRS did not increase when aided listening was compared to unaided listening. Negative correlations between PTAs and IOI-HA scores were significant but weak (r = -0.370 and r = -0.393, all p < 0.05). Significant weak positive correlations were found between WRSs and IOI-HA (r = 0.386 and r = 0.309, all p < 0.05). However, there was no correlation among ΔPTA, ΔWRS, and IOI-HA (r = 0.056 and r = -0.086, all p > 0.05). Moreover, 2 nonaudiological factors (age and daily use time) were significantly correlated with IOI-HA (r = -0.269 and r = 0.242, all p < 0.05).

Conclusions: Correlations among objective audiologic tests, acoustic gain, and subjective patient-reported outcomes were weak or absent. Subjective questionnaires and objective tests do not reflect the same hearing capability. Therefore, it is advisable to evaluate both objective and subjective outcomes when analyzing HA benefits on a regular basis and pay equal attention to nonaudiological and audiological factors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000516623DOI Listing
July 2021

Signaling through retinoic acid receptors is essential for mammalian uterine receptivity and decidualization.

JCI Insight 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Division of Dermatology, Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, United States of America.

Retinoic Acid (RA) signaling has long been speculated to regulate embryo implantation, because many enzymes and proteins responsible for maintaining RA homeostasis and transducing RA signals are tightly regulated in the endometrium during this critical period. However, due to lack of genetic data, it was unclear whether RA signaling is truly required for implantation, and which specific RA signaling cascades are at play. Herein we utilize a genetic murine model that expresses a dominant negative form of RA receptor specifically in female reproductive organs to show that functional RA signaling is fundamental to female fertility, particularly implantation and decidualization. Reduction in RA signaling activity severely affects the ability of the uterus to achieve receptive status and decidualize, partially through dampening follistatin expression and downstream activin B/BMP2 signaling. To confirm translational relevance of these findings to humans, human endometrial stromal cells (hESCs) were treated with pan-RAR antagonist to show that in vitro decidualization is impaired. RNAi perturbation of individual RAR transcripts in hESCs revealed that RARα in particular is essential for proper decidualization. These data provide direct functional evidence that uterine RAR-mediated RA signaling is crucial for mammalian embryo implantation, and its disruption leads to failure of uterine receptivity and decidualization resulting in severely compromised fertility.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/jci.insight.150254DOI Listing
July 2021

Designing the next generation of proton-exchange membrane fuel cells.

Nature 2021 Jul 14;595(7867):361-369. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

State Key Laboratory of Engines, Tianjin University, Tianjin, China.

With the rapid growth and development of proton-exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) technology, there has been increasing demand for clean and sustainable global energy applications. Of the many device-level and infrastructure challenges that need to be overcome before wide commercialization can be realized, one of the most critical ones is increasing the PEMFC power density, and ambitious goals have been proposed globally. For example, the short- and long-term power density goals of Japan's New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization are 6 kilowatts per litre by 2030 and 9 kilowatts per litre by 2040, respectively. To this end, here we propose technical development directions for next-generation high-power-density PEMFCs. We present the latest ideas for improvements in the membrane electrode assembly and its components with regard to water and thermal management and materials. These concepts are expected to be implemented in next-generation PEMFCs to achieve high power density.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-021-03482-7DOI Listing
July 2021

Metal-Organic Framework-Derived Carbon/Carbon Nanotubes Mediate Impedance Matching for Strong Microwave Absorption at Fairly Low Temperatures.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Jul 6;13(28):33496-33504. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

Ganzhou Key Laboratory of Advanced Metals and Functional Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Jiangxi University of Science & Technology (JXUST), Ganzhou 341000, P. R. China.

The use of magnetic particles and carbon materials, particularly those with compatible dielectric and magnetic loss, is crucial in managing microwave pollution. However, the mismatched impedance of currently available absorbers constrains their practical applications. Herein, we demonstrate the potential of a metal-organic framework (MOF)-derived composite whose impedance matching is optimized through spraying and immersion of MOF precursors in carbon nanotube socks followed by carbonization. The composite presents extremely strong microwave absorption with a reflection loss of -30 dB, a thin thickness of 1.5 mm, and a wide frequency bandwidth of 7.8 GHz. The excellent absorption can still be maintained even at a fairly low temperature of -40 °C. Such results are primarily attributed to the synergistic effect between the hierarchical architecture and multiple components that greatly optimizes the impedance matching. We believe that the composite is a promising microwave absorber that can help to solve the critical electromagnetic wave pollution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c07792DOI Listing
July 2021

Impact of ambient fine particulate matter on emergency department admissions for circulatory system disease in a city in Northeast China.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Jul 3. Epub 2021 Jul 3.

Liaoning Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Shenyang, 110000, Liaoning, China.

The cardiovascular impact of fine particles has caused great concern worldwide. However, evidences on the impact of fine particulate matter (PM) on emergency department (ED) admissions for circulatory system disease in Northeast China is limited. We assessed the acute, lag, cumulative, and harvesting effects of PM on ED admissions for circulatory system diseases and their exposure-response relationship. A total of 26,168 ED admissions, including those for hypertension, ischemic heart disease (IHD), arrhythmia, heart failure (HF), and cerebrovascular events (CVE), were collected from the Shenyang Emergency Center from 1 January 2017 to 31 December 2018. The relationship between PM and ED admissions for circulatory system disease was estimated using a distributed lag non-linear model and a generalized additive quasi-Poisson model. We stratified the analyses by temperature. Air pollution was positively correlated with daily ED admissions for circulatory system disease or other cause-specific diseases under different lag structures. For every 10-μg/m increase in the PM concentration, the relative risk of daily ED admissions for circulatory system disease was 1.007 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.001-1.013] in lag0, 1.007 (95%CI, 1.000-1.013) in lag1, and 1.011 (95%CI, 1.002-1.021) in lag03. A lag effect was found in IHD, a cumulative effect was found in CVE, and both lag and cumulative effects were found in hypertension and arrhythmia. A harvesting effect was observed in daily ED admissions for circulatory system disease and HF. We found no interaction between pollutants and temperature. We observed a monotonic and almost linear exposure-response relationship between PM and circulatory system disease with no threshold effect.PM contributes to obvious acute, lag, cumulative, and harvesting effects on circulatory system disease. PM was associated with the risk of daily ED admissions for circulatory system disease, hypertension, IHD, arrhythmia, HF, and CVE. Therefore, air quality management must be strengthened.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-15222-5DOI Listing
July 2021

Correction: Anthocyanins from the fruits of Murray improve high-fat diet-induced insulin resistance by ameliorating inflammation and oxidative stress in mice.

Food Funct 2021 Jul 1. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

College of Food Science and Engineering, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, P. R. China.

Correction for 'Anthocyanins from the fruits of Lycium ruthenicum Murray improve high-fat diet-induced insulin resistance by ameliorating inflammation and oxidative stress in mice' by Baoming Tian et al., Food Funct., 2021, 12, 3855-3871, DOI: 10.1039/D0FO02936J.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1fo90057aDOI Listing
July 2021

Rosiglitazone ameliorated airway inflammation induced by cigarette smoke via inhibiting the M1 macrophage polarization by activating PPARγ and RXRα.

Int Immunopharmacol 2021 Aug 25;97:107809. Epub 2021 Jun 25.

Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Institute of Respiratory Diseases, the First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, PR China.

Background: Rosiglitazone, an exogenous ligand of PPARγ, plays an important anti-inflammatory role during the inflammation caused by cigarette smoke (CS). CS exposure induces pulmonary inflammation via activating macrophage polarization. However, the effects of rosiglitazone on macrophage polarization induced by CS are unclear.

Methods: 36 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: control, CS and ROSI. In the CS group, rats were passively exposed to cigarette smoke for consecutive 3 months. In the ROSI group, rats were treated with rosiglitazone (3 mg/kg/day, ip) during CS exposure period. Alveolar macrophages of rats were isolated and cultured with CSE. The slices of lung tissues were stained with hematoxylin and eosin. The histomorphology was observed to evaluate emphysema and the pulmonary function was detected. Cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were examined and the expression of cytokines TNF-α and IL-1β was detected by ELISA and qPCR. The alveolar macrophage polarization was evaluated by immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry assay in vivo and by qPCR in vitro. The protein level of PPARγ and RXRα was measured by Western blot.

Results: CS exposure induced significant emphysema, diminished FEV0.2/FVC, elevated PEF, and higher level of total cells, neutrophils and cytokines (TNF-α and IL-1β) in BALF compared with control group, whereas rosiglitazone partly ameliorated above disorders. CS exposure activated M1 and M2 macrophage polarization in vivo and in vitro, whereas rosiglitazone inhibited CS induced M1 macrophage polarization and decreased the ratio of M1/M2. The effects of rosiglitazone on macrophage polarization were partly blocked after AMs treated with the antagonists of PPARγ and RXRα, and were synergistically enhanced by the agonist of RXRα. CS exposure decreased the expression of PPARγ and RXRα in lung tissues and AMs, and rosiglitazone partly reversed CS-mediated suppression of PPARγ and RXRα.

Conclusion: Rosiglitazone ameliorated the emphysema and inflammation in lung tissues induced by CS exposure via inhibiting the M1 macrophage polarization through activating PPARγ and RXRα.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2021.107809DOI Listing
August 2021

Dynamic Changes in Plasma Urotensin II and Its Correlation With Plaque Stability.

J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 2021 07;78(1):e147-e155

Department of Cardiology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, National Clinical Research Center for Geriatric Diseases, Beijing, China; and.

Abstract: Urotensin II (UII) is involved in the formation of atherosclerosis, but its role in the stability of atherosclerotic plaques is unknown. The purpose of this study was to observe the dynamic changes in plasma UII and analyze its relationship to the stability of atherosclerotic plaques. One hundred thirty-five consecutive patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) were enrolled. The plasma UII levels were measured immediately after admission and during three-month follow-up. A vulnerable plaque model was established using local transfection of a recombinant P53 adenovirus into plaques in rabbits fed with a high-cholesterol diet and subjected to balloon arterial injury. The levels of plasma UII were measured weekly. The changes in plasma UII during the formation of atherosclerotic plaques and before and after plaque transfection were observed. The morphology of the plaques and the expression, distribution, and quantitative expression of UII in the plaques also were observed. Our results showed that the levels of plasma UII in patients with ACS at admission were lower than levels observed at the three-month follow-up. UII dynamic changes and its correlation with plaque stabilities were further verified in rabbits with atherosclerotic vulnerable plaques. The UII levels in rabbits were significantly decreased immediately after the P53 gene transfection, which led to plaque instability and rupture. These results suggested that UII expression was down-regulated in ACS, which may be related to its ability to modulate mechanisms involved in plaque stability and instability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/FJC.0000000000001044DOI Listing
July 2021

Atypical Pathogen Distribution in Chinese Hospitalized AECOPD Patients: A Multicenter Cross-Sectional Study.

Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis 2021 9;16:1699-1708. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Institute of Respiratory Diseases, First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: The proportion of atypical pathogens in patient with AECOPD within mainland China is unknown. The objectives of this study were to determine the distribution of atypical pathogens among Chinese patients with AECOPD, to evaluate the clinical characteristics of different atypical pathogen infections, and to compare different detection methods for atypical pathogens.

Patients And Methods: Specimens were collected from patients with AECOPD from March 2016 to November 2018 at eleven medical institutions in eight cities in China. Double serum, sputum, and urine samples were obtained from 145 patients. Serological and nucleic acid tests were used to assess for and ; serological, urinary antigen, and nucleic acid tests were applied to detect . The clinical characteristics of atypical pathogen-positive and -negative groups were also compared.

Results: The overall positivity rate for was 20.69% (30/145), with the highest rate being 20.00% (29/145) when determined by passive agglutination.The overall positive rates for and were 29.66% (43/145) and 10.34% (15/145), respectively. The most common serotype of was type 6. The maximum hospitalized body temperature, ratio of eosinophils, C-reactive protein (CRP) level, and procalcitonin (PCT) level of the -positive group were significantly higher than those of the -negative group. Patients in the -positive group smoked more, had higher proportions of comorbidities and frequent aggravations in the previous two years than those in the -negative group. Furthermore, the forced expiratory volume in one second to forced vital capacity (FEV/FVC) ratio assessment of lung function was higher, and the concentration of arterial blood bicarbonate (HCO ) was lower in the -positive group than in the -negative group.

Conclusion: Overall, atypical pathogens play an important role in AECOPD. Regarding the testing method, serological testing is a superior method to nucleic acid testing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/COPD.S300779DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8200156PMC
June 2021

Hierarchical-pore UiO-66 modified with Ag for π-complexation adsorption desulfurization.

J Hazard Mater 2021 May 27;418:126247. Epub 2021 May 27.

School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225002, China. Electronic address:

Adsorption desulfurization represents an alternative technology for the effective removal of thiophenic compounds from fuels. Metal-organic frameworks have been the ideal candidates for the adsorptive desulfurization of fuel due to the high surface areas. Pristine UiO-66 is thought to be appropriate for the removal of small thiophenic compounds. This work developed a new type of hierarchical-pore (micro and mesopores) UiO-66 with a higher specific surface area and porosity for the removal of larger adsorbates using MOF-5 as the template. To enhance adsorption desulfurization performance, the Ag-exchanged hierarchical-pore UiO-66 (HP-UiO-66-SOAg) with π-complexation was synthesized by the ion-exchange method. The HP-UiO-66-SOAg samples were characterized by FTIR, XRD, SEM, TEM, and N adsorption-desorption isotherms. Compared with the original UiO-66, the HP-UiO-66-SOAg has a higher specific surface area, pore volume, and pore size. The static adsorption experiments showed that HP-UiO-66-SOAg had a high adsorption capacity for thiophene and benzothiophene. Moreover, the HP-UiO-66-SOAg sample still exhibits high adsorptive performance in the presence of toluene. The regeneration results show that about 90% of the initial adsorption capacity of HP-UiO-66-SOAg can be regenerated after four cycles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.126247DOI Listing
May 2021

Identification of Inflammation-Related Biomarker Lp-PLA2 for Patients With COPD by Comprehensive Analysis.

Front Immunol 2021 21;12:670971. Epub 2021 May 21.

Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Center of Respiratory Medicine, China-Japan Friendship Hospital, Beijing, China.

Purpose: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a complex and persistent lung disease and lack of biomarkers. The aim of this study is to screen and verify effective biomarkers for medical practice.

Methods: Differential expressed genes analysis and weighted co-expression network analysis were used to explore potential biomarker. Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analysis and Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) analysis were used to explore potential mechanism. CIBERSORTx website was used to evaluate tissue-infiltrating immune cells. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to assess the concentrations of the Lp-PLA2 in serum.

Results: Ten genes were selected combined DEGs and WGCNA. Furthermore, PLA2G7 was choose based on validation from independent datasets. Immune infiltrate and enrichment analysis suggest PLA2G7 may regulate immune pathway macrophages. Next, Lp-PLA2(coded by PLA2G7 gene) level was upregulated in COPD patients, increased along with The Global Average of COPD (GOLD) stage. In additional, Lp-PLA2 level was significant correlate with FEV1/FVC, BMI, FFMI, CAT score, mMRC score and 6MWD of COPD patients. Finally, the predictive efficiency of Lp-PLA2 level (AUC:0.796) and derived nomogram model (AUC:0.884) in exercise tolerance was notably superior to that of the sit-to-stand test and traditional clinical features.

Conclusion: Lp-PLA2 is a promising biomarker for COPD patients and is suitable for assessing exercise tolerance in clinical practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2021.670971DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8176901PMC
May 2021

Diffusion-weighted MRI for predicting pathologic response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer: evaluation with mono-, bi-, and stretched-exponential models.

J Transl Med 2021 06 2;19(1):236. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Department of Radiology, Renji Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, No. 160, Pujian Rd, Shanghai, 200127, China.

Background: To investigate the performance of diffusion-weighted (DW) MRI with mono-, bi- and stretched-exponential models in predicting pathologic complete response (pCR) to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) for breast cancer, and further outline a predictive model of pCR combining DW MRI parameters, contrast-enhanced (CE) MRI findings, and/or clinical-pathologic variables.

Methods: In this retrospective study, 144 women who underwent NACT and subsequently received surgery for invasive breast cancer were included. Breast MRI including multi-b-value DW imaging was performed before (pre-treatment), after two cycles (mid-treatment), and after all four cycles (post-treatment) of NACT. Quantitative DW imaging parameters were computed according to the mono-exponential (apparent diffusion coefficient [ADC]), bi-exponential (pseudodiffusion coefficient and perfusion fraction), and stretched-exponential (distributed diffusion coefficient and intravoxel heterogeneity index) models. Tumor size and relative enhancement ratio of the tumor were measured on contrast-enhanced MRI at each time point. Pre-treatment parameters and changes in parameters at mid- and post-treatment relative to baseline were compared between pCR and non-pCR groups. Receiver operating characteristic analysis and multivariate regression analysis were performed.

Results: Of the 144 patients, 54 (37.5%) achieved pCR after NACT. Overall, among all DW and CE MRI measures, flow-insensitive ADC change (ΔADC) at mid-treatment showed the highest diagnostic performance for predicting pCR, with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.831 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.747, 0.915; P < 0.001). The model combining pre-treatment estrogen receptor and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 statuses and mid-treatment ΔADC improved the AUC to 0.905 (95% CI: 0.843, 0.966; P < 0.001).

Conclusion: Mono-exponential flow-insensitive ADC change at mid-treatment was a predictor of pCR after NACT in breast cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12967-021-02886-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8173748PMC
June 2021

Recent Insights on Catalyst Layers for Anion Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells.

Adv Sci (Weinh) 2021 May 24:e2100284. Epub 2021 May 24.

State Key Laboratory of Engines, School of Mechanical Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin, 300072, P. R. China.

Anion exchange membrane fuel cells (AEMFCs) performance have significantly improved in the last decade (>1 W cm ), and is now comparable with that of proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). At high current densities, issues in the catalyst layer (CL, composed of catalyst and ionomer), like oxygen transfer, water balance, and microstructural evolution, play important roles in the performance. In addition, CLs for AEMFCs have different requirements than for PEMFCs, such as chemical/physical stability, reaction mechanism, and mass transfer, because of different conductive media and pH environment. The anion exchange ionomer (AEI), which is the soluble or dispersed analogue of the anion exchange membrane (AEM), is required for hydroxide transport in the CL and is normally handled separately with the electrocatalyst during the electrode fabrication process. The importance of the AEI-catalyst interface in maximizing the utilization of electrocatalyst and fuel/oxygen transfer process must be carefully investigated. This review briefly covers new concepts in the complex AEMFC catalyst layer, before a detailed discussion on advances in CLs based on the design of AEIs and electrocatalysts. The importance of the structure-function relationship is highlighted with the aim of directing the further development of CLs for high-performance AEMFC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/advs.202100284DOI Listing
May 2021

Bi(OTf) -catalyed One-pot Synthesis of α-Halo-β-amino Ketones and Acyl Aziridines from 3-Aryl Propargyl Alcohols.

Chem Asian J 2021 Jul 1;16(13):1832-1838. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Shanghai Institute of Technology, 201418, 100 Hai Quan Rd., Shanghai, P. R. China.

A Bi(OTf) -catalyed reaction of 3-aryl propargyl alcohols with sulfonamide and halogen source was firstly investigated, which provided a facile route for the synthesis of a large variety of α-halo-β-amino ketones. The key intermediates, β-amino ketones, were obtained through tandem Meyer-Schuster rearrangement reaction of propargyl alcohols and intermolecular Michael addition of α, β-unsaturated ketones and sulfonamide. Then the in situ generated α-halo-β-amino ketones underwent the base-promoted intramolecular cyclization to give diverse acyl aziridines in a one-pot fashion. These transformations are reliable on a large scale. The high yields and convenient experimental operations make it a valuable method for the construction of α-halo-β-amino ketones and acyl aziridine derivatives.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/asia.202100368DOI Listing
July 2021

Concentration and atmospheric transport of PM-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons at Mount Tai, China.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Sep 5;786:147513. Epub 2021 May 5.

Collaborative Innovation Center on Forecast and Evaluation of Meteorological Disasters, Key Laboratory for Aerosol-Cloud-Precipitation of China Meteorological Administration, Nanjing University of Information Science & Technology, Nanjing 210044, China.

Atmospheric PM-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) pose a major threat to human health. At present, studies on PAHs in the atmosphere have mostly focused on their concentration levels and source apportionment, whereas studies on the vertical transport of PAHs in the atmosphere are limited. However, the vertical transport of PAHs is important for their diffusion near the ground and their long-range transport at higher altitude. In this study, PM samples were collected simultaneously at the summit and foot of Mount Tai (MT and MT, respectively) from May to June 2017, and the concentrations of 18 PAHs in the samples were determined. The total concentration of PAHs at MT was 2.406 ng m, which was well below the pollution levels of domestic cities, whereas that at MT was as high as 9.068 ng m, which was within the range of pollution levels in domestic cities. The total carcinogenic risk for both MT and MT was within the potential risk range. Given the source of PAHs and the diurnal variation of the planetary boundary layer, the PAHs showed opposite diurnal trends at MT and MT. Vertical transport was an important source of daytime PAHs at MT, and the vertical transport efficiency of PAHs decreased with an increasing ring number; this may be due to the combined effects of gas-particle partitioning and chemical reactions. Furthermore, PAHs originating in the surrounding high-emission provinces can affect the Mount Tai area via atmospheric trans-regional transport, and the BaP/BeP ratio is a useful indicator of the transport distance of PAHs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.147513DOI Listing
September 2021

MDM2 inhibitor APG-115 exerts potent antitumor activity and synergizes with standard-of-care agents in preclinical acute myeloid leukemia models.

Cell Death Discov 2021 May 3;7(1):90. Epub 2021 May 3.

Ascentage Pharma (Suzhou) Co., Ltd., 218 Xinghu Street, Suzhou, Jiangsu Province, China.

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous clonal disease associated with unmet medical needs. Paralleling the pathology of other cancers, AML tumorigenesis and propagation can be ascribed to dysregulated cellular processes, including apoptosis. This function and others are regulated by tumor suppressor P53, which plays a pivotal role in leukemogenesis. Opposing P53-mediated activities is the mouse double minute 2 homolog (MDM2), which promotes P53 degradation. Because the TP53 mutation rate is low, and MDM2 frequently overexpressed, in patients with leukemia, targeting the MDM2-P53 axis to restore P53 function has emerged as an attractive AML treatment strategy. APG-115 is a potent MDM2 inhibitor under clinical development for patients with solid tumors. In cellular cultures and animal models of AML, we demonstrate that APG-115 exerted substantial antileukemic activity, as either a single agent or when combined with standard-of-care (SOC) hypomethylating agents azacitidine (AZA) and decitabine (DAC), or the DNA-damaging agent cytarabine (Ara-C). By activating the P53/P21 pathway, APG-115 exhibited potent antiproliferative and apoptogenic activities, and induced cell cycle arrest, in TP53 wild-type AML lines. In vivo, APG-115 significantly reduced tumor burden and prolonged survival. Combinations of APG-115 with SOC treatments elicited synergistic antileukemic activity. To explain these effects, we propose that APG-115 and SOC agents augment AML cell killing by complementarily activating the P53/P21 pathway and upregulating DNA damage. These findings and the emerging mechanism of action afford a sound scientific rationale to evaluate APG-115 (with or without SOC therapies) in patients with AML.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41420-021-00465-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8093284PMC
May 2021

A novel nomogram for early prediction of death in severe neurological disease patients with electroencephalographic periodic discharges.

Clin Neurophysiol 2021 Jun 30;132(6):1304-1311. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Objective: To investigate death-related factors in patients with electroencephalographic (EEG) periodic discharges (PDs) and to construct a model for death prediction.

Methods: This case-control study enrolled a total of 80 severe neurological disease patients with EEG PDs within 72 h of admission to the neuroscience intensive care unit (NICU). According to modified Rankin scale (mRS) scores half a year after discharge, patients were divided into a survival group (<6 points) and a death group (6 points). Their relevant clinical and biochemical indicators as well as EEG characteristics were retrospectively analyzed. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify the risk factors associated with the death of patients with EEG PDs. A death risk prediction model and an individualized nomogram prediction model were constructed, and the prediction performance and concordance of the models were evaluated.

Results: Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the involvement of both gray and white matter in imaging, disappearance of EEG reactivity, occurrence of stimulus-induced rhythmic, periodic, or ictal discharges (SIRPIDs), and an interval time of 0.5-4 s were independent risk factors for death. A regression model was established according to the multivariate logistic regression analysis, and the area under the curve of this model was 0.9135. The accuracy of the model was 87.01%, the sensitivity was 87.17%, and the specificity was 89.17%. A nomogram model was constructed, and a concordance index of 0.914 was obtained after internal validation.

Conclusion: The regression model based on risk factors has high accuracy in predicting the risk of death of patients with EEG PDs.

Significance: This model can help clinicians in the early assessment of the prognosis of severe neurological disease patients with EEG PDs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clinph.2021.03.002DOI Listing
June 2021

Ultra-brilliant GeV betatronlike radiation from energetic electrons oscillating in frequency-downshifted laser pulses.

Opt Express 2021 Mar;29(6):8926-8940

Electrons can be accelerated to GeV energies with high collimation via laser wakefield acceleration in the bubble regime and emit bright betatron radiation in a table-top size. However, the radiation brightness is usually limited to the third-generation synchrotron radiation facilities operating at similar photon energies. Using a two-stage plasma configuration, we propose a novel scheme for generating betatronlike radiation with an extremely high brilliance. In this scheme, the relativistic electrons inside the bubble injected from the first stage can catch up with the frequency-downshifted laser pulse formed in the second stage. The laser red shift originates from the phase modulation, together with the group velocity dispersion, which enables more energy to be transfered from the laser pulse to γ-photons, giving rise to ultra-brilliant betatronlike radiation. Multi-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations indicate that the radiated γ-photons have the cut-off energy of GeV and a peak brilliance of 10 photons s mm mrad per 0.1%BW at 1 MeV, which may have diverse applications in various fields.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.419761DOI Listing
March 2021

Transient dynamics of atomic spin in the spin-exchange-relaxation-free regime.

Opt Express 2021 Mar;29(6):8333-8343

In this paper, we experimentally study transient dynamics of spin polarized atoms in the spin-exchange-relaxation-free (SERF) regime with a single-beam configuration. We pumped atoms with a weak detuning pumping beam, along with a sequence of magnetic field pulses orthogonal to the pumping beam were applied. The dynamics of atomic spin, which experiences Larmor precession under the perturbation of magnetic field, is detected by the transmitted pumping beam. Benefited from the long coherence time of atomic spin in the SERF regime, the dependence of precession frequency and decay rate, which is equal to the magnetic resonance linewidth of atomic spin, on magnetic fields is studied with the transient dynamics of atomic spin in the limit of low spin polarization. Moreover, we demonstrate that coil constants can be calibrated by analyzing the precession frequency of the transient dynamics of atomic spin. And the experimental results show that the coil constants are 114.25 ± 0.02 nT/mA and 114.12 ± 0.04 nT/mA in x- and y-axis, respectively. This method is particularly applicable to study the atomic spin dynamics and calibrate the coil constant in situ of a miniature single-beam SERF magnetometer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.418776DOI Listing
March 2021

Extracellular vesicles from M1-polarized macrophages promote inflammation in the temporomandibular joint via miR-1246 activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway.

Ann N Y Acad Sci 2021 Mar 23. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

College of Stomatology, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China.

Macrophage-mediated regulation of chondrocytes plays an important role in promoting temporomandibular joint (TMJ) inflammation. We investigated whether extracellular vesicles (EVs) derived from M1 macrophages (M1-EVs) have a proinflammatory effect on TMJ inflammation and what the associated mechanisms are. In vitro, purified THP-1 cell-derived M1-EVs were applied to human TMJ condylar chondrocytes, and in vivo M1-EVs derived from bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) were injected into rat TMJs. The levels of IL-6, IL-8, IL-1β, and matrix metalloproteinase were then evaluated and found to be upregulated in the chondrocytes and rat TMJs. MicroRNA sequencing analysis was performed to identify differential expression of miRNAs, including miR-1246. High expression of miR-1246 in M1-EVs from synovial fluid of patients with TMJ osteoarthritis and synovitis was verified by RT-PCR. We then identified miR-1246 targets GSK3β and Axin2 and found that miR-1246 inhibits GSK3β and Axin2 expression, causing activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway and inflammation in condylar chondrocytes. Our study found that M1-EVs promote inflammation by transfer of miR-1246 to condylar chondrocytes, thus providing new insight into one mechanism that can promote TMJ inflammation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nyas.14590DOI Listing
March 2021

Anthocyanins from the fruits of Murray improve high-fat diet-induced insulin resistance by ameliorating inflammation and oxidative stress in mice.

Food Funct 2021 May;12(9):3855-3871

College of Food Science and Engineering, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, P. R. China.

A high-fat diet (HFD) promotes tissue inflammation, oxidative stress and insulin resistance (IR), thereby contributing to the development of obesity and diabetes. Anthocyanins from Lycium ruthenicum (AC) have demonstrated anti-obesity effects and modulated IR. To investigate the mechanism by which AC attenuates the adverse effects of consuming a HFD, C57BL/6J mice were fed a HFD supplemented with AC or a control diet without AC for 12 weeks. AC supplementation decreased the amount of weight gain, hepatic lipid, and sequentially improved dyslipidemia, inflammation, oxidative stress, and IR in HFD-fed mice. Molecular data revealed that AC inhibited hepatic inflammation by reducing TLR4/NF-κB/JNK in the liver tissues and ameliorated oxidative stress by activating the Nrf2/HO-1/NQO1 pathway. Thus, AC might activate IRS-1/AKT and prevent HFD-induced gluconeogenesis and IR by ameliorating inflammation and oxidative stress. Modulation of inflammation and oxidative stress with AC may represent a promising target for the treatment of IR and provide insight into the mechanism by which AC protects against obesity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0fo02936jDOI Listing
May 2021

A new wearable multichannel magnetocardiogram system with a SERF atomic magnetometer array.

Sci Rep 2021 Mar 10;11(1):5564. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Hangzhou Innovation Institute, Beihang University, Hangzhou, 310051, China.

In this study, a wearable multichannel human magnetocardiogram (MCG) system based on a spin exchange relaxation-free regime (SERF) magnetometer array is developed. The MCG system consists of a magnetically shielded device, a wearable SERF magnetometer array, and a computer for data acquisition and processing. Multichannel MCG signals from a healthy human are successfully recorded simultaneously. Independent component analysis (ICA) and empirical mode decomposition (EMD) are used to denoise MCG data. MCG imaging is realized to visualize the magnetic and current distribution around the heart. The validity of the MCG signals detected by the system is verified by electrocardiogram (ECG) signals obtained at the same position, and similar features and intervals of cardiac signal waveform appear on both MCG and ECG. Experiments show that our wearable MCG system is reliable for detecting MCG signals and can provide cardiac electromagnetic activity imaging.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-84971-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7970947PMC
March 2021

Characterization of the aerosol chemical composition during the COVID-19 lockdown period in Suzhou in the Yangtze River Delta, China.

J Environ Sci (China) 2021 Apr 22;102:110-122. Epub 2020 Sep 22.

Collaborative Innovation Center on Forecast and Evaluation of Meteorological Disasters, Key Laboratory for Aerosol-Cloud-Precipitation of China Meteorological Administration, Nanjing University of Information Science &Technology, Nanjing 210044, China.

To control the spread of COVID-19, rigorous restrictions have been implemented in China, resulting in a great reduction in pollutant emissions. In this study, we evaluated the air quality in the Yangtze River Delta during the COVID-19 lockdown period using satellite and ground-based data, including particle matter (PM), trace gases, water-soluble ions (WSIs) and black carbon (BC). We found that the impacts of lockdown policy on air quality cannot be accurately assessed using MODIS aerosol optical depth (AOD) data, whereas the tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO) vertical column density can well reflect the influences of these restrictions on human activities. Compared to the pre-COVID period, the PM, PM, NO, carbon monoxide (CO), BC and WSIs during the lockdown in Suzhou were observed to decrease by 37.2%, 38.3%, 64.5%, 26.1%, 53.3% and 58.6%, respectively, while the sulfur dioxide (SO) and ozone (O) increased by 1.5% and 104.7%. The WSIs ranked in the order of NO > NH > SO > Cl > Ca > K > Mg > Na during the lockdown period. By comparisons with the ion concentrations during the pre-COVID period, we found that the ions NO, NH, SO, Cl, Ca, K and Na decreased by 66.3%, 48.8%, 52.9%, 56.9%, 57.9% and 76.3%, respectively, during the lockdown, in contrast to Mg, which increased by 30.2%. The lockdown policy was found to have great impacts on the diurnal variations of Cl, SO, Na and Ca.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jes.2020.09.019DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7508540PMC
April 2021

Evaluation of dynamic postural control during single-leg landing tasks using initial impact force, landing leg stiffness and time to stabilisation.

Sports Biomech 2021 Feb 17:1-14. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

Division of Physical Therapy, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.

Time to stabilisation (TTS) provides limited information to evaluate the dynamic postural control for individuals with functional ankle instability in single-leg landing task. More information is needed to understand TTS and evaluate the dynamic postural control better. The purpose is to develop a method estimating TTS, initial impact force (IIF) and landing leg stiffness (LLS) through fitting ground reaction force (GRF) decay in single leg landing with exponential vibration decay function (EVDF), and investigate effects of landing directions and GRF components on these parameters. Thirty-nine healthy participants were recruited. EVDF was used to fit GRF decays in different single-leg landings. TTS, IIF, and LLS were compared across landing directions and GRF components. The mean regression determinants of fitting GRF decays with EVDF were greater than 0.50. TTS was sensitive to GRF components (P = 0.041 females, P = 0.028 males). IIF was sensitive to GRF components (P = 0.001) for both genders. LLS was sensitive to GRF components (P = 0.023) for males. This method showed a moderate to strong feasibility for reporting GRF decay during landing, and provided movement characteristic information for better understanding of dynamic postural control together with TTS during landing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14763141.2020.1833969DOI Listing
February 2021

The emergence of various genetic alterations mediated the Osimertinib resistance of a patient harboring heterozygous germline EGFR T790M: a case report.

Ann Transl Med 2021 Jan;9(1):80

Department of Respiratory and Critical Medicine, Tianjin Chest Hospital, Tianjin, China.

Epidermal growth factor receptor () T790M is the major mechanism mediating resistance to first- and second-generation EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Despite the high frequency of activating mutations among East Asian lung cancer patients, germline T790M has been the subject of very little research. Questions remain as to whether germline T790M develops resistance to Osimertinib and if so, through which mechanisms. This study examined a patient harboring germline T790M who acquired resistance to Osimertinib therapy. After the failure of first-line icotinib therapy, which was administered for only 3 months, targeted next-generation sequencing of plasma samples collected at icotinib progression and the re-analysis of the baseline tissue biopsy sample revealed T790M with allelic frequencies approximating 50%. Lymphocyte genomic deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) sequencing confirmed the germline heterozygous status of the T790M mutation. In addition to the T790M, a concurrent L858R was detected from the baseline tissue sample. Osimertinib therapy was initiated resulting in a partial response within 1 month of the commencement of the therapy. After 15.2 months of Osimertinib therapy, disease progression was evaluated due to the presence of pleural effusion. The targeted sequencing of plasma and pleural effusion samples revealed the emergence of G719A, tumor protein p53 () Q136X, and the co-amplification of Cyclin D1, fibroblast growth factor () 19, , and This case highlights the importance of conducting next-generation sequencing-based molecular testing during both diagnostic and disease progression assessments to reveal sensitizing mutations and mutations that could mediate primary and acquired resistance to targeted therapeutics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/atm-20-7626DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7859814PMC
January 2021

Computer-aided discovery of phenylpyrazole based amides as potent S6K1 inhibitors.

RSC Med Chem 2020 May 30;11(5):583-590. Epub 2020 Apr 30.

Medicinal Chemistry , The Scripps Research Institute , 130 Scripps Way , Jupiter , Florida 33458 , USA.

Ribosomal protein S6 kinase beta-1 (S6K1) is an attractive therapeutic target. In this study, computational analysis of five thiophene urea-based S6K1 inhibitors was performed. Molecular docking showed that the five compounds formed hydrogen bonds with residues Glu173 and Leu175 of S6K1 and hydrophobic interactions with residues Val105, Leu97 and Met225, and these interactions were key elements for the inhibitory potency of the compounds. Binding free energy (Δ ) decomposition analysis showed that Leu97, Glu173, Val 105, Leu175, Leu97 and Met225 contribute the most to Δ . Based on the computer results, phenylpyrazole based amides () were designed and synthesized. Biological evaluation revealed that exhibited 15.9 nM S6K1 inhibition, medium microsomal stability and desirable bioavailability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c9md00537dDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7605259PMC
May 2020

Physical mapping of chromosome 7J and a purple coleoptile gene from Thinopyrum intermedium in the common wheat background.

Planta 2021 Jan 5;253(1):22. Epub 2021 Jan 5.

Center for Informational Biology, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu, 611731, Sichuan, China.

Main Conclusion: A physical map of Thinopyrum intermedium chromosome 7J was constructed using translocation mapping, and a new seedling purple coleoptile gene was mapped to the bin of FL 0.35-0.63 of 7JS. Thinopyrum intermedium (2n = 6x = 42, JJJJStSt), a wild relative of common wheat, harbors numerous beneficial genes for wheat improvement. Previous studies showed that wheat-Th. intermedium partial amphiploid TAF46 and its derived addition line L1 had a purple coleoptile, which was derived from Th. intermedium chromosome 7J. To identify and physically map the purple coleoptile gene, 12 wheat-Th. intermedium 7J translocation lines were analyzed by sequential multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization (mc-FISH), PCR-based landmark unique gene (PLUG) and intron targeting (IT) markers. A physical map of the 7J chromosome was constructed, consisting of eight chromosomal bins with 89 markers. Seedling evaluation of the coleoptile colors of all tested materials indicated that the purple coleoptile gene was located to the bin with a fraction length (FL) of 0.35-0.63 on chromosome 7JS. Furthermore, based on the syntenic relationships between Th. intermedium and wheat chromosomes, we developed a new chromosome 7J-specific EST-PCR marker from the chromosomal region corresponding to the purple coleoptile gene through the Triticeae multi-omics database. The approach of designing chromosome-specific markers has facilitated fine mapping of the Thinopyrum-specific purple coleoptile gene, and these translocation lines will be valuable for studying the function of the purple coleoptile gene in anthocyanin biosynthesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00425-020-03552-6DOI Listing
January 2021

A Dendrite-Free Lithium/Carbon Nanotube Hybrid for Lithium-Metal Batteries.

Adv Mater 2021 Jan 13;33(4):e2006702. Epub 2020 Dec 13.

School of Materials Science and Engineering, Jiangxi University of Science and Technology (JXUST), Ganzhou, 341000, P. R. China.

Lithium (Li) metal is promising in the next-generation energy storage systems. However, its practical application is still hindered by the poor cycling performance and serious safety issues for the consequence of dendritic Li. Herein, a dendrite-free Li/carbon nanotube (CNT) hybrid is proposed, which is fabricated by direct coating molten Li on CNTs, for Li-metal batteries. The favorable thermodynamic and kinetic conditions are the powerful force to drive the rapid lift upwards and infusion of molten Li into CNTs network, which is the key to form a uniform metallic layer in Li/CNTs hybrid. The obtained hybrid indicates super-stable functions even at an ultrahigh current density of 40 mA cm for 2000 cycles with a stripping/plating capacity of 2 mAh cm in symmetric cells. Subsequently, this hybrid also demonstrates a significantly decreased resistance, excellent cycling stability at high current density and flexibility in the full Li-S battery. This work provides valuable concepts in fabricating Li anodes toward Li-metal batteries and beyond for their high-level services.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adma.202006702DOI Listing
January 2021

Studying the mixture effects of brominated flame retardants and metal ions by comet assay.

Environ Pollut 2020 Dec 18;267:115677. Epub 2020 Sep 18.

Third Institute of Oceanography, Ministry of Natural Resources, Xiamen, 361005, China.

This study was designed to evaluate the sensitivities of diverse cell lines on DNA damage effects and genotoxic effects of three brominated flame retardants (BFRs) and three metal ions (Cu, Cd, Hg) by comet assay. First, THP-1 was identified as the most sensitive cell line in terms of DNA damage among 11 kinds of cells screened. Accordingly, the THP-1 cell line was used as a model in subsequent single/combined genotoxicity tests. Single exposure tests to BFRs or metal ions revealed that the DNA damage effects increased with increasing exposure concentration. In combined exposure tests, BFRs (at concentrations of 1/2 EC) were deployed in combination with different concentrations of Cu, Cd, or Hg. The results showed that the % tail DNA values were significantly increased by most mixtures. Our findings on combined toxic effects by comet assay provide valuable information for setting valid environmental safety evaluation standards.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2020.115677DOI Listing
December 2020

Altered Cortical Reorganization and Brain Functional Connectivity in Phantom Limb Pain: A Functional MRI Study.

Pain Pract 2021 04 6;21(4):394-403. Epub 2020 Dec 6.

Department of Radiology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China.

Objectives: Functional neuroimaging studies have shown that amputees have altered cortical reorganization and functional connectivity (FC). This study aimed to investigate whether patients with phantom limb pain (PLP) and PLP-free lower limb amputees exhibit changes in corresponding primary cortical motor area/somatosensory cortex (M1/S1) cortical reorganization and supplementary motor area (SMA) network FC. The association between functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) changes and clinical parameters is also explored.

Methods: A total of 10 PLP patients were matched with 10 PLP-free amputees and 10 healthy controls (HCs). Before undergoing fMRI, all participants completed questionnaires evaluating pain, anxiety, depression, and health-related quality of life. Task-related activation and regions of interest (ROI)-wise connectivity analysis were applied to differentiate the brain regions of amputees from those of HCs. Linear correlation analysis was used to evaluate the correlation between altered FC and clinical manifestations.

Results: As compared with HCs, PLP patients showed increased cortical activation in M1/S1 when moving the intact foot, imagining phantom big toe movement, or having the corresponding thumb stimulated. The increased FC in the SMA network included the SMA-caudate nucleus, SMA-bilateral insula, and SMA-anterior cingulate cortex. Furthermore, results of the linear correlation analysis demonstrated that this increased FC was positively correlated with VAS scores, negatively correlated with Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short-Form (SF-36) scores, and not correlated with anxiety or depression scores.

Conclusions: Phantom limb pain in lower limb amputees is associated with M1/S1 cortical reorganization and altered SMA network FC in different areas of the brain, which could help to support our understanding of the central mechanism of PLP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/papr.12966DOI Listing
April 2021
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