Publications by authors named "Yan Yan"

1,730 Publications

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Efficacy and Safety of Intra-Articular Platelet-Rich Plasma in Osteoarthritis Knee: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Biomed Res Int 2021 30;2021:2191926. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Beijing Key Lab Immune-Mediated Inflammatory Diseases, China-Japan Friendship Hospital, Beijing 100029, China.

Background: Knee osteoarthritis (KOA) is a common disease in aged adults. Intra-articular (IA) injection of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) therapy is an effective minimally invasive treatment for KOA. We aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) with placebo or other conservative treatments.

Methods: We conducted a meta-analysis to identify relevant articles from online register databases such as PubMed, Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Library. The primary outcomes were the visual analogue scale (VAS) score, Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC) score, and International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) subjective score. The secondary outcome was the adverse event rate.

Results: A total of 895 articles were identified, of which 23 randomized controlled trials that met the inclusion criteria were determined as eligible. Compared with placebo, PRP had a lower VAS score and higher IKDC subjective score at the 6 month after treatment and significantly less WOMAC score during the follow-up period. Compared with oral NSAIDs, PRP gained a lower WOMAC score at the 6 month after treatment. The VAS score decreased after treatment when reaching PRP and CS. As compared to the HA, the VAS score, WOMAC score, and IKDC subjective score all revealed better PRP results. There were no significant differences in adverse event rates comparing PRP versus placebo or HA. Different PRP applications did not show significant differences in VAS score in the 1 month and WOMAC score in the 3 month after treatment.

Conclusion: To compare with the conservative treatments mentioned above, PRP is more effective in relieving symptoms. There were no significant differences between triple PRP application and single PRP application in short-term curative effect.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/2191926DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8294028PMC
April 2021

Comparative study of three types of mesenchymal stem cell to differentiate into pancreatic β-like cells .

Exp Ther Med 2021 Sep 1;22(3):936. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Engineering Research Center of Cell and Therapeutic Antibody, Ministry of Education, School of Pharmacy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, P.R. China.

Type 1 diabetes (TID) is a chronic metabolic disease where the body produces insufficient or no insulin. Stem cells with multi-directional differentiation potential are transplanted and differentiate into β-like cells to replace pancreatic β cells, which has become a novel treatment strategy. The aim of the present study was to investigate the ability of three types of adult mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) to differentiate into pancreatic β-like cells in order to identify suitable sources for the treatment of diabetes. The three MSC types were menstrual blood-derived MSCs (MENSCs), umbilical cord-derived MSCs (UCMSCs) and dental pulp MSCs (DPSCs). The differentiation method used in the present study was divided into three steps and the MSCs were differentiated into pancreatic β-like cells . Among these MSCs, MENSCs had a greater ability to differentiate into islet β-like cells , while UCMSCs and DPSCs exhibited a similar differentiation potency, which was relatively lower compared with that of MENSCs. The present results indicated that MENSCs may be a suitable cell source for the curative treatment of TID.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/etm.2021.10368DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8290435PMC
September 2021

The Sulfur Microbial Diet and Risk of Colorectal Cancer by Molecular Subtypes and Intratumoral Microbial Species in Adult Men.

Clin Transl Gastroenterol 2021 Aug 1;12(8):e00338. Epub 2021 Aug 1.

Clinical and Translational Epidemiology Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Introduction: We recently described the sulfur microbial diet, a pattern of intake associated with increased gut sulfur-metabolizing bacteria and incidence of distal colorectal cancer (CRC). We assessed whether this risk differed by CRC molecular subtypes or presence of intratumoral microbes involved in CRC pathogenesis (Fusobacterium nucleatum and Bifidobacterium spp.).

Methods: We performed Cox proportional hazards modeling to examine the association between the sulfur microbial diet and incidence of overall and distal CRC by molecular and microbial subtype in the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (1986-2012).

Results: We documented 1,264 incident CRC cases among 48,246 men, approximately 40% of whom had available tissue data. After accounting for multiple hypothesis testing, the relationship between the sulfur microbial diet and CRC incidence did not differ by subtype. However, there was a suggestion of an association by prostaglandin synthase 2 (PTGS2) status with a multivariable adjusted hazard ratio for highest vs lowest tertile of sulfur microbial diet scores of 1.31 (95% confidence interval: 0.99-1.74, Ptrend = 0.07, Pheterogeneity = 0.04) for PTGS2-high CRC. The association of the sulfur microbial diet with distal CRC seemed to differ by the presence of intratumoral Bifidobacterium spp. with an adjusted hazard ratio for highest vs lowest tertile of sulfur microbial diet scores of 1.65 (95% confidence interval: 1.14-2.39, Ptrend = 0.01, Pheterogeneity = 0.03) for Bifidobacterium-negative distal CRC. We observed no apparent heterogeneity by other tested molecular markers.

Discussion: Greater long-term adherence to the sulfur microbial diet could be associated with PTGS2-high and Bifidobacterium-negative distal CRC in men. Additional studies are needed to further characterize the role of gut microbial sulfur metabolism and CRC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14309/ctg.0000000000000338DOI Listing
August 2021

Gas-liquid mass transfer characteristics of aviation fuel scrubbing in an aircraft fuel tank.

Sci Rep 2021 Jul 29;11(1):15426. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

College of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Xi'an Polytechnic University, Xi'an, China.

Dissolved oxygen evolving from aviation fuel leads to an increase in the oxygen concentration in an inert aircraft fuel tank ullage that may increase the flammability of the tank. Aviation fuel scrubbing with nitrogen-enriched air (NEA) can largely reduce the amount of dissolved oxygen and counteract the adverse effect of oxygen evolution. The gas-liquid mass transfer characteristics of aviation fuel scrubbing are investigated using the computational fluid dynamics method, which is verified experimentally. The effects of the NEA bubble diameter, NEA superficial velocity and fuel load on oxygen transfer between NEA and aviation fuel are discussed. Findings from this work indicate that the descent rate of the average dissolved oxygen concentration, gas holdup distribution and volumetric mass transfer coefficient increase with increasing NEA superficial velocity but decrease with increasing bubble diameter and fuel load. When the bubble diameter varies from 1 to 4 mm, the maximum change of descent rate of dissolved oxygen concentration is 18.46%, the gas holdup is 8.73%, the oxygen volumetric mass transfer coefficient is 81.45%. When the NEA superficial velocities varies from 0.04 to 0.10 m/s, the maximum change of descent rate of dissolved oxygen concentration is 146.77%, the gas holdup is 77.14%, the oxygen volumetric mass transfer coefficient is 175.38%. When the fuel load varies from 35 to 80%, the maximum change of descent rate of dissolved oxygen concentration is 21.15%, the gas holdup is 49.54%, the oxygen volumetric mass transfer coefficient is 44.57%. These results provide a better understanding of the gas and liquid mass transfer characteristics of aviation fuel scrubbing in aircraft fuel tanks and can promote the optimal design of fuel scrubbing inerting systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-94786-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8322315PMC
July 2021

A single mutation attenuates both the transcription termination and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity of T7 RNA polymerase.

RNA Biol 2021 Jul 27:1-16. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Key Laboratory of Molecular Biophysics, the Ministry of Education, College of Life Science and Technology and Shenzhen College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei China.

Transcription termination is one of the least understood processes of gene expression. As the prototype model for transcription studies, the single-subunit T7 RNA polymerase (RNAP) is known to respond to two types of termination signals, but the mechanism underlying such termination, especially the specific elements of the polymerase involved, is still unclear, due to a lack of knowledge with respect to the structure of the termination complex. Here we applied phage-assisted continuous evolution to obtain variants of T7 RNAP that can bypass the typical class I T7 terminator with stem-loop structure. Through selection and characterization, we discovered a single mutation (S43Y) that significantly decreased the termination efficiency of T7 RNAP at all transcription terminators tested. Coincidently, the S43Y mutation almost eliminates the RNA-dependent RNAP (RdRp) activity of T7 RNAP without impeding the major DNA-dependent RNAP (DdRp) activity of the enzyme. S43 is located in a hinge region and regulates the transformation between transcription initiation and elongation of T7 RNAP. Steady-state kinetics analysis and an RNA binding assay indicate that the S43Y mutation increases the transcription efficiency while weakening RNA binding of the enzyme. As an enzymatic reagent for transcription, the T7 RNAP S43Y mutant reduces the undesired termination in run-off RNA synthesis and produces RNA with higher terminal homogeneity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15476286.2021.1954808DOI Listing
July 2021

Clinical effect of warm needle penetration in treating knee osteoarthritis.

Am J Transl Res 2021 15;13(6):6766-6771. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Xujiahui Community Health Service Center Shanghai, China.

Objective: Our aim was to explore the clinical effect of warm needle penetration in treating knee osteoarthritis.

Methods: We randomly divided 118 patients with knee osteoarthritis into the observation group (n=59) and the control group (n=59). The observation group was treated with warm needle penetration combined with western medicine therapy, and the control group was only given western medicine therapy. The clinical effective rate, Visual analogue scale pain score, knee joint score, Western Ontario and McMaster Universities osteoarthritis index and subjective satisfaction were observed and compared between the two groups.

Results: The clinical effective rate, knee joint score and subjective satisfaction rate were higher (all P<0.05), while the Visual analogue scale pain score and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities osteoarthritis indices score were lower in the observation group than in the control group (both P<0.05).

Conclusion: Warm needle penetration can ameliorate the efficiency of treatment, reduce pain, and improve the range of knee joint motion and subjective satisfaction of patients with knee osteoarthritis.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8290696PMC
June 2021

[Application of deep learning assisted electronic laryngoscope in diagnosis of laryngeal leukoplakia].

Lin Chung Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi 2021 May;35(5):464-467

In recent years, medical imaging technology and computer technology have made great progress. On the one hand, with the development and popularization of electronic laryngoscope, the image of electronic laryngoscope plays a very important role in the diagnosis of vocal cord lesions. On the other hand, deep learning algorithm,especially convolutional neural networkhas gradually become the first choice of medical image recognition since the foundation of deep learning algorithm. So far, deep learning algorithm has made great contributions in many disciplines. In this paper, the basic concept of deep learning, the current status of image recognition of vocal cord lesions, and the prospect of research based on deep learning in vocal cord image lesions recognition are reviewed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.13201/j.issn.2096-7993.2021.05.019DOI Listing
May 2021

Programmed PPAR-α downregulation induces inflammaging by suppressing fatty acid catabolism in monocytes.

iScience 2021 Jul 24;24(7):102766. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Medical Research Center, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan 450052, China.

Inflammaging is associated with an increased risk of chronic disease. Monocytes are the principal immune cells for the production of inflammatory cytokines and contribute to inflammaging in the elderly. However, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. Here, we found that monocytes from aged individuals contained high levels of lipid droplets (LDs), and this increase was correlated with impaired fatty acid oxidation. Downregulated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-α may be responsible for the pro-inflammatory phenotype of monocytes in aged individuals, as it was positively correlated with LD accumulation and increasing TNF-α concentration. Interestingly, interventions that result in PPAR-α upregulation, such as fenofibrate treatment, TNF-α neutralization, or calorie restriction, reversed the effect of aging on monocytes. Thus the downregulation of PPAR-α and LD levels in monocytes represents a novel biomarker for inflammaging. Furthermore, PPAR-α activation in the elderly may also alleviate long-term inflammaging, preventing the development of life-limiting chronic diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.isci.2021.102766DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8273418PMC
July 2021

Choroidal shift in myopic eyes in the 10-year follow-up Beijing eye study.

Sci Rep 2021 Jul 19;11(1):14658. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Beijing Institute of Ophthalmology, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Beijing Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences Key Laboratory, Capital Medical University, 1 Dongjiaomin Lane, Beijing, 100730, China.

The aim of the study was to assess longitudinal changes in the spatial relationship of the choroidal vasculature to retinal vasculature in myopic eyes. In the population-based longitudinal Beijing Eye Study in 2001/2011, we examined all highly myopic eyes with assessable fundus photographs and a randomized group of non-highly myopic. Using fundus photographs, we qualitatively assessed changes in the location of major choroidal vessels in relationship to retinal vessels. The study consisted of 85 highly myopic eyes (58 participants;age:64.8 ± 9.4 years) and 85 randomly selected non-highly myopic eyes. A choroidal shift in relationship to the retinal vessels was detected more often in the highly myopic group than the non-highly myopic group (47/85 (55%) vs 6/85 (7%); P < 0.001). In the highly myopic group, the choroidal vessel shift occurring on the disc-fovea line in 39 (44%) eyes, was similar to, or smaller than, the enlargement in gamma zone width in 26 (67%) eyes and in 11 (28%) eyes respectively. The choroidal vessel shift was larger (P = 0.002) in eyes without choroidal vessels in gamma zone than in eyes with large choroidal vessels in gamma zone. In 14 (17%) eyes, a localized centrifugal choroidal shift was observed in association with an increase in the stage of myopic maculopathy. The results suggest that highly myopic eyes show a change in the position of large choroidal vessels in relationship to retinal vessels, in association with development or enlargement of gamma zone and an increase in the stage of myopic maculopathy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-94226-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8290045PMC
July 2021

Diffusion along perivascular spaces reveals evidence supportive of glymphatic function impairment in Parkinson disease.

Parkinsonism Relat Disord 2021 Jun 10;89:98-104. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Neurology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, USA.

Background: Reduced diffusion along perivascular spaces in adults with Alzheimer's-disease-related-dementias has been reported and attributed to reduced glymphatic function.

Objectives: To apply quantitative measures of diffusion along, and orthogonal to, perivascular spaces in a cohort of older adults with and without clinical symptoms of alpha-synuclein related neurodegeneration.

Methods: 181 adults with Parkinson disease (PD) or essential tremor (ET) additionally sub-classified by the presence of cognitive impairment underwent 3 T MRI. Diffusion-tensor-imaging (spatial resolution = 2x2x2 mm; b-value = 1000 s/mm; directions = 33) measures of diffusion (mm/s) parallel and orthogonal to perivascular spaces at the level of the medullary veins, and the ratio of these measures (ALPS-index), were calculated. Regions were identified by a board-certified neuroradiologist from T-weighted and T-weighted MRI. Evaluations of motor impairment and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) were interpreted by a board-certified neurologist and neuropsychologist, respectively. Multiple regression with false discovery rate correction was applied to understand how diffusion metrics related to (i) disease category (PD vs. ET), (ii) cognition (MCI status), and (iii) white matter disease severity from the Fazekas score.

Results: The ALPS-index was reduced in PD compared to ET participants (p = 0.037). No association between the ALPS-index and MCI status, but an inverse association between the ALPS-index and Fazekas score (p = 0.002), was observed. The ALPS-index was inversely associated with age (p = 0.007).

Conclusion: Diffusion aberrations near perivascular spaces are evident in patients with alpha-synuclein related neurodegenerative disorders, and are related to age and white matter disease severity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.parkreldis.2021.06.004DOI Listing
June 2021

Haploidentical haematopoietic stem cell transplantation for malignant infantile osteopetrosis and intermediate osteopetrosis: a retrospective analysis of a single centre.

Orphanet J Rare Dis 2021 07 15;16(1):314. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Hematology Center, Beijing Key Laboratory of Pediatric Hematology Oncology, National Key Discipline of Pediatrics (Capital Medical University), Key Laboratory of Major Disease in Children, Ministry of Education, Beijing Children's Hospital, Capital Medical University, National Center for Children's Health, Beijing, 100045, China.

Objective: To evaluate the clinical efficacy of haploidentical haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (haplo-HSCT) for the treatment of malignant infantile osteopetrosis (MIOP) and intermediate osteopetrosis.

Methods: Children with MIOP and IOP who underwent haplo-HSCT in Beijing Children's Hospital, Capital Medical University, from January 2010 to May 2018 were retrospectively analysed. Data relating to the clinical manifestations, engraftment, and prognosis of the children were extracted from medical records.

Results: Twenty-seven patients, including 18 males and 9 females, with an onset age of 12 (0.04-72) months were enrolled in this study. The median time from diagnosis to transplantation was 4 (1-23) months. All patients received haplo-HSCT with a myeloablative conditioning regimen (including fludarabine, busulfan, and cyclophosphamide). Graft versus host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis was based on anti-human T lymphocyte porcine immunoglobulin/anti-human thymus globulin, methotrexate, and mycophenolate mofetil. The median observation time was 55.2 (0.3-126.2) months. By the end of follow-up, twenty patients survived and seven patients died. The 5 year overall survival rate was 73.9%. Stage I-II acute GVHD was observed in 20 patients, stage III GVHD in 1 patient and no patients had stage IV disease. Chronic GVHD was observed in 11 patients (40.7%) and was controlled by anti-GVHD therapy.

Conclusions: Haplo-HSCT was an effective treatment for MIOP and IOP, with a high survival rate and significantly improved clinical symptoms. For patients with a vision impairment before HSCT, the improvement was slow after transplantation. The incidence of GVHD was high but mild and was effectively controlled by appropriate treatment. These data indicated that haplo-HSCT was a feasible treatment for MIOP and IOP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13023-021-01955-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8280586PMC
July 2021

Immunoprofiling of Nonarteritic Anterior Ischemic Optic Neuropathy.

Transl Vis Sci Technol 2021 07;10(8):17

Department of Ophthalmology, Stanford University, School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA.

Purpose: Nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION) is a common acute optic neuropathy in those older than 50 years. There is no blood diagnostic test or efficient treatment for NAION. We investigated the suitability of blood inflammatory proteins as biomarkers and therapeutic targets of NAION.

Methods: We conducted an exploratory, cross-sectional case-control study including 18 patients with NAION (n = 5 acute, and n = 13 chronic) and 9 controls. NAION was confirmed by clinical examination and optical coherence tomography. Subjects underwent peripheral blood collection; plasma was isolated within 2 hours and analyzed using a 76-plex array of cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors.

Results: In acute NAION, there was increased peripapillary retinal thickness on optical coherence tomography consistent with optic disc edema. Plasma profiling revealed dramatic changes in inflammatory proteins in NAION. Statistical analysis generated a list of 20 top-ranked molecules in NAION, with 15% overlap in acute and chronic NAION. Principal component analysis, hierarchical clustering, and Spearman correlation generally segregated controls, acute and chronic NAION, with some overlap. Longitudinal data from one patient demonstrated an evolving inflammatory pattern from acute to chronic NAION. In acute NAION, Eotaxin-3, MCP-2, TPO, and TRAIL were the top biomarker candidates. In chronic NAION, IL-1α and CXCL10 emerged as the strongest therapeutic targets.

Conclusions: Post-NAION inflammation occurs in both acute and chronic NAION. Statistical analysis of plasma profile changes generated a list of 20 potential biomarker and therapeutic targets of NAION.

Translational Relevance: We identified blood molecular targets to improve NAION diagnosis and treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1167/tvst.10.8.17DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8288058PMC
July 2021

Development and External Validation of the KIIDS-TBI Tool for Managing Children with Mild Traumatic Brain Injury and Intracranial Injuries.

Acad Emerg Med 2021 Jul 10. Epub 2021 Jul 10.

Departments of Neurological Surgery, Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO, USA.

Background: Clinical decision support may improve the post-neuroimaging management of children with mild traumatic brain injuries (mTBI) and intracranial injuries. While the CHIIDA score has been proposed for this purpose, a more sensitive risk model may have broader use. Consequently, this study's objectives were to: 1) develop a new risk model with improved sensitivity compared to the CHIIDA model; and 2) externally validate the new model and CHIIDA model in a multicenter dataset.

Methods: We analyzed children ≤ 18 years-old with mTBI and intracranial injuries included in the PECARN head injury dataset (2004-2006). We used binary recursive partitioning to predict the composite outcome of neurosurgical intervention, intubation for > 24 hours due to TBI, or death due to TBI. The new model was externally validated in a separate dataset that included children treated at any one of six centers from 2006-2019.

Results: Based on 839 patients from the PECARN dataset, a new risk model, the KIIDS-TBI model, was developed that incorporated imaging (e.g. midline shift) and clinical (e.g. GCS score) findings. Based on the model-predicted probability of the composite outcome, three cutoffs were evaluated to classify patients as 'high risk' for level of care decisions. In the external validation dataset consisting of 1,630 patients, the most conservative cutoff (i.e. any predictor present) identified 119/119 children with the composite outcome (sensitivity 100%), but had the lowest specificity (26.3%). The other two decision-making cutoffs had worse sensitivity (94.1%-96.6%) but improved specificity (67.4%-81.3%). The CHIIDA model lacked the most conservative cutoff and otherwise showed the same or slightly worse performance compared to the other two cutoffs.

Conclusions: The KIIDS-TBI model has high sensitivity and moderate specificity for risk-stratifying children with mTBI and intracranial injuries. Use of this clinical decision support tool may help improve the safe, resource-efficient management of this important patient population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/acem.14333DOI Listing
July 2021

Induction of IL-25 Expression in Human Nasal Polyp Epithelium by Influenza Virus Infection is Abated by Interferon-Alpha Pretreatment.

J Inflamm Res 2021 28;14:2769-2780. Epub 2021 Jun 28.

Department of Otolaryngology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, National University Health System, Singapore.

Background: Epithelial cytokines including IL-25, IL-33 and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TLSP) are recently established as drivers of type 2 chronic inflammatory diseases such as chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP). Here, we further confirmed the increased expression of IL-25 in CRSwNP and investigated potential contributors of IL-25 in CRSwNP epithelium.

Methods: Sixty CRSwNP, 25 CRSsNP and 15 healthy control tissues were examined for IL-25 expression and for the accompanying type 2 inflammatory cytokines. We then tested different respiratory virus infections on human nasal epithelial cells (hNECs) for their ability to trigger IL-25 expression. In addition, we subjected hNECs generated from CRSwNP tissues to pretreatment with recombinant interferon-alpha (IFN-α) prior to viral infection to evaluate IFN effects on IL-25 induction.

Results: We confirmed that significantly enhanced levels of IL-25 were observed in CRSwNP tissues, and that IL-25 expression correlated with type 2 inflammatory cytokine expression. In vitro, we observed significantly elevated IL-25 in hNECs infected with influenza A virus as early as 24 hours post-infection (hpi), regardless of tissue origin, and IL-25 correlated positively with viral load. While other respiratory viruses exhibited increasing trends of IL-25, these were not significant at the time-points tested. IFN-α treatment of CRSwNP epithelium was found to exert bimodal effects, ie IFN-α treatment alone induced moderate IL-25 expression, whereas IFN-α pretreatment of hNECs before influenza infection significantly diminished IL-25 induction by active influenza virus infection.

Conclusion: We have authenticated the observation of elevated IL-25 in CRSwNP, which is correlated with type 2 inflammatory cytokines. Notably, we identified influenza virus infection as a potential contributor of IL-25 in both control and CRSwNP epithelium during active infection. This IL-25 induction can be abated by IFN-α pretreatment which ameliorated active influenza infection.

Trial Registration: Chictr.org.cn ChiCTR-BON-16010179, Registered 18 December 2016, http://www.chictr.org.cn/showproj.aspx?proj=17331. The authors agree on the sharing of deidentified participant data where it pertains to request directly related to the data in this article when contacted (Haiyu Hong; [email protected]).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/JIR.S304320DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8254189PMC
June 2021

Application of supraomohyoid neck dissection via retroauricular hairline incision in patients with oral cancer.

Auris Nasus Larynx 2021 Jul 3. Epub 2021 Jul 3.

Orthopeadic Surgery Department, the Third Clinical Medical College of China Three Gorges University, Gezhouba Central Hospital of Sinopharm, No. 60 Qiaohu 1st Road, Xiling District, Yichang, Hubei, China. Electronic address:

Objective: To explore the application of supraomohyoid neck dissection via retroauricular hairline incision in patients with oral cancer, thereby providing a basis for the surgical treatment of patients with oral cancer in clinical practice.

Methods: A total of 68 patients with oral cancer who met the inclusion criteria and exclusion criteria were included in our hospital from August 2018 to June 2020. According to the random number table method, they were divided into the experimental group (34 cases), in which patients underwent supraomohyoid neck dissection via retroauricular hairline incision, and control group (34 cases), in which patients received neck dissection.

Results: The operation time was significantly longer and the intraoperative bleeding was significantly less in the experimental group compared with those in the control group (both P < 0.05). No significant differences in postoperative drainage, number of detected lymph nodes and length of hospital stay were detected between the two groups. One month after surgery, the scores of pains, muscle strength, range of motion and daily activities were significantly higher in the experimental group than those in the control group (all P < 0.05). Three months after surgery, the scores of pains, muscle strength, range of motion and daily activities were higher compared with those at one month after surgery in both groups, and these scores in the experimental group were higher than those in the control group (all P < 0.05). In addition, the scores of shoulder function, language, deglutition, chew, work, entertainment, activity of daily living, facial features, pain and degree of satisfaction to the scars in the experimental group were significantly higher than those in the control group one month after surgery (all P < 0.05).

Conclusion: Supraomohyoid neck dissection via retroauricular hairline incision can reduce the amount of intraoperative bleeding in patients with oral cancer, is beneficial to the recovery of shoulder joint function, improves the patient's quality of life and the degree of satisfaction to the scars, reduces the occurrence of related complications. It has relatively high safety and is worthy of clinical application and promotion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anl.2021.06.002DOI Listing
July 2021

Effects of acute moderate-intensity exercise at different duration on blood pressure and endothelial function in young male patients with stage 1 hypertension.

Clin Exp Hypertens 2021 Jul 5:1-8. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

School of Sport Medicine and Rehabilitation, Beijing Sport University, Beijing, China (mainland).

Purpose: The studies regarding the effects of exercise duration on blood pressure have reported inconsistent and conflicting results. Nitric oxide (NO) is a well-known vasodilator released by endothelial cells, and endothelial microparticles (EMPs) are membranous vesicles released into the circulation from activated or apoptotic endothelial cells, both of whose level can reflect the endothelial function. But few studies have been done to explore the effect of exercise duration on blood pressure and endothelial function, especially, the EMPs response to exercise in young male patients with hypertension. This study aimed to investigate the blood pressure response during moderate-intensity exercise performed in different durations and the acute effects on post-exercise hypotension and endothelial function in hypertensive patients.

Methods: Eighteen young male hypertensive patients who did not take antihypertensive drugs were recruited in this study. They randomly performed twice exercises on a cycle ergometer at a moderate intensity of 40%-50% of their HR reserve; one was 20 min (E20 session), the other one was 40 min (E40 session); there was 1-week break between the two exercises. Blood pressure was monitored by the YUWELL blood pressure monitor at rest, every 5 min during exercise, and 3 and 6 min post-exercise. The level of NO (nitrate/nitrite reduction) and EMPs (flow cytometry) in plasma were detected before and immediately following exercise. CD31/CD42b events were classified as EMPs and events per microliter plasma were calculated. This study was approved by the Beijing Sport University Institutional Review Board (protocol number 2019087 H).

Results: Mean age of patients was 34.8 ± 3.5 yrs, and BMI was 27.6 ± 2.7 kg/m. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) in the two sessions increased significantly during exercise. The SBP in the E20 session increased by 37 mmHg ( < .01) at 5 min during exercise and remained stable afterward. In the E40 session, the SBP increased by 35 mmHg ( < .01) at 5 min during exercise and was stable at 5 through 25 min, decreased by 8 mmHg at 25 through 35 min during exercise, and then stabilized ( < .01). There was no obvious change of diastolic blood pressure (DBP) in the two sessions during exercise. In the E20 session, SBP at 6 min following exercise was no different from the rest; in the E40 session, SBP at 6 min following exercise was 14 mmHg lower than at the rest ( < .01). DBP in the E20 session was the same as rest at 3 min following exercise and decreased by 4 mmHg at 6 min following exercise compared with the rest ( < .05), while DBP in the E40 session decreased by 3 mmHg at 3 min following exercise compared with the rest ( < .05). The plasma NO levels of E20 and E40 increased significantly following exercise ( < .01 for both). There was no difference in plasma NO level between the two sessions pre- and post-exercise, but the increased magnitude of NO level in E40 was greater than that in E20 (24.47% vs. 9.24%, < .01). The plasma EMPs level of E20 and E40 decreased significantly following exercise ( < .01 for both). There was no difference in plasma EMPs level between the two sessions pre- and post-exercise, but the decreased magnitude of EMPs level in E40 was greater than that in E20 (15.66% vs. 8.00%, < .01).

Conclusion: There is no exaggerated blood pressure response to 20-min and 40-min acute moderate-intensity exercise in young hypertensive men with no antihypertensive drugs. Both 20-min and 40-min acute moderate exercise can reduce the rest blood pressure, and improve endothelial function by increasing NO and decreasing EMPs in young male patients with hypertension, and the effects of 40-min exercise on lowering SBP and improving endothelial function are better than that of 20-min.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10641963.2021.1945074DOI Listing
July 2021

CCL19 enhances CD8 T-cell responses and accelerates HBV clearance.

J Gastroenterol 2021 Aug 3;56(8):769-785. Epub 2021 Jul 3.

Laboratory for Infection and Immunity, The Fifth People's Hospital of Wuxi, Affiliated Hospital of Jiangnan University, Wuxi, China.

Background: Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 19 (CCL19) is a leukocyte chemoattractant that plays a crucial role in cell trafficking and leukocyte activation. Dysfunctional CD8 T cells play a crucial role in persistent HBV infection. However, whether HBV can be cleared by CCL19-activated immunity remains unclear.

Methods: We assessed the effects of CCL19 on the activation of PBMCs in patients with HBV infection. We also examined how CCL19 influences HBV clearance and modulates HBV-responsive T cells in a mouse model of chronic hepatitis B (CHB). In addition, C-C chemokine-receptor type 7 (CCR7) knockdown mice were used to elucidate the underlying mechanism of CCL19/CCR7 axis-induced immune activation.

Results: From in vitro experiments, we found that CCL19 enhanced the frequencies of Ag-responsive IFN-γ CD8 T cells from patients by approximately twofold, while CCR7 knockdown (LV-shCCR7) and LY294002 partially suppressed IFN-γ secretion. In mice, CCL19 overexpression led to rapid clearance of intrahepatic HBV likely through increased intrahepatic CD8 T-cell proportion, decreased frequency of PD-1 CD8 T cells in blood and compromised suppression of hepatic APCs, with lymphocytes producing a significantly high level of Ag-responsive TNF-α and IFN-γ from CD8 T cells. In both CCL19 over expressing and CCR7 knockdown (AAV-shCCR7) CHB mice, the frequency of CD8 T-cell activation-induced cell death (AICD) increased, and a high level of Ag-responsive TNF-α and low levels of CD8 regulatory T (T) cells were observed.

Conclusions: Findings in this study provide insights into how CCL19/CCR7 axis modulates the host immune system, which may promote the development of immunotherapeutic strategies for HBV treatment by overcoming T-cell tolerance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00535-021-01799-8DOI Listing
August 2021

Overexpression of OsPHR3 improves growth traits and facilitates nitrogen use efficiency under low phosphate condition.

Plant Physiol Biochem 2021 Jun 24;166:712-722. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

State Key Laboratory of Crop Genetics and Germplasm Enhancement, Key Laboratory of Plant Nutrition and Fertilization in Low-Middle Reaches of the Yangtze River, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, 210095, China. Electronic address:

Phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) are both essential macronutrients for maintaining plant growth and development. In rice (Oryza sativa L.), OsPHR3 is one of the four paralogs of PHR1, which acts as a central regulator of phosphate (Pi) homeostasis, as well being involved in N homeostasis. However, the functions of OsPHR3 in N utilization under different Pi conditions have yet to be fully studied. In this study, we aimed to dissect the effect of OsPHR3-overexpression on N utilization under Pi deficient regimes. Biochemical, molecular and physiological assays were performed to determine the N-influx, translocation, and accumulation in OsPHR3-overexpressing rice lines, grown under Pi-sufficient and -deficient conditions, in both hydroponic and soil systems. Furthermore, important agronomic traits of these plants were also evaluated. The overexpression of OsPHR3 increased N uptake under Pi stress regimes. Increased N uptake also elevated total N concentrations in these plants by inducing N transporter genes expression. Furthermore, overexpression of OsPHR3 increased N use efficiency, 1000-grain weight and grain yield under different Pi conditions. We established new findings that OsPHR3-overexpression facilitates N utilization under Pi deficient conditions. This will help achieving higher yields by coordinating the utilization of N and P.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plaphy.2021.06.041DOI Listing
June 2021

Vowel Length Expands Perceptual and Emotional Evaluations in Written Japanese Sound-Symbolic Words.

Behav Sci (Basel) 2021 Jun 21;11(6). Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Department of Psychology, Graduate School of Humanities and Social Sciences, Hiroshima 7398524, Japan.

In this study, we examined whether vowel length affected the perceptual and emotional evaluations of Japanese sound-symbolic words. The perceptual and emotional features of Japanese sound-symbolic words, which included short and long vowels, were evaluated by 209 native Japanese speakers. The results showed that subjective evaluations of familiarity, visual imageability, auditory imageability, tactile imageability, emotional valence, arousal, and length were significantly higher for sound-symbolic words with long vowels compared to those with short vowels. Additionally, a subjective evaluation of speed was significantly higher for written Japanese sound-symbolic words with short vowels than for those with long vowels. The current findings suggest that vowel length in written Japanese sound-symbolic words increases the perceptually and emotionally subjective evaluations of Japanese sound-symbolic words.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/bs11060090DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8234476PMC
June 2021

The Associations between Sleep Duration, Academic Pressure, and Depressive Symptoms among Chinese Adolescents: Results from China Family Panel Studies.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 06 6;18(11). Epub 2021 Jun 6.

Department of Epidemiology and Medical Statistics, Xiangya School of Public Health, Central South University, Xiangya Road 110, Changsha 410078, China.

Depressive symptoms are a common mental health problem among adolescents, which may affect their physical and mental health development and impose heavy burdens on individual families and society. This study aimed to examine the associations between sleep duration, academic pressure, and depressive symptoms among Chinese adolescents and to construct the mediation model to explore the mediating effect of sleep duration. The data are from the China Family Panel Studies (CFPS). Methodologically, the aforementioned associations were explored by constructing a structural equation model and applying multivariate multilevel logistic regression. In this study, we found that approximately 6.49% of the 3724 Chinese adolescents had depressive symptoms. Sleep duration of <6 h/night (OR = 2.39, 95%CI = 1.33-4.32) and high/maximum academic pressure (high: OR = 1.43, 95%CI = 1.02-1.99; maximum: OR = 2.43, 95%CI = 1.58-3.73) were both associated with an increased risk of depressive symptoms in adolescents. Meanwhile, the multiplicative interaction between sleep duration and academic pressure was significantly associated with depressive symptoms in adolescents ( < 0.001). The sleep duration played a partial mediating role in the relationship between academic pressure and depressive symptoms (a*b = 0.006, 95%BootCI = 0.001-0.012). Our study highlights that it is essential to mitigate the academic pressure of adolescents to increase their sleep duration and further reduce the occurrence of depressive symptoms by adopting corresponding preventive measures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18116134DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8201038PMC
June 2021

Trajectory patterns of blood pressure change up to six years and the risk of dementia: a nationwide cohort study.

Aging (Albany NY) 2021 07 1;13(13):17380-17406. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Department of Epidemiology and Health Statistics, Xiangya School of Public Health, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, China.

The present study aimed to investigate the associations between the trajectory of blood pressure (BP) change and the risk of subsequent dementia and to explore the differences in age, gender, and hypertension subgroups. We included 10,660 participants aged ≥ 60 years from 1998 to 2018 waves of the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey. Latent growth mixture models were used to estimate BP trajectories. Cox-proportional hazard models were used to analyze the effects of BP trajectories on the risk of dementia. According to the results, stabilized systolic BP (SBP) was found to be associated with a higher risk of dementia compared with normal SBP [adjusted hazard ratio (aHR): 1.62; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.27-2.07] and elevated SBP (aHR: 2.22; 95% CI: 1.51-3.28) in and only in the subgroups of the oldest-old, women, and subjects without hypertension at baseline. Similarly, stabilized pulse pressure (PP) was associated with a higher risk of dementia compared with normal PP (aHR: 1.52; 95% CI: 1.24-1.88) and elevated PP (aHR: 2.12; 95% CI: 1.48-3.04) in and only in the subgroups of the oldest-old, women, and subjects with hypertension at baseline. These findings suggest that stabilized SBP and PP have predictive significance for the occurrence of dementia in late life, and the factors of age, gender, and late-life hypertension should be considered when estimating the risk of BP decline on dementia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/aging.203228DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8312414PMC
July 2021

Adoption of Hospitalist Care in Asia: Experiences From Singapore, Taiwan, Korea, and Japan.

J Hosp Med 2021 Jul;16(7):443-445

Department of General Medicine, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12788/jhm.3621DOI Listing
July 2021

Cd absorption characteristics of Suaeda salsa under different sediment burial and exogenous Cd input conditions in the Yellow River estuary, China.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Jun 30. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Ministry of Ecology and Environment, Nanjing Institute of Environmental Sciences, Nanjing, 210042, China.

Suaeda salsa (L.) Pall., a typical halophyte plant in the Yellow River estuary, has high enrichment capacity for heavy metals. However, few studies have investigated the Cd absorption characteristics of S. salsa under different sediment burial and exogenous Cd input conditions, especially following the water-sediment regulation scheme (WSRS), which brought sediment burial and exogenous substances to the estuary. So, we established a greenhouse pot culture experiment with four sediment burial depths (0 cm, 3 cm, 6 cm, and 12 cm) and exogenous Cd input levels (0 mg·kg, 0.5 mg·kg, 1.0 mg·kg, and 1.5 mg·kg) and analyzed the leaf, stem, root, and total biomass; leaf, stem, and root Cd content; and storage, sediment Cd content, accumulation factor, root/leaf (R/L), root/stem (R/S), and stem/leaf (S/L) ratios to study the Cd absorption characteristics of S. salsa under the different sediment burial and exogenous Cd input. Results showed that high Cd content in roots, stems, and leaves was harmful to S. salsa growth, and then led to a decrease in biomass (characterized by stem, leaf, and total biomass). Suaeda salsa exhibited a survival strategy to deal with Cd toxicity, which involved the roots absorbing Cd from the sediment and storing it in stems and leaves (stem and leaf Cd content peaked at 0.5 mg·kg Cd input) at low Cd input, whereas roots stored more Cd and reduced Cd transport to stems and leaves at high Cd input. Therefore, we observed the maximum value of leaf (500.63 ± 19.15 g·m), stem (648.22 ± 50.08 g·m), and total biomass (1246.92 ± 55.49 g·m) in the treatment with 1.5 mg·kg Cd input and 3-cm sediment depth due to the Cd content in leaves and stems being relatively low. The accumulation factors of leaves, stems, and roots varied (0.39-0.99, 0.19-2.58, and 0.80-20.45, respectively), and most of the accumulation factors for roots and leaves and the R/L and R/S ratios were >1, which indicated that S. salsa had high enrichment levels of Cd, which mostly accumulated in the roots. Shallow or moderate burial depth was beneficial to S. salsa growth, but sediment burial was not beneficial to Cd absorption because the sum of leaf, stem, and root Cd storage was higher at 0-cm depth compared with the other depths. Variance analysis showed that the influence of Cd input on leaf, stem, root, and sediment Cd content and stem and root Cd storage was significant (P < 0.05), whereas sediment burial, interaction of sediment burial and Cd input on Cd content, storage, and biomass were not significant (P > 0.05). Therefore, we concluded that more attention should be paid to the control of sediment burial and heavy metal input, especially during the WSRS, in the Yellow River estuary.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-14066-3DOI Listing
June 2021

Apple SERRATE negatively mediates drought resistance by regulating MdMYB88 and MdMYB124 and microRNA biogenesis.

Hortic Res 2020 Jul 1;7(1):98. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology for Arid Areas/Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Apple, College of Horticulture, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, 712100, Shaanxi, PR China.

The function of serrate (SE) in miRNA biogenesis in Arabidopsis is well elucidated, whereas its role in plant drought resistance is largely unknown. In this study, we report that MdSE acts as a negative regulator of apple (Malus × domestica) drought resistance by regulating the expression levels of MdMYB88 and MdMYB124 and miRNAs, including mdm-miR156, mdm-miR166, mdm-miR172, mdm-miR319, and mdm-miR399. MdSE interacts with MdMYB88 and MdMYB124, two positive regulators of apple drought resistance. MdSE decreases the transcript and protein levels of MdMYB88 and MdMYB124, which directly regulate the expression of MdNCED3, a key enzyme in abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis. Furthermore, MdSE is enriched in the same region of the MdNECD3 promoter where MdMYB88/MdMYB124 binds. Consistently, MdSE RNAi transgenic plants are more sensitive to ABA-induced stomatal closure, whereas MdSE OE plants are less sensitive. In addition, under drought stress, MdSE is responsible for the biogenesis of mdm-miR399, a negative regulator of drought resistance, and negatively regulates miRNAs, including mdm-miR156, mdm-miR166, mdm-miR172, and mdm-miR319, which are positive regulators of drought resistance. Taken together, by revealing the negative role of MdSE, our results broaden our understanding of the apple drought response and provide a candidate gene for apple drought improvement through molecular breeding.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41438-020-0320-6DOI Listing
July 2020

Structures and absolute configurations of phomalones from the coral-associated fungus Parengyodontium album sp. SCSIO 40430.

Org Biomol Chem 2021 Jul 29;19(27):6030-6037. Epub 2021 Jun 29.

Key Laboratory of Tropical Marine Bio-resources and Ecology, Guangdong Key Laboratory of Marine Materia Medica, Innovation Academy of South China Sea Ecology and Environmental Engineering, South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510301, China. and University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China and Southern Marine Science and Engineering Guangdong Laboratory (Guangzhou), Guangzhou 511458, China and Sanya Institute of Oceanology, SCSIO, Yazhou Scientific Bay, Sanya 572000, China.

Coral-associated microorganisms are likely to play an important role in host defense by the production of antimicrobials. Six new chromanones, namely, phomalichenones H-M (5, 6, and 8-11), and ten known analogues (1-4, 7, and 12-16) were isolated from the coral-associated fungus Parengyodontium album sp. SCSIO 40430. Their structures were elucidated by comprehensive spectroscopic analyses. In addition, the structure of 8 was confirmed by X-ray crystallographic analysis. Resolution using a chiral column showed that each of the compounds 1-8 was an enantiomeric mixture with variable enantiomeric excess (ee) values. Their absolute configurations were determined by a comparison of the experimental and calculated ECD data and by a modified Mosher's method. A plausible biosynthetic scheme was proposed for the production of 1-16. Compounds 2, 3, 13, and 14 were found to be active against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Ra with MIC values of 16-64 μg mL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1ob00869bDOI Listing
July 2021

Effects of different aperture-sized type I collagen/silk fibroin scaffolds on the proliferation and differentiation of human dental pulp cells.

Regen Biomater 2021 Aug 25;8(4):rbab028. Epub 2021 Jun 25.

Tianjin Key Laboratory of Oral and Maxillofacial Function Reconstruction, Tianjin Stomatological Hospital, The Affiliated Stomatological Hospital of Nankai University, No. 75 Dagu Road, Heping District, Tianjin 300041, China.

This study aimed at evaluate the effects of different aperture-sized type I collagen/silk fibroin (CSF) scaffolds on the proliferation and differentiation of human dental pulp cells (HDPCs). The CSF scaffolds were designed with 3D mapping software Solidworks. Three different aperture-sized scaffolds (CSF1-CSF3) were prepared by low-temperature deposition 3D printing technology. The morphology was observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and optical coherence tomography. The porosity, hydrophilicity and mechanical capacity of the scaffold were detected, respectively. HDPCs (third passage, 1 × 10 cells) were seeded into each scaffold and investigated by SEM, CCK-8, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and HE staining. The CSF scaffolds had porous structures with macropores and micropores. The macropore size of CSF1 to CSF3 was 421 ± 27 μm, 579 ± 36 μm and 707 ± 43 μm, respectively. The porosity was 69.8 ± 2.2%, 80.1 ± 2.8% and 86.5 ± 3.3%, respectively. All these scaffolds enhanced the adhesion and proliferation of HDPCs. The ALP activity in the CSF1 group was higher than that in the CSF3 groups (<0.01). HE staining showed HDPCs grew in multilayer within the scaffolds. CSF scaffolds significantly improved the adhesion and ALP activity of HDPCs. CSF scaffolds were promising candidates in dentine-pulp complex regeneration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/rb/rbab028DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8226109PMC
August 2021

Saying the Unseen: Video Descriptions via Dialog Agents.

IEEE Trans Pattern Anal Mach Intell 2021 Jun 29;PP. Epub 2021 Jun 29.

Current vision and language tasks usually take complete visual data as input, however, practical scenarios often consist the situations where part of the visual information becomes inaccessible due to various reasons. We introduce a novel task that aims to describe a video using the natural language dialog between two agents as supplementary information source given incomplete visual data. Different from most existing vision-language tasks where AI has full access to visual data, which may reveal sensitive information such as recognizable human faces, we intentionally limit the visual input for AI and seek a more secure and transparent information medium, i.e., the dialog, to supplement the missing visual information. Specifically, one intelligent agent - Q-BOT - is given two segmented frames, as well as a finite number of opportunities to ask natural language questions before describing the unseen video. A-BOT, the other agent who has access to the entire video, assists Q-BOT by answering the questions. We introduce two experimental settings with either a generative (i.e., agents generate questions and answers freely) or a discriminative (i.e., agents select the questions and answers from candidates) internal dialog process. With the proposed QA-Cooperative networks, we experimentally demonstrate the knowledge transfer process between the two dialog agents and the effectiveness of our method.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TPAMI.2021.3093360DOI Listing
June 2021

Disrupted rich-club organization of brain structural networks in Parkinson's disease.

Brain Struct Funct 2021 Jun 26. Epub 2021 Jun 26.

School of Life Science, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing, China.

Parkinson's disease (PD) can be considered as the dysfunction in segregation and integration of large-scale structural networks in the late stage of disease progression. However, the altered patterns in the early stage have not been extensively investigated, especially the altered structural rich-club patterns, which is proved powerful to detect the altered patterns of structural networks in Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia. To this end, we investigated the rich-club organization of the structural networks derived from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data in the early stage of PD, and further investigated the relationship between rich-club organization and clinicopathological measures, including motor and non-motor scales and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers. Two datasets were included for validation in this study. The first one included 41 healthy controls (HC) and 64 PD patients from Parkinson's Disease Progression Marker Initiative (PPMI) dataset, and the second one included 24 HC and 26 PD patients. Results revealed that PD patients in early stage had disrupted rich-club organization, with abnormal connectivity strength between peripheral regions (two-sample t-test between PD and HC: p < 0.001), whereas connectivity strength between rich-club regions remained relatively stable (two-sample t-test between PD and HC: p = 0.108). The classification accuracies on three types of connections were 59.93%, 73.96% and 77.44% for rich-club, feeder and local connections. Furthermore, abnormal local and feeder connections showed significant correlation with poor clinical scales and CSF biomarkers. In summary, a selective disruption of non-rich-club connections here could be regarded as a potential marker in the early diagnosis of PD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00429-021-02319-3DOI Listing
June 2021

Freezing of saccades in dopa-responsive parkinsonian syndrome.

Am J Ophthalmol Case Rep 2021 Sep 23;23:101124. Epub 2021 May 23.

Department of Ophthalmology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA.

Purpose: Ocular motor abnormalities such as abnormal saccades are common in idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) and atypical parkinsonian syndrome, such as progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and corticobasal degeneration (CBD). In this study, we describe a case of patient with PD and show a video illustrating severe delay of reflexive saccades.

Observations: A 68-year-old Caucasian woman with diagnosis of PD presented for evaluation of diplopia. Neuro-ophthalmic examination revealed good visual acuity in both eyes and normal optic nerves but prominent ocular motor abnormalities, including hypometric saccades, impaired smooth pursuit, and convergence insufficiency causing diplopia at near. Despite treatment with carbidopa-levodopa three times per day, she exhibited episodic, severe delay of reflexive saccades. During these episodes, the patient appeared frozen and unable to initiate reflexive saccades for 20 s or longer. This freezing of reflexive saccades was variable and occurred suddenly during exam but could be interrupted by smooth pursuit. There was no gait freezing, eyelid apraxia, or prominent exacerbation of other motor symptoms. Freezing of saccades dramatically resolved after increasing dosage of carbidopa-levodopa.

Conclusions And Importance: We describe a patient with dopa-responsive parkinsonian syndrome with intermittent difficulty initiating reflexive saccades mimicking ocular motor apraxia. Resolution of saccadic freezing with higher carbidopa-levodopa is consistent with ocular motor impairment as a result of degeneration and dysfunction of the dopaminergic pathways in supranuclear ocular motor control.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajoc.2021.101124DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8208961PMC
September 2021

Insights into the effect of human civilization on Malus evolution and domestication.

Plant Biotechnol J 2021 Jun 23. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology for Arid Areas, College of Horticulture, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, China.

The evolutionary history of the Malus genus has not been well studied. In the current study, we presented genetic evidence on the origin of the Malus genus based on genome sequencing of 297 Malus accessions, revealing the genetic relationship between wild species and cultivated apples. Our results demonstrated that North American and East Asian wild species are closer to the outgroup (pear) than Central Asian species, and hybrid species including natural (separated before the Pleistocene, about 2.5 Mya) and artificial hybrids (including ornamental trees and rootstocks) are between East and Central Asian wild species. Introgressions from M. sylvestris in cultivated apples appeared to be more extensive than those from M. sieversii, whose genetic background flowed westward across Eurasia and eastward to wild species including M. prunifolia, M. × asiatica, M. × micromalus, and M. × robust. Our results suggested that the loss of ancestral gene flow from M. sieversii in cultivated apples accompanied the movement of European traders around the world since the Age of Discovery. Natural SNP variations showed that cultivated apples had higher nucleotide diversity than wild species and more unique SNPs than other apple groups. An apple ERECTA-like gene that underwent selection during domestication on 15 chromosome was identified as a likely major determinant of fruit length and diameter, and an NB-ARC domain-containing gene was found to strongly affect anthocyanin accumulation using a genome-wide association approach. Our results provide new insights into the origin and domestication of apples and will be useful in new breeding programmes and efforts to increase fruit crop productivity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/pbi.13648DOI Listing
June 2021
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