Publications by authors named "Yan Song"

962 Publications

Application of multimodal ultrasonography for differentiating benign and malignant cervical lymphadenopathy.

Jpn J Radiol 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Ultrasonics, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, No. 277 Yanta West Road, Xi'an, 710061, Shaanxi, China.

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of multimodal ultrasonography, including SWE and CEUS, for the differentiation of benign and malignant cervical lymphadenopathy.

Methods: A total of 103 patients with 109 enlarged neck lymph nodes underwent SWE and CEUS. There were 25 hyperplastic lymph nodes, 66 metastatic lymph nodes, and 18 cases of lymphoma.

Results: Using 31.6 kPa as the Emax cutoff, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of measurements on both benign and malignant cervical lymph nodes were 55.95%, 96%, and 65.2%, respectively. CEUS showed that lymph nodes with reactive hyperplasia mainly exhibited uniform perfusion via the lymphatic hilum (18/25; 72%; P < 0.01). The main manifestation of lymphoma was uniform perfusion through the lymphatic hila (10/18; 55.6%; P < 0.01). Metastatic lymph nodes mainly exhibited uneven perfusion (57/66; 86.4%; P < 0.01). The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of multimodal ultrasonography for the diagnosis of benign and malignant cervical lymphadenopathies were 90.5%, 72%, and 86.2%, respectively.

Conclusions: Our findings suggest that multimodal ultrasonography can detect the stiffness (elasticity), perfusion pattern, and characteristics of lymph nodes and is a valuable tool for differentiating between benign and malignant lymphadenopathies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11604-021-01131-7DOI Listing
May 2021

Guillain-Barré syndrome in Local Eastern China: a study of 595 patients.

Eur J Neurol 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Neurology, Affiliated Hospital of Jining Medical University, Jining, Shandong Province, China.

Background: To investigate geographical differences in clinical features of patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) from local Eastern China and other areas.

Methods: A total of 595 patients fulfilling GBS and variants were included from two large hospitals located in Eastern China. Data collection included demographics, antecedent events, clinical presentation and signs, electrophysiological subtypes, treatment, complications during hospitalization, clinical severity at nadir and outcome at 12 months and were compared to the Southern China study and the Europe/Americas part of International GBS Outcome Study.

Results: The median age of patients was 50 years (interquartile range, 36-61 years), the ratio of males to females was 1.2 and 49% of patients had antecedent events. Patients in our area were pure motor predominant (158/340, 46%) and 30% (103/340) had complications during hospitalization. Patients over age 60 years had lower frequency of antecedent infections and axonal subtypes, but higher disability scores at entry, nadir, and 12 months. When compared with Europe/Americas, our patients had lower frequency of antecedent infection (46% versus 63%), cranial nerve involvement (43% versus 49%), sensory deficits (45% versus 69%), pain (19% versus 57%), and mechanical ventilation (11% versus 17%) but higher frequency of axonal subtype (35% versus 6%). There was higher frequency of patients with antecedent gastroenteritis (16% versus 8%), mechanical ventilation (11% versus 8%) and axonal subtypes (35% versus 19%) in our area than the Southern China.

Conclusions: Patients with GBS in local Eastern China showed significant clinical heterogeneity and differences when compared to other geographic areas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ene.14898DOI Listing
May 2021

A functional variant of the lncRNA AL110200 is associated with the risk of ischemic stroke recurrence.

Eur J Neurol 2021 May 1. Epub 2021 May 1.

State Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Disease, Fuwai Hospital, National Center for Cardiovascular Diseases, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China.

Background: This study aimed to test the hypothesis that lncRNA AL110200 exerts a proinflammatory effect on atherosclerosis and that the variant rs901681 contributes to ischemic stroke incidence and recurrence.

Methods: The expression of AL110200 was analyzed in THP-1 cells treated with oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) and in human peripheral blood in a coronary heart disease (CHD)-control population to determine the role of AL110200 in atherosclerosis. The effect of AL110200 on cell adhesion and invasion was tested. The plasma level of leukotriene B4 (LTB4) and rs901681 genotype distribution were assessed in 220 participants. In 1004 ischemic stroke patients and 1434 controls, the association between rs901681 and stroke incidence was analyzed by Logistic regression, and the association of rs901681 and stroke prognosis was analyzed using Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox proportional hazards.

Results: Increased expression of AL110200 was observed in THP-1 cells under ox-LDL treatment. Knockdown of AL110200 reduced the adhesive and invasive ability of THP-1 cells. AL110200 expression in peripheral blood was significantly higher in the CHD group than in the controls. The GG genotype of rs901681 is associated with reduced plasma LTB4. In the ischemic stroke population, rs901681 was not associated with ischemic stroke incidence (p=0.686). Patients carrying rs901681 GG had a lower risk for stroke recurrence at age ≥60 years (p=0.001), cardiovascular stroke death (p=0.022) and all-cause mortality (p=0.034) in the all-age group.

Conclusions: AL110200 might exert a proinflammatory effect on atherosclerosis, and the variant rs901681 might be a strong predictor of stroke prognosis in ischemic stroke patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ene.14895DOI Listing
May 2021

A Comparison of Dietary Intake Between Individuals Undergoing Maintenance Hemodialysis in the United Kingdom and China.

J Ren Nutr 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Cardiovascular Sciences, University of Leicester, Leicester, United Kingdom; NIHR Leicester Biomedical Research Centre, University Hospitals of Leicester NHS Trust, Leicester, UK; School of Sport, Exercise & Health Sciences, Loughborough University, United Kingdom.

Objective: Protein-energy wasting is highly prevalent in people with end-stage kidney disease receiving regular hemodialysis. Currently, it is unclear what the optimal nutritional recommendations are, which is further complicated by differences in dietary patterns between countries. The aim of the study was to understand and compare dietary intake between individuals receiving hemodialysis in Leicester, UK and Nantong, China.

Methods: The study assessed 40 UK and 44 Chinese participants' dietary intake over a period of 14 days using 24-hour diet recall interviews. Nutritional blood parameters were obtained from medical records. Food consumed by participants in the UK and China was analyzed using the Nutritics and Nutrition calculator to quantify nutritional intake.

Results: Energy and protein intake were comparable between UK and Chinese participants, but with both below the recommended daily intake. Potassium intake was higher in UK participants compared to Chinese participants (2,115 [888] versus 1,159 [861] mg/d; P < .001), as was calcium (618 [257] versus 360 [312] mg/d; P < .001) and phosphate intake (927 [485] versus 697 [434] mg/d; P = .007). Vitamin C intake was lower in UK participants compared to their Chinese counterparts (39 [51] versus 64 [42] mg/d; P = .024). Data are reported here as median (interquartile range).

Conclusion: Both UK and Chinese hemodialysis participants have insufficient protein and energy in their diet. New strategies are required to increase protein and energy intakes. All participants had inadequate daily intake of vitamins C and D; there may well be a role in the oral supplementation of these vitamins, and further studies are urgently needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.jrn.2021.03.003DOI Listing
April 2021

The Modulating Effect of Top-down Attention on the Optimal Pre-target Onset Oscillatory States of Bottom-up Attention.

Neuroscience 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

State Key Laboratory of Cognitive Neuroscience and Learning & IDG, McGovern Institute for Brain Research, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China. Electronic address:

Research in both bottom-up and top-down attention has shown that behavioural performance is related to brain oscillations at the time of stimulus presentation: the angle of the theta phase in bottom-up attention and the inhibition of alpha oscillations in top-down attention. However, whether the conditions most favourable for bottom-up attention change with the addition of top-down cues is unclear. To explore the characteristics of favourable oscillations during bottom-up processing, in experiment 1, 36 participants completed a selective attention task (visual search) without cues. Then, in experiment 2, we examined whether favourable oscillatory characteristics were changed by top-down attentional cues; in this experiment, 62 subjects were asked to perform an attention network task. We found that without anticipation, oscillatory states that were associated with better performance were characterized by lower theta power in the frontal area, higher alpha power in the occipital area, higher beta power in the frontal area, and weaker gamma-theta amplitude-envelope coupling in the parietal area. However, some characteristics that were associated with better performance, including theta power and low beta power, were changed after the addition of different cues. In addition, there were some new characteristics related to improved performance under temporal and spatial anticipation. These results suggest that top-down attention implements a more energy-efficient strategy to process information, optimizing the process of bottom-up attention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroscience.2021.03.036DOI Listing
April 2021

CCRL2 promotes antitumor T-cell immunity via amplifying TLR4-mediated immunostimulatory macrophage activation.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Apr;118(16)

Department of Immunology and Key Laboratory of Medical Molecular Virology of Ministries of Education and Health, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai, 200032, China;

Macrophages are the key regulator of T-cell responses depending on their activation state. C-C motif chemokine receptor-like 2 (CCRL2), a nonsignaling atypical receptor originally cloned from LPS-activated macrophages, has recently been shown to regulate immune responses under several inflammatory conditions. However, whether CCRL2 influences macrophage function and regulates tumor immunity remains unknown. Here, we found that tumoral CCRL2 expression is a predictive indicator of robust antitumor T-cell responses in human cancers. CCRL2 is selectively expressed in tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) with immunostimulatory phenotype in humans and mice. Conditioned media from tumor cells could induce CCRL2 expression in macrophages primarily via TLR4, which is negated by immunosuppressive factors. mice exhibit accelerated melanoma growth and impaired antitumor immunity characterized by significant reductions in immunostimulatory macrophages and T-cell responses in tumor. Depletion of CD8 T cells or macrophages eliminates the difference in tumor growth between WT and mice. Moreover, CCRL2 deficiency impairs immunogenic activation of macrophages, resulting in attenuated antitumor T-cell responses and aggravated tumor growth in a coinjection tumor model. Mechanically, CCRL2 interacts with TLR4 on the cell surface to retain membrane TLR4 expression and further enhance its downstream Myd88-NF-κB inflammatory signaling in macrophages. Similarly, mice exhibit reduced CCRL2 expression in TAM and accelerated melanoma growth. Collectively, our study reveals a functional role of CCRL2 in activating immunostimulatory macrophages, thereby potentiating antitumor T-cell response and tumor rejection, and suggests CCLR2 as a potential biomarker candidate and therapeutic target for cancer immunotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2024171118DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8072249PMC
April 2021

Embedding CoO nanoparticles in three-dimensionally ordered macro-/mesoporous TiO for Li-ion hybrid capacitor.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2021 Aug 22;596:130-138. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

School of Materials Science & Engineering and Tianjin Key Laboratory of Materials Laminating Fabrication and Interface Control Technology, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300130, China. Electronic address:

Lithium-ion hybrid capacitors (LICs) have gained increasing focus owing to their high energy/power densities. The development of anodes with superior rate capability is an effective way to surmount the kinetic mismatch between anodes and cathodes, and thus, enhancing the energy/power densities. Herein, CoO nanoparticles embedded in three-dimensionally (3D) ordered macro-/mesoporous TiO (CoO@TiO) are synthesized through an in situ method from dual templates. Differing from the composite prepared by loading active nanoparticles on support, CoO nanoparticles are embedded in TiO framework, which can improve the stability of the electrode. Furthermore, the hierarchically porous structure of TiO is in favor of the rapid diffusion of ions and electrolyte. As a result, The CoO@TiO-2 composite with an optimized CoO content (~25 wt%) delivers a high capacity of 944.1 mAh g after 100 cycles at 0.1 A g and high-rate capability (405.7 mAh g after 1000 cycles at 5 A g). The LIC assembled with CoO@TiO-2 anode and activated carbon (AC) cathode delivers high energy/power densities (maximum, 87.9 Wh kg/10208.9 W kg) and great cycle stability (88.1%, 6000 cycles, 0.5 A g).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2021.03.103DOI Listing
August 2021

Characteristics of From Chinese Native Chicken Breeds Fed on Conventional or Antibiotic-Free Diets.

Front Vet Sci 2021 23;8:607491. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Department of Preventive Veterinary Medicine, College of Animal Science and Technology, Shandong Agricultural University, Tai'an, China.

is a common food-borne Gram-negative pathogen with multiple serotypes. Pullorum disease, caused by Pullorum, seriously threatens the poultry industry. Many previous studies were focused on the epidemiological characteristics of infections in conventional antibiotic use poultry. However, little is known about infections in chicken flocks fed on antibiotic-free diets. Herein, we investigated and compared infections in three Chinese native breeders fed on antibiotic-free diets, including the Luhua, Langya, and Qingjiaoma chickens, and one conventional breeder, the Bairi chicken, via analyzing 360 dead embryos in 2019. The results showed that the main serotypes detected in a total of 155 isolates were . Pullorum (82.6%) and . Enteritidis (17.4%). Coinfection with two serotypes of was specifically found in Bairi chicken. The sequence type (ST) in . Pullorum was ST92 ( = 96) and ST2151 ( = 32), whereas only ST11 ( = 27) was found in . Enteritidis. The isolates from three breeder flocks fed on antibiotic-free diets exhibited phenotypic heterogeneity with a great variety of drug resistance spectrum. Most of the isolates among three chicken breeds Luhua (64.9%, 50/77), Langya (60%, 12/20) and Qingjiaoma (58.3%, 7/12) fed on antibiotic-free diets were resistant to only one antibiotic (erythromycin), whereas the rate of resistance to one antibiotic in conventional Bairi chicken isolates was only 4.3% (2/46). The multidrug-resistance rate in isolates from layer flocks fed on antibiotic-free diets (20.2%, 22/109) was significantly ( < 0.0001) lower than that from chickens fed on conventional diets (93.5%, 43/46). However, high rate of resistance to erythromycin (97.4%~100%) and streptomycin (26%~41.7%) were also found among three breeder flocks fed on antibiotic-free diets, indicating resistance to these antibiotics likely spread before antibiotic-free feeding in poultry farms. The findings of this study supplement the epidemiological data of salmonellosis and provide an example of the characteristics of in the chicken flocks without direct antibiotic selective pressure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2021.607491DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8021795PMC
March 2021

An integrated cuckoo search optimizer for single and multi-objective optimization problems.

PeerJ Comput Sci 2021 11;7:e370. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

School of Physics, Liaoning University, Shenyang, China.

Integrating heterogeneous biological-inspired strategies and mechanisms into one algorithm can avoid the shortcomings of single algorithm. This article proposes an integrated cuckoo search optimizer (ICSO) for single objective optimization problems, which incorporates the multiple strategies into the cuckoo search (CS) algorithm. The paper also considers the proposal of multi-objective versions of ICSO called MOICSO. The two algorithms presented in this paper are benchmarked by a set of benchmark functions. The comprehensive analysis of the experimental results based on the considered test problems and comparisons with other recent methods illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed integrated mechanism of different search strategies and demonstrate the performance superiority of the proposed algorithm.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7717/peerj-cs.370DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7959647PMC
March 2021

Experimental Investigation of Fatigue Crack Growth Behavior of the 2.25Cr1Mo0.25V Steel Welded Joint Used in Hydrogenation Reactors.

Materials (Basel) 2021 Mar 1;14(5). Epub 2021 Mar 1.

School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049, China.

In this work, the fatigue crack growth (FCG) behavior and fatigue damage mechanism of the 2.25Cr1Mo0.25V steel welded joint used in hydrogenation reactors were investigated. The multi-pass welding was carried out to manufacture the welded joint using the combined shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) and submerged automatic arc welding (SAAW) processes. The FCG behavior of different zones in the welded joint, including the base metal (BM), the heat-affected zone (HAZ) and the weld metal (WM), were studied by compact tension tests. Moreover, the acoustic emission (AE) technique was used to monitor AE signals generated from FCG process for further understanding FCG behavior and fatigue mechanisms. Additionally, the microstructures and fracture surfaces of different specimens were observed by optical microscopy (OM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results revealed that the microstructure of BM is fine granular bainite, while the WM shows coarser bainite grains. The HAZ exhibits the most significant inhomogeneity with large dispersion of grain size. FCG results showed that the HAZ exhibits much higher fatigue crack growth rate (FCGR) at low Δ values, while the BM shows the most superior fatigue resistance. The AE technique is successful in monitoring and identifying damage evolutions during the FCG process. Moreover, an enhanced AE activity is observed in FCG of the WM specimen, which is attributed to the combined influence of the formation of numerous secondary cracks and coarse-grained microstructures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma14051159DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7957761PMC
March 2021

Manifestation of cardiac injury in hospitalised patients with COVID-19.

Int J Clin Pract 2021 Mar 31:e14197. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Cardiology, National Center of Gerontology, Institute of Geriatric Medicine, Beijing Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, China.

Background: COVID-19 has been sweeping the world since it emerged in late December 2019. However, little is known about cardiac injury in hospitalised COVID-19 patients. This study is to investigate the incidence and characteristics of myocardial injury in COVID-19 patients admitted in hospital.

Methods: Fifty-four COVID-19 patients were enrolled in one ward in Tongji Hospital, Wuhan, China, and 5 were excluded caused by missing cardiac troponin I levels. Forty-nine participants were included in the final analysis. The clinical manifestations of hospitalised patients were analysed. Patients were divided into two groups, cardiac injury group and non-cardiac injury group, based on whether cardiac troponin I was elevated. Epidemic characteristics and laboratory test results were analysed in these two group.

Results: The average age of patients in the cardiac injury group was older (68.0 years old) than that in the non-cardiac injury group (61.5 years old). The percentages of patients with diabetes and critically severe pneumonia in the cardiac injury group were 38.5% and 38.5% respectively. Lymphocytes were decreased in 53.1% of all enrolled patients, but this decrease was more prominent (76.9%) in the cardiac injury group than the non-cardiac injury group (44.4%). Patients in the cardiac injury group also had lower platelet counts.

Conclusions: COVID-19 can cause cardiac injury in many patients. It is more common in older patients and patients with diabetes and is associated with a significant decrease in lymphocytes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ijcp.14197DOI Listing
March 2021

Perceptions of exercise benefits and barriers: the influence on physical activity behaviour in individuals undergoing haemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis.

J Nephrol 2021 Mar 26. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Leicester Kidney Lifestyle Team, Department of Health Sciences, University of Leicester, Leicester, LE17RH, UK.

Background: Despite growing evidence about the benefits of physical activity and exercise in patients receiving dialysis, physical inactivity is highly prevalent. This may be due to uncertainty and lack of appropriate guidance about exercise, or driven by the relative barriers and benefits that patients perceive. Understanding these perceptions in dialysis patients may inform interventions aimed to increase exercise participation.

Methods: Perceived benefits and barriers to exercise were measured by the 'Dialysis Patient-perceived Exercise Benefits and Barriers Scale' (DPEBBS). Self-reported physical activity status was assessed by the 'General Practice Physical Activity Questionnaire'. Barriers and benefits to exercise were classed as binary variables (i.e. yes and no). Frequency analyses and chi-squared tests were conducted to compare the differences perceived by people on haemodialysis (HD) and peritoneal dialysis (PD). Binominal logistical regression was performed to determine which perceived barriers and benefits had the biggest impact on physical activity status.

Results: One thousand twenty-two HD and 124 PD patients completed the DPEBBS. A greater proportion of HD than PD patients reported 'reduces body pain' (P = 0.013), 'delays decline in body function' (P = 0.01), and 'improves quality of life' (P = 0.033) as benefits of exercise. No differences in barriers were observed. Tiredness was the most reported barrier to exercise. Patients who perceived 'other comorbidities' (OR 3.389, P < 0.001) or 'burden of family' (OR 3.168, P < 0.001) as barriers were 3 times more likely to be inactive.

Conclusions: Dialysis patients perceive several barriers which may prevent them from engaging in physical activity. Addressing these barriers may be key to increasing participation in physical activity and exercise.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40620-021-01024-yDOI Listing
March 2021

SHR-1316, an anti-PD-L1 antibody, plus chemotherapy as the first-line treatment for advanced esophageal squamous cell carcinoma: A multicentre, phase 2 study.

Thorac Cancer 2021 May 24;12(9):1373-1381. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Department of Medical Oncology, National Cancer Center/National Clinical Research Center for Cancer/Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China.

Background: This multicentre, open-label study evaluated the efficacy and safety of antiprogrammed death ligand 1 antibody SHR-1316 plus liposomal irinotecan and 5-fluorouracil as the first-line treatment for patients with advanced esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC).

Methods: Eligible patients received SHR-1316 (10 mg/kg), liposomal irinotecan (60 mg/m for the first cycle, 80 mg/m thereafter), and 5-fluorouracil (2400 mg/m ) every 14 days until disease progression, intolerable toxicity or withdrawal of consent. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS). Secondary endpoints were objective response rate (ORR), disease control rate (DCR), overall survival (OS), and safety.

Results: We enrolled 23 patients between 11 March 2019 and 31 May 2019. The median follow-up duration was 15.2 months (95% CI 14.2-16.2). The median PFS was 8.5 months (95% CI 1.2-15.8), and ORR and DCR were 52.2% (95% CI 30.1-74.3) and 73.9% (95% CI 54.5-93.3), respectively. The median OS was 11.6 months (95% CI 6.7-16.6). The most common treatment-related grade 3-4 adverse events (AEs) were neutropenia (17.4%), nausea (13.0%), and anorexia (13.0%). Treatment-related serious AEs occurred in two patients. No treatment-related deaths occurred.

Conclusions: SHR-1316 plus liposomal irinotecan and 5-fluorouracil has a promising efficacy and manageable safety profile, and could be a new first-line treatment approach for patients with unresectable locally advanced or distant metastatic ESCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1759-7714.13913DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8088918PMC
May 2021

Toxic effects of atrazine on immune function in BALB/c mice.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Mar 16. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Key Laboratory of Food Safety Risk Assessment, National Health Commission of the People's Republic of China, China National Center for Food Safety Risk Assessment, 37 Guangqu Road Building 2, Beijing, 100022, China.

This study was aimed to evaluate the toxic effects of different concentrations (23, 90, 360 mg/kg BW) of atrazine (ATZ) on immune function in BALB/c mice. Some parameters of general immunotoxicity, humoral immunity, cellular immunity, and non-specific immunity were tested. The studies showed that the high-dose ATZ induced a significant reduction in the final body weight of mice, the absolute and relative weights of spleen, the counts of white blood cell (WBC), lymphocyte (LYM), monocyte (MON), and the number of splenocyte. An increase in the level of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and cholesterol (CHO) in the high-dose ATZ group was observed. Pathological examination showed that the medium- and high-doses of ATZ caused atrophy and destruction of thymus, spleen, and hepatorenal toxicity. The serum interleukin-5(IL-5) level of mice and the number of plaque-forming cell (PFC) in spleen cells in the high-dose ATZ group decreased significantly while there was a significant increase of the serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) in the high-dose ATZ group when compared to the negative control group. In the high-dose ATZ group, the proliferation ability of T and B lymphocytes as well as the delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response were significantly decreased. The low-dose ATZ (23 mg/kg BW) caused a significant decrease in the number of WBC and neutrophil (NEUT), as well as the proportion of polychromatic and normoblast. In summary, we thought the low-dose ATZ has a slight effect on the immune system; it can be preliminarily concluded that the lowest observed adverse effect level (LOAEL) of atrazine is 23 mg/kg BW in mice. Atrazine can cause immunotoxicity mainly through cellular and humoral immunity pathways.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-13360-4DOI Listing
March 2021

The relationship between treatment-induced hypertension and efficacy of anlotinib in recurrent or metastatic esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

Cancer Biol Med 2021 Mar 16. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Department of Medical Oncology, National Cancer Center/National Clinical Research Center for Cancer/Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100021, China.

Objective: In this post-hoc analysis, we evaluated anlotinib treatment-induced hypertension as a potential predictive factor of efficacy in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) patients.

Methods: A total of 109 patients enrolled in the anlotinib group in a phase 2 trial were included. The tumor response was assessed by computed tomography at week 3, week 6, and then every 6 weeks until progressive disease was observed. The primary endpoint of the study was progression free survival (PFS). The secondary endpoints included overall survival (OS) and objective response rate (ORR).

Results: In all patients, the median PFS was 3.02 months [95% confidence interval (CI): 2.63-3.65 months] and the OS was 6.11 months (95% CI: 4.40-7.79 months). The ORR was 7.34% (95% CI: 3.22%-13.95%). A total of 59 (54%) patients were diagnosed with treatment-induced hypertension (Group A), and the remaining patients ( = 50, 46%) were in Group B. Baseline prognostic factors were similar between the 2 groups. Patients in Group A had a longer PFS and OS and higher ORR. When stratifying patients using a previously known history of hypertension, treatment-induced hypertension was a predictor only for patients without previous hypertension, who had longer PFS [hazard ratio (HR): 0.40, 95% CI: 0.24-0.68] and OS (HR: 0.37, 95% CI: 0.21-0.67).

Conclusions: We showed, for the first time, a correlation between treatment-induced hypertension and better prognoses in recurrent or metastatic ESCC patients treated with anlotinib, without a previously known history of hypertension. Treatment-induced hypertension may be a simple and low cost predictor for anlotinib antitumor efficacy in these patients, which may also reflect the intended target inhibition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.20892/j.issn.2095-3941.2020.0187DOI Listing
March 2021

Failure of resting-state frontal-occipital connectivity in linking visual perception with reading fluency in Chinese children with developmental dyslexia.

Neuroimage 2021 06 10;233:117911. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

State Key Laboratory of Cognitive Neuroscience and Learning and IDG/McGovern Institute for Brain Research, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China. Electronic address:

It is widely accepted that impairment in visual perception impedes children's reading development, and further studies have demonstrated significant enhancement in reading fluency after visual perceptual training. However, the mechanism of the neural linkage between visual perception and reading is unclear. The purpose of this study was to examine the intrinsic functional relationship between visual perception (indexed by the texture discrimination task,TDT) and reading ability (character reading and reading fluency) in Chinese children with developmental dyslexia (DD) and those with typical development (TD). The resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) between the primary visual cortex (V1, BA17) and the entire brain was analyzed. In addition, how RSFC maps are associated with TDT performance and reading ability in the DD and TD groups was examined. The results demonstrated that the strength of the RSFC between V1 and the left middle frontal gyrus (LMFG, BA9/BA46) was significantly correlated with both the threshold (SOA) of the TDT and reading fluency in TD children but not in DD children. Moreover, LMFG-V1 resting-state connectivity played a mediating role in the association of visual texture discrimination and reading fluency, but not in character reading, in TD children. In contrast, this mediation was absent in DD children, albeit their strengths of RSFC between V1 and the left middle frontal gyrus (LMFG) were comparable to those for the TD group. These findings indicate that typically developing children use the linkage of the RSFC between the V1 and LMFG for visual perception skills, which in turn promote fluent reading; in contrast, children with dyslexia, who had higher TDT thresholds than TD children, could not take advantage of their frontal-occipital connectivity to improve reading fluency abilities. These findings suggest that visual perception plays an important role in reading skills and that children with developmental dyslexia lack the ability to use their frontal-occipital connectivity to link visual perception with reading fluency.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2021.117911DOI Listing
June 2021

Vorolanib, an oral VEGFR/PDGFR dual tyrosine kinase inhibitor for treatment of patients with advanced solid tumors: An open-label, phase I dose escalation and dose expansion trial.

Chin J Cancer Res 2021 Feb;33(1):103-114

Department of Medical Oncology, National Cancer Center/National Clinical Research Center for Cancer/Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100021, China.

Objective: This study evaluated the safety and preliminary efficacy of vorolanib, a novel tyrosine kinase inhibitor, for treatment of patients with advanced solid tumors.

Methods: During dose escalation, patients received increasing doses of oral vorolanib (50-250 mg once daily) in cycles of four weeks for up to one year. During dose expansion, patients received recommended doses (100 and 200 mg) in 4-week cycles. The primary endpoint was to determine the safety and maximum tolerated dose and/or the recommended phase II dose (RP2D). The severity and type of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) were assessed using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0. The second endpoint was preliminary efficacy in terms of objective response and progression-free survival (PFS).

Results: No dose-limiting toxicity occurred during dose escalation (50-250 mg). Five (26.3%) patients in the escalation cohort (n=19) and 12 (48.0%) in the expansion cohort (n=25) experienced grade 3 ADRs. The most common ADRs were hair color changes, fatigue, portal hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia, and proteinuria. During dose expansion, the patients treated with 200 mg and 100 mg (once daily) showed an objective response rate of 22.2% and 5.9%, respectively; the disease control rate was 88.9% and 73.3%, respectively; the median PFS was 9.9 [95% confidence interval (95% CI): 7.4-not reached] months and 3.8 (95% CI: 1.9-not reached) months, respectively.

Conclusions: Oral vorolanib at a dose of 200 mg (once daily) exhibited an acceptable safety profile and favorable clinical benefit for patients with advanced solid tumors. The RP2D for vorolanib was determined to be 200 mg as a daily regimen.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21147/j.issn.1000-9604.2021.01.11DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7941683PMC
February 2021

A systematic computational investigation of the water splitting and N reduction reaction performances of monolayer MBenes.

Phys Chem Chem Phys 2021 Mar 11;23(11):6613-6622. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

School of Materials Science and Engineering, Anhui University of Technology, Maanshan 243002, P. R. China.

Recently, transition metal borides (MBenes, analogous to MXenes) have attracted interest due to their potential applications in energy conversion and storage. In this work, we performed density functional theory calculations to systematically explore the exfoliation properties of 14 MAlB phases and their water splitting and N reduction reaction (NRR) performances. Results showed a linear relationship between the binding energy and exfoliation energy with the coefficient (R) of 0.95, indicating that the lower the binding energy of element Al in MAlB (MAlB), the higher the exfoliation energy required to synthesize monolayer MB from MAlB (MAlB). NiB (B site) was predicted to possess the best electrocatalytic activity for water splitting, hydrogen evolution reaction (HER), and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) among the studied MBenes, and overpotentials on the NiB surface were calculated to be 0.08 V (for HER) and 0.37 V (for OER), respectively. The electronic properties and dynamic simulations indicated that NiB is the best candidate catalyst for water splitting. Conversely, the Fe site on FeB (FeB-Fe) was predicated to have the highest nitrogen reduction reaction (NRR) activity among the studied MBenes, with the overpotential η of 0.11 V. Furthermore, the B site of TaB (TaB-B) was identified as the best NRR catalyst against HER among the studied MBenes considering the HER side reaction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0cp06405jDOI Listing
March 2021

A boy with purpura on the legs.

BMJ 2021 03 4;372:n329. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Kidney Disease Center, The First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.n329DOI Listing
March 2021

Local Staging of Colon Cancer: A Cross-Sectional Analysis for Diagnostic Performance of Magnetic Resonance Imaging and by Experience.

Cancer Invest 2021 May 16;39(5):379-389. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Nuclear Medicine, The Third Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, China.

Preoperative magnetic resonance imaging was analyzed by four radiologists regarding local tumor staging (T and N) and the presence of extramural vascular involvement. An astonishingly high sensitivity for the detection of T 3/4 tumors ( (quadratic weighted statistics constant) = 0.67), with considerably lower sensitivity for T 3 cd/4 tumors ( = 0.51), high sensitivity for serosal involvement 76-87% ( = 0.65) and extramural vascular involvement (87-98%,  = 0.56). Sensitivity and specificity for lymph node involvement is lower ( = 0.57). Magnetic resonance imaging with adequate experience can accurately detect tumors with invasion through the bowel wall and their prognostic factors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07357907.2021.1897610DOI Listing
May 2021

Fatal outcome of malignant phyllodes tumor of the breast in pregnancy: a case and literature review.

Gland Surg 2021 Jan;10(1):371-377

Department of Breast Surgical Oncology, National Cancer Center/National Clinical Research Center for Cancer/Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China.

Phyllodes tumor of the breast (PTB) is a rare fibroepithelial breast neoplasm that accounts for less than 1% of breast tumors. Only a few cases related to pregnancy have been reported. It is not known how pregnancy affects the diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of breast tumors. Here we report a case of a 38-year-old female patient with a small, mobile palpable lump in the left breast for about 15 years. it was considered a benign lesion and no surgical treatment was performed at the beginning. The left breast mass became larger suddenly during pregnancy, However, she did not see the doctor and receive any treatment in time. The lump was resected one year after labor and confirmed to be malignant phyllodes of the breast by histopathology and immunohistochemistry. Unfortunately, local recurrence occurred within six months after the first operation, and lung metastasis occurred eight months later. And this patient finally died 13 months after the operation due to tumor progression. This is the first report of pregnancy-related malignant PTB, with local recurrence and distant metastasis in a short period. This case report highlights a situation: the patient should be diagnosed early and treated in time when she has a previous breast fibroadenoma, but suddenly increased during pregnancy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/gs-20-538DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7882345PMC
January 2021

Structural characterization of the metabolites of orally ingested hederasaponin B, a natural saponin that is isolated from Acanthopanax senticosus leaves by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

J Pharm Biomed Anal 2021 Apr 29;197:113929. Epub 2021 Jan 29.

Key Laboratory of Chinese Materia Medica (Heilongjiang University of Chinese Medicine), Ministry of Education, 24 Heping Road, Harbin, 150040, PR China. Electronic address:

Plant saponins are important natural product with biologically active. However, the metabolism of these compounds has rarely been studied due to their low bioavailability and the complexity of their metabolite structures. In this study, ultra-performance liquid chromatography/Fusion Lumos Orbitrap mass spectrometry was used to analyze the metabolites of hederasaponin B in vivo, and its possible metabolic pathways were proposed. After oral administration of the parent drug, a total of 47 metabolites are identified in rat feces (42), urine (11), and plasma (9) samples. These metabolites resulted from the metabolic processes in phases I and II reactions involved in deglycosylation, hydroxylation, acetylation, oxidation, gluconalciation and glycosylations. Deglycosylation is the main metabolic pathway (accounts for 52.46 % of all metabolites in feces samples). Among the identified metabolites, four were glycosylated (deprotonated precursors at m/z = 1335.7, 1365.7, 1467.9, and 1379.6) with higher molecular weight than the parent drug . These glycosylated compounds account for 11.55 % of the metabolites in rat feces according to the semi-quantitative chromatographic peak areas. To sum up, the results of this study provide a basis for further understanding the metabolism of plant saponins in vivo.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpba.2021.113929DOI Listing
April 2021

The Ubiquitin E3 Ligase SR1 Modulates the Submergence Response by Degrading Phosphorylated WRKY33 in Arabidopsis.

Plant Cell 2021 Feb 22. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

Key Laboratory for Bio-resources and Eco-environment & State Key Lab of Hydraulics & Mountain River Engineering, College of Life Sciences, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065, China.

Oxygen deprivation caused by flooding activates acclimation responses to stress and restricts plant growth. After experiencing flooding stress, plants must restore normal growth; however, which genes are dynamically and precisely controlled by flooding stress remains largely unknown. Here, we show that the Arabidopsis thaliana ubiquitin E3 ligase SUBMERGENCE RESISTANT1 (SR1) regulates the stability of the transcription factor WRKY33 to modulate the submergence response. SR1 physically interacts with WRKY33 in vivo and in vitro and controls its ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. Both the sr1 mutant and WRKY33 overexpressors exhibited enhanced submergence tolerance and enhanced expression of hypoxia-responsive genes. Genetic experiments showed that WRKY33 functions downstream of SR1 during the submergence response. Submergence induced the phosphorylation of WRKY33, which enhanced the activation of RAP2.2, a positive regulator of hypoxia-response genes. Phosphorylated WRKY33 and RAP2.2 were degraded by SR1 and the N-degron pathway during reoxygenation, respectively. Taken together, our findings reveal that the on-and-off module SR1-WRKY33-RAP2.2 is connected to the well-known N-degron pathway to regulate acclimation to submergence in Arabidopsis. These two different but related modulation cascades precisely balance submergence acclimation with normal plant growth.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/plcell/koab062DOI Listing
February 2021

Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells attenuate podocyte injury under high glucose via TLR2 and TLR4 signaling.

Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2021 Mar 18;173:108702. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

Nephrology Research Institute of Shandong University, The Second Hospital of Shandong University, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong 250033, China; Key laboratory of Reproductive Endocrinology of Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong 250012, China. Electronic address:

Aims: This research aimed to investigate the effects of high glucose (HG) on the innate immunity of podocytes and diabetic nephropathy (DN) mice via Toll like receptor (TLR) signaling, and explore the protective effectsof human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (HUC-MSCs) on this process.

Methods: HUC-MSCs obtained from human umbilical cord were cocultured with podocytes and transplanted into DN mice. Flow cytometry, CCK-8assay, ELISA, western blot analysis, periodicacid-schiff, masson, immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence staining was used to detect the inflammation, TLR signaling, physical, biochemical and morphological parameters in podocytes and DN mice.

Results: HG reduced the viability of podocytes, activated TLR2 and TLR4 signaling pathway and increased the expression of inflammatory cytokines such as IL-6, IL-1β, TNF-α, and MCP-1 in podocytes and DN mice. However, HUC-MSCs decreased the inflammation and restrained the TLR signaling pathway caused by HG in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore the rhHGF decreased the expression of TLR2 and TLR4 while the blockade of HGF increased the expression of TLR2 and TLR4 in podocytes.

Conclusions: HUC-MSCs have benefits to the podocytes under HG and the progression of DN by inhibiting TLR signaling pathway and depressing the inflammation. HUC-MSCs may be a therapeutic strategy for treating patients with DN.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.diabres.2021.108702DOI Listing
March 2021

Relationship between carotid intraplaque neovascularization and haemoglobin A1c in diabetic patients.

Clin Neurol Neurosurg 2021 Apr 23;203:106515. Epub 2021 Jan 23.

Department of Ultrasound, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, Shaanxi, China. Electronic address:

Introduction: We aimed to evaluate the characteristics of carotid artery plaques and the relationship between intraplaque neovascularization (IPN) and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) in patients of <60 years old with diabetes mellitus (DM) by comparison with diabetes ≥60 years of age.

Methods: One-hundred-and-one patients with DM were studied into two groups: those <60 and those ≥60 years of age. All the patients underwent standard carotid ultrasonography and contrast-enhanced ultrasonography, which we used to evaluate IPN.

Results: Diabetic complications were present in 41 of 50 patients (82 %) in the <60-year-old group, of whom 17 (34 %) had diabetes-related vascular complications. Of the 47 plaques in the <60-year-old group, six (13 %) had IPN Grade 0, 16 (34 %) had IPN Grade 1, and 25 (53 %) had IPN Grade 2. The AUC and RAUC of the plaque in the <60-year-old group were significantly higher than those of the ≥60-year-old group (P = 0.012 and 0.031, respectively). There were also differences in the AUC, RAUC and semi-quantitative grades between patients with and without diabetic macrovasculopathy and diabetic peripheral artery disease (all P < 0.05). The AUC, RAUC and semi-quantitative grading of IPN positively correlated with blood glucose and HbA1c (P < 0.05).

Conclusion: IPN is more common in DM patients who are younger, and have higher blood glucose and HbA1c concentrations, and these plaques are more vulnerable.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clineuro.2021.106515DOI Listing
April 2021

Upadacitinib improves patient-reported outcomes vs placebo or adalimumab in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: results from SELECT-COMPARE.

Rheumatology (Oxford) 2021 Feb 16. Epub 2021 Feb 16.

University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, MCRC, Dallas, TX, USA.

Objective: To evaluate the impact of upadacitinib vs placebo and adalimumab treatment, on patient-reported outcomes (PROs) in SELECT-COMPARE in an active RA population with inadequate responses to methotrexate (MTX-IR).

Methods: PROs in patients receiving upadacitinib (15 mg QD), placebo, or adalimumab (40 mg EOW) while on background MTX were evaluated over 48 weeks. PROs included PtGA and pain by VAS, HAQ-DI, 36-Item Short Form Survey (SF-36), morning (AM) stiffness duration and severity, FACIT-F, and work instability. Least squares mean (LSM) changes and proportions of patients reporting improvements ≥ minimal clinically important differences (MCID) and scores ≥ normative values were evaluated.

Results: Upadacitinib and adalimumab resulted in greater LSM changes from baseline vs placebo across all PROs (p < 0.05) at week 12, and pain and AM stiffness severity (p < 0.05) at week 2. More upadacitinib- vs placebo-treated (p < 0.05) and similar percentages of upadacitinib- vs adalimumab-treated patients reported improvements ≥ MCID across all PROs at week 12. Upadacitinib vs adalimumab resulted in greater LSM changes from baseline in PtGA, pain, HAQ-DI, stiffness severity, FACIT-F, and SF-36 Physical Component Summary (PCS) (all p < 0.05) at week 12. More upadacitinib- vs adalimumab-treated patients reported scores ≥ normative values in HAQ-DI and SF-36 PCS (p < 0.05) at week 12. More upadacitinib- vs adalimumab-treated patients maintained clinically meaningful improvements in PtGA, pain, HAQ-DI, FACIT-F, and AM stiffness through 48 weeks.

Conclusion: In MTX-IR patients with RA, treatment with upadacitinib resulted in statistically significant and clinically meaningful improvements in PROs equivalent to or greater than with adalimumab.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/rheumatology/keab158DOI Listing
February 2021

Anlotinib for previously treated advanced or metastatic esophageal squamous cell carcinoma: A double-blind randomized phase 2 trial.

Cancer Med 2021 03 14;10(5):1681-1689. Epub 2021 Feb 14.

Department of Thoracic Surgical Oncology, National Cancer Center/National Clinical Research Center for Cancer/Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China.

Background: Currently, there are no randomized trials on the effect of antiangiogenic therapy in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). The following study investigated the efficacy and safety of anlotinib in patients with advanced ESCC who were previously treated with chemotherapy.

Methods: This randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind phase 2 trial (NCT02649361) was conducted in 13 Chinese hospitals. Eligible patients were adults with histologically confirmed recurrent or metastatic ESCC who were previously treated with chemotherapy, and were randomly assigned (2:1) to receive oral anlotinib 12 mg or placebo on days 1-14 (repeated every 21 days). The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS).

Results: One hundred and sixty-five patients were randomly assigned to the anlotinib (n = 110) or the placebo (n = 55) arm. Median PFS was 3.02 months (95% CI 2.63-3.65) in the anlotinib group and 1.41 months (95% CI 1.38-1.41) in the placebo group (hazard ratio 0.46 [95% CI 0.32-0.66]; p < 0.001). The most common treatment-related adverse events of grade 3 or 4 were hypertension (17 [16%] patients), decreased appetite (6 [6%] patients), and hyponatremia (4 [4%] patients) in the anlotinib group and decreased appetite (2 [4%] patients) in the placebo group. Three (3%) deaths in the anlotinib group were considered as drug related, while there were no treatment-related deaths in the placebo group.

Conclusions: The use of anlotinib in previously treated, recurrent, or metastatic ESCC patients significantly improved PFS compared with placebo. Our findings suggest that antiangiogenesis might be an important therapeutic target in advanced ESCC.

Clinical Trials Registration: Study of Anlotinib in Patients With Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma (ALTER1102), NCT02649361.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cam4.3771DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7940231PMC
March 2021

Carotid Intraplaque Neovascularization Predicts Ischemic Stroke Recurrence in Patients with Carotid Atherosclerosis.

Gerontology 2021 12;67(2):144-151. Epub 2021 Feb 12.

Department of Ultrasound, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, China,

Introduction: This study aimed to examine whether intraplaque neovascularization (IPN) of carotid plaques, as characterized by contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS), is associated with ischemic stroke recurrence in patients with carotid atherosclerosis.

Methods: We conducted a prospective study of consecutive patients with a recent stroke and at least one atherosclerotic plaque in the carotid artery on the side consistent with symptoms. All patients underwent CEUS after their first admission. IPN was graded on the basis of the presence and location of microbubbles within each plaque.

Results: We eventually included 155 patients, all of whom underwent IPN analysis. After a follow-up of 24 months, we recorded 25 (16.1%) stroke recurrences in the whole population. All the recurrences occurred in patients presenting IPN. There was significant difference in the IPN between the 2 groups (p = 0.002). In the final Cox proportional-hazards multivariable models, IPN of grade 2 was independently associated with the risk of stroke recurrence (HR = 4.535; 95% CI: 1.892-10.870; p = 0.001). This association remained after adjusting for the degree of carotid stenosis (HR = 3.491; 95% CI: 1.410-8.646; p = 0.007).

Conclusions: IPN was an independent predictor of stroke recurrence in patients with a recent ischemic stroke and carotid atherosclerosis. In predicting stroke recurrence, IPN may be an earlier indicator than carotid stenosis and may help stratify the risk of stroke recurrence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000511360DOI Listing
February 2021

Quality evaluation of Keemun black tea by fusing data obtained from near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy and computer vision sensors.

Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 2021 May 2;252:119522. Epub 2021 Feb 2.

State Key Laboratory of Tea Plant Biology and Utilization, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei 230036, China.

Keemun black tea is classified into 7 grades according to the difference in its quality. The appearance and flavour are crucial indicators of its quality. This research demonstrates a rapid grading method of jointly using near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) and computer vision systems (CVS) to evaluate the flavour and appearance quality of tea. A Bruker MPA Fourier Transform near-infrared spectrometer was used to record the spectrum of samples. A computer vision system was used to capture the image of tea leaves in an unobstructed manner. 80 tea samples for each grade were analyzed. The performance of four NIRS feature extraction methods (principal component analysis, local linear embedding, isometric feature mapping, and convolutional neural network (CNN)) was compared in this study. Histograms of six geometric features (leaf width, leaf length, leaf area, leaf perimeter, aspect ratio, and rectangularity) of different tea samples were used to describe their appearance. A feature-level fusion strategy was used to combine softmax and artificial neural networks (ANN) to classify NIRS and CVS features. The results indicated that for an individual NIRS signal, CNN achieved the highest classification accuracy with the softmax classification model. The histograms of the combined shape features indicated that when the softmax classification model was used, the classification accuracy was also higher than ANN. The fusion of NIRS and CVS features proved to be the optimal combination; the accuracy of calibration, validation and testing sets increased from 99.29%, 96.67% and 98.57% (when the optimal features from a single-sensor were used) to 100.00%, 99.29% and 100.00% (when features from multiple-sensors were used). This study revealed that the combination of NIRS and CVS features can be a useful strategy for classifying black tea samples of different grades.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.saa.2021.119522DOI Listing
May 2021