Publications by authors named "Yan Tian"

299 Publications

Lipidomics analysis of facial lipid biomarkers in females with self-perceived skin sensitivity.

Health Sci Rep 2022 May 6;5(3):e632. Epub 2022 May 6.

Cosmetics Department, College of Chemistry and Materials Engineering Beijing Technology and Business University Beijing China.

Background And Aims: Self-perception of sensitive skin (SPSS) has several consequences, including skin barrier damage, which is prevented by barrier sebum. We analyzed lipidome profiles of skin surface lipids (SSLs) in patients with SPSS and healthy controls and explored the mechanism of action of potential lipid markers on the repair of damaged barrier cells to better understand SSL abnormity in these patients.

Methods: Ultraperformance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry was used to investigate SSL variations in major lipid classes, subclasses, and species. Reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to examine changes in intracellular gene expression following cell barrier damage repair by potential lipid markers.

Results: There were significant differences in the lipidomes of individuals between groups. Individuals with SPSS showed significantly increased levels of two diacylglycerols and one very-short-chain free fatty acid and significantly decreased levels of three ceramides (Cers), four glycerophospholipids, and one very-long-chain free fatty acid. RT-PCR revealed that after damage repair by Cer/Glucosylceramide (GlcCer), the expression of two genes in the sterol regulatory element-binding protein and three in the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor pathway significantly increased. Causes of skin barrier damage in patients with SPSS are related to the amount and type of lipids.

Conclusion: Cer/GlcCer can promote lipid synthesis and secretion by upregulating lipid-related gene expression to repair barrier damage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hsr2.632DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9075607PMC
May 2022

The Role of Children in Household Transmission of COVID-19: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Int J Infect Dis 2022 May 10. Epub 2022 May 10.

Department of Neonatology, Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Child Development and Disorders, National Clinical Research Center for Child Health and Disorders, China. Electronic address:

Background: Household is potentially the highest-risk exposure setting of SARS-COV-2 transmission, in which the role of children has remained controversial.

Methods: Through retrieval in PubMed and EMBASE, studies were included in two parts: meta-analysis of the household secondary attack rate (SAR) and case analysis of household pediatric infections.

Results: A total of 95 articles were included: 48 for meta-analysis and 47 for case analysis. Pediatric COVID-19 only comprised a minority of the household transmission. The total pooled household SAR of child index cases and contacts were 0.20 (95% CI: 0.15-0.26) and 0.24 (95% CI: 0.18-0.30). Lower household transmissibility was reported in both child index cases and contacts compared to adults (RR = 0.64, 95% CI: 0.50-0.81; RR=0.74, 95% CI: 0.64-0.85). Younger children were as susceptible as the older children (RR=0.89, 95% CI: 0.72-1.10). Through subgroup analyses of different variants and periods, increased household SAR was observed in children (Wild: 0.20; Alpha: 0.42; Delta: 0.35; Omicron: 0.56) and no significant difference was found in household SAR between children and adults when new variants dominated.

Conclusions: Although children were demonstrated not to be dominant in the household transmission, their transmissibility of SARS-CoV-2 appeared on the rise as new variants emerge.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2022.05.016DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9091150PMC
May 2022

In Situ Alkyl Radical Recycling-Driven Decoupled Electrophotochemical Deamination.

Org Lett 2022 May 12. Epub 2022 May 12.

Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Molecular Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Biobased Material and Green Papermaking, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Qilu University of Technology (Shandong Academy of Sciences), Jinan 250353, People's Republic of China.

Molecular electrophotocatalysis has emerged as a powerful strategy for the development of sustainable synthetic protocols. With the proof-of-concept, we exploited a versatile electrophotocatalytic deaminative alkylation approach. Mechanistic investigation indicated that in situ recycling of the alkyl radicals was the key point. Notably, ligand modification and late-stage functionalization of pharmaceuticals were also established, highlighting its feasibility in practical utilization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.orglett.2c01022DOI Listing
May 2022

Construction of a new type of three-dimensional honeycomb-structure anode in microbial electrochemical systems for energy harvesting and pollutant removal.

Water Res 2022 Apr 9;218:118429. Epub 2022 Apr 9.

State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, School of Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090, China. Electronic address:

Electrode materials occupy most of the construction cost of the microbial electrochemical system (MES), and the low mechanical strength and poor electrochemical performance of the commonly used traditional carbon-based materials restrict the promotion and application of this technology. In this study, polymer-based three-dimensional (3D) honeycomb-structure (HS) materials with good mechanical properties were used as supporting materials. Graphene (GR), carbon nanotube (CNT), and polypyrrole (PPy) was separately chosen as a surface conductivity coating layer for preparing MES anodes. The introduction of GR, CNT, and PPy on HS increased surface roughness, hydrophilicity, O and N content, electrochemically active surface area, and decreased charge transfer internal resistance, which promoted the adhesion of microorganisms on their surface and enhanced the extracellular electron transfer process at the electrode/microbe interface. The CNT-HS anode system got the better maximal power density (1700.7 ± 149.0 mW/m) of the three modified anode systems and 3.60 times that of MES using CC (471.8 ± 27.2 mW/m) as the anode. The accelerated reactions of the redox species in the outer cell membrane, the promoted electron shuttle secretion, and the enhanced abundance of the tricarboxylic acid cycle-related functional genes in biofilm led to better performance of the CNT-HS anode system. The CNT-HS anode system also exhibited long-term operational stability (>6 months) and a good chemical oxygen demand degradation effect. Furthermore, CNT-HS material exhibited its cost advantage, and its projected cost is estimated to be about $1.8/m, much lower than the currently used MES anodes ($8.2-548.2/m). Considering the good mechanical properties, simple preparation process, low manufacturing cost, long-term stability, excellent bio-electrochemical performance, and good pollutant removal ability, HS-based anode has promising potential for high-performance MES in applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2022.118429DOI Listing
April 2022

Role of sortilin 1 (SORT1) on lipid metabolism in bovine liver.

J Dairy Sci 2022 Jun 22;105(6):5420-5434. Epub 2022 Apr 22.

Heilongjiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Prevention and Control of Bovine Diseases, College of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Heilongjiang Bayi Agricultural University, Daqing 163319, China. Electronic address:

High circulating concentrations of fatty acids cause triacylglycerol (TAG) accumulation in hepatocytes of dairy cows, a common metabolic disorder after calving. Low secretion of apolipoprotein B (APOB) and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) are thought to be the major factors for TAG accumulation in hepatocytes. Recent data in nonruminant models revealed that sortilin 1 (SORT1) is a key regulator of VLDL secretion in part due to its ability to bind APOB. Thus, SORT1 could play a role in the susceptibility of dairy cows to develop fatty liver. To gain mechanistic insights in vivo and in vitro, we performed experiments using liver biopsies or isolated primary hepatocytes. For the in vivo study, blood and liver samples were collected from healthy multiparous dairy cows (n = 6; 9.0 ± 2.1 d in milk) and cows with fatty liver (n = 6; 9.7 ± 2.2 d in milk). In vitro, hepatocytes isolated from 4 healthy female calves (1 d old, 42-51 kg) were challenged with (fatty acids) or without (control) a 1.2 mM mixture of fatty acids in an attempt to induce metabolic stress. Furthermore, hepatocytes were treated with empty adenovirus vectors (Ad-GFP) or SORT1 overexpressing adenovirus (Ad-SORT1) for 6 h, or SORT1 inhibitor for 2 h followed by a challenge with (Ad-GFP + fatty acids, Ad-SORT1 + fatty acids, or SORT1 inhibitor + fatty acids) or without (Ad-GFP, Ad-SORT1, or SORT1 inhibitor) the 1.2 mM mixture of fatty acids for 12 h. Data from liver biopsies were compared using a 2-tailed unpaired Student's t-test. Data from calf hepatocytes were analyzed by one-way ANOVA. Data revealed that both fatty liver and in vitro challenge with fatty acids were associated with greater concentrations of TAG and mRNA and protein abundance of SORT1, SREBF1, FASN, and ACACA. In contrast, mRNA and protein abundance of CPT1A and APOB, and mRNA abundance of MTTP were markedly lower. Compared with fatty acid challenge alone, SORT1 overexpression led to greater concentration of TAG and mRNA abundance of SREBF1, FASN, ACACA, DGAT1, and DGAT2, and protein abundance of SREBF1, FASN, and ACACA. In contrast, concentration of secreted VLDL-APOB and mRNA abundance of APOB and MTTP, and protein abundance of CPT1A, APOB, and MTTP were lower. Compared with fatty acid challenge alone, SORT1 inhibitor + fatty acids led to lower concentrations of TAG and mRNA abundance of SREBF1, FASN, and DGAT2, and protein abundance of FASN, ACACA, and DGAT1. Concentrations of secreted VLDL-APOB and mRNA abundance of CPT1A and protein abundance of CPT1A and APOB were greater. Overall, in vitro data suggested that greater SORT1 abundance induced by exogenous fatty acids caused a reduction in VLDL-APOB secretion and increased hepatocyte TAG synthesis. Such mechanism was also apparent in tissue from cows with fatty liver. Thus, targeted downregulation of hepatic SORT1 could represent a viable mechanism to unload lipid during conditions where the influx of fatty acids increases markedly.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.2021-21607DOI Listing
June 2022

Triage by PAX1 and ZNF582 Methylation in Women With Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia Grade 3: A Multicenter Case-Control Study.

Open Forum Infect Dis 2022 May 13;9(5):ofac013. Epub 2022 Jan 13.

Department of Gynecology, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, China.

Background: The colposcopy-conization inconsistency is common in women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 (CIN3). No adequate method has been reported to identify the final pathology of conization. In this study, we explored the ability of PAX1 and ZNF582 methylation to predict the pathological outcome of conization in advance.

Methods: This was a multicenter study and included 277 histologically confirmed CIN3 women who underwent cold knife conization (CKC) from January 2019 to December 2020. The methylation levels of PAX1 (PAX1) and ZNF582 (ZNF582) were determined by quantitative methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (qMSP) and expressed in ΔCp. Receiver operating characteristic curves were used to evaluate predictive accuracy.

Results: The final pathological results in 48 (17.33%) patients were inflammation or low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL), 190 (68.59%) were high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL), and 39 (14.08%) were squamous cervical cancer (SCC). PAX1 and ZNF582 increased as lesions progressed from inflammation/LSIL, HSIL, to SCC. PAX1 and ZNF582 methylation yielded better prediction performance compared with common screening strategies, whether individually or combined. A 4.33-fold increase in the probability of inflammation/LSIL was observed in patients with lower ZNF582 methylation levels (ΔCp ≥ 19.18). A 6.53-fold increase in SCC risk was observed in patients with elevated ZNF582 methylation (ΔCp< 7.09).

Conclusions: DNA methylation would be an alternative screening method to triage and predict the final outcome of conization in CIN3 cases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ofid/ofac013DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8988013PMC
May 2022

First record of a Takayama bloom in Haizhou Bay in response to dissolved organic nitrogen and phosphorus.

Mar Pollut Bull 2022 May 2;178:113572. Epub 2022 Apr 2.

CAS Key Laboratory of Marine Ecology and Environmental Sciences, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071, China; Laboratory for Marine Ecology and Environmental Science, Pilot National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology (Qingdao), Qingdao 266071, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China; Center for Ocean Mega-Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071, China. Electronic address:

Since 1990s, harmful algal blooms (HABs) of Kareniaceae, primarily caused by species of Karenia and Karlodinium and rarely by Takayama species, have been substantially increasing in frequency and duration in the coastal waters of China. In this study, we recorded a bloom of high abundance of T. acrotrocha in the Haizhou Bay, the Yellow Sea in September 2020, which is the first record of a Takayama bloom in the temperate coastal waters of China. We found that high concentrations of DON and DOP accelerated the proliferation of T. acrotrocha in the Haizhou Bay. Intensive mariculture, and terrestrial nitrogen and phosphorus input may be responsible for the eutrophication in the Haizhou Bay featuring high concentrations of DON and DOP, and high DIN/DIP ratios. The results suggested that, under ocean warming, the HABs of Kareniaceae are becoming increasingly dominant in eutrophic temperate coasts with intensive mariculture activities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2022.113572DOI Listing
May 2022

Occurrence and removal of 25 antibiotics during sewage treatment processes and potential risk analysis.

Water Sci Technol 2022 Mar;85(6):1800-1812

Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region Ecological and Environmental Monitoring Centre, Nanning 530028, PR China.

The occurrence and removal of 25 antibiotics, including ten quinolones (QNs), four macrolides (MLs), four tetracyclines (TCs) and seven sulfonamides (SNs), were analysed at two sewage treatment plants (STPs) with different treatment units in Guangxi Province, China. The results showed that 14 and 16 antibiotics were detected in the influent of the two STPs, with concentrations ranging from 13.7-4265.2 ng/L and 14.5-10761.7 ng/L, respectively. Among the antibiotics, TCs were the main type in the study area, accounting for more than 79% of the total concentration of all antibiotics. The antibiotic removal efficiencies of the different process units ranged from -56.73% to 100.0%. It was found that the SN removal efficiency of the multistage composite mobile bed membrane bioreactor (MBBR) process was better than that of the continuous-flow Intermission biological reactor (IBR) process, while the IBR process was better than the MBBR process in terms of removing TCs and MLs; however, there was no obvious difference in the QN removal efficiencies of these two processes. Redundancy analysis (RDA) showed a strong correlation between antibiotic concentration and chemical oxygen demand (COD). Risk assessments indicated that algae, followed by invertebrates and fish, were the most sensitive aquatic organisms to the detected antibiotics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2166/wst.2022.039DOI Listing
March 2022

A novel prognostic model based on log odds of positive lymph nodes to predict outcomes of patients with anaplastic thyroid carcinoma after surgery.

Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2022 Mar 31. Epub 2022 Mar 31.

Peking Union Medical College Graduate School, Beijing, China.

Objective: The eighth version of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (8th AJCC) system for anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) added lymph node (LN) metastasis as the staging element. This study aimed to explore the association between LN status and ATC's prognosis, identify the optimal LN index and establish a novel prognostic model.

Design And Patients: Data of 199 ATC patients after surgery were collected from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database, then randomly divided into training and validation cohorts.

Measurements: We compared the prognostic value of AJCC N status, number of positive LN (PLNN), ratio of LN (LNR) and log odds of positive LN (LODDS). We conducted univariate and multivariate Cox analyses to determine the independent prognostic factors for ATC, and constructed a novel prognostic model. The concordance index (C-index), area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC), calibration curves and decision curve analysis (DCA) were used to assess the nomogram's predictive performance.

Results: LODDS showed the highest accuracy among four LN systems to predict overall survival (OS) for ATC. In the training cohort, the C-index of the LODDS-based nomogram was 0.738. The AUCs were 0.813, 0.850 and 0.869 for predicting 1-, 2- and 3-year OS, respectively. The calibration plots and DCA indicated the great clinical applicability of the model. The above results were verified in the validation cohort.

Conclusions: LODDS showed better predictive performance than other LN schemes in ATC. The LODDS-incorporated nomogram has the potential to more precisely predict the prognosis for ATC patients than the AJCC system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cen.14729DOI Listing
March 2022

RNA G-quadruplex in TMPRSS2 reduces SARS-CoV-2 infection.

Nat Commun 2022 03 17;13(1):1444. Epub 2022 Mar 17.

Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, National Clinical Research Center for Geriatrics, State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Cancer Center, West China Hospital, Sichuan University and Collaborative Innovation Center of Biotherapy, Chengdu, 610041, Sichuan, China.

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection continues to have devastating consequences worldwide. Recently, great efforts have been made to identify SARS-CoV-2 host factors, but the regulatory mechanisms of these host molecules, as well as the virus per se, remain elusive. Here we report a role of RNA G-quadruplex (RG4) in SARS-CoV-2 infection. Combining bioinformatics, biochemical and biophysical assays, we demonstrate the presence of RG4s in both SARS-CoV-2 genome and host factors. The biological and pathological importance of these RG4s is then exemplified by a canonical 3-quartet RG4 within Tmprss2, which can inhibit Tmprss2 translation and prevent SARS-CoV-2 entry. Intriguingly, G-quadruplex (G4)-specific stabilizers attenuate SARS-CoV-2 infection in pseudovirus cell systems and mouse models. Consistently, the protein level of TMPRSS2 is increased in lungs of COVID-19 patients. Our findings reveal a previously unknown mechanism underlying SARS-CoV-2 infection and suggest RG4 as a potential target for COVID-19 prevention and treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-022-29135-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8931161PMC
March 2022

Predefined-Time Hierarchical Coordinated Neural Control for Hypersonic Reentry Vehicle.

IEEE Trans Neural Netw Learn Syst 2022 Mar 17;PP. Epub 2022 Mar 17.

This paper investigates the predefined-time hierarchical coordinated adaptive control on the hypersonic reentry vehicle in presence of low actuator efficiency. In order to compensate for the deficiency of rudder deflection in advantage of channel coupling, the hierarchical design is proposed for coordination of the elevator deflection and aileron deflection. Under the control scheme, the equivalent control law and switching control law are constructed with the predefined-time technology. For the dynamics uncertainty approximation, the composite learning using the tracking error and the prediction error is constructed by designing the serial-parallel estimation model. The closed-loop system stability is analyzed via the Lyapunov approach and the tracking errors are guaranteed to be uniformly ultimately bounded in a predefined time. The tracking performance and the learning accuracy of the proposed algorithm are verified via simulation tests.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TNNLS.2022.3151198DOI Listing
March 2022

Circular RNA circDVL1 inhibits clear cell renal cell carcinoma progression through the miR-412-3p/PCDH7 axis.

Int J Biol Sci 2022 24;18(4):1491-1507. Epub 2022 Jan 24.

The Fourth Affiliated Hospital, and International Institutes of Medicine, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Jinhua 322000, Zhejiang, China.

Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is a primary kidney cancer with high aggressive phenotype and extremely poor prognosis. Accumulating evidence suggests that circular RNAs (circRNAs) play pivotal roles in the occurrence and development of various human cancers. However, the expression, clinical significance and regulatory role of circRNAs in ccRCC remain largely unclear. Here we report that circDVL1 to be reduced in the serums and tissues from ccRCC patients, and to negatively correlate with ccRCC malignant features. Overexpression of circDVL1 inhibits proliferation, induces G1/S arrest, triggers apoptosis, and reduces migration and invasion in different ccRCC cells . Correspondingly, circDVL1 overexpression suppresses ccRCC tumorigenicity in a mouse xenograft model. Mechanistically, circDVL1 serves as a sponge for oncogenic miR-412-3p, thereby preventing miR-412-3p-mediated repression of its target protocadherin 7 (PCDH7) in ccRCC cells. Collectively, our results demonstrate that circDVL1 exerts tumor-suppressive function during ccRCC progression through circDVL1/miR-412-3p/PCDH7 axis, and suggest that circDVL1 could be a novel diagnostic and prognositc marker and therapeutic target for ccRCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/ijbs.69351DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8898370PMC
April 2022

The Ubiquitin E3 Ligase PRU2 Modulates Phosphate Uptake in Arabidopsis.

Int J Mol Sci 2022 Feb 18;23(4). Epub 2022 Feb 18.

State Key Laboratory of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, College of Biological Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China.

Phosphorus is an essential macronutrient for plants. The phosphate (Pi) concentration in soil solutions is typically low, and plants always suffer from low-Pi stress. During Pi starvation, a number of adaptive mechanisms in plants have evolved to increase Pi uptake, whereas the mechanisms are not very clear. Here, we report that an ubiquitin E3 ligase, PRU2, modulates Pi acquisition in Arabidopsis response to the low-Pi stress. The mutant showed arsenate-resistant phenotypes and reduced Pi content and Pi uptake rate. The complementation with restored these to wild-type plants. PRU2 functioned as an ubiquitin E3 ligase, and the protein accumulation of PRU2 was elevated during Pi starvation. PRU2 interacted with a kinase CK2α1 and a ribosomal protein RPL10 and degraded CK2α1 and RPL10 under low-Pi stress. The in vitro phosphorylation assay showed that CK2α1 phosphorylated PHT1;1 at Ser-514, and prior reports demonstrated that the phosphorylation of PHT1;1 Ser-514 resulted in PHT1;1 retention in the endoplasmic reticulum. Then, the degradation of CK2α1 by PRU2 under low-Pi stress facilitated PHT1;1 to move to the plasma membrane to increase Arabidopsis Pi uptake. Taken together, this study demonstrated that the ubiquitin E3 ligase-PRU2-was an important positive regulator in modulating Pi acquisition in Arabidopsis response to low-Pi stress.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms23042273DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8874776PMC
February 2022

Comparative Study on Biodegradation of Pure Iron Prepared by Microwave Sintering and Laser Melting.

Materials (Basel) 2022 Feb 21;15(4). Epub 2022 Feb 21.

School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083, China.

For biodegradable pure iron implants, a higher biodegradation rate is preferred. In this work, we compared the biodegradation of pure iron prepared by microwave sintering and laser melting (designated as MSed Fe and LMed Fe, respectively). The MSed Fe presented a distinct porous structure, while the LMed Fe presented a relatively compact structure without any obvious pores. The biodegradation rate of the MSed Fe was higher than that of the LMed Fe, and their biodegradation rates were higher than that of the as-cast Fe. The biodegradation rates of the MSed Fe and the LMed Fe were approximately 44 and 13 times higher than that of the as cast Fe, respectively. The biodegradation was closely related to the microstructure's compactness and grain size. Moreover, the MSed Fe and the LMed Fe had satisfactory biocompatibility.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma15041604DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8879248PMC
February 2022

Somatostatin attenuates intestinal epithelial barrier injury during acute intestinal ischemia-reperfusion through Tollip/Myeloiddifferentiationfactor 88/Nuclear factor kappa-B signaling.

Bioengineered 2022 03;13(3):5005-5020

Department of Gastrointestinal and Hernia Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Kunming Medical University, Kunming, China.

In the process of ischemia-reperfusion injury, intestinal ischemia and inflammation interweave, leading to tissue damage or necrosis. However, oxygen radicals and inflammatory mediators produced after reperfusion cause tissue damage again, resulting in severe intestinal epithelial barrier dysfunction. The aim of this study was to determine the protective effect of somatostatin on intestinal epithelial barrier function during intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury and explore its mechanism. By establishing a rat intestinal ischemia-reperfusion model, pretreating the rats with somatostatin, and then detecting the histopathological changes, intestinal permeability and expression of tight junction proteins in intestinal tissues, the protective effect of somatostatin on the intestinal epithelial barrier was measured in vivo. The mechanism was determined in interferon γ (IFN-γ)-treated Caco-2 cells in vitro. The results showed that somatostatin could ameliorate ischemia-reperfusion-induced intestinal epithelial barrier dysfunction and protect Caco-2 cells against IFN-γ-induced decreases in tight junction protein expression and increases in monolayer cell permeability. The expression of Tollip was upregulated by somatostatin both in ischemia-reperfusion rats and IFN-γ-treated Caco-2 cells, while the activation of TLR2/MyD88/NF-κB signaling was inhibited by somatostatin. Tollip inhibition reversed the protective effect of somatostatin on the intestinal epithelial barrier. In conclusion, somatostatin could attenuate ischemia-reperfusion-induced intestinal epithelial barrier injury by inhibiting the activation of TLR2/MyD88/NF-κB signaling through upregulation of Tollip.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21655979.2022.2038450DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8973595PMC
March 2022

Integrative biology of extracellular vesicles in diabetes mellitus and diabetic complications.

Theranostics 2022 1;12(3):1342-1372. Epub 2022 Jan 1.

Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, National Clinical Research Center for Geriatrics, State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Cancer Center, West China Medical School, West China Hospital, Sichuan University and Collaborative Innovation Center of Biotherapy, Chengdu, China.

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic systemic disease with increasing prevalence globally. An important aspect of diabetic pathogenesis is cellular crosstalk and information exchange between multiple metabolic organs and tissues. In the past decade, increasing evidence suggested that extracellular vesicles (EVs), a class of cell-derived membrane vesicles that transmit information and perform inter-cellular and inter-organ communication, are involved in the pathological changes of insulin resistance (IR), inflammation, and endothelial injury, and implicated in the development of DM and its complications. The biogenesis and cargo sorting machinery dysregulation of EVs may mediate their pathogenic roles under diabetic conditions. Moreover, the biogenesis of EVs, their ubiquitous production by different cells, their function as mediators of inter-organ communication, and their biological features in body fluids have generated great promise as biomarkers and clinical treatments. In this review, we summarize the components of EV generation and sorting machinery and highlight their role in the pathogenesis of DM and associated complications. Furthermore, we discuss the emerging clinical implications of EVs as potential biomarkers and therapeutic strategies for DM and diabetic complications. A better understanding of EVs will deepen our knowledge of the pathophysiology of DM and its complications and offer attractive approaches to improve the prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of these disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/thno.65778DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8771544PMC
April 2022

Green Tides in the Yellow Sea Promoted the Proliferation of Pelagophyte .

Environ Sci Technol 2022 03 8;56(5):3056-3064. Epub 2022 Feb 8.

CAS Key Laboratory of Marine Ecology and Environmental Sciences, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071, China.

Harmful algal blooms formed by fast-growing, ephemeral macroalgae have expanded worldwide, yet there is limited knowledge of their potential ecological consequences. Here, we select intense green tides formed by in the Yellow Sea, China, to examine the ecological consequences of these blooms. Using 28-isofucosterol in the surface sediment as a biomarker of green algae, we identified the settlement region of massive floating green algae in the area southeast of the Shandong Peninsula in the southern Yellow Sea. The responses of the phytoplankton assemblage from the deep chlorophyll- maximum layer were then resolved using high-throughput sequencing. We found striking changes in the phytoplankton community in the settlement region after an intensive green tide in 2016, characterized by a remarkable increase in the abundance of the pelagophyte , the causative species of ecosystem disruptive brown tides. Our study strongly suggests that the occurrence of massive macroalgal blooms may promote blooms of specific groups of microalgae through alteration of the marine environment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.1c06502DOI Listing
March 2022

Human cytochrome P450 3A-mediated two-step oxidation metabolism of dimethomorph: Implications in the mechanism-based enzyme inactivation.

Sci Total Environ 2022 May 1;822:153585. Epub 2022 Feb 1.

Pharmaceutical Research Center, Second Affiliated Hospital, Dalian Medical University, Dalian 116000, Liaoning, China. Electronic address:

Dimethomorph (DMM), an effective and broad-spectrum fungicide applied in agriculture, is toxic to environments and living organisms due to the hazardous nature of its toxic residues. This study aims to investigate the human cytochrome P450 enzyme (CYP)-mediated oxidative metabolism of DMM by combining experimental and computational approaches. Dimethomorph was metabolized predominantly through a two-step oxidation process mediated by CYPs, and CYP3A was identified as the major contributor to DMM sequential oxidative metabolism. Meanwhile, DMM elicited the mechanism-based inactivation (MBI) of CYP3A in a suicide manner, and the iminium ion and epoxide reactive intermediates generated in DMM metabolism were identified as the culprits of MBI. Furthermore, three common pesticides, prochloraz (PCZ), difenoconazole (DFZ) and chlorothalonil (CTL), could significantly inhibit CYP3A-mediated DMM metabolism, and consequently trigger elevated exposure to DMM in vivo. Computational studies elucidated that the differentiation effects in charge distribution and the interaction pattern played crucial roles in DMM-induced MBI of CYP3A4 during sequential oxidative metabolism. Collectively, this study provided a global view of the two-step metabolic activation process of DMM mediated by CYP3A, which was beneficial for elucidating the environmental fate and toxicological mechanism of DMM in humans from a new perspective.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2022.153585DOI Listing
May 2022

ZNF32 promotes the self-renewal of colorectal cancer cells by regulating the LEPR-STAT3 signaling pathway.

Cell Death Dis 2022 02 3;13(2):108. Epub 2022 Feb 3.

Department of Gastroenterology, Clinical medical college and the first affiliated hospital of Chengdu medical college, Chengdu, China.

Due to the self-renewal characteristics and tumorigenic abilities of cancer stem cells (CSCs), CSCs have been demonstrated to play vital roles in carcinogenesis and antitumor therapy. Our previous report found that Krüppel-like family members (KLFs) and zinc finger protein 32 (ZNF32) play oncogenic roles in carcinogenesis. However, the roles and mechanism of ZNF32 in CSCs are still unknown. Our study demonstrated that ZNF32 was highly expressed in colorectal CSCs, which promoted their self-renewal capacity and tumorigenicity. Overexpression of ZNF32 in colorectal cancer (CRC) cells increased their self-renewal capacity. Furthermore, we identified the leptin receptor (LEPR) as the downstream target gene of ZNF32 and verified that the ZNF32-mediated regulation of CRC self-renewal is achieved via the LEPR- signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) pathway. Moreover, ZNF32 regulated the expression of SOX2, a core transcription factor in stem cells. Finally, we demonstrated that ZNF32 and LEPR were positively correlated in CRC tissues. ZNF32 expression was negatively correlated with the prognosis of CRC patients. Therefore, therapeutically targeting the ZNF32-LEPR-STAT3 pathway in the clinic is tempting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41419-022-04530-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8814143PMC
February 2022

Low-Temperature Direct Growth of Few-Layer Hexagonal Boron Nitride on Catalyst-Free Sapphire Substrates.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2022 Feb 26;14(5):7004-7011. Epub 2022 Jan 26.

Key Lab of Semiconductor Materials Science, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083, P. R. China.

Wide-band-gap layered semiconductor hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) is attracting intense interest due to its unique optoelectronic properties and versatile applications in deep ultraviolet optoelectronic and two-dimensional electronic devices. However, it is still a great challenge to directly grow high-quality h-BN on dielectric substrates, and an extremely high substrate temperature or annealing is usually required. In this work, high-quality few-layer h-BN is directly grown on sapphire substrates via ion beam sputtering deposition at a relatively low temperature of 700 °C by introducing NH into the growth chamber. Such low growth temperature is attributed to the presence of abundant active N species, originating from the decomposition of NH under ion beam irradiation. To further tailor the properties of h-BN, carbon was introduced into the h-BN layer by simultaneously introducing CH and NH during the growth process, indicating the wide applicability of this approach. Moreover, a deep ultraviolet (DUV) photodetector is also fabricated from a C-doped h-BN layer and exhibits superior performance compared with an intrinsic h-BN device.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c22626DOI Listing
February 2022

A microRNA checkpoint for Ca signaling and overload in acute pancreatitis.

Mol Ther 2022 Apr 22;30(4):1754-1774. Epub 2022 Jan 22.

Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, National Clinical Research Center for Geriatrics, State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Cancer Center, West China Hospital, Sichuan University and Collaborative Innovation Center of Biotherapy, Chengdu, 610041 Sichuan, China. Electronic address:

Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a common digestive disease without specific treatment, and its pathogenesis features multiple deleterious amplification loops dependent on translation, triggered by cytosolic Ca ([Ca]) overload; however, the underlying mechanisms in Ca overload of AP remains incompletely understood. Here we show that microRNA-26a (miR-26a) inhibits pancreatic acinar cell (PAC) store-operated Ca entry (SOCE) channel expression, Ca overload, and AP. We find that major SOCE channels are post-transcriptionally induced in PACs during AP, whereas miR-26a expression is reduced in experimental and human AP and correlated with AP severity. Mechanistically, miR-26a simultaneously targets Trpc3 and Trpc6 SOCE channels and attenuates physiological oscillations and pathological elevations of [Ca] in PACs. MiR-26a deficiency increases SOCE channel expression and [Ca] overload, and significantly exacerbates AP. Conversely, global or PAC-specific overexpression of miR-26a in mice ameliorates pancreatic edema, neutrophil infiltration, acinar necrosis, and systemic inflammation, accompanied with remarkable improvements on pathological determinants related with [Ca] overload. Moreover, pancreatic or systemic administration of an miR-26a mimic to mice significantly alleviates experimental AP. These findings reveal a previously unknown mechanism underlying AP pathogenesis, establish a critical role for miR-26a in Ca signaling in the exocrine pancreas, and identify a potential target for the treatment of AP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ymthe.2022.01.033DOI Listing
April 2022

Spatial-type skeleton induced Geobacter enrichment and tailored bio-capacitance of electroactive bioanode for efficient electron transfer in microbial fuel cells.

Sci Total Environ 2022 May 17;821:153123. Epub 2022 Jan 17.

State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, School of Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, No. 73 Huanghe Road, Nangang District, Harbin 150090, China. Electronic address:

Microbial fuel cell (MFC) is a promising alternative to energy-intensive conventional wastewater technology. However, poor electron transfer efficiency, low coulombic recovery (CR), and high capital cost highly restricted its practical application. In this work, spatial electroactive biofilm is successfully developed on the carbonaceous skeleton derived from phenolic foam, which highly improved the bio-capacitance and Geobacter abundance of bioanode. Compared with carbon cloth (CC) anode, the optimal spatial electroactive biofilm (3DP_900) enriched the Geobacter abundance up to 56.8% from 17.2%, and obtained an extraordinary electroactive biomass loading of about 339 ± 63 μg cm and a remarkable bio-capacitance of about 3.4 F. In general, spatial biofilm highly reduces the barriers to electron transfer (R) and mass transfer (R) in anodic substrate oxidation reaction and obtains the lowest R of 2.0 ± 0.2 Ω and R of 35 ± 3.3 Ω in 3DP_900, which also supports the highest power density at 0.347 ± 0.027 W m and the highest CR at 69.2%. More importantly, due to its mature preparation technology, carbonized phenolic foam (2 cm thick pieces) reduces the capital cost of electrode preparation by three orders of magnitude from 1157.3 USD m of CC to 5.2 USD m. Overall, this work offers an effective and scalable electrode to achieve high substrate utilization rate and energy recovery efficiency, and considers the economic cost of electrode fabrication for the further construction of pilot-scale MFCs equipment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2022.153123DOI Listing
May 2022

DNA methylation and single-nucleotide polymorphisms in DDX58 are associated with hand, foot and mouth disease caused by enterovirus 71.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2022 Jan 18;16(1):e0010090. Epub 2022 Jan 18.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Xi'an Jiaotong University Second Affiliated Hospital, Xi'an, China.

Background: This research aimed to explore the association between the RIG-I-like receptor (RIG-I and MDA5 encoded by DDX58 and IFIH1, respectively) pathways and the risk or severity of hand, foot, and mouth disease caused by enterovirus 71 (EV71-HFMD). In this context, we explored the influence of gene methylation and polymorphism on EV71-HFMD.

Methodology/principal Findings: 60 healthy controls and 120 EV71-HFMD patients, including 60 mild EV71-HFMD and 60 severe EV71-HFMD patients, were enrolled. First, MiSeq was performed to explore the methylation of CpG islands in the DDX58 and IFIH1 promoter regions. Then, DDX58 and IFIH1 expression were detected in PBMCs using RT-qPCR. Finally, imLDR was used to detect DDX58 and IFIH1 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotypes. Severe EV71-HFMD patients exhibited higher DDX58 promoter methylation levels than healthy controls and mild EV71-HFMD patients. DDX58 promoter methylation was significantly associated with severe HFMD, sex, vomiting, high fever, neutrophil abundance, and lymphocyte abundance. DDX58 expression levels were significantly lower in mild patients than in healthy controls and lower in severe patients than in mild patients. Binary logistic regression analysis revealed statistically significant differences in the genotype frequencies of DDX58 rs3739674 between the mild and severe groups. GeneMANIA revealed that 19 proteins displayed correlations with DDX58, including DHX58, HERC5, MAVS, RAI14, WRNIP1 and ISG15, and 19 proteins displayed correlations with IFIH1, including TKFC, IDE, MAVS, DHX58, NLRC5, TSPAN6, USP3 and DDX58.

Conclusions/significance: DDX58 expression and promoter methylation were associated with EV71 infection progression, especially in severe EV71-HFMD patients. The effect of DDX58 in EV71-HFMD is worth further attention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0010090DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8765647PMC
January 2022

Meigs Syndrome Caused by Ovarian Granulosa Cell Tumor: A Case Report.

J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol 2022 Jan 13. Epub 2022 Jan 13.

Department of Gynaecology, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, China; Gynecological Oncology Research and Engineering Center of Hunan Province, Changsha, Hunan, China. Electronic address:

Background: Ovarian granulosa cell tumor (GCT) is extremely rare in children and adolescents, especially along with Meigs syndrome (MS).

Case: We describe the case of a 12-year-old girl who was referred to our center for massive peritoneal effusions with evidence of a pelvic mass on ultrasonography and computed tomography. The patient was treated with laparoscopic surgery (fertility-sparing surgery) and postoperative chemotherapy.

Summary And Conclusion: Our case highlights the clinical importance of assessing MS in the diagnosis of pediatric female patients with peritoneal effusion and ovarian mass and the importance of fertility-sparing surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpag.2021.12.020DOI Listing
January 2022

Highly Soluble and Stable, High Release Rate Nanocellulose Codrug Delivery System of Curcumin and AuNPs for Dual Chemo-Photothermal Therapy.

Biomacromolecules 2022 03 14;23(3):960-971. Epub 2022 Jan 14.

State Key Lab of Pulp and Paper Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640, China.

As a natural antitumor drug, curcumin (CUR) has received increasing attention from researchers and patients due to its various medicinal properties. However, currently CUR is still restricted due to its low and stand-alone therapeutic effects that seriously limit its clinical application. Here, by using cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) as a nanocarrier to load CUR and AuNPs simultaneously, we developed a hybrid nanoparticle as a codrug delivery system to enhance the low and stand-alone therapeutic effects of CUR. Aided with the encapsulation of β-cyclodextrin (βCD), both the solubility and the stability of CUR are greatly enhanced (solubility increased from 0.89 to 131.7 μg/mL). Owing to the unique rod-like morphology of CNCs, the system exhibits an outstanding loading capacity of 31.4 μg/mg. Under the heat effects of coloaded AuNPs, the system demonstrates a high release rate of 77.63%. Finally, with CNC as a bridge nanocarrier, all aforementioned functions were integrated into one hybrid nanoparticle. The all-in-one integration ensures CUR to have enhanced therapeutic effects and enables the delivery system to exhibit combined chemo-photothermal therapy outcomes. This work presents a significant step toward CUR's clinical application and provides a new strategy for effective and integrative treatment of tumor disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.biomac.1c01367DOI Listing
March 2022

Toxic effects, mechanisms, and ecological impacts of harmful algal blooms in China.

Harmful Algae 2022 01 4;111:102148. Epub 2021 Dec 4.

Key Laboratory of Marine Ecology and Environmental Sciences, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao, Shandong Province, 266071, China. Electronic address:

Over the last 30 years, harmful algal blooms (HABs) have occurred frequently in the coastal waters of China, resulting in financial losses of over 5.9 billion yuan (about 0.87 billion US dollars) due to massive fish and shellfish mortalities and negative impacts on tourism. To better understand HABs in China, herein we summarized bloom events with massive fish/shellfish mortalities and/or economic losses. Our results suggest that the diversity of HAB species has increased over the last 30 years, with the main causative species shifting from the raphidophyte Chattonella marina and dinoflagellates Gymnodinium spp. to various other species, including the dinoflagellates Karenia mikimotoi and Prorocentrum donghaiense, the haptophyte Phaeocystis globosa, and the pelagophyte Aureococcus anophagefferens. In addition, new types of HABs, such as macroalgal blooms, emerged with severe ecological impacts. We also reviewed the toxic effects, mechanisms, and ecological impacts of common HAB causative species in China. Analysis of the toxic effects of three types of harmful algae (toxin-producing, fish killing, and ecosystem disruptive algae) on marine organisms commonly found in China at different trophic levels revealed that HABs often had toxic effects on multiple organisms in addition to fish or shellfish, with species-specific impacts. Common mechanisms of intoxication include shifting environmental parameters, shellfish poisoning, reactive oxygen species, and haemolytic/cytotoxic toxins. The main mechanism appears to vary with the type of HAB species, and for some notorious algae such as K. mikimotoi and C. marina, further investigations are needed to identify their intoxication mechanism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.hal.2021.102148DOI Listing
January 2022

The Value of Meteorological Data in Optimizing the Pattern of Physical Load-A Forecast Model of Rowing Pacing Strategy.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 12 29;19(1). Epub 2021 Dec 29.

Division of Sports Science and Physical Education, Tangshan Polytechnic College, Tangshan 063299, China.

Mastering the information of arena environment is the premise for athletes to optimize their patterns of physical load. Therefore, improving the forecast accuracy of the arena conditions is an urgent task in competitive sports. This paper excavates the meteorological features that have great influence on outdoor events such as rowing and their influence on the pacing strategy. We selected the meteorological data of Tokyo from 1979 to 2020 to forecast the meteorology during the Tokyo 2021 Olympic Games, analyzed the athletes' pacing choice under different temperatures, humidity and sports levels, and then recommend the best pacing strategy for rowing teams of China. The model proposed in this paper complements the absence of meteorological features in the arena environment assessment and provides an algorithm basis for improving the forecast performance of pacing strategies in outdoor sports.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19010320DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8750911PMC
December 2021

Hydrogen, a Novel Therapeutic Molecule, Regulates Oxidative Stress, Inflammation, and Apoptosis.

Front Physiol 2021 20;12:789507. Epub 2021 Dec 20.

Research Center for Translational Medicine, Tongji University Affiliated East Hospital, Shanghai, China.

Molecular hydrogen (H) is a colorless and odorless gas. Studies have shown that H inhalation has the therapeutic effects in many animal studies and clinical trials, and its application is recommended in the novel coronavirus pneumonia treatment guidelines in China recently. H has a relatively small molecular mass, which helps it quickly spread and penetrate cell membranes to exert a wide range of biological effects. It may play a role in the treatment and prevention of a variety of acute and chronic inflammatory diseases, such as acute pancreatitis, sepsis, respiratory disease, ischemia reperfusion injury diseases, autoimmunity diseases, etc.. H is primarily administered inhalation, drinking H-rich water, or injection of H saline. It may participate in the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity (mitochondrial energy metabolism), immune system regulation, and cell death (apoptosis, autophagy, and pyroptosis) through annihilating excess reactive oxygen species production and modulating nuclear transcription factor. However, the underlying mechanism of H has not yet been fully revealed. Owing to its safety and potential efficacy, H has a promising potential for clinical use against many diseases. This review will demonstrate the role of H in antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and antiapoptotic effects and its underlying mechanism, particularly in coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19), providing strategies for the medical application of H for various diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2021.789507DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8721893PMC
December 2021

Aquaporin OsPIP2;2 links the H2O2 signal and a membrane-anchored transcription factor to promote plant defense.

Plant Physiol 2022 03;188(4):2325-2341

Department of Plant Pathology, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, China.

To overcome pathogen infection, plants deploy a highly efficient innate immune system, which often uses hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), a versatile reactive oxygen species, to activate downstream defense responses. H2O2 is a potential substrate of aquaporins (AQPs), the membrane channels that facilitate the transport of small compounds across plasma membranes or organelle membranes. To date, however, the functional relationship between AQPs and H2O2 in plant immunity is largely undissected. Here, we report that the rice (Oryza sativa) AQP OsPIP2;2 transports pathogen-induced apoplastic H2O2 into the cytoplasm to intensify rice resistance against various pathogens. OsPIP2;2-transported H2O2 is required for microbial molecular pattern flg22 to activate the MAPK cascade and to induce the downstream defense responses. In response to flg22, OsPIP2;2 is phosphorylated at the serine residue S125, and therefore gains the ability to transport H2O2. Phosphorylated OsPIP2;2 also triggers the translocation of OsmaMYB, a membrane-anchored MYB transcription factor, into the plant cell nucleus to impart flg22-induced defense responses against pathogen infection. On the contrary, if OsPIP2;2 is not phosphorylated, OsmaMYB remains associated with the plasma membrane, and plant defense responses are no longer induced. These results suggest that OsPIP2;2 positively regulates plant innate immunity by mediating H2O2 transport into the plant cell and mediating the translocation of OsmaMYB from plasma membrane to nucleus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/plphys/kiab604DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8968290PMC
March 2022

A Neonatal BALB/c Mouse Model of Necrotizing Enterocolitis.

J Vis Exp 2021 11 30(177). Epub 2021 Nov 30.

Provincial Key Laboratory of Research in Structure Birth Defect Disease and Department of Pediatric Surgery, Guangzhou Women and Children's Medical Center, Guangzhou Medical University;

Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is the most severe gastrointestinal (GI) disease that often occurs in premature infants, especially very low birth weight infants, with high mortality and unclear pathogenesis. The cause of NEC may be related to inflammatory immune regulatory system abnormalities. An NEC animal model is an indispensable tool for NEC disease immune research. NEC animal models usually use C57BL/6J neonatal mice; BALB/c neonatal mice are rarely used. Related studies have shown that when mice are infected, Th2 cell differentiation is predominant in BALB/c mice compared to C57BL/6J mice. Studies have suggested that the occurrence and development of NEC are associated with an increase in T helper type 2 (Th2) cells and are generally accompanied by infection. Therefore, this study used neonatal BALB/c mice to induce an NEC model with similar clinical characteristics and intestinal pathological changes as those observed in children with NEC. Further study is warranted to determine whether this animal model could be used to study Th2 cell responses in NEC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3791/63252DOI Listing
November 2021
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