Publications by authors named "Yan Yang"

3,091 Publications

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Puerarin attenuates isoproterenol‑induced myocardial hypertrophy via inhibition of the Wnt/β‑catenin signaling pathway.

Mol Med Rep 2022 Oct 10;26(4). Epub 2022 Aug 10.

Graduate School, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai 201203, P.R. China.

Myocardial hypertrophy (MH) is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease, which in turn lead to arrhythmia or heart failure. Therefore, attention must be paid to formulation of therapeutic strategies for MH. Puerarin is a key bioactive ingredient isolated from genera of plants that is beneficial for the treatment of MH. However, its molecular mechanism of action has not been fully determined. In the present study, 40 µM puerarin was demonstrated to be a safe dose for human AC16 cells using Cell Counting Kit‑8 assay. The protective effects of puerarin against MH were demonstrated in AC16 cells stimulated with isoproterenol (ISO). These effects were characterized by a significant decrease in surface area of cells (assessed using fluorescence staining) and mRNA and protein expression levels of MH‑associated biomarkers, including atrial and brain natriuretic peptide, assessed using reverse transcription‑quantitative PCR and western blotting, as well as β‑myosin heavy chain mRNA expression levels. Mechanistically, western blotting demonstrated that puerarin inhibited activation of the Wnt signaling pathway. Puerarin also significantly decreased phosphorylation of p65; this was mediated via crosstalk between the Wnt and NF‑κB signaling pathways. An inhibitor (Dickkopf‑1) and activator (IM‑12) of the Wnt signaling pathway were used to demonstrate that puerarin‑mediated effects alleviated ISO‑induced MH via the Wnt signaling pathway. The results of the present study demonstrated that puerarin pre‑treatment may be a potential therapeutic strategy for preventing ISO‑induced MH and managing MH in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/mmr.2022.12822DOI Listing
October 2022

Peripapillary structural and microvascular alterations in early dysthyroid optic neuropathy.

Eye Vis (Lond) 2022 Aug 9;9(1):30. Epub 2022 Aug 9.

School of Ophthalmology and Optometry, Wenzhou Medical University, 270 Xueyuan Road, Wenzhou, 325027, Zhejiang, China.

Background: To explore the changes in blood supply and structure around the optic nerve head (ONH) in thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO) patients with suspected dysthyroid optic neuropathy (DON).

Methods: TAO patients [19 with DON; 24 non-DON (NDON); 20 with equivocal DON (EDON)], and 34 control subjects were examined. Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) was used to obtain peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (p-RNFL) and vessel density parameters, including the ONH whole image vessel density (ONH-wiVD) and the radial peripapillary capillary vessel density (RPC-VD) in early DON.

Results: Although there were no differences in p-RNFL thickness among the groups, there were differences in the ONH-wiVD of each grid section and the RPC-VD in all areas (P < 0.01). Compared with healthy controls, the EDON eyes had significantly lower RPC-VDs in all aeras (P < 0.05).The peripapillary region was further divided into eight sectors, and the RPC-VD in the temporal upper, superior temporal, and temporal lower sectors in the EDON group were significantly lower than in the controls. The visual impairment was closely related to the loss of peripapillary capillary vessel density. Univariate correlation analysis showed that the ONH-wiVD and RPC-VD of the TAO groups were negatively correlated with the intraocular pressure (r = - 0.296, P = 0.006; r = - 0.258, P = 0.016 respectively).

Conclusions: EDON patients had significantly lower ONH-wiVD and RPC-VD than control subjects, and the temporal and upper VDs were more likely to be affected in the early stage of TAO. The combined use of spectral domain optical coherence tomography and OCTA technologies offer a new method for early diagnosis of suspected DON patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40662-022-00301-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9361673PMC
August 2022

[Mechanism of acupuncture and moxibustion in treatment of chronic fatigue syndrome from perspective of intestinal flora].

Zhongguo Zhen Jiu 2022 Aug;42(8):956-60

Department of Educational Administration, First Affiliated Hospital of Heilongjiang University of CM.

Intestinal flora dysbiosis may play an important role in the occurrence and development of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), which may induce the inflammatory response and metabolic disturbance of patients with CFS. Acupuncture and moxibustion may achieve anti-fatigue effect by affecting the diversity and quantity of intestinal flora, improving intestinal barrier function, and regulating brain-gut peptides.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.13703/j.0255-2930.20210829-k0003DOI Listing
August 2022

MC4R Deficiency Causes Dysregulation of Postsynaptic Excitatory Synaptic Transmission as a Crucial Culprit for Obesity.

Diabetes 2022 Aug 4. Epub 2022 Aug 4.

State Key Laboratory of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100101, China.

Melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) in paraventricular nucleus in hypothalamus (PVH) shows bidirectional characterization in modulating food intake and energy homeostasis. Here, we demonstrated that MC4R knock down (MC4R KD) in PVH could attenuate AMPA receptor (AMPAR) mediated postsynaptic responses by altering AMPAR GluA1 subunit phosphorylation via protein kinase A (PKA) dependent signaling cascade and simultaneously lead to rapid body weight gain. Further, PKA knock down (PKA KD) in PVH engendered similar electrophysiological and behavioral phenotypes as MC4R KD mice. Importantly, we observed that the reduction of AMPAR GluA1 expression not only led to attenuated synaptic responses but also caused body weight gain, suggesting that the aberration of synaptic responses may be one of the crucial pathogeny for obesity. Our study provided the synaptic and molecular explanations of how body weight is regulated by MC4R in PVH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/db22-0162DOI Listing
August 2022

Triosephosphate Isomerase and Its Product Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate Are Involved in the Regulatory Mechanism That Suppresses Exit from the Quiescent State in Yeast Cells.

Microbiol Spectr 2022 Aug 4:e0089722. Epub 2022 Aug 4.

Key Laboratory of Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biotechnology, Ministry of Education, School of Biotechnology, Jiangnan Universitygrid.258151.a, Wuxi, China.

Cells of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae form spores or stationary cells upon nutrient starvation. These quiescent cells are known to resume mitotic growth in response to nutrient signals, but the mechanism remains elusive. Here, we report that quiescent yeast cells are equipped with a negative regulatory mechanism which suppresses the commencement of mitotic growth. The regulatory process involves a glycolytic enzyme, triosephosphate isomerase (Tpi1), and its product, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (GAP). GAP serves as an inhibitory signaling molecule; indeed, the return to growth of spores or stationary cells is suppressed by the addition of GAP even in nutrient-rich growth media, though mitotic cells are not affected. Reciprocally, dormancy is abolished by heat treatment because of the heat sensitivity of Tpi1. For example, spores commence germination merely upon heat treatment, which indicates that the negative regulatory mechanism is actively required for spores to prevent premature germination. Stationary cells of Candida glabrata are also manipulated by heat and GAP, suggesting that the regulatory process is conserved in the pathogenic yeast. Our results suggest that, in quiescent cells, nutrient signals do not merely provoke a positive regulatory process to commence mitotic growth. Exit from the quiescent state in yeast cells is regulated by balancing between the positive and negative signaling pathways. Identifying the negative regulatory pathway would provide new insight into the regulation of the transition from the quiescent to the mitotic state. Clinically, quiescent cells are problematic because they are resistant to environmental stresses and antibiotics. Given that the quiescent state is modulated by manipulation of the negative regulatory mechanism, understanding this process is important not only for its biological interest but also as a potential target for antifungal treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/spectrum.00897-22DOI Listing
August 2022

Association between dried fruit intake and pan-cancers incidence risk: A two-sample Mendelian randomization study.

Front Nutr 2022 18;9:899137. Epub 2022 Jul 18.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health and Management, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, China.

Background: Observational studies have revealed that dried fruit intake may be associated with cancer incidence; however, confounding factors make the results prone to be disturbed. Therefore, we conducted a two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) study to explore the causal relationship between dried fruit intake and 11 site-specific cancers.

Materials And Methods: Forty-three single nucleoside polymers (SNPs) with robust genome-wide association study (GWAS) evidence, strongly correlated with dried fruit intake, were used as instrumental variables (IVs) in this study. The summary-level genetic datasets of site-specific cancers were obtained from the Oncoarray oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancer consortium, International Lung Cancer Consortium, Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC), Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium, PanScan1, and GWAS of other scholars. We analyzed the causality between dried fruit intake and 11 site-specific cancers using the inverse-variance-weighted (IVW) and weighted median (WM) methods. For the results of the MR analysis, Cochran's test was used to check for heterogeneity, and multiplicative random effects were used to evaluate the heterogeneity further. Gene pleiotropy was tested using MR-Egger regression and MR-PRESSO methods. In addition, the main results of this study were validated by using the summary statistical data from the FinnGen and UK Biobank databases, and adjusted body mass index (BMI), years of education, fresh fruit intake, and vitamin C using multivariable MR analysis to ensure the stability of the research results.

Results: The evidence from IVW analyses showed that each increase of dried fruit intake by one standard deviation was statistically significantly associated with 82.68% decrease of oral cavity/pharyngeal cancer incidence risk ( = 0.0131), 67.01% decrease of lung cancer incidence risk ( = 0.0011), 77% decrease of squamous cell lung cancer incidence risk ( = 0.0026), 53.07% decrease of breast cancer incidence risk ( = 4.62 × 10), 39.72% decrease of ovarian cancer incidence risk ( = 0.0183), 97.26% decrease of pancreatic cancer incidence risk ( = 0.0280), 0.53% decrease of cervical cancer incidence risk ( = 0.0482); however, there was no significant effect on lung adenocarcinoma ( = 0.4343), endometrial cancer ( = 0.8742), thyroid cancer ( = 0.6352), prostate cancer ( = 0.5354), bladder cancer ( = 0.8996), and brain cancer ( = 0.8164). In the validation part of the study results, the causal relationship between dried fruit intake and lung cancer ( = 0.0043), squamous cell lung cancer ( = 0.0136), and breast cancer ( = 0.0192) was determined. After adjusting for the potential impact of confounders, the causal relationship between dried fruit intake and lung cancer ( = 0.0034), squamous cell lung cancer ( = 0.046), and breast cancer ( = 0.0001) remained. The sensitivity analysis showed that our results were stable and reliable.

Conclusion: The intake of dried fruits may have a protective effect against some site-specific cancers. Therefore, health education and a reasonable adjustment of dietary proportions may help in the primary prevention of cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnut.2022.899137DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9339715PMC
July 2022

Assessing Intermediate Formation and Electron Competition during Thiosulfate-Driven Denitrification: An Experimental and Modeling Study.

Environ Sci Technol 2022 Aug 3. Epub 2022 Aug 3.

Key Laboratory of the Three Gorges Reservoir Region's Eco-Environment, Ministry of Education, College of Environment and Ecology, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400045, PR China.

There is increasing interest in thiosulfate-driven denitrification for low C/N wastewater treatment, but the denitrification performance varies with the thiosulfate oxidation pathways. Models have been developed to predict the products of denitrification, but few consider thiosulfate reduction to elemental sulfur (S), an undesirable reaction that can intensify electron competition with denitrifying enzymes. In this study, the model using indirect coupling of electrons (ICE) was developed to predict S formation and electron competition during thiosulfate-driven denitrification. Kinetic data were obtained from sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB) dominated by the branched pathway and were used to calibrate and validate the model. Electron competition was investigated under different operating conditions. Modeling results reveal that electrons produced in the first step of thiosulfate oxidation typically prioritize thiosulfate reduction, then nitrate reduction, and finally nitrite reduction. However, the electron consumption rate for S formation decreases sharply with the decline of thiosulfate concentration. Thus, a continuous feeding strategy was effective in alleviating the competition between thiosulfate reduction and denitrifying enzymes. Electron competition leads to nitrite accumulation, which could be a reliable substrate for anammox. The model was further evaluated with anammox integration. Results suggested that the branched pathway and continuous supply of thiosulfate are favorable to create a symbiotic relationship between SOB and anammox.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.2c03937DOI Listing
August 2022

Correlation between apparent diffusion coefficient and tumor-stroma ratio in hybrid F-FDG PET/MRI: preliminary results of a rectal cancer cohort study.

Quant Imaging Med Surg 2022 Aug;12(8):4213-4225

Department of General Surgery, The First Medical Center, Chinese People's Liberation Army (PLA) General Hospital, Beijing, China.

Background: To explore possible correlations between the tumor-stroma ratio (TSR) and different imaging features of fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance imaging (F-FDG PET/MRI) in untreated rectal cancer patients.

Methods: A patients with rectal cancer were included in this study. All participants were examined preoperatively with whole-body F-FDG PET/MRI. Two pathologists evaluated the TSR of tumors together. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values and PET-related parameters of the primary lesions were measured and compared between the stroma-high and stroma-low groups. Pearson's correlation or Spearman's rank correlation were used to evaluate the correlation between the ADC values, PET-related parameters, and pathological indices.

Results: Our results showed that in the untreated rectal cancer patients, the ADC mean values correlated with the TSR (r=0.327; P=0.007), and stroma-high (low TSR) rectal cancer corresponded to relatively lower ADC mean values (813.54±88.68 879.92±133.18; P=0.018). The ADC mean and ADC minimum (ADCmin) values were found to be negatively correlated with the pathological T stages (r=-0.384, P=0.001; r=-0.416, P=0.001, respectively) as well as the largest tumor diameters (r=-0.340, P=0.005; r=-0.314, P=0.010, respectively) of rectal cancer. In addition, the pathological T stages correlated with all PET-related metabolic parameters, including mean standard uptake value (SUV), maximum SUV (SUVmax), metabolic tumor volume (MTV), and total lesion glycolysis (TLG) (r=0.338, P=0.006; r=0.350, P=0.004; r=0.326, P=0.007; and r=0.472, P<0.001, respectively). Our results also identified associations between the ADCmin values and SUVmean, SUVmax, and TLG (r=-0.335, P=0.006; r=-0.343, P=0.005; and r=-0.343, P=0.005, respectively). However, there were no statistical correlations between the PET/MRI parameters and the immunohistochemical (IHC) results.

Conclusions: This study indicated that the intratumoral heterogeneity measured by PET/MRI may reflect characteristics of the tumor microenvironment. Hence, PET/MRI parameters might be helpful in predicting tumor aggressiveness and prognosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/qims-21-938DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9338373PMC
August 2022

Alcohol-soluble polysaccharides from Dendrobium officinale flowers as an antidepressant by regulating the gut-brain axis.

Int J Biol Macromol 2022 Jul 30;216:836-849. Epub 2022 Jul 30.

School of Pharmacy, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200240, China. Electronic address:

This research aimed to explore the antidepressant components from Dendrobium officinale flowers (DOF) aqueous extract and their mechanism. Multiple depressive models were successfully used to show that alcohol-soluble polysaccharide-enriched fractions separated from DOF aqueous extract exhibited significant antidepressant effects. Subsequently, a novel alcohol-soluble polysaccharide named ASP was isolated, and its molecular mass was 3.10 × 10 Da. ASP was mainly composed of rhamnose, arabinose, fucose, mannose and glucose, and its glycosidic bond forms mainly included T-Manp, 1 → 2-linked Manp, T-Glcp, 1 → 3,6-linked Manp, 1 → 5-linked Araf, 1 → 6-linked Glcp. Microstructural observation of ASP displayed an irregular lamellar structure. Meanwhile, it was found that ASP could exhibit the significant antidepressant effect by modulating gut bacterial and fungal homeostasis and the levels of short-chain fatty acids to attenuate intestinal barrier disruption and excessive inflammatory responses, thus further achieving a protective effect on neuronal apoptosis and the maintenance of the 5-hydroxytryptamine system by activating the BDNF-TrkB-CREB pathway. Current findings outline using DOF as a rich source of a novel leading polysaccharide against depression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2022.07.220DOI Listing
July 2022

Preadmission Insulin-Treated Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients Had Increased Mortality in Intensive Care Units.

Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes 2022 22;15:2135-2148. Epub 2022 Jul 22.

Division of Endocrinology, Department of Internal Medicine, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, 430030, People's Republic of China.

Aim: To explore the clinical outcomes among preadmission insulin-treated type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in intensive care units (ICU).

Patients And Methods: In this retrospective observational study, 578 T2DM patients admitted to ICU were recruited from March 2011 to February 2021, which were composed of 528 patients treated with insulin after ICU admission (including 300 preadmission non-insulin-treated and 228 preadmission insulin-treated patients) and 50 patients treated without insulin before and after ICU admission. Clinical outcomes were compared between the groups. Variables of age (± 10 years), gender, blood glucose >10 mmol/l on ICU admission, and original comorbidities were used for matching to get the 1:1 matched cohort. The Kaplan-Meier survival curves were graphed to describe the survival trend and Cox regression analysis was performed to get adjusted hazard ratio (HR).

Results: Compared with the preadmission non-insulin-treated T2DM patients, preadmission insulin-treated T2DM patients had higher incidence of hypoglycemia [14.5% (33/228) vs 8.7% (26/300); = 0.036]. In the 1:1 matched cohort, the preadmission insulin-treated T2DM patients had significantly increased mortality rate [30.0% (45/150) vs (16.0% (24/150)); adjusted HR, 1.68 (1.01-2.80)] than preadmission non-insulin-treated T2DM patients. Compared with T2DM patients treated without insulin before and after ICU admission, preadmission insulin-treated T2DM patients had higher mortality and longer length of ICU stay (all < 0.05).

Conclusion: Preadmission insulin treatment was associated with increased mortality rate and longer length of ICU stay among T2DM patients in ICU. Preadmission insulin-treated T2DM patients might have worse clinical outcomes when they are critically ill.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/DMSO.S369152DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9325876PMC
July 2022

Urinary metabolites and handwipe phthalate levels among adults and children in southern China: Implication for dermal exposure.

J Hazard Mater 2022 Jul 19;439:129639. Epub 2022 Jul 19.

Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Joint Laboratory for Contaminants Exposure and Health, Guangdong Key Laboratory of Environmental Catalysis and Health Risk Control, Institute of Environmental Health and Pollution Control, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006, China.

Paired handwipe and urine samples were collected from adult (n = 130) and child (n = 82) residents of a typical urban community in southern China to examine relationships between external and internal exposure as well as the contribution of dermal absorption to the exposure of phthalates. The concentrations and composition profiles of phthalates were similar in handwipes from both adults and children, and contained mainly di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP) and di-iso-butyl phthalate (DiBP), consistent with profiles of phthalates in air and dust. The major metabolites of these phthalates, i.e., mono-n-butyl phthalate (mnBP) from DnBP, mono-iso-butyl phthalate (miBP) from DiBP and three metabolites of DEHP (namely mEHP, mEHHP and mEOHP) were widely detected in paired urine samples. Positive correlations were found between contamination levels of DiBP and DnBP in handwipes and their corresponding urinary metabolites, whereas no significant correlation was observed for DEHP. This suggests that dermal absorption might be an important exposure pathway particularly for low molecular weight phthalates. Our study shows that dermal absorption is a non-negligible exposure pathway for phthalates, to which children are particularly sensitive since the contribution of dermal uptake to the internal exposure of phthalates was higher in children than adults.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2022.129639DOI Listing
July 2022

Epigenetic control of mitochondrial fission enables hepatic stellate cells activation in liver fibrosis via PGC-1α-Drp1 pathway.

Mitochondrion 2022 Jul 26;66:38-50. Epub 2022 Jul 26.

First Affiliated Hospital, Anhui University of Science & Technology, Huainan 232001, China. Electronic address:

Although excessive mitochondrial fission is linked to cell activation, its significance in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) activation and liver fibrosis is unknown. Here we show that excessive mitochondrial fission triggers HSCs activation and liver fibrosis degradation by the epigenetic regulation. We used a combination of in vitro and in vivo models including HSCs, clinical cases, and CCl-induced liver fibrosis mice to investigate the regulation and function of mitochondrial fission in HSCs activation and liver fibrosis. Herein, we show that DNMT3A and Drp1 is up regulated in fibrosis livers and mice liver fibrosis tissues, while PGC-1α was decreased. Interestingly, down expression of DNMT3A substantially reduced Drp1 levels, collagen accumulation, and interstitial fibrosis, while significantly increased PGC-1α levels. Furthermore, silencing DNMT3A remarkably inhibits HSCs activation and mitochondrial fission both in vivo and in vitro. Mechanistically, co-immunoprecipitation analysis revealed that DNMT3A bound to pull down the protein of PGC-1α. These findings indicated that epigenetic control of mitochondrial fission enables HSCs activation in liver fibrosis via PGC-1α-Drp1 pathway, and provide new insight into the relationship between mitochondrial fission and liver fibrosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mito.2022.07.005DOI Listing
July 2022

X-Ray Cephalometric Analysis of the Effects of Angle Class II and III Malocclusion on the Upper Airway Width and Hyoid Position between Parents and Children of Uygur Nationality.

Comput Math Methods Med 2022 19;2022:2531419. Epub 2022 Jul 19.

Department of Stomatology, People's Hospital of Bayinguleng Mongolian Autonomous Prefecture, Kuerla, Xinjiang 841000, China.

Objective: The objective of this paper is to analyze the effect of angle class II and III malocclusion on the sagittal diameter of the upper airway between parents and children of Uygur nationality and to compare the degree of influence.

Methods: 29 Uygur adolescents with malocclusion and their fathers (mothers) were selected as our subjects via X-ray cephalometric radiograph to analyze the difference between the upper airway sagittal dimension and normal occlusion and compare the influence of malocclusion on the upper airway between parents and children.

Results: Compared with normal group, the vertical distance from the hyoid point to orbital-ear plane (H-FH) and vertical distance from hyoid point to the mandibular plane (H-MP) in angle class II malocclusion elevated signally, while the vertical distance from hyoid point to anterior cervical plane (H-VL), PNS-UPW, H-FH, and H-MP decreased significantly; compared with normal group: the distance between the posterior nasal spine and the upper pharynx wall (PNS-UPW), H-FH, and H-MP in angle class III malocclusion visually reduced, while PAS, and horizontal distance from the hyoid point and center point of sella turcica to orbital-ear foot (H-S), increased markedly. The impact of class II malocclusion on parents' U-MPM was greater than their children.

Conclusion: The oropharyngeal space of upper airway becomes smaller and hyoid shifts downwards due to class II malocclusion. Class III malocclusion results in decreased nasopharyngeal gap with hyoid to shift upward. The influence of class II malocclusion on the upper pharyngeal tract of parents was greater than their children.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2022/2531419DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9325337PMC
August 2022

Altered Expressions of Transfer RNA-Derived Small RNAs and microRNAs in the Vitreous Humor of Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2022 12;13:913370. Epub 2022 Jul 12.

Department of Ophthalmology, The Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha, China.

Purpose: We sought to reveal the expression profiles of transfer RNA-derived small RNAs (tsRNAs) and microRNAs (miRNAs) in the vitreous humor of patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR).

Methods: Vitreous humor samples were obtained from PDR patients and a control group for this study. Sequencing of small RNAs was conducted to assess the expression profiles of tsRNAs and miRNAs in both groups, which was followed by validation using reverse transcription-quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). Bioinformatics analyses were conducted to predict the target genes and their potential biological functions and signaling pathways.

Results: A total of 37 tsRNAs and 70 miRNAs with significant differences were screened out from the vitreous humor samples of PDR patients compared to controls. Following validation by RT-qPCR, the target genes of the validated tsRNAs and miRNAs were predicted, and Gene Ontology analysis indicated that the target genes of the tsRNAs were most enriched in the cellular macromolecule metabolic process, cytoplasm, and ion-binding, while those of the miRNAs were most abundant in the regulation of major metabolic process, cytoplasm, and protein-binding. In addition, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analysis showed that the target genes of said tsRNAs and miRNAs were most enriched in the adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase signaling pathway and Th17 cell differentiation, respectively.

Conclusions: The present study identified altered tsRNAs and miRNAs in vitreous humor samples of PDR patients, which may play important roles in the pathogenesis of PDR and could be considered potential therapeutic targets in the treatment of PDR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2022.913370DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9315217PMC
July 2022

Clinical characteristics of hospitalized term and preterm infants with community-acquired viral pneumonia.

BMC Pediatr 2022 07 27;22(1):452. Epub 2022 Jul 27.

Institute of Pediatric Research, Children's Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou, China.

Background: Pneumonia is a serious problem that threatens the health of newborns. This study aimed to investigate the clinical characteristics of hospitalized term and preterm infants with community-acquired viral pneumonia.

Methods: This was a retrospective analysis of cases of community-acquired viral pneumonia in the Neonatal Department. Nasopharyngeal aspirate (NPA) samples were collected for pathogen detection, and clinical data were collected. We analysed pathogenic species and clinical characteristics among these infants.

Results: RSV is the main virus in term infants, and parainfluenza virus (PIV) 3 is the main virus in preterm infants. Patients infected with PIV3 were more susceptible to coinfection with bacteria than those with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection (p < 0.05). Preterm infants infected with PIV3 were more likely to be coinfected with bacteria than term infants (p < 0.05), mainly gram-negative bacteria (especially Klebsiella pneumonia). Term infants with bacterial infection were more prone to fever, cyanosis, moist rales, three concave signs, elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) levels, respiratory failure and the need for higher level of oxygen support and mechanical ventilation than those with simple viral infection (p < 0.05). The incidence of hyponatremia in neonatal community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) was high.

Conclusions: RSV and PIV3 were the leading causes of neonatal viral CAP. PIV3 infection is the main cause of viral CAP in preterm infants, and these individuals are more likely to be coinfected with bacteria than term infants, mainly gram-negative bacteria. Term infants with CAP coinfected with bacteria were more likely to have greater disease severity than those with single viral infections.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12887-022-03508-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9325944PMC
July 2022

Gut Microbially Produced Indole-3-Propionic Acid Inhibits Atherosclerosis by Promoting Reverse Cholesterol Transport and Its Deficiency Is Causally Related to Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease.

Circ Res 2022 Jul 27:101161CIRCRESAHA122321253. Epub 2022 Jul 27.

Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University (Northern Campus), Guangzhou, China (H.X., Y.Y., W.L.).

Background: Accumulating evidence has shown that disorders in the gut microbiota and derived metabolites affect the development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). However, which and how specific gut microbial metabolites contribute to the progression of atherosclerosis and the clinical relevance of their alterations remain unclear.

Methods: We performed integrated microbiome-metabolome analysis of 30 patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and 30 age- and sex-matched healthy controls to identify CAD-associated microbial metabolites, which were then assessed in an independent population of patients with ASCVD and controls (n=256). We further investigate the effect of CAD-associated microbial metabolites on atherosclerosis and the mechanisms of the action.

Results: Indole-3-propionic acid (IPA), a solely microbially derived tryptophan metabolite, was the most downregulated metabolite in patients with CAD. Circulating IPA was then shown in an independent population to be associated with risk of prevalent ASCVD and correlated with the ASCVD severity. Dietary IPA supplementation alleviates atherosclerotic plaque development in ApoE mice. In murine- and human-derived macrophages, administration of IPA promoted cholesterol efflux from macrophages to ApoA-I through an undescribed miR-142-5p/ABCA1 (ATP-binding cassette transporter A1) signaling pathway. Further in vivo studies demonstrated that IPA facilitates macrophage reverse cholesterol transport, correlating with the regulation of miR-142-5p/ABCA1 pathway, whereas reduced IPA production contributed to the aberrant overexpression of miR-142-5p in macrophages and accelerated the progression of atherosclerosis. Moreover, the miR-142-5p/ABCA1/reverse cholesterol transport axis in macrophages were dysregulated in patients with CAD, and correlated with the changes in circulating IPA levels.

Conclusions: Our study identify a previously unknown link between specific gut microbiota-derived tryptophan metabolite and ASCVD. The microbial metabolite IPA/miR-142-5p/ABCA1 pathway may represent a promising therapeutic target for ASCVD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.122.321253DOI Listing
July 2022

A Neural Sensor with a Nanocomposite Interface for the Study of Spike Characteristics of Hippocampal Neurons under Learning Training.

Biosensors (Basel) 2022 Jul 21;12(7). Epub 2022 Jul 21.

State Key Laboratory of Transducer Technology, Aerospace Information Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China.

Both the cellular- and population-level properties of involved neurons are essential for unveiling the learning and memory functions of the brain. To give equal attention to these two aspects, neural sensors based on microelectrode arrays (MEAs) have been in the limelight due to their noninvasive detection and regulation capabilities. Here, we fabricated a neural sensor using carboxylated graphene/3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene:polystyrenesulfonate (cGO/PEDOT:PSS), which is effective in sensing and monitoring neuronal electrophysiological activity in vitro for a long time. The cGO/PEDOT:PSS-modified microelectrodes exhibited a lower electrochemical impedance (7.26 ± 0.29 kΩ), higher charge storage capacity (7.53 ± 0.34 mC/cm), and improved charge injection (3.11 ± 0.25 mC/cm). In addition, their performance was maintained after 2 to 4 weeks of long-term cell culture and 50,000 stimulation pulses. During neural network training, the sensors were able to induce learning function in hippocampal neurons through precise electrical stimulation and simultaneously detect changes in neural activity at multiple levels. At the cellular level, not only were three kinds of transient responses to electrical stimulation sensed, but electrical stimulation was also found to affect inhibitory neurons more than excitatory neurons. As for the population level, changes in connectivity and firing synchrony were identified. The cGO/PEDOT:PSS-based neural sensor offers an excellent tool in brain function development and neurological disease treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/bios12070546DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9312960PMC
July 2022

Effects of Coenzyme Q10 Supplementation on Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress in Adults: A GRADE-Assessed Systematic Review and Updated Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

Antioxidants (Basel) 2022 Jul 13;11(7). Epub 2022 Jul 13.

School of Public Health (Shenzhen), Shenzhen Campus of Sun Yat-sen University, Sun Yat-sen University, Shenzhen 518107, China.

Evidence shows that exogenous CoQ10 supplementation may potentially attenuate oxidative stress status. However, its effective dose and evidence certainty require further evaluation in the general population via more updated randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Databases (PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Library) were searched up to 30 March 2022. Evidence certainty was assessed using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. Thirty-four RCTs containing 2012 participants were included in this review. Pooled effects of significant increase in total antioxidant capacity (TAC) (standardized mean difference: 1.83, 95%CI: [1.07, 2.59], < 0.001) and significant reduction in malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations (-0.77, [-1.06, -0.47], < 0.001) were shown after CoQ10 supplementation compared to placebo. However, we could not determine that there was a significant increase in circulating superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels yet (0.47, [0.00, 0.94], = 0.05). Subgroup analyses implied that CoQ10 supplementation was more beneficial to people with coronary artery disease or type 2 diabetes. Additionally, taking 100-150 mg/day CoQ10 supplement had better benefits for the levels of TAC, MDA and SOD (all < 0.01). These results to a statistically significant extent lent support to the efficacy and optimal dose of CoQ10 supplementation on attenuating oxidative stress status in adults.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/antiox11071360DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9311997PMC
July 2022

Exosomes Derived from Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells Promote Angiogenesis in Ischemic Stroke Mice via Upregulation of MiR-21-5p.

Biomolecules 2022 06 24;12(7). Epub 2022 Jun 24.

Department of Physiology, Zhejiang Chinese Medical University, Hangzhou 310053, China.

Exosomes derived from bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSC-Exos) are one of the main factors responsible for the therapeutic effects of BMSCs. The study aimed to investigate whether BMSC-Exos could promote angiogenesis in ischemic stroke mice via miR-21-5p. In ischemic stroke mice, the therapeutic effects of BMSC-Exos were evaluated by neurological functions and infarct volume. Microvessel density was detected by BrdU/vWF immunofluorescence staining. In in vitro experiments, the proangiogenic effects of BMSC-Exos were assessed via proliferation, migration, and tube formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). The miR-21-5p inhibitor was transfected into BMSCs using Lipofectamine 2000. miR-21-5p expression was detected by qRT-PCR. The expression levels of VEGF, VEGFR2, Ang-1, and Tie-2 were determined by Western blot. BMSC-Exos significantly improved neurological functions and reduced infarct volume, upregulated microvessel density, and miR-21-5p expression after cerebral ischemia. In vitro assays revealed that BMSC-Exos enhanced HUVECs functions including proliferation, migration, and tube formation. BMSC-Exos increased the expression levels of VEGF, VEGFR2, Ang-1, and Tie-2. However, the proangiogenic effects of BMSC-Exos on HUVECs were reversed by the miR-21-5p inhibitor. These results suggest that BMSC-Exos could promote angiogenesis via miR-21-5p upregulation, making them an attractive treatment strategy for stroke recovery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biom12070883DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9313463PMC
June 2022

Inulin-type fructans change the gut microbiota and prevent the development of diabetic nephropathy.

Pharmacol Res 2022 Jul 23;183:106367. Epub 2022 Jul 23.

Division of Endocrinology and Department of Internal Medicine, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430030, China. Electronic address:

Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is the most common cause of end-stage renal disease, and few treatment options that prevent the progressive loss of renal function are available. Studies have shown that dietary fiber intake improves kidney diseases and metabolism-related diseases, most likely through short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). The present study aimed to examine the protective effects of inulin-type fructans (ITFs) on DN through 16 S rRNA gene sequencing, gas chromatographymass spectrometry (GCMS) analysis and fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT). The results showed that ITFs supplementation protected against kidney damage in db/db mice and regulated the composition of the gut microbiota. Antibiotic treatment and FMT experiments further demonstrated a key role of the gut microbiota in mediating the beneficial effects of ITFs. The ITFs treatment-induced changes in the gut microbiota led to an enrichment of SCFA-producing bacteria, especially the genera Akkermansia and Candidatus Saccharimonas, which increased the fecal and serum acetate concentrations. Subsequently, acetate supplementation improved glomerular damage and renal fibrosis by attenuating mitochondrial dysfunction and reducing toxic glucose metabolite levels. In conclusion, ITFs play a renoprotective role by modulating the gut microbiota and increasing acetate production. Furthermore, acetate mediates renal protection by regulating glucose metabolism, decreasing glycotoxic product levels and improving mitochondrial function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phrs.2022.106367DOI Listing
July 2022

LaeA regulates morphological development and ochratoxin A biosynthesis in Aspergillus niger.

Mycotoxin Res 2022 Jul 26. Epub 2022 Jul 26.

College of Biotechnology, Tianjin University of Science and Technology, Tianjin, 300457, China.

The global regulator LaeA and its orthologs govern the morphogenetic development and secondary metabolism of several filamentous ascomycetes. In Aspergillus niger, it has been shown that an LaeA ortholog (AnLaeA) regulates the production of citric acid and secondary metabolites. In this work, we constructed AnlaeA disruption and overexpression strains to investigate the roles of AnLaeA in morphological development and ochratoxin A (OTA) biosynthesis in A. niger. Phenotypic observation, chemical analysis, and gene expression analysis indicated that AnLaeA acts as a negative regulator of conidial morphogenesis and positively regulates gene expression of the OTA cluster in A. niger grown in CYA medium. However, it was observed that the upregulation of gene expression of the OTA cluster does not necessarily increase OTA production. Our results contribute to a better understanding of the AnlaeA regulatory mechanism and suggest the AnlaeA gene as a potential target for developing control strategies for A. niger infection and OTA biosynthesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12550-022-00463-1DOI Listing
July 2022

Neuroprotective Effects of Estrogen Through BDNF-Transient Receptor Potential Channels 6 Signaling Pathway in the Hippocampus in a Rat Model of Perimenopausal Depression.

Front Aging Neurosci 2022 8;14:869274. Epub 2022 Jul 8.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Guangzhou Women and Children's Medical Center, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, China.

Estradiol (E) has been proven to be effective in treating perimenopausal depression (PD); however, the downstream signaling pathways have not been fully elucidated. Transient receptor potential channels 6 (TRPC6) plays a vital role in promoting neuronal development and the formation of excitatory synapses. At present, we found that the serum levels of E and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) declined significantly in the women with PD compared to perimenopausal women, which was accompanied by a clear reduction in TRPC6 levels. To further reveal the effects of TRPC6 on neuronal survival and excitability, the PD-like rat model was established by the total removal of left ovary and 80% removal of right ovary followed by 21 days of the chronic unpredictable mild stress. Intragastric administration of E (2 mg/kg), intraperitoneal injection of BDNF/TrB signaling pathway inhibitor (K252a, 100 μg/kg) and TRPC6 agonist (OAG, 0.6 mg/kg), and intracerebroventricular infusion of anti-BDNF antibody for blocking BDNF (0.5 μg/24 μl/rat) daily for 21 days were conducted. The levels of BDNF and TRPC6 in rat serum were lower in PD rats compared to the control rats; the depression-like behavior was induced, the neuronal death rate in the hippocampus increased, and the thickness of postsynaptic density (PSD) and the number of asymmetric synapses decreased significantly in the PD group. E treatment greatly upregulated the serum levels of BDNF and TRPC6, the neuronal excitability indicated by an elevation in the PSD thickness and the numbers of asymmetric synapses, and these actions were reversed by K252a; co-administration of TRPC6 agonist and K252a improved neuronal degeneration and increased the neuronal excitability induced in the E-treated PD rats. K252a or anti-BDNF antibody inhibited the increased neuronal BDNF and TRPC6 expression in E-treated PD rats; co-treatment of TRPC6 agonist and anti-BDNF antibody reduced neuronal death and increased the BDNF and TRPC6 expression in the hippocampal CA1 neurons in the E-treated PD rats. These results suggest that the neuroprotective role of E in PD is closely related to enhance the activity of BDNF/TRPC6 pathway and is helpful to provide new prevention and strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnagi.2022.869274DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9305198PMC
July 2022

Identification of a Novel Nonsense Mutation in and Prenatal Diagnosis in a Chinese Family With Infantile Neuroaxonal Dystrophy.

Front Neurol 2022 6;13:904027. Epub 2022 Jul 6.

Department of Medical Genetics, Jiangxi Maternal and Child Health Hospital, Nanchang, China.

Background And Purpose: Infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy (INAD) is a subtype of PLA2G6-Associated Neurodegeneration (PLAN) with an age of early onset and severe clinical phenotypes of neurodegeneration. Individuals affected with INAD are characterized by rapid progressive psychomotor deterioration, neuroregression, and hypotonia followed by generalized spasticity, optic atrophy, and dementia. In this case, we aimed to identify the underlying causative genetic factors of a Chinese family with two siblings who presented with walking difficulty and inability to speak. We provided a prenatal diagnosis for the family and information for the prevention of this genetic disease.

Methods: Retrospective clinical information and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of the proband were collected. Trio-whole exome sequencing (WES) including the proband and his parents was performed to explore the genetic causes, while Sanger sequencing was subsequently used to validate the variants identified by Trio-WES in the pedigree. Furthermore, prenatal molecular genetic diagnosis was carried out through amniocentesis to investigate the status of pathogenic mutations in the fetus by Sanger sequencing at an appropriate gestational age.

Results: The two siblings were both clinically diagnosed with rapid regression in psychomotor development milestones. Brain MRI showed cerebellar atrophy and typical bilaterally symmetrical T2/FLAIR hyperintense signal changes in periventricular areas, indicating periventricular leukomalacia, and myelin sheath dysplasia. Trio-WES revealed two heterozygous variants in associated with clinical manifestations in the proband: a novel maternally inherited variant c.217C>T (p.Gln73) and a previously reported paternally inherited recurrent pathogenic variant c.1894C>T (p.Arg632Trp). These two heterozygous mutations were also detected in the younger brother who had similar clinical features as the proband. The novel variant c.217C>T was classified as "pathogenic (PVS1 + PM2 + PP3)," while the variant c.1894C>T was "pathogenic" (PS1 + PM1 + PM2 + PM3 + PP3) based on the latest American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG) guidelines on sequence variants. Combining the molecular evidence and clinical phenotypes, the diagnosis of INAD was established for the two affected siblings. The two variants that were identified were considered the causative mutations for INAD in this family. Prenatal diagnosis suggested compound heterozygous mutations of c.217C>T and c.1894C>T in the fetus, indicating a high risk of INAD, and the parents chose to terminate the pregnancy.

Conclusion: We identified a novel pathogenic mutation that broadens the mutation spectrum of and will provide clues for the molecular diagnosis of INAD. Furthermore, our study has helped to elucidate the causative genetic factors of this Chinese family with INAD effectively and efficiently by using the emerging Trio-WES strategy and providing precise genetic counseling for this family.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2022.904027DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9298276PMC
July 2022

Effects of black carbon aerosol on air quality and vertical meteorological factors in early summer in Beijing.

Sci Total Environ 2022 Jul 21;847:157529. Epub 2022 Jul 21.

School of Earth and Space Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, China.

Black carbon (BC) aerosols have effects on the atmospheric thermal vertical structure due to its radiation absorption characteristics, hereby influencing the boundary layer characteristics and pollutant diffusion. This study focuses on the BC effects under different atmospheric conditions on air quality and vertical meteorological conditions. Four days flight observation combined with surface wind profiler radar data were used to investigate the vertical profiles of BC and wind speed over Beijing urban area in early summer. The vertical profiles of BC concentration and wind speed in the boundary layer had a negative correlation, both having abrupt changes near the boundary layer height under stagnant weather conditions. The chemical transport model showed the increase of BC under stagnant conditions could cause aggravation of the stability of the boundary layer, thereby increasing the accumulation of pollutants. In particular, BC leads to the changes in the temperature profile, which will modify relative humidity and indirectly lead to the changes in the vertical profile of aerosol optical properties. However, if the early accumulation of BC was absent under more turbulent conditions, the effects of BC on air quality and meteorological conditions were limited.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2022.157529DOI Listing
July 2022

Effects of dicyandiamide, phosphogypsum and superphosphate on greenhouse gas emissions during pig manure composting.

Sci Total Environ 2022 Jul 20;846:157487. Epub 2022 Jul 20.

Beijing Key Laboratory of Farmland Soil Pollution Prevention and Remediation, College of Resources and Environmental Science, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China; Organic Recycling Institute (Suzhou) of China Agricultural University, Wuzhong District, Suzhou 215128, China. Electronic address:

This study investigated the effects of dicyandiamide, phosphogypsum and superphosphate on greenhouse gas emissions and compost maturity during pig manure composting. The results indicated that the addition of dicyandiamide and phosphorus additives had no negative effect on organic matter degradation, and could improve the compost maturity. Adding dicyandiamide alone reduced the emissions of ammonia (NH), methane (CH) and nitrous oxide (NO) by 9.37 %, 9.60 % and 31.79 %, respectively, which was attributed that dicyandiamide effectively inhibited nitrification to reduce the formation of NO. Dicyandiamide combined with phosphogypsum or superphosphate could enhance mitigation of the total greenhouse gas (29.55 %-37.46 %) and NH emission (18.28 %-21.48 %), which was mainly due to lower pH value and phosphoric acid composition. The combination of dicyandiamide and phosphogypsum exhibited the most pronounced emission reduction effect, simultaneously decreasing the NH, CH and NO emissions by 18.28 %, 38.58 % and 36.14 %, respectively. The temperature and C/N content of the compost were significantly positively correlated with greenhouse gas emissions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2022.157487DOI Listing
July 2022

Tracking microplastics biodegradation through CO emission: Role of photoaging and mineral addition.

J Hazard Mater 2022 Jul 15;439:129615. Epub 2022 Jul 15.

Stockbridge School of Agriculture, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003, USA.

Once microplastics (MPs) enter the terrestrial ecosystem, they may affect the assessment of soil carbon storage and the fluxes of greenhouse gases. This study showed microbial incubation diminished the size and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) content of MPs and introduced more oxygen-containing functional groups to MPs potentially through microbial colonization. The aged MPs generally showed higher carbon mineralization ratio (0.010-0.876 %) than the pristine MPs (0.007-0.189 %), which was supported by their higher enzyme activities and DOC content. Interestingly, four model minerals increased the DOC release and CO emission from MPs by altering MPs physicochemical properties and shaping the habitat for microbial growth. The higher enzyme activities in mineral artificial soils, except for montmorillonite, served as a potential valid explanation for their higher mineralization. The high CO emission but low enzyme activity in montmorillonite artificial soil was due to most DOC being already mineralized. Aging and minerals altered the microflora and enhanced the expression of some C metabolism- and N-related functional genes, which supplemented the cause of higher CO and NO emissions from the corresponding artificial soils. Overall, the increased biomineralization of MPs carbon by minerals was divergent from the protective role of minerals on soil organic carbon.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2022.129615DOI Listing
July 2022

Associations between congenital heart disease and air pollutants at different gestational weeks: a time-series analysis.

Environ Geochem Health 2022 Jul 23. Epub 2022 Jul 23.

Center for Reproductive Health and birth defects at Lanzhou University, Basic Medical College, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, 730000, Gansu, People's Republic of China.

Exposure to air pollution during pregnancy has been linked to birth defects. But the directions of studies on the associations between air pollutants exposure and effect on the incidence of congenital heart disease (CHDs) were inconsistent. To date, few studies were concentrated on the effects of both particulate matter and gaseous air pollutant exposure on CHDs across the full gestational week simultaneously. Our study aimed to investigate the critical exposure windows for each air pollutant throughout 40 gestational weeks. Data on CHDs, air pollution, and meteorological factors from 2013 to 2019 were collected in Lanzhou, China. A distributed lag nonlinear model combined with a quasi-Poisson regression model was applied to evaluate the weekly exposure-lag-response association between air pollutants levels and CHDs, and the subgroup analyses were conducted by gender (baby boy and baby girl). The study included 1607 mother-infant pairs. The results demonstrated that exposure of pregnant women to particulate matter ≤ 5 μm (PM) at lag 1-4 weeks was significantly associated with the risk of CHDs, and the strongest effects were observed in the lag 1 week (1.150, 95%CI 1.059-1.248). For exposure to particulate matter ≤ 10 μm (PM) at lag 1-3 weeks, the strongest effects were observed in the lag 1 week (1.075, 95% CI 1.026-1.128). For exposure to sulfur dioxide (SO) at lag 1-4 weeks, the strongest effects were observed in the lag 1 week (1.154, 95% CI 1.025-1.299). For exposure to carbon monoxide (CO) at lag 1-3 weeks, the strongest effects were observed in the lag 1 week (1.089, 95% CI 1.002-1.183). For exposure to ozone (O) concentration at lag 9-15 weeks, the strongest effects were observed in the lag 15 weeks (1.628, 95% CI 1.001-2.649). The cumulative effects of PM, PM, SO, and CO along weeks with a maximum of 1.609 (95%CI 1.000-2.589), 1.286 (95%CI 1.007-1.641), 1.648 (95%CI 1.018-2.668), and 1.368 (95%CI 1.003, 1.865), respectively. The effects were obvious in the initial gestational weeks too. Through the gender stratification analysis, the air pollutants with significant effects were PM for baby boys and PM, PM, SO, CO, NO, and O for baby girl. For the relationship between CHDs and air pollution in Lanzhou, PM, PM, SO, CO, and O played an important role in the initial gestational weeks, especially for baby girl.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10653-022-01315-8DOI Listing
July 2022

Synergistic effect of reduced graphene oxide/carbon nanotube hybrid papers on cross-plane thermal and mechanical properties.

RSC Adv 2022 Jun 30;12(30):19144-19153. Epub 2022 Jun 30.

College of Materials Science and Technology, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Materials and Technology for Energy Conversion, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics Nanjing 210016 PR China

Graphene paper has attracted great attention as a heat dissipation material due to its excellent thermal conductivity and mechanical properties. However, the thermal conductivity of graphene paper in the normal direction is relatively poor. In this work, the cross-plane thermal conductivities ( ) and mechanical properties of the reduced graphene oxide/carbon nanotube papers with different CNT loadings were studied systematically. It was found that the decreased from 0.0393 W m K for 0 wt% paper to 0.0250 W m K for 3 wt% paper, and then increased to 0.1199 W m K for 20 wt% paper. The papers demonstrated a maximum elastic modulus of 6.1 GPa with 10 wt% CNT loading. The CNTs acted as scaffolds to restrain the graphene sheets from corrugating and to reinforce the mechanical properties of the hybrid papers. The more CNTs that filled the gaps between graphene sheets, the greater the number of channels of the transmission of phonons and the looser the structure in the cross-plane direction. Further mechanism analysis revealed the synergistic effects of CNT loadings and graphene sheets on enhancing the thermal and mechanical performance of the papers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d2ra01723gDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9246462PMC
June 2022

Age- and sex-specific dermal exposure of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the general population of a city in south China.

Environ Pollut 2022 Jul 18;310:119802. Epub 2022 Jul 18.

State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Environmental Protection and Resources Utilization, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou, 510640, China; Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Joint Laboratory for Environmental Pollution and Control, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640, China.

This study assessed the dermal exposure of population to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in a South China city. Skin wipe samples of the face, hand, forearm, and shank were collected from 120 volunteers (50% male and 50% female) belonging to different age groups (preschooler, thresholder, middle-aged, and elderly). Concentrations of PAHs in the skin wipe samples varied from 18 to 27000 ng/m in the order of face > hand > forearm > shank, regardless of age and gender. The PAH concentrations of bare skin locations were significantly higher in females than in males, while no significant differences were observed for clothing-covered skin locations between genders. The PAH concentrations for faces were significantly higher in the elderly compared to the other groups. The PAH composition was distinct between the four age groups. The dermal exposure levels of total PAHs and total BaP equivalent concentration (BaP) varied from 25.6 to 620 and 0.093-37.4 ng/kg body weight/d, respectively. The dermal exposure levels of total PAHs were significantly higher in females than in males in all age groups except for the middle-aged group. The hand-mouth exposure doses were significantly higher in the preschoolers than in the other age groups. The values of the carcinogenic risk caused by dermal PAH exposure were between 3.5 × 10 and 1.4 × 10 with 29% of the population (35/120) having risk values exceeding significant levels (1 × 10). The thresholder group exhibited the highest risk for PAH dermal exposure among all groups of the population. This study provides a comprehensive evaluation of the age- and gender-related risk of PAH through dermal exposure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2022.119802DOI Listing
July 2022

Change in Oxidative Stress and Mitochondrial Dynamics in Response to Elevated Cold-Inducible RNA-Binding Protein in Cardiac Surgery-Associated Acute Kidney Injury.

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2022 9;2022:3576892. Epub 2022 Jul 9.

Department of Blood Purification, First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, Shaanxi, China.

Cardiac surgery-associated acute kidney injury (CSA-AKI) is a common yet serious complication that is closely related to cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Extracellular cold-inducible RNA-binding protein (eCIRP) can mediate aseptic inflammation and trigger intracellular oxidative stress. In the present study, expression of serum CIRP was significantly elevated post-CPB (785.0 ± 640.5 pg/mL vs. 149.5 ± 289.1 pg/mL, < 0.001) and was positively correlated with CPB duration ( = 0.502, < 0.001). Patients with high expression of CIRP had higher risks of postoperative AKI than patients with low CIRP expression (OR: 1.67, 95% CI 1.04-2.68). In a rat CPB model, the serum CIRP concentration increased significantly after CPB. Similarly, the levels of Scr and BUN significantly increased 4 hours after CPB. KIM-1 and NGAL mRNA levels in the CPB group were 8.2 and 4.3 times higher than the sham group, respectively. In addition, the levels of inflammatory cell infiltration, oxidative stress, and apoptosis in the renal tissue of the CPB group were significantly higher compared to the sham group. The expression levels of serum inflammatory factors at 4 hours post-CPB were also increased. Administration of recombinant human CIRP protein promoted the expression of NADPH oxidase via the TLR-4/MyD88 pathway, aggravated intracellular oxidative stress, mediated mitochondrial dynamics disorder, and eventually increased apoptosis in HK-2 cells. However, the CIRP inhibitor C23 improved the CIRP-mediated oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in both rat and cell models. In summary, elevated CIRP could mediate oxidative stress and mitochondrial dynamics in the kidney to promote CSA-AKI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2022/3576892DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9288297PMC
July 2022
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